The content of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead was determined in blood of women and in cord blood of newborns with physiological pregnancy, threatened miscarriage, anemia and pyelonephritis. The lower levels of essential and significantly higher concentrations of toxic elements in pathologic pregnancies were detected. The lowest level of zinc both in women blood and their babies was registered under the threat of termination of pregnancy, copper in the blood of women - with pyelonephritis and under the threat of miscarriage in cord blood. The highest levels of cadmium were found in pyelonephritis cases. High concentrations of lead in women’s blood were notable also in women with pyelonephritis, and in the blood of babies – in cases where was the threat of miscarriage. Consequently, significant changes in metals content were found in case with threatened abortion and pyelonephritis.
In pathological pregnancies cadmium levels grew with increasing lead content (r=0,49; p<0,05) and with decreasing copper content (r=-0,51; p<0,05). Also, the increase in the concentration of copper was combined with increasing zinc content (r=0,45; p<0,05). In the blood of women with pyelonephritis the presence of proportionately dependencies was detected within the groups of essential and toxic elements, while at the same time there has been found the opposite correlation between the content of these groups of metals.
Taking into account that in fetal blood the lower levels of all micronutrients were found compared to that in maternal blood, we have thoroughly analyzed the relationships between them using the pair correlation.
Increased content of cadmium, copper and zinc in the blood of women with physiological pregnancy was reliably combined with the increasing of the elements under the research in cord blood. The increase of lead content is not correlated with its high levels in the blood of infants, indicating the barrier function of the placenta in terms of lead transmission.
However, any significant correlations between the content of metals under the threat of termination of pregnancy and anemia were not found, which may indicate a strengthening of the barrier function in terms of all elements in these nosologies, and limited intake of them by a fetus.
It was shown that the increase of micronutrient’s content in the blood of women with pyelonephritis was combined with the increase of their concentrations in the blood of babies that are the results of the dysfunction of the barrier qualities of the placenta in this pathology.
In the blood of babies born to women with threatened miscarriage, high cadmium concentrations were combined with low zinc content (r=-0,66; p<0,05), and high concentrations of lead were associated with low levels of copper (r=-0,73 ; p<0,05), which points to competition between the pairs of given elements during fetal development.
The presence of significant (p<0,05) relationships between elements under the research was found: high concentrations of toxic elements replace trace elements in the blood of babies born to women with pyelonephritis.
Indicated mutual dependence and correlations between the content of essential and toxic elements in the mother-placenta-fetus and their competing show that the disbalance of metals in mother leads to the disbalance in baby. Therefore, we believe it is appropriate to determine the content of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in the blood of women in early pregnancy as an additional diagnostic criterion for timely prevention of complications.
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Author Name: N. SUKHODOLSKA
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Keywords: mother-placenta-fetus, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc