Volume 6, Issue 1

MATHEMATICAL MODEL ON DNA MUTATION AND TUMOR FORMATION []


Several abnormal growths which endanger life, springs up at different times in different regions of the human system. This work studies causes of Tumour formation due to DNA mutation. System of differential equations which describes the various contributors to DNA mutation that causes tumour formation is modeled. These equations were solved and the various impacts of these factors were demonstrated using graphs drawn using MATLAB software. It was shown in the analysis that reduction in these factors can reduce DNA Mutation and thus tumour formations.


ANALYSIS OF MOVING OBJECTS IN VIDEOS []


Video processing is a technique of processing individual frames or images. This process involves acquisition, manipulation, transmission, analysis and compression. This paper focuses on video analysis; it includes motion segmentation and motion tracking. Tracking objects in a video containing extremely crowded scenes is a challenging due to the motion and appearance variability produced by large number of people within the scene. The individual pedestrians collectively form a crowd that exhibits a spatially and temporally structured pattern within the scene. The video is divided into sub volumes. The local spatio-temporal motion of the sub volume is extracted. Hidden Markovian model is used to train on the spatio-temporal motion pattern. From the model the spatio-temporal motion pattern that describes how the object moves in a video is obtained. The extracted information is used as the priori for tracking.


REGIONAL INEQUALITIES AND PUBLIC-PRIVATE DYNAMICS IN SAUDI HEALTHCARE PROVISION []


This study investigates spatial pattern of healthcare provision across public and private sectors, and the extent to which expanded public and/or private sector participation in healthcare provision has translated into a more equitable distribution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia. The Gini coefficient technique and associated Lorenz curve were adopted as the main index for assessing the nature and extent of health inequality between public and private healthcare provision in Saudi Arabia. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was also used to determine whether the private sector responds more strongly to the level of need for healthcare services than the public healthcare sector. The results show that overall, private healthcare tends to be distributed more equitably than public healthcare. Primary healthcare centers in the public sector and polyclinics in the private sector by large have the most spatially inequitable distributions in the country compared with other healthcare facilities. The study also revealed that the need for healthcare services is the most important factor to the public and private healthcare providers compared to all other factors such as location, market, profits, etc. The ongoing privatization process of the Saudi healthcare system is a successful strategy and needs to be encouraged and maintained in the long run. Saudi healthcare-policymakers, however, need to focus more on the privatization of primary healthcare than of general hospitals. Policymakers in the Saudi healthcare system need to focus more on the private healthcare sector and simultaneously create a broader perspective on how the public and private healthcare sectors can work together to address the long-term challenges of affordability, quality, and availability of healthcare for Saudi citizens.


A NUMERICAL METHOD FOR SOLVING LINEAR INTEGRAL EQUATIONS []


Integral equations find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient modified Adomian Decomposition methodology in solving linear integral equations is presented. To check the numerical method, it is applied to solve different test problems with known exact solutions and the numerical solutions obtained confirm the validity of the numerical method and suggest that it is an interesting and viable alternative to existing numerical methods for solving the problem under consideration. It also converges to the exact solution.


ON THE SIMPLICITY OF PERMUTATION GROUPS []


The aim of this research is to carry out investigation on the simplicity status of the Sylow subgroups of permutation groups. The standard program called Group Algorithms and Programming (GAP) is used to enhance and validate our result.


IMPACTS OF SENSOR SPATIAL RESOLUTION ON REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION []


There has been a significant upsurge in the development of satellite platforms with enormous number of sensors in recent years. Several remotely sensed data with spatial resolutions extending from 0.5 to 25,000m are accessible for diverse applications. This advancements result in novel and substantial modifications as well as challenges in the methodology of remotely sensed data analysis, integration, and the efficient spatial modelling of these data. This paper critically reviews the impacts of sensor spatial resolution on remote sensing image classification. First and foremost, an introductory background was presented. Second, spatial resolution was characterized in terms of four classes including low, medium, high, and very high resolutions. Third, basic perception on sensor spatial resolution was discussed. The fourth session dealt with sensor spatial resolution and mixed pixel challenge. And the fifth session elaborated the suitability of specific spatial resolution for image classification. Finally, it was revealed that, even though, higher spatial resolution remotely sensed data may deliver improved data, it may not always be desired due to intricate nature of interpretation, data volume and data acquisition costs. And despite the increasing propensity for more satellites with improved spatial characteristics and to develop applications for the same, the lower spatial resolution satellites remain invaluable.


DNA MUTATION AND TUMOR FORMATION II: ANALYSIS OF FORMULATED MODEL []


We modeled the mathematical equations describing the formation of tumour due to DNA mutation. In the modeled equations, the effects of environmental factors, DNA replication defect, Viruses and error in DNA repairs were included as the major causes of DNA mutation. These modeled equations were analysed and we saw that once these factors are allowed in our system, the DNA will always be unstable. This means that there are suppressor genes that inactivate the function of the TSG's. Hence, the tumour growth enhancing factors are there in the system and so we cannot rule out the possibility of tumour formation in our body.


INVESTIGATION OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT PRONE AREAS RELATED TO EXISTING ROAD CONDITION AND DRIVER’S BEHAVIOR ALONG MENAGESHA- AMBO ROAD SECTION []


Traffic accidents worldwide is increasing due to a pragmatic vehicle ownership, acquisition, which necessitates daily activities. The primary objective of this research work was to identify the most hazardous location and provide countermeasures that will minimize the traffic accident at the designated sites. The scope of the study was limited to Ambo-Ginchi- Addis Ababa road, a total length of study road section of 87kms. The traffic accident data collected from each Wededa Police station covering the period of 2012-2015. It was analyzed using a Priority value formula for EjereWereda and Holota town, and accident frequency for Ambo wereda, Dendiwereda and Welmeraweredato rank the traffic accident areas. Based on the results of the analysis, thirteen locations of the road stretch were found to be accident prone areas. Out of these sites, three of them are in Ambo Wereda, two in Ejerewereda, one in Welmerawereda, and seven in Holota town. The time when most of the accidents occurred from 3:00PM-6: 00 PM. The primary causes of the accidents were over speeding, driving without attention and some unknown reasons. Also, it showed that the drivers' age group who caused most of the accidents composed of 25-34 years old. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that there was the significant increase in the number of crashes in the afternoon. Young drivers are believed to cause more accidents than the older once due to aggressiveness. To minimize the occurrence of accidents along the study road section, it is recommended that provision of speed limit sign boards and warning signs at the strategic locations where traffic accident areas are identified to forewarn the overspeeding drivers. It is also recommended that the road agency should have to undertake to widen the lane width of the road, provision of sufficient climbing lane, installation of roadside Delineator, conduct roadside improvements, and repaint faded pavement markings.


CHANGES IN SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING FOLLOWING BARIATRIC SURGERY FOR MORBID OBESITY []


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the patient received bariatric surgery. We aimed to study the impact of surgical related weight loss on the patterns of OSA and daily activity. Overweight adult patients undergoing bariatric surgery in National Cheng-Kung University Hospital were recruited. Preoperatively, all these subjects received overnight polysomnography, 7-day activity evaluation (actigraphy) and complete questionnaires regarding daytime sleepiness, snoring severity. After 6-month follow-up, these assessments were repeated for each patient. A total of 22/43 (48.8%) patients completed the whole assessments in the preoperative and postoperative periods. The preoperative mean body mass index (BMI) , mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI), lowest O2 saturation, average of daytime wake efficiency . After 6-month follow up, the reduction of BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, AHI and lowest O2 saturation all were obvious (p< 0.05). But the daytime wake efficiency was improved limitedly.AHI showed significantly improvement in the period of 6-month. Bariatric surgery could be considered an effective therapy for OSA in the severely obese patient. But surgery is less like to improve daily activity.


BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN GOVERNMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL COLLEGES IN KOGI WEST SENATORIAL DISTRICT, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA []


The main purpose of this study was to find out the Barriers To Effective Teaching and Learning of Building Construction in Government Science and Technical Colleges in Kogi West Senatorial District. These are also to hurl in probable solutions to problems that are under studied in this research work. The instrument used in this research work was the structured questionnaires. The target population for this study are all the five hundred principal, eight-hundred Teachers and one-thousand targeted students of the school they are teaching building construction in Government Science Technical Colleges in Kogi West Senatorial District of Kogi State. The sample size of principal was narrowed down to twelve. (1) One in each school: and that of Teachers was 4 in each school, making the total of 48; while students were narrowed down to one-hundred and ninety (190): However, Random Sampling technique was used to facilitate unbiased section and final results. Statement of the problem emanated as a result of backward and retro progressive statement about happenings in teaching and learning building construction which implies that the course is meant for dropout or push out, Olaitan (1984).Amongst other, the study specifically intends to find out whether there is enough provision for qualified teachers in the secondary and technical colleges in Kogi West Senatorial District. Also, three research questions were raised. There were two hypotheses formulated and significant of the study was for students, Ministry of Education, Stake -holders and so on. The scope of the study include all Government Science /Technical Colleges (GSTC) in Kogi State. Further, some of the findings were non provision of adequate teachers is barrier to effective teaching and learning of building construction in (GSTC) Kogi West Senatorial District of Kogi State and so on. Howbeit, the following recommendations were suggested: Correlation between students' achievement and teachers' qualification, a research work should be carried out in the area of instructional materials. Intensive study should be carried out in the area of curriculum investigation, planning and implementation.


MONITORING ILORIN URBAN CHANGES AND DEVELOPMENT WITH REMOTE SENSING AND GIS []


This paper focused on detecting and analyzing urban land use change of Ilorin and its environs of Kwara State in Nigeria, using Remote Sensing (RS) approach. In this study three Landsat imageries were acquired to form two epochs. Analysis of land use/ Land cover for these three years was carried out. The analysis covers 1996, 2010 and 2016. Five distinct classifications were carried out to be able to analyse new development in the study area. Global Mapper was used for displaying and subsequent processing and enhancement of the image. It was also used for carving out of the study area from the whole of Kwara State imagery using both the administrative and local government maps. The study was able to analyse development more especially in the area of infrastructural development in the study area and its likely effects on planning practice in the study area.


EMF AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION PARAMETER DECISION []


Electromotive force generates electromagnetic radiation. It is therefore necessary to study the mathematical equations related to electromotive force. This paper focuses on electromagnetic radiation generated due to electromotive force . Depending upon the mathematical equations governing emf, certain parameters affecting electromagnetic radiation are decided based on Taguchi Analysis. Taguchi analysis is carried out for only those factors which affect and cause more electromagnetic radiation. Accordingly after carrying out Taguchi analysis , a condition is finalized so that it causes least electromagnetic iation. This condition is optimum condition which can be applied in any situation . It can also take care of human health as more electromagnetic radiation is harmful to human health.


EFFECTS OF HAND HYGIENE PRACTICES ON HANDBORNE BACTERIA INFECTIONS []


In order to understand the prevalence spread of Handborne bacteria among University of Jos Students, there is every need to examine the effects of hand washing hygiene practices and spread of handborne bacterial infections. Twenty samples (ten from Microbiology students and ten from Non-Microbiology students) were obtained from hands of the students and analyzed for Total Plate Count (TPC), Total Coliform Count (TCC) and Staphylococcus aureus Count (SC) respectively. The isolates were identified using Standard Bacteriological Methods. Structured Questionnaires were administered to access the students' knowledge and compliance to hand hygiene practices. The results of the lab analyses showed that many of the students had very high bacterial flora in their hands especially the Non-Microbiology students. Also, the right hands of the students have more bacteria growth than the left hand of the students. The hypothesis of the study was validated using Pearson Chi-Square Statistics which showed that there is significant relationship between Handwashing hygiene practices and spread of Handborne bacterial infection among the students at the 5% level of significance.


ASSESSMENT OF RAIN WATER HARVEST POTENTIAL IN SOKOTO BASIN, NIGERIA FOR IMPROVED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT []


The Sokoto basin is part of north-western Nigeria; an area characterised by semi-arid condition largely due to high rainfall variability leading to frequent drought occurrence and water scarcity in the region. Rainwater harvesting can serve as an effective coping strategy in addressing the water deficit experienced by the people during the long dry season. This paper aimed to assess the rainwater harvest potential of Sokoto basin using variable landscape approach to improve water resource management. Simulations were run for 6 sequential rainfall years (2000-2005) to determine the distribution of rainfall input into output of runoff, actual evapotranspiration and groundwater outflow. The runoff and some groundwater outflow are considered as potential components for harvest and storage to be used after rainy season. The high potential areas for harvest were identified and classified using GIS and remote sensing techniques. The paper recommends a unified rational approach to water resources planning and development and suggests that small household water reservoirs and community earth dams should be built to capture excess runoff from rooftops and high runoff contributing landscapes for use during the dry season.


Immense implemenatation of Cloud Computing on distinct pilot projects as a specimen of the delineation of cost effectiveness to manifest as Cloud Computing democracy to be or not to be []


Innovations are necessary to ride the inevitable tide of change. Most of enterprises are striving to reduce their computing cost through the means of virtualization. This demand of reducing the computing cost has led to the innovation of Cloud Computing. Cloud Computing offers better computing through improved utilization and reduced administration and infrastructure costs. Cloud Computing is the sum of Software as a Service (SaaS) and Utility Computing. Cloud Computing is still at its infant stage and a very new technology for the enterprises. Therefore, most of the enterprises are not very confident to adopt it. This research paper tackles this issue for enterprises in terms of cost and security. In this paper we discuss the benefits and drawbacks an enterprise can have while they adopt Cloud Computing in terms of Cost and Security.In the end, concluding that Cloud Computing is better for medium and small sized enterprises as compared to large enterprises in terms of both cost and data security.


THE EFFECT OF NEEM AND GALLIC AS PESTICIDE IN COWPEA STORAGE []


Experiments were carried out to investigate the bio-chemical properties of neem and garlic as, pesticide, in the post-harvest storage of agricultural grains in south-western Nigeria. Forty containers with one hundred good quality dried-cowpea seeds were selected. Each container was filled with healthy, bean weevils. Ten out of the twenty containers were treated with grounded -powdered garlic and labelled (A.). The second set of ten containers were separately treated with neem extracts mixed in different ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 2:3, 3:2, 4:1, 1:4, to give weights of 5g, 10g, 15g, 20g, 25g, 30g, 35g, 40g and 45g respectively, and were labelled(B). Another ten containers were added a mixture of garlic and neem at ration 1:1 and labelled (C) while the fourth set of containers were used as control without the addition of any pesticide and labelled (D). Each container was perforated at the top, before being sealed. From the test results, the longer the insect were exposed to neem and garlic, the more the mortality of insects. Also, it was observed that garlic was more potent in controlling insects with high mortality of beans weevils recorded.


WHERE DID THE BLUE SPECTRAL SHIFT INSIDE THE UNIVERSE COME FROM? []


The universe expands at the approximate speed of radiation (270 000 km/sec. (Controversy, this information, look in "Observing the Universe through colors ") and, according to the Doppler effect, all objects in the universe should have a red spectral shift, but it is not the case. It seems that certain objects (galaxies) do not observe the laws of physics and move to the opposite direction from the forces, caused by the explosion of a mini-bubble (which also fails to observe the same laws).It would, nevertheless, all fit in just fine, if only these events were equally represented in the volume of the universe, but they are not. These events are related only to our "close" neighbours, and those objects that are further away, all the way to the distance of 13.7 billion of light-years, they have a red spectral shift and are distancing from us. I just can't believe how they didn't come up with an idea of placing some black hole in our vicinity, to make it responsible for this "mischief" and tell us horrible stories about it swallowing us all at the end.


DESIGN ANALYSIS OF A CASSAVA MASH ROASTER []


This paper highlights the design concept of a cassava mash roaster with the objectives of obtaining minimal power requirement and optimum heat energy conservation. The designed roaster consists a roasting chamber, rotating paddles, heat source, frame, electric motor, belt drive and a planetary gear mechanism. In designing the machine, factors such as ease of use, portability, heat energy conservation, and quality of gari were considered. Design results obtained such as volumetric capacity, heat energy requirement, power requirement, operating speed, estimated time of frying, and machine throughput are , 20.961kW, 3.16Hp, 11.48rpm, 2hours and 91.14kg/h respectively. An approximate value of 5.15kg of charcoal was also calculated to roast 182.28kg of cassava mash for 2 hours. Compared with existing gari roasters, it was found that the designed roaster has a higher throughput, smaller roasting time and smaller heat energy requirement.


PRIVATE AND PUBLIC COMPANY IN ALBANIA HAVE AWARENESS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HRM FUNCTIONS? []


Human resource Management can be described as a function in an organization that is designed to maximize the performance of the employees on their strategic objectives. HRM functions are broadly concerned with the management of individuals within a given organization which focuses on policies as well as systems. The role of HRM is to offer plans, develop as well as administrate programs and policies designed to make expeditious applications of the human resources in an organization. Over the years, the available literature has indicated that people still do not have proper awareness of the importance of HRM functions. Moreover, it has been argued that the most common model in the Albanian organizations is expected to be the traditional model administrative.


EFFECT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) DUMPING ON SOIL PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND SELECTED PLANT NUTRIENTS IN UTURU ABIA STATE NIGERIA []


The effects of Palm Oil Mill Effluents (POME) dumping on soil physicochemical parameters and selected soil plant nutrients were studied. A total of eight (8) POME dumping sites were monitored in two seasons (wet: May – September and Dry: November – March) for four (4) years. Sample collection in each site was from discharge spot of effluents, 4 and 8 meters from discharge spot along route of effluent flow. Top soil samples (0-30cm depth), subsoil samples (31-60cm depth) and bottom soil samples (61-90cm depth) were collected from each sampling spot while control samples were obtained from spots within each sampling site uncontaminated with effluents. Significantly high values (p< 0.05) were observed for POME soil samples temperatures, pH (acid) and percentage moisture relative to control soils. Similarly the test soil samples cation exchange capacities and exchangeable acidities were significantly higher (p< 0.05) than that obtained from control soils. Although the POME dumpsite soil ammonium ion, nitrate and sulphate ions were significantly (p< 0.05) lower than those from control soil samples, while aluminium, potassium, phosphate and sodium ions were higher (p< 0.05) in POME dumpsite soils. Percentage nitrogen also increased (p< 0.05) in the POME dumpsite soil relative to control soils. These findings attest to a possible use of POME as a biofertilizer if properly harnessed and managed.


INFLUENCE OF CASSAVA MILL EFFLUENT (CME) DUMPING ON SOIL PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND SELECTED PLANT NUTRIENTS IN UTURU, ABIA STATE NIGERIA []


This study monitored the influence of dumping cassava mill effluents (CME) on soil physicochemical parameters and selected soil plant nutrients. Soil samples were collected from eight (8) CME dumping sites in two seasons (Wet: May – September and Dry: November – March). In each sampling site, soil samples were obtained from discharge spot, 4 and 8 meters from discharge spot along the route of flow of effluents. Top soil samples, (0 – 30cm depth), sub-soil samples (31-60cm depth) and bottom soil samples (61-90cm depth) were collected from each sampling spot using plastic auger while control soil samples were from spots within each sampling site uncontaminated with effluents. The CME soil sample temperature and percentage moisture were significantly (p< 0.05) higher than those of control soil samples. However, the pH of soil samples from CME dumpsites were alkaline (7.6  0.04 – 8.1  0.30). Similarly, low cation exchange capacities and exchangeable acidities (p< 0.05) were obtained for CME dumpsite soil sample relative to control soil samples. This study also established low (p< 0.05) aluminium ion (Al3+) sulphate ion (So42-), sodium ion (Na+) and potassium ion (k+) in the CME infiltrated soils. Although CME soil phosphate did not vary from that of control soil samples, CME dumpsite soil ammonium and nitrate ions were higher (p< 0.05) than in control soil samples. These results therefore, indicate that the CME infiltrated soils may not be useful for agricultural purposes – unless properly managed.


SERIOUS GAMES AND REHABILITATION FOR ELDERLY ADULTS []


Healthcare is continually being improved, especially regarding the use of the current technologies. In the field of rehabilitation, the use of serious games and related technologies may help to develop new rehabilitation procedures. There are several approaches in the area of rehabilitation that invoke technology for a more comprehensive and dynamic learning process aimed at the physical and psychological recovery of persons with a disability or limitations, with a view to their possible recovery and reintegration. This contribution presents research on systems for rehabilitation, focusing on the elderly, based on exercises and serious games. It provides an overview of the state of the art, in order to support and guide future work in this area.


A MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF TRANSIENT CURRENT IN AN ELECTRICAL OSCILLATORY SYSTEM []


Mathematical modelling of transient current in an Electrical Oscillatory System, a case of Resistive, Inductive and a Capacitive (RLC) circuit is presented in this research work. The governing equation was formulated from the RLC circuit with the use of Kirchoffs Voltage law (KVL) which is a second order differential equation. The model was then solved taken into consideration four (4) different conditions of the RLC circuit, which includes: the Un-damped, Under-damped, Over-damped and critically damped. Result shows that the circuit is Un-damped if , it is Under-damped (non-oscillatory) if R=2^L/C, it is Over-damped (oscillatory) if R=2^L/C and it becomes critically damped when R=2^L/C respectively.


EVALUATION OF BALE 2007 COFFEE COLLECTIONS AGAINST MAJOR COFFEE DISEASES AT JIMMA, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA []


With the objectives of developing disease resistant landrace coffee varieties and boost the yield with their intrinsic cup quality, a multidisciplinary research program have been designed and implemented at Jimma agricultural research center. Towards such over all goals, local land race development program has been implemented for Bale coffee producing areas. To meet this goal, local land race development program of Bale 2007 coffee collections were started in 2007 and 326 coffee accessions were collected and planted in 2008 at Gera research sub centre. Accordingly 199 coffee accessions were evaluated for their resistance to CBD, CWD and CLR using visual assessment and laboratory inoculation test. There were significant differences among the Bale coffee collections evaluated for resistance to coffee berry disease. The range was from 0% (B321/07) – 95% (B261/07) most of Bale coffee accessions show resistant reaction for CBD but some of the accessions show high susceptibility. Coffee collections were also evaluated for their resistance to coffee leaf rust under field condition at Jimma research center. There existed highly significant difference among coffee cultivars in percent coffee leaf rust severity. Coffee leaf rust disease severity varied between 0.5% (B299/07) – 63.3% (B195/07). There existed highly significant difference among cultivars both in percent wilt seedlings and incubation period. Disease severity and incubation period on Bale 2007 coffee collections varied between 0.00 % (B320/07) - 100% (B126/07) and 86.6 -171.5 days respectively. Based on over all detailed analysis of field evaluation and greenhouse test investigation for major diseases.