Volume 6, Issue 10

CONCENTRATION ADDITION OF PLASTICIZER SORBITOL TO THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CARRAGEENAN EDIBLE FILM []


The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Pressology of Fisheries and Fisheries Faculty of Marine Sciences Padjadjaran University, starting from July to August 2018. This study aims to determine the right concentration of sorbitol so that it can produce the best edible film characteristics. The method used is an experimental method with a completely randomized design (CRD) consisting of 5 different concentration treatments of the sorbitol addition, it is 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2%, 1.6%, and 2% with 3 repetitions . Parameters measured were tensile strength, percent elongation, thickness, rate of water vapor transmission, water vapor content and solubility. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with F test and differences between treatments were tested by Duncan's multiple range test with a level of 5%. The results showed that the addition of sorbitol concentration had an effect on the characteristics of edible films. The best concentration is the addition of 2% sorbitol with a thickness value of 0.095 mm, tensile strength of 2.25 Mpa, elongation percent of 28.89%, water vapor transmission rate of 13.93%, water content of 7.66%, and 9.56% solubility.


Adaptation of Ejector Refrigeration System to Gas Turbine Power Plant for Performance Improvement []


In this paper a study of the effect of an ejector refrigeration system on the performance of a gas turbine power plant was done. A set of actual operational conditions was used to determine the compressor work, turbine net work, specific fuel consumption and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The results showed that a decrease in the ambient temperature, decreases the compressor work, increases turbine net work, decreases the specific fuel consumption and increases the efficiency of the plant. It was also observed that incorporating the refrigeration cooling system which was simulated using Matlab and Hysys software causes a drop in ambient temperature of 15°C and this leads to an increase of about 12.8% and 173.12kW in thermal efficiency and power output of the turbine respectively and also, 0.01kg/KWh drop in specific fuel consumption. Therefore, to improve the performance of an existing gas turbine power plants in high temperature regions, an ejector refrigerator system that will reduce the compressor inlet air temperature is recommended.


RED TILAPIA’S BONE FLOUR FORTIFICATION AS A SOURCE OF CALCIUM ON DRIED BREAD’S ACCEPTANCE LEVEL []


Processing of red tilapia’s bone into flour with high calcium content can be applied into one type of food product that is easly accepted by people is dried bread. This aim of this research was to determine the level of addition red tilapia’s bone flour on dried bread’s acceptance level. This research was carried out from January – August 2018 i the Laboratory of Fishery Products Processing Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science and Laboratory Testing Service, Faculty of Agricultural Industry Technology. The method of that research was descriptive method for the yield of bone flour and dried bread and chemical tests (calcium content and water content) and physics test (hardness test and volume expanding), experimental method with 6 treatments were 0%, 5%, 7,5%, 10%, 12,5%, 15% of red tilapia’s bone flour addition level based on the amount of wheat flour added in the dried bread formulation and 20 panelist as replication was used in this research. Based on the result of the panelist acceptance level test for appearance, aroma, texture, and taste of dried bread in the treatment of fortification up to 15% is still accepted. The treatment of adding red tilapia’s bone flour 12,5% is preferable compare to other treatments based on Bayes test has a higher alternative value of 7,52 with calcium content 1,614%, water content 3,1%, volume expanding 39,8%, and hardnes 6043,26 gf.


Fortification of Indian Anchovy Fish Flour as a Source of Protein and Calcium for Preferences Level Flat Rice Noodles []


This study aims to determine the levels of indian anchovy flour fortified on the flat rice noodles most preferred by panelists and to know protein and calcium content of the most preffered flat rice noodles. This research was carried out from May to June 2018 at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences and the Ruminant Animal Nutrition Laboratory and Animal Food Chemistry, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University. The research method used was an experimental method with 5 treatments of adding indian anchovies flour and 15-20 semi-trained panelists as replicates, with the observed parameters consisting of organoleptic tests including appearance, aroma, texture and taste; and a proximate test which includes water, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate and calcium levels. The results showed that the 5.0% treatment has the highest median appearance and taste, which is 9 and the median value of aroma and texture is 6, so that the 5.0% recognition has the biggest alternative value of 7.8, and can increase the protein content of 3.11%, namely from 7.49% to 10.6%, and calcium by 0.08% which is from 0.13% to 0.21%.


Education Intervention About The Knowledge Of Teeth And Gum Disease During Pregnancy Among In A Selected Community In Dhaka City []


An educational intervention study was carried out among the women of kathal began slum area of Dhaka city, from April to June 2009. The objective was the study was to plan, implement and evaluate the health education intervention on the knowledge of teeth and gum disease during pregnancy and assess the effectiveness of the programme. The total sample size was 60 respondents who were selected purposively. At first baseline survey was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of the respondent. On the basis of baseline findings educational intervention programme was planned and organized, using group discussion as method and flash card, leaflet, model, and picture was used as a media, post-intervention data were collected with the same questionnaire to see the effect of health education intervention programme .pre and post-intervention data composed and analysis by SPSS. The study shows that the knowledge was not progressing about the teeth and gum disease before intervention but after educational intervention programme the knowledge level of women was found good.


Preparation of Hydroxyapatite from Natural Resources []


Bone defects healing stay in orthopedic and trauma surgery, hard problem. Thedifficulty comes from partial obtainability for material of bone toward defect seal andaid growth of bone. A ready biomaterial hydroxyapatite (HA) , that near towardmineral constituent of bones chemically, and in animals the solid tissues, so as asealer it can be used to alteration, bone cracked or as a grafts layer to assistance bonein growing grafts when used in applications of dental ,orthopedic, and maxillofacial.The aim of review focuses on preparation HA from biological resources identicalbones animal, eggshells, wood, etc. Also displays properties, for example particlesize, morphology, stoichiometry, thermal constancy, also occurrence of drop ions ,deference by primary substantial and process done. Additionaly, review alsohighpoints the important of natural resources to prepare HA , and make availablefuture opinions to the researcher, so that biological resources for extracted HA can beused clinically as a esteemed biomaterial.


STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE REFINING TIME ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PULP AND BLEACHING []


Being a part of the programs of paper pulp production by Morocco in the early 20th century, the Administration of Forestry pledged to provide raw materials for cellulose production unit. An ambitious program of reforestation was carried out. It was based on Eucalyptus camaldilansis which is a forest species native to Australia and which was introduced to Morocco during the French protectorate. Over the years, the cellulose production unit in Morocco started to import wood of Eucalyptus grandis to Congo because of its low cost compared to that produced in Morocco. This tree species is also imported from Australia, introduced in the Congo during its colonization. In addition to its very low cost price, this imported wood has more efficient mechanical and physical properties for refinement compared to the species produced in Morocco, knowing that the imported species developed in the equatorial climate are different from those the Mediterranean climate. The aim of this work is to study the tangible causes that pushed Morocco's cellulose unit to import wood of Eucalyptus grandis from Congo at the expense of the local species of Eucalyptus camldilansis. We compared the importance of the influence of the increasing sulphidity at the level of boiling on the physical properties of the cellulose fiber (bleached paste) and the influence of the increasing refining time of the unbleached pulp on the same physical properties of the two types of wood.


Main Dimensions Characteristics of Gillnet Fishing Vessel in Fish Landing Base of Karangsong, Indramayu Indonesian. []


Gillnet is classified as a static tool that requires high stability. The main dimension of the vessel is very important in the manufacture of fishing Vessels. The ratio of the vessel's main dimensions (L/B, L/D, B/D) greatly affects stability, strength, and speed. This study aims to determine the ratio of Main dimensions gillnet vessel with the method of operation in Indonesia. This research was conducted at Karangsong Fish Landing Base, Indramayu Regency in March 2018. Data obtained through measurement of the gillnet vessel directly in the field. The method used is survey method and analyzed by comparative descriptive. The results showed that the ratio of the main dimensions of the vessel has a range of length (L) 15.78-27.15 m, width (B) 4.60-6.74 m, and in (D) 1.72-2.96 m. The ratio of the main dimensions of the vessel has a range of L / B is 2.97-4.03, L / D is 6.91-10.27, and B / D is 2.00-2.79. This value has met the standard criteria of the vessel's main dimension ratios with operating methods in Indonesia.


Implementation in Recent Trends of CPU/GPU/APU Framework In AMD Processor []


The main objective of this paper to analyse the central processing unit (CPU) is designed to handle complex tasks, such as time slicing, virtual machine emulation, complex control flows and branching, security, etc. In contrast, graphical processing unites (GPUs) only do one thing well. They handle billions of repetitive low level tasks. Originally designed for the rendering of triangles in 3D graphics, they have thousands of arithmetic logic units (ALUs) compared with traditional CPUs that commonly have only 4 or 8. Many types of scientific algorithms spend most of their time doing just what GPUs are good for: performing billions of repetitive arithmetic operations.


Effects of Chisel Plow Shanks Distribution Arrangements and Forward Speed on MachinePerformance Index in clay Soil []


In Khartoum states –Sudan, the farmer currently seemed to start more widely use thechisel plow for many considerations, such as the rough soil surface and/or surface residue left bythese tillage practices have been found to reduce sediment concentrations and in some cases thevolume of runoff water; and the performance data for the ploughing operation is essential toreduce cost of ploughing operation and make economic decisions. The effect of two shankdistribution arrangements and two tractors forward speed (4.5km/hr. and 7.5km/hr.) on machineeffective field capacity, fuel consumption, travel reduction, draft, drawbar power and Percentageof Plowed Area versus Non – plowed were therefore examined in a bid to establish theiroptimum operating conditions. The study was performed at the Demonstration Farm; College ofagricultural studies; Sudan University of Science and Technology - Sudan, The soil type in thestudy site is predominantly clay. The results showed that, the mean of Effective field capacity forSp1 and Sp2 at shank arrange 1 were 0.36 ha/hr and 0.62 ha/hr. Pooled data of fuel consumptionshowed that forward speed of Sp2 was having the highest fuel consumption of 12.93 Lit./ha atshank arrange2, The treatments of shank arrange 2 produced higher draft of 10.95 kN while thelowest draft of 9.14 kN was obtained by treatment of shank arrange1,


Farm Machinery Size and Cost Management SystemIn The Rain fed Sector of Gedarif area []


Computer programs now can help greatly to solve complex machinery managementproblems and enable managers to take better decisions concerning the balance betweenproduction factors (machine capacity, expected time, and available budgets).The objective of this study was to design and develop a computer system to be used as adecision-making tool to manage large scale schemes in Gedaref rain fed agriculture. The systemdesigned to estimate variable capacities of machines on the basis of per hour unit area accordingto the recognized standard formulas and parameters and also to calculate fixed, variable and totalcosts of farm machinery. Published and field local data of machinery prices and performance inGedaref area was used in the development of the system.


ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PLECTASIN AGAINST LOCAL STRAINS OF GRAM NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE BACTERIA []


ABSTRACT Bacterial infection remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide and this is worsened by the continuous emergence of antibiotic resistance. Defensins show broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and Plectasin 4431-s an organic peptide defensin that has not had its potential negative effects and extent of antimicrobial action clarified was screened against genetically diverse clinical isolates including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinectobacter baumanii, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis and its antibiotic potential compared against other antibiotics which include levofloxacin-15µg, ceftriaxone-30µg, ciprofloxacin-5µg, imipenem-30µg, cefuroxime-30µg. The range of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of plectasin was between 0.007mg/ml to 1.8mg/ml. MIC for Enterococcus faecalis was at 0.056mg/ml, MIC for Staphylococcus aureus was at 0.113mg/ ml and MIC for Klebsiella pneumoniae was at 1.8 mg/ml. There was no inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli between plectasin concentration 0.007mg/ml to 1.8mg/ml while similarly Proteus mirabilis, Acinectobacter baumanii, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MIC was nil. Results show that Plectasin 4431-s showed significant antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 0.113mg/ml to 1.8mg/ml and Enterococcus faecalis at concentration of 0.056mg/ml to 1.8mg/ml. For Gram-negative bacteria, Plectasin 4431-s showed insignificant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Acinectobacter baumanii, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum bactericidal concentration of plectasin against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was 0.056mg/ ml, 0.113mg/ ml and 1.8 mg/ ml respectively. Results obtained suggest that plectasin could be an alternative antibiotic for clinical applications against bacterial infection mostly against Gram-positive bacteria on which they have significant antibacterial activity. This will be a novel strategy that can have major clinical implications in the fight against bacterial infections. Keywords: Plectasin, gram-positive, gram-negative, bacterial infection, antibiotic


ASSESMENT OF SUSTAINABILITY APPROACH IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN OTUKPO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA. []


ABSTRACT This study assessed sustainability approach in distribution of health care facilities in Otukpo Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. Its objectives were to analyse the distribution pattern of health care facilities in Otukpo LGA and identify communities that have ‘shortfall’ or ‘surplus’; determine whether environmental features were considered before implementing the health care facilities and to evaluate environmental monitoring of health care facilities in Otukpo LGA. The study used mapping, questionnaire survey and observation in its methodology to collect data which were sourced from both primary and secondary sources. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as Nearest Neighbour Analysis, Location Quotients and Z- Scores. The results were presented in tables and figures. The result of Nearest Neighbour Analysis was 0.93 which mean that distribution pattern of health care facilities in Otukpo Local Government Area, Benue State is a cluster pattern. Location Quotients for health care facilities in all the communities ranged from 0 to 2.47. Location quotients for most of the communities are less than one (< 1). This imply that majority of the communities has ‘shortfall’ of health care facilities. Only Otukpo has Location Quotients more than one (>1). Results also showed poor environmental considerations in siting health care facilities. It shows firstly that none (0%) of the respondents who are owners of health care facilities carried out environmental impact assessment of their infrastructure. Secondly environmental features such as geology/soil, relief, vegetation, temperature, rainfall and wind were largely neglected in the planning and implementation of health care facilities and that artisans, architects and land surveyor are the most(100%) professionals involved in health care facilities construction while geotechnical and structural engineers are not (0%) involved. There is also poor monitoring of the environment impacts health care facilities in the study area as it was shown that only twelve (12) respondents representing 20.7% of the respondents monitor the impact of their facilities on the environment. It was concluded that health care facilities distributions in Otukpo have lapses, such as inadequacy, lack of environmental integration approach and thus are unsustainable.


ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRATION APPROACH IN DISTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE (SCHOOLS) IN OTUKPO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA. []


ABSTRACT This study evaluates environmental integration approach in distribution of schools in Otukpo Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. Its objectives were to analyse the distribution pattern of schools in Otukpo LGA and identify community that have ‘shortfall’ or ‘surplus’ social infrastructures; determine whether environmental features were considered before implementing the schools facilities and to evaluate environmental monitoring of school infrastructures in Otukpo LGA. The study used mapping, questionnaire survey and observation in its methodology to collect data which were sourced from both primary and secondary sources. Data collected were analysed using statistical tools such as Nearest Neighbour Analysis, Location Quotients and Z- Scores. The results were presented in tables and figures. The result of Nearest Neighbour Analysis was 0.91 which mean that distribution pattern of schools in Otukpo Local Government Area, Benue State is a cluster pattern. Location Quotients for schools in all the communities ranged from 0.35 to 3.53. Location quotients for most of the communities are less than one (< 1). This imply that majority of the communities has ‘shortfall’ of school infrastructure. Only seven (7) communities out of twenty- four (24) (Otukpo, Akpegede, Aokwu, Odu-Daje, Obojuipoko Ifeyi, OtadaUpu and Amla-Icho) have Location Quotients more than one (>1). Results also showed poor environmental considerations in siting school infrastructure. It shows firstly that none (0%) of the respondents who are owners of school infrastructures carried out environmental impact assessment of their infrastructure. Secondly environmental features such as geology/soil, relief, vegetation, temperature, rainfall and wind were largely neglected in the planning and implementation of school infrastructures and that artisans, architects and land surveyor are the most(100%) professionals involved in school infrastructure construction while geotechnical and structural engineers are not (0%) involved. There is also poor monitoring of social infrastructure impact on the environment in the study area as it shows that only twelve (12) respondents representing 20.7% of the respondents monitor the impact of their structure on the environment. It was concluded that school infrastructure distributions in Otukpo have lapses, such as inadequacy, lack of environmental integration approach and thus are unsustainable.


Biogas production from organic was wastes (cow dug and melon waste) in Keffi Local Government of Nasarawa State, Nigeria []


Abstract This research aimed to experiment biogas production from organic was wastes (cow dug and melon waste) in Keffi Local Government of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. This aim was achieved through the following objectives. To experiment and record the daily production of biogas from cow dug and melon waste and determine the relationship between: (i) temperature and biogas yield (ii) pH and biogas yield. The following null hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level: (i)“There is no significant relationship between amount of temperature and volume of biogas yield (ii) “There is no significant relationship between pH and volume of biogas yield. A twenty-five (25) liter capacity digester was fed up to eighty percent (80% ) with cow-dug slurry mixed with grounded melon waste through the inlet pipe provided with suitable arrangements to ensure zero entry of air into the digester to achieve anaerobic conditions during substrate feeding and evacuation. All connections (cylinder, inlet and outlet pipes) were designed and operated to maintain anaerobic conditions. Gas production were recorded on daily basis from calibrated measuring cylinder to find out possible daily biogas production using cow dug and melon waste. Moreover, temperature and pH were measured and recorded alongside the volume of biogas produced on daily basis to find out the influence of temperature and pH on biogas yield. Result shows that there was no gas production for the first three (3) days, gas production started gradually on the fourth day when it recorded the smallest volume (9.50Ml) and accelerated until the twentieth (20th) day when it reached its peak (65.60Ml) and started reducing to second least volume recorded (10.50Ml) on the thirtieth (30th) day. There was a significant positive relationship between amount of temperature and volume of biogas yield at 95% confidence level but slight negative relationship was found between pH and volume of biogas yield. It was found that biogas yield increases from 0 at p H 7.8 to the peak 65.30Ml when p H have decease to 6.7 and then started decreasing as pH continue to decrease to 10.5Ml when pH became more acidic. It can be concluded that organic wastes can be utilized for biogas production.


Turning Wastes (Cow Dug and Melon Shells) to Biogas for Cooking Energy []


Abstract This research was carried to determine the possibility of managing animal and melon wastes by converting it to biogas. The objectives of the research are to: experiment biogas from: (i)cow dug (ii) cow dug and melon waste and to (ii) compare the outcome of the two sets of experiments. The null hypothesis “there is no significant difference between biogas yield from cow dug slurry and yield from combination of cow dug and melon waste at 95% significant level” was tested. Two set of experiments on biogas production were set as follows: (i) experimentation of biogas production using only cow dug as substrate (A) and (ii) experimentation of biogas production using a combination of cow dug and melon waste as substrates (B). In both cases, anaerobic condition and uniform volume of slurries were maintained in the same type of digester. Result showed that Biogas production was possible in cow dug and in combination of cow dug and mixed substrates (cow dug and melon waste). However, there is a significant difference between biogas yield from cow dug slurry and combination of cow dug and melon waste at 95% significant level. The mixed substrates (cow dug and melon waste) produced more gas than the single substrate (cow dug). It was recommended that mixed substrates should be used in biogas production.


ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF KHOVD PROVINCE, MONGOLIA USING SATELLITE IMAGERY AND THE SPATIAL MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION-MAKING METHOD []


One of the most important concepts of the landscape-ecological theory of the interaction between man and nature is the landscape-ecological potential. The aim of this study was to assess landscape-ecological potential using optical remote sensing data and field-measured biomass samples in Khovd province, Mongolia. We used the spatial MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision-Making) method and GIS-based AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). This method was trained to predict landscape-ecological potential using five environmental criteria derived from Landsat OLI, MODIS (MOD 11, MOD 16), TRMM and SRTM data. These five criteria were classified, and quality evaluation criteria were developed for thirteen sub-criteria, each with 5 levels. This was processed for each criteria layer’s value by multiplying parameters for each criterion obtained from the pair comparison matrix with weight addition. In this study, we estimated a consistency ratio 0.053, suggesting that there was a reasonable level of consistency in judgment. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the landscape-ecological map showed that 6.8% of the area studied had very high potential, 25.3% had high potential, 42.6% had average potential, 17.6% had low potential, and 7.6% had very low potential. To assess accuracy of the evaluation, reference biomass data from a field survey of 34 sites were applied. The overall accuracy of site selection for landscape-ecological potential using spatial multi-criteria analysis was 79.4%. The study results confirmed that, in this evaluation, the landscape-ecological potential could be effectively obtained by the integrated use of GIS-based AHP and multi-criteria decision-making methods. The GIS-based AHP technique is a good indicator for estimating weighting values to create landscape-ecological potential maps based on landscape elements.


SOLVING ECONOMIC LOAD DISPATCH PROBLEM WITH VALVE POINT LOADINF EFFECT USING WHALE OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM INTEGRAT-ED WITH LOACAL SEARCH DETERMINISTIC TECHNIQUES []


In Modern era with the swelling demand electrical power ELD has turn out to be the principal problem in elec-trical networks. Use of orthodox petroleum for the production of electricity consequences in diminution of as-sets for yet to come generations. One possible solution to the aforesaid problem is operating generators opti-mally i.e. assigning optimal power to generators. Whale optimization algorithm (WOA) is a novel solution for the reduction of the fuel cost. The hunting method of Humpback whales is inspired from bubble-net feeding method. The algorithm has been tested on IEEE 3‐generator test system and a standard 13‐generator test sys-tem for both with and without valve point loading effects for effective solutions. For rapid local convergence a hybrid computing framework is utilized for the solution of ELD problem using WOA supported with Sequential Quadratic Programming, Active Set and Interior Point Algorithm. Performance of the given scheme is analysed in terms of superlative, middling and poorest cost as well as on the basis of total function evaluations and constraints violation


DEPLOYMENT OF MVC FRAMEWORK AS A MULTI-TIER ARCHITECTURE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FUTURISTIC COLLEGE WEBSITE (A CASE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR) []


This research paper The Department of Computer Science University of Calabar is yet to benefit from this advancement in web technology in terms of information dissemination, and has limited publicity on the internet. This has made access to information concerning Departmental activities difficult to students. This aim of this paper is to develop and build a College website using MVC supported Framework. This research work seeks explore and unravel the strength of the MVC architecture in futuristic website design and to provide a platform to exchange ideas and information using a blog where meaningful and thoughtful articles can be shared. It connects students through dynamic website. The system was developed using HTML intermixed with java programming language and script interpreted by an engine (Dynamic web pages).


COMPUTER BASED TEST SYSTEM FOR MAI IDRIS ALOOMA POLYTECHNIC GEIDAM, YOBE STATE WITH EMPHASIS ON RESULT INTEGRITY AND ACCURACY []


Technology has braced e-examinations positively for some years now, and has gradually improved the e-examination system over the years. However, some institutions in the developing countries are still using the manual system of conducting examination. This manual system of writing examination has a lot of disadvantages which include time consumption and examination malpractices, hence the need for a better, faster and more reliable means of examining students. The objective of this paper is to provide a report on e-exams system that will enhance security and result integrity that would be implemented. The implemented system was modelled using Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagrams such as Use Case diagram, Activity diagrams. The linear life cycle model (waterfall model), used to plan the activities and stages of the report has helped to provide a detailed and well documented report. The system was developed using Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) and also using PHP/MySQL, Notepad ++, and JAVA scripts/ JQuery and Wamp Server as testing server database. With the e-examination system, the process of conducting examinations and result processing will be fast and reliable. More so, the level of security and integrity is achieved.


AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF PROGESTERONE ON PREFRONTAL CORTEX PLAQUES AND NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES ASSOCIATED WITH STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS BRAIN []


Progesterone, secreted and synthesized by nerve tissues has been implicated in brain functions, such as its neuro-protective and regenerative potentials on the damaged neurons. This study seeks to evaluate the therapeutic potentials of progesterone on the microanatomy of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats’ brain. Forty eight (48) male Wistar rats with an average weight of 225g±5 was used for a duration of 16 weeks. The rats were divided into 6 groups comprising of 8 rats each. To induce diabetes; 30 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally along with an oil vehicle of 0.1ml of citrate buffer solution at pH of 4.5. Groups A served as the control, received 1ml of distilled water, group B received 4 mg/kg/body weight/day of progesterone injection intraperitoneally, group C received 8 mg/kg/body weight/day of progesterone injection intraperitoneally, group D recieved double doses of 30 mg/kg body weight/day of Streptozotocin intraperitoneally, group E received double doses of 30 mg/kg body weight/day of Streptozotocin and 4 mg/kg/body weight/day of progesterone injection intraperitoneally and group F received double doses of 30 mg/kg body weight/day of Streptozotocin and 4 mg/kg/body weight/day of progesterone injection intraperitoneally. Blood glucose levels and histological studies of the Prefrontal cortex of the rats brain was analyzed. Increase in consumption of food, water, and glucose levels was observed in the diabetic animals when compared with control. Body weight decreased in the diabetic animals when compared with control while histological analysis in group D showed the presence of plaques and multiple neurofibrillary tangles in the polymorphic, pyramidal and molecular layers of the cortex while a dose dependent signicant decrease (P<0.05) in neurofibilliary tangles and plaques was observed in groups E and F after exposure to progesterone injection compared with control. Conclusively, this further highlights the ameliorative effects of progesterone injection on the prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin induced diabetic rat brain.


Composite Materials Hybrid as Stabilizer of Deltaic Lateritic Soils []


The study evaluated the modification of geotechnical properties of Niger deltaic lateritic soils of fragile and manipulative characteristics that are prone to severe cracks and differential settlement with the composite materials hybrid of plantain rachis fibre + cement with 0.25% + 2.5%, 0.5% + 5.0%, 0.75% + 7.5% and 1.0% + 10% to soils percentage ratio inclusion to improve their strength. Preliminary investigations computed the percentage (%) passing BS sieves #200 as 38.46%, 39.40%, 36.85%, and 36.42%, reddish brown color, plasticity index are 17.11%, 22.5%, 14.10%, and 18.51%, California bearing ratio (CBR) values unsoaked are 9.25%, 9.48%, 7.85% , 8.65 %, and soaked 7.40%, 8.05%, 6.65% and 6.65 % and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values of 168kPa, 178kPa, 163kPa and 175kPa. Soils are classified as A-2-6 SC and A-2-4 SM on the AASHTO classification schemes / Unified Soil Classification System and are less for use as embankment materials for road constructional materials. Stabilized lateritic soils comparative results showed decreased values of maximum dry density (MDD) and increased values of optimum moisture content (OMC) with relating values to percentages ratio fibre + cement inclusion demonstrated graphically in figures. Computed results illustrated increased values of both unsoaked and soaked California bearing ratio to percentages inclusion increase, with 0.75% + 7.5% optimum mix ratio to soils. Cracks and reductions in values were noticed beyond optimum. Results showed that fibre percentages ratio increase hoisted the values of unconfined compressive strength. Results of fibre + cement stabilized lateritic soils showed decreased in plastic index as against un-stabilized. Entire results showed the potential use of plantain rachis fibre + cement as soil stabilizers.


Evaluation of Plantain Rachis Fibre and Lime Stabilized Soft Clay Soils as Highway Pavement Material. []


The research work investigated the complementation of Deltaic problematic soft clay soils with stabilizer from waste agricultural products of plantain rachis fibre + lime in combined action to improve their strength for the purpose of road embankment materials. Preliminary investigations as shown in table 3.1 confirmed soils as poor and unfit for such purpose except stabilized. Comparatively, results shown in table 3.1 and 3.2 on compaction test parameters indicated increased values of maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) relatively with percentage inclusion increase. In contrast to results of tables 3.1 and 3.2, stabilized clay soils California bearing ratio of unsoaked and soaked values increased with respect to composite materials of plantain rachis fibre + lime percentile ratio with optimum percentage of 0.75% + 7.5%. Cracks and values reduction were confirmed outside optimum percentile. Final comparative results as shown in tables 3.1 and 3.2 indicated that stabilized clay soils unconfined compressive strength test increased relatively to additives inclusion percentile ratio increase. Results as shown in table 3.1 and figure 3.1 – 3.4 showed decreased values of plastic index relatively to percentile ratio increase. The entire results showed good potential of using plantain rachis fibre ash + lime as soil stabilizer.


Problematic Soils Modification Using Costaceae Lacerus Bagasse Fibre as Soil Stabilizer []


Niger Deltaic soils are known with unique attributes of swelling and shrinkage potentials that have resulted to poor life span of road pavement. This study investigated the effective use of costaceae lacerus bagasse fibre (CLBF) as soil stabilizer/ reinforcement. Results of preliminary investigations of soils at natural state are percentage (%) passing BS sieves #200 are 28.35%, 40.55%, 36.85%, 33.45% and 39.25% (laterite), and soils classified as A-2-6 SC and A-2-4 SM on the AASHTO classification schemes / Unified Soil Classification System and CBR values of 8.7%,8.5%, 7.8%, 9.4% and 10.6% (unsoaked) and 8.3%, 7.8%, 7.2%, 8.5% and 9.8 %, (unsoaked) and fell below minimum requirement for such application and needs stabilization to improve its properties. Results showed the potential of using fibre bagasse (CLBF) as admixtures in lateritic soil stabilization with 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% inclusion. Swelling potential of treated soils decreased with the inclusion of fibre bagasse up to 0.75% for soils The plastic index of the stabilized soil showed continuous decreased with increased in fibre percentages. Compaction test results recorded decreased values of MDD with increased values while OMC increases with increased in fibre percentages. An optimum values percentage inclusion at 0.75% was recorded of CBR at both unsoaked and soaked, beyond this value, a decreased recorded which indicated maximum inclusion, crack was formed which resulted to potential failure state. The entire results showed good potential of using Bush sugarcane bagasse fibre as soil stabilizer.


Stabilization of Deltaic Expansive Soils Treated with Plantain Rachis Fibre and Lime []


An investigative study was carried out to ascertain the geotechnical properties of failed highway sections along Ogbogoro, Egbeda, Igwuruta and Aleto roads all in Niger Delta region of Nigeria and stabilized them with composite cementittious hybridized materials of plantain rachis fibre + lime with 0.25% + 2.5%, 0.5% + 5.0%, 0.75% + 7.5% and 1.0% + 10% to soils ratio inclusion. Investigated preliminary results at 100% lateritic soils classified the soils as A-2-6 SC and A-2-4 SM on the AASHTO classification schemes / Unified Soil Classification System and further results as outlined in table 3.1 classified soils as poor and unfit for road embankment constructional materials. Detailed investigated results of stabilized lateritic soils compaction test parameters of maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) showed increased values to corresponding stabilizers increase. Computed results of California bearing ratio stabilized lateritic soils increased in both unsoaked and soaked with respect to additives inclusion percentages increase with optimum mixed ratio of 0.75% + 7.5%. Decrease / reversed values was noticed at mix ratio higher than optimum. Computed stabilized lateritic soils result of unconfined compressive strength test increased with respect to corresponding stabilizer percentage ratio inclusions. Results from stabilized lateritic soils decreased in plastic index properties with corresponding percentage ration increase to soils. Summarized results showed the use of investigated composite cementitious materials as soil stabilizer.


Composite Hybridization of Irvinga Gabonesis Fibre Ash and Cement in Stabilization Process of Expansive Soils []


The research is an investigative experimental work on the effective stabilization of black cotton lateritic soils from Odiokwu, Oyigba, Anakpo, Upatabo, Ihubuluko Town Roads in Ahoada East and West local Government Areas with irvinga gabonesis fibre ash and cement in combine actions. Results showed, the soils belong to A-2-6 SC and A-2-4 SM families on the AASHTO classification schemes / Unified Soil Classification System. Percentage (%) passing BS sieves #200;, 28.35%, 40.55 %, 36.85%, 33.45% and 39.25%. The soil has California bearing ratio of unsoaked values of 8.7%, 8.5%, 7.8%, 9.4%, and 10.6% and soaked values of 8.3%, 7.8%, 7.2%, 8.5% and 9.8 % are remarked poor for its application as road constructional materials. Consistency limits test decreased in plastic index properties of soils with incremental ratio of additives to soil. Results showed increased in both maximum dry density and optimum moisture content values increased to corresponding fibre ash and cement percentage inclusion. Results showed an increase in California bearing ratio of values of stabilized soils to an optimum mix ratio 7.5% + 7.5% to soils. Results showed increased in nconfined compressive strength test. Swelling potential of treated soil decreased with the inclusion of fibre ash up to 7.5% + 7.5% of soils. The entire results showed the potential of using irvinga gabonesis fibre ash + cement as admixtures in treated soils


The comparative study between lidocaine and Metoprolol on hemodynamic attenuation during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation []


Haemodynamic stability is an integral and essential goal of any anaesthetic management plan. Laryngoscopy and intubation can cause striking changes in haemodynamics. Objective to compare lidocaine group with metoprolol group on the attenuation of hemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, undergoing general anesthesia. This randomized controlled study was conducted at college health and medical technologist in Teaching Baghdad Hospital, from(NOV._)2017. The study was conducted in 30 patients posted for elective surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomized into two equal groups to receive metoprolol 0.075 mg/kg (Group M = 15 patients) and lidocaine 1mg/kg (Group L = 15 patients). Following study drugs, anesthesia induced with Ketamine 1 mg/kg, propofol 2mg /kg and Rocuronium 0.6mg / kg IV. After 3minutes of injection of Rocuronium, Endotracheal intubation was done. Anesthesia was maintained with(1.2%)isoflurane, oxygen, and Rocuronium. All intubation was done within 30 seconds then SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR were recorded just after intubation, 1 minute,3minutes, 6 minutes and 10 minutes of intubation. We concluded metoprolol has more effect than lidocaine on hemodynamic attenuation during four times interval(1min,3min,6min, and 10min)


NATIONAL SECURITY AND CRIME MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: DOES LIBRARY HAVE A ROLE? []


Every nations of the world seek peace; they sought after peace, unity and harmony within and outside their territories. This they do with their policies, external and international relations, as well as fortifying their military base to prevent cases of threats and dangers. The presence and the assurance of peace is the key to growth and development or otherwise of any Nation. The stories of great empires which once blossomed and died are now of historical past, these undoubtedly were as a result of the invasion, porous security system, religious crisis and challenges not adequately managed by them. The growth and eventual death of such empires are instructive to the modern nation states in the 21stCentury of great technological advancement for almost all facets of human endeavour. The country Nigeria is not left out in the worldwide security threat, she must be able to manage her national security and crimes if development and her continued existence would be assured. Whilst Nigeria is endowed with abundant resources, negligence to numerous challenges of insecurity of the environment arising from case of corruption, ethnic division, religious dissimilarities and many more have favoured the thriving porous security condition that engendered unity and retard her development. This paper however, peeps into the security threats and insurgencies in Nigeria and suggest way out for development and improvement in the security issues through a library that is sensitive and which plays its role of educating and enlightening the public on the consequences of crime and insecurity.


COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANION EXCHANGE MEMBRANES PREPARED BY BROMINATED POLYPHENYENE OXIDE POLYMERS []


This research was designated to find out the solution for solving energy shortage problems of globe. There were three different brominated polyphenyleneoxide(BPPO) membranes such as 45% BPPO membrane, 35% BPPO membrane and 30% BPPO membrane that were prepared by dissolving BPPO polymer in dimethyl formamide (DMF) with the assistance of magnetic stirrer. Moreover, the prominent functional groups of each BPPO membranes were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT IR) spectroscopy that informs the presence of distinct C-Br stretching band at 1019.66 cm-1. The Ion-Exchange Capacity (IEC) value of each membrane was determined by Mohr titration method where as 45% BPPO membrane gave 1.42 mmolg-1 IEC value which is a suitable result for Anion Exchange Membrane (AEM) and this value was highr than other two BPPO membranes. The resistance values of membranes were investigated by Multi-Meter that was related the conductivity of membranes and the swelling ratio, the solubility of each membrane were detected by dipping membranes in various solvents. Key Words: Brominated polyphenylene oxides, Ion-exchange capacity, Anion exchange membrane, solubility, SEM, FT-IR


DEPLOYMENT OF UNIVERSITY CASHLESS (E-TUITION) PAYMENT SYSTEM: A CASE OF UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR SCHOOL CHARGES []


University of Calabar has a large number of students who pay all the university charges through cash deposits and bank drafts to the university’s accounts in designated bank branches. These methods of paying fees have not been efficient enough especially during periods of tests and examinations when most students pay fees to meet the requirements for entering examination rooms. The process fee and charges payment is characterized by long queues and waiting time. This has always resulted in students missing out on tests and/or examinations while queuing to make payments. This research therefore, is aimed at developing an Enhanced E-Payment System that enables students of the University of Calabar, as well as their sponsors to securely pay fees online using valid credit and debit cards. Object oriented Analysis and Design was employed in the design of the proposed System. The system was implemented using Apache web server, MySQL database server, Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), and the Laravel framework. System testing and validation was also done by allowing users of the system to interact with it using several test data. The result of the system is the test result generated from the testing stage.


Determinants of Life Insurance Demand By Zimbabweans In South Africa. Case Of Gauteng Province []


This empirical study used primary data on a sample chosen in Gauteng province, South Africa and examined the determinants of life insurance demand by Zimbabweans in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The motivation behind the study is the high costs that were encountered by Zimbabweans in repatriation of bodies from South Africa. Repatriation challenges faced by Zimbabweans that forced some to smuggle corpses was the driving force behind this empirical study. The logit model was used as an econometric model. From the results obtained it was found out that dependency ratio, income and education were crucial variables in ascertaining life insurance demand. This implies that the more income earned by an individual in Gauteng the more he or she will demand life insurance and the insurance companies should charge affordable repatriation costs. On the basis of education, the conclusion is that as one advance in acquiring more education the opportunities of him or her buying a funeral policy will be high also. Based on the findings of this study the author recommended that Life insurance companies in South Africa should educate the Zimbabweans on benefits of having life insurance policies. Since number of dependants or the dependency ratio was useful in explaining life insurance demand it was recommended that the Insurance companies should introduce a life insurance package that caters for many people as in one family. These packages maybe designed to meet the elderly hence the Zimbabweans in South Africa might perceive it cheaper to pay affordable premiums and bring many dependants to South Africa. On income it was recommended that the life insurance companies should work hand in hand with Embassy of Zimbabwe in South Africa in processing working documents.


Study on effect of longitudinally reinforced steel tubes in GFRP composite in terms of specific strength under bending and tensile load []


Composites are advanced materials which are finding increasing applications in aerospace, automobile, sporting and numerous applications. Composite materials are using everywhere due to their excellent properties like high strength to weight ratio but still research are need to be conduct to improve the same so that, composite materials can resist future challenges . Recent study shows that steel tube reinforced GFRP(S- GFRP) has potential to improve strength to weight ratio compared to GFRP composite under compression loading; On extending this idea present work focused on study of effect of steel tubes in GFRP(S -GFRP) in terms of strength to weight ratio under bending and tension loading compared to without reinforcement of steel tube in GFRP (GFRP).In this work steel tubes of different diameter were longitudinally reinforced in GFRP. Specimens of S & GFRP and GFRP were prepared using hand layup process and specimens subjected to bending and tensile loading using UTM. From experimental data, mechanical properties like ultimate compressive ultimate strength, stiffness, strength to weight ratio and specific strength were determined. The experimental results shows that, a GFRP specimen with longitudinal reinforcement of hypodermic steel tubes (S-GFRP) achieved high strength to weight ratio , high specific stiffness and other improved mechanical properties compared to that of plane fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP).


Analysis, Design and Development of an IoT Based Water Management System for Residence []


Water is an essential resource for life and it is now a matter of important day. This problem affects various processes such as water management, water consumption, distribution, system detection and equipment maintenance. Based on this measurement, we offer a smart water management system by connecting the Internet of Things technology with the combination of business process and decision support systems. We provide architecture to detail physical scene where we will examine our implementation, allowing water management processes. It is uncomfortable and often effective for periodic human intervention to maintain for the traditional water measuring system. For lack of existing models and radio data for public use of wireless systems. This paper presentation will present the system's complete working process. In the introductory, there describe the details of the system, the purpose of the system, scope and justification of the system. There have some literature reviews about the relevant projects in relevant fields, which are reviewed and described soon. There are detailed descriptions of the work flow of the procedure section which are strictly followed during the project completion. Also describe the justification to use here as well as the alphabet. Need Analysis, design and development hardware needs, software requirements, block drawing, description of the material used in the project, circuit diagrams and flotation discussions. Finally, we re-established the project and described why this project would be important to the user. Also effective in discussing how effective the projects are in the real life. Here have some statements about the limitation and the opportunity for future growth of the project.


Evaluation of Factors affecting Adoption of Mobile banking Technology in micro-Finance institutions in Kenya []


Financial institutions have been in the process of significant transformation; the force behind the transformation of these institutions is innovation in information technology. ICT has been used not only to improve customer service delivery and perform day to day transactions but also to empower their employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting adoption of m-banking technology in Letshego Kenya Limited. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between constructs: performance expectancy, education levels, age and gender. This study examined the existing empirical studies on mobile banking adoption in general and LKL and its adoption in particular. M-banking adoption was analyzed using UTAUT and DIT framework as the guiding model. This is due to the fact that this framework not only covers the technological aspects but also the social aspects of analyzing the adoption of m-banking. Hence, these models provided a complete analysis of the possible aspects to be considered for m-baking adoption. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population comprised of Letshego Kenya Limited active borrowers in Nairobi County. A stratified sample of 326 respondents was obtained. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire to meet the objectives of the study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPPS) and regression were used for analysis. Results from the study indicated that performance expectancy strongly influenced adoption of mobile banking technology by MFI customers in Kenya. The study recommends to the management of Letshego Kenya Limited and other financial institutions to formulate strategies to improve efficiency of mobile banking as it will enhance the organizational performance and increase sales. These strategies should focus more on is performance expectancy as it was found to have the greatest influence on adoption of mobile banking. Keywords: Mobile banking, Diffusion of Innovations Theory, Education Levels, Age, Gender, Performance Expectancy


The Changing Trends in Workers Demographics: A Review of X, Y, and Z Generations in the Corporate World []


The employee’s remains the life blood of the organization as its success or failure depends largely on their performance and commitment; and as such managers are saddled with the responsibilities of sourcing and acquiring the best of them irrespective of wherever they are located. Consequently, this result in a highly diverse workforce which if not properly managed can lead to a total failure of the organizational as a result of its inherent conflict tendency. In view of this, this study is billed to theoretically review the changing trend in workers demographic profiles through the lens of X, Y and Z generational cohorts. In the cause of extant literature review, we discovered that there is a great diversity between the different generational class and such dichotomy presents the organization with both competitive advantage as a result of varied talents and skills among the workforce and conflict tendencies due to differences in the value system and experiences encountered by each generation. However, in order to fully maximize the potentials benefits of diversity in a changing world of business, we critically determined some possible and potent strategies through which its associated challenges can be overcome. Finally, we conclude that through generational -friendly policies and strategies like acceptance of the uniqueness of each cohort, rapid knowledge transfer across cohort, diversity receptiveness training programs, synergy etc. a manager can transform the supposed differences into competitive advantage for the organization and recommended that for organizations to thrive in this new economic order, managers should recognize and accept that there is a unique ability inherent in every generational class necessary for its goal attainment.


Predictive value of total neutrophil count and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio in predicting in-hospital mortality and complications after ST segment elevation Myocardial Infarction. []


Abstract: Background: Myocardial infarction commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to a part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. Neutrophils are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant type of white blood cells in most mammals. The increased level of neutrophil count may lead to hazardous consequences in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, so to find the evidence we conducted this study. Objective: To determine the association of raised total neutrophil count and neutrophil / lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with in-hospital mortality and complications after STEMI. Material & Methods: Study Design: Cohort study. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Jinnah Hospital Lahore Duration: 6 months i.e. from July 2017 to December 2017. Data Collection: After meeting the inclusion criteria 210 subjects were enrolled. Informed consent and demographic information was taken from all the subjects. Subjects were divided into exposed and non-exposed. All the information was entered and analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results : The mean age of patients in raised neutrophil group was 53.04±13.15 years and in normal neutrophil group was 56.48±15.57 years. The male to female ratio was 0.9:1. Mortality occurred in 30 cases and complications were noted in 69(32.86%) patients. Statistically 1.72 times more risk of complications noted in raised neutrophil group compared to normal neutrophil group i.e. RR=1.71 [95% CI; 1.33-2.22]. Conclusion: There is 1.72 times significantly more risk of in hospital mortality and complications after STEMI in raised total Neutrophil Count. Keywords: Mortality, Myocardial Infarction, In-Hospital, Risk, Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio


PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STATUS OF SOME BOREHOLE WATER SOURCE FROM THREE SENATORIAL AREAS (KADUNA, KAFANCHAN AND ZARIA) IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA. []


Thirty-six (36) water samples were randomly collected from different boreholes in three senatorial areas (Kaduna, Kafanchan and Zaria) in Kaduna state, Nigeria. They were analyzed for their physicochemical parameters which include pH, temperature, conductivity, Total dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) using standard methods. The results revealed that pH ranged from (4.03 – 6.66) indicating that the water is slightly acidic, Temperature (0C) (23.7 – 27.3), Electro- Conductivity (mS/cm) (0.05 – 1.44), Total Dissolved Solid (mg/L) (0.02 - 0.72), Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/L) (9.36 – 21.12), Total Suspended Solid (mg/L) (0.01 -1.65), Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) (0.30 – 2.70) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (mg/L) (0.001 -0.009) . The values obtained from the physico-chemical parameters analysis were compared with the WHO and NIS standards for drinking water and the results showed that the values were within the acceptable range for drinking water except for some water samples which has COD that were higher in some sites due to anthropogenic factors.


Internal Migration in Nepal: National Growth Rate Method and its Improvement []


The place of birth approach has been used to measure the internal migration since past three censuses in Nepal.The census results indicate that over the past 40 years the volume of internal migration has been increasedmassively. Indirect techniques are recommended by the United Nationsto measure the internal migration for the developing countries like Nepal where there is no efficient data collection system, even if it exists, their performance is so poor. This study is initiated to evaluate the internal migration by using one of such indirect techniques. The national growth rate method (NGRM) and the improved method over NGRM has been used to estimate the volume of internal migration across different migration defining areas. The migration rates computed in the study reveal that urban areas are the major destination of out-migrants and people are out-migrated from rural areas. Mountain and Hilly areas are not able to hold their population whereasTarai is the region which gain the population. Likewise people from Eastern and Western development region are moving outward while Central, Mid-Western and Far-Western development region receives the population during the study period. Migration volume calculated according to eco-development regions show that people from Mountain and Hilly areas of each development region are moving outward except from Mid-Western and Far-Western development regions. Meanwhile the Tarai of each development region has been receiving the people from Mountain and Hill. The results of the study also exhibit that the migration calculated using improved method over NGRM provide lower number of movers than NGRM due to the exclusion of natural growth of migrated people. The swiftly growing migration trend shows that it is imperative to mitigate the tendency of internal migration from Mountain and Hill areas to Tarai with some amicable solutions in order to sustain the population in these regions. Key words: Indirect method, Internal migration, National growth rate method (NGRM), Net migration rate