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Differential diagnosis of head injuries in automobile accidents and homicides

Introduction: Head injury (HI) is a serious morbid state, resulting from structural changes in the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, produced by mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent HI cause is road traffic accident (RTA), followed by homicidal and falling from high injuries. The aim of present study is to assess demographic data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Material and Methods: All HI cases (400) are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and forensic files of traumatized subjects between years 2012 and 2014. The prospectivelycollected and descriptive information is focused on demographic data, responsible factors, type and level of cranial and brain injury, as well as their outcome. Results: The majority of HI victims were male (84%), and age-wise young adult to middle aged (70%). RTA was the HI cause in 88%, followed by homicides (3.8%), falling from high (3%), etc. With respect to injury mechanisms, extradural hematoma is shown in 93% of cases, followed by cerebral edema (61%), cerebral contusion (37%), skull bone fractures (35%), etc. Severe consciousness’ alteration was observed in 57%, while amnesia lasted longer than 4 weeks in 44% of cases. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates that the HI victims’ majority consists of young and middle age males, mostly as a consequence of RTA. The increase of vehicles’ use in Albania is more evident than RTA-related HI, indicating that use of newer vehicles, seat belts, air bags, or helmets can decline the potential for a fatal outcome.



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Keywords: Differential diagnosis, head injury, injury mechanisms, road traffic accidents

ISSN: 2349-4182

EISSN: 2349-4182


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