Volume 6, Issue 3
SCHOOLS FINANCING POGRAM OF STATE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES (SUCS) IN REGION XII [PDF]
ABDULSAMAD S. SHAIKThe study was conducted to explore the efficiency and effectiveness of schools financing program of State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) in Region XII for the years 2011-2015. It was limited to the determination and evaluation of how these finances allocated to SUCs were used as reflected in their Maintenance and Other Operating Expenditures(MOOE). It was further delimited based on the available input data such as expenditure data agaist the goverment subsidy and the input data.
PAROTID ADENOCARCINOMA, NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED (NOS) MANIFESTATES AS FACIAL PALSY [PDF]
Tengchin Wang MD Adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (Adenocarcinoma NOS ) has glandular or secretory differentiation and lack the histomorphologic features of other defined salivary carcinoma. The tumor is uncommon and appears to be more common in the major salivary gland, especially the parotid gland.
SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GASOLINE BLENDING IN A NIGERIAN PETROLEUM REFINING COMPANY [PDF]
JOHN T. IMINABO, MISEL IMINABO and ALFRED U. ENYI Without accurate blending correlation, any attempt to blend different gasoline cuts can be expected to achieve non profitable results. This study focused on the simulation and optimization of the gasoline blending process in a Nigerian Petroleum Refining Company. The gasoline produced by the refinery was analyzed for the purpose of reducing the cost of production using a proper blending method. Linear programming model was developed to determine the production cost of the blend and was solved with MATLAB V7.5 Compiler. Using the model, three (3) different cases were investigated namely Research Octane Number (RON) 89, 91 and 94. The objective function was a cost function which represented the cost of operation for the production of gasoline products. This objective function was minimized subject to a set of constraints which represent the demands for quality and quantity of final gasoline products. The results of testing the model indicate that the solution is a feasible, local optimum solution, and there is good agreement with the demands. The minimized cost based on the model for RON 89, 91 and 94 was found to be $122.31/m3, $124.69m3 and $122.30/m3 respectively which was found to be lower than the current cost of production of $129.06/m3, $126.04/m3 and $123.74/m3 respectively at the same quality and quantity.
CORROSIVE EFFECT OF GAS FLARING ON METALS (Stainless Steel and Aluminium) [PDF]
John Iminabo, Misel Iminabo, Harmony Onu-NwosuThis work investigated the effect of gas flaring on the rate of corrosion of metals. Surface water which has been exposed to gas flares, was taken from within Ogbogu flow station in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State Nigeria, and was used for this experiment. The procedure involved soaking one set of various coupons of Aluminium and Stainless steel, in the water taken from within the gas flare zone and another set in distilled water and kept for 14 days; after which the metals were removed and weighed for weight loss as a result of the corrosive effect of both water. This process was repeated for 56 days and various data obtained was analyzed using empirical corrrelation. Matlab was used for computation and simulation. At the 42nd day, corrosion rate for the flare zone water and distilled water were for Aluminium 6.739cm/days and 4.813cm/days and Stainless steel 2.289cm/days and 1.308cm/days respectively. The result obtained showed a higher rate of corrosion for water taken from within the gas flare zone of Ogbogu flow station than distilled water. Thus, gas flaring encourages corrosion.
APPLICATION OF CORROSION INHIBITOR PRODUCED FROM FISH SCALE ON METALS [PDF]
J.T. Iminabo, M. Iminabo and H. Onu-Nwosu The use of corrosion inhibitor produced from Tilapia fish scale was investigated and applied in this work. The efficiency of the produced inhibitor was tested on two metal coupons of galvanized iron and aluminium in three concentrations (0.01M, 0.05M, 0.10M) of acid (H_2 〖SO〗_4) and basic (BaCl) environment for four weeks. Results obtained are as follows: Galvanized Iron: for 0.01M (efficiency of inhibitor ranges from 66%-88% in acidic medium and 50%-83% in base medium from week 1 to week 4); for 0.05M (efficiency of inhibition ranges from 75%-88% in acidic medium and 57%-85% in base medium from week 1 to week 4); for 0.10M (efficiency of inhibitor ranges from 75%-89% in acidic medium and 67%-88% in base medium from week 1 to week 4). Aluminum: for 0.01M (efficiency of inhibitor ranges from 25%-83% in acidic medium and 40%-88% in base medium from week 1 to week 4); for 0.05M (efficiency of inhibitor ranges from 33%-86% in acidic medium and 40%-89% in base medium from week 1 to week 4); for 0.10M (efficiency of inhibitor ranges from 40%-86% in acidic medium and 50%-89% in base medium from week 1 to week 4). The fish scale in H_2 〖SO〗_4 and BaCl medium efficiently inhibits the corrosion and proved to be a zero cost inhibitor, eco-friendly, non-toxic and highly economical.
EVALUATION OF MINERAL CONTENTS IN FISH SAMPLE, (CLARIAS GARIPIENUS,) FROM TOMBIA SWALI, OTUOKPOTI AND AMASOMA RIVER, IN BAYELSA STATE [PDF]
Ezomoh. O.O; Georgewill. I*. Esther. G., and Grace A. O.The mineral content in the fish sample (Clarias garipienus) was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. From the result, it was observed that the total mineral contents in Clarias garipienus are highly nutritional and proteineous in otuokpoti with (2396.19) followed by swali (2165.256) and amassoma (2128.646) and tombia (2078.3554) rivers respectively. The analysis is that the fish sample from all location contained adequate amount of mineral which is good for human nutrition.
KOLAVIRON AN EXTRACT FROM GARCINIA KOLA REDUCES PLASMA OXIDATIVE STRESS AND PREVENTS 1,2-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE-INDUCED ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI DEVELOPMENT IN RAT COLON CARCINOGENESIS [PDF]
Eboh Abraham Sisein, Ere Diepreye, Robert Faith Owabhel, Arhoghro Ejovwoke Marcellinous Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Several biflavonoids with antioxidant properties have been reported for their chemopreventive properties. In this study, We have evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of kolaviron on plasma lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, glutathione and vitamin E, the colonic activity of beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase activities, total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis using a rat model. Male albino wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, received 1mM EDTA-saline injection subcutaneous (s.c) once a week for 4 weeks. Group 2 rats served as kolaviron (KV) control received 100 mg/kg bodyweight of kolaviron per oral (p.o.) every day. Group 3 served as carcinogen control, received 30 mg/kg bodyweight of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) subcutaneous injection once a week for 4 weeks to induce colon carcinogenesis. Group 4 rats received DMH injection and kolaviron 100 mg/kg bodyweight. At the end of 8 weeks, co-treatment with kolaviron markedly reduced the degree of ACF development and also lowered pro-oxidant markers in plasma and increased the antioxidant levels of GSH and Vit E. Results also showed the decreased activities of colonic beta-glucuronidase and beta-glucosidase activities in the chemopreventive groups of kolaviron. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that kolaviron has a clear beneficial effect against chemically induced colonic pre-neoplastic progression in rats induced by DMH. Therefore it can serve as a chemopreventive.
SOME PROPERTIES OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE EXTRACTED FROM COLOCASIA ESCULENTA [PDF]
Wodu, E., Frank-Oputu, A., Eboh, A. S. , Ogbomade, R. S. , Daufa, E. B. and Omubo, I. D. Crude polyphenol oxidase was isolated from Colocasia esculenta and the effects of temperature, pH and some metal ions were investigated. The activity of polyphenol oxidase was measured by measuring the increase in absorbance at 420nm using a spectrophotometer. The results revealed that pH and temperature optima were 6.0 and 40°C respectively and the enzyme is stable around neutral pH. The activity of polyphenol oxidase extracted from Colocasic esculenta was significantly (p< 0.05) increased in the presence of Cu++ and Mg++ with relative activities of 373.70±7.98℅ and 161.90±10.22℅ respectively. Copper is an activator of polyphenol oxidase was isolated from Colocasia esculenta. Polyphenol oxidase activity can be activatied and or inhibited using appropriate metal ion or the pH and temperature of the medium.
Why is "The Evolution of Stars" incorrect? [PDF]
Weitter Duckss (Slavko Sedic)Protostars with masses less than roughly 0.08 M☉ (1.6×1029 kg) never reach temperatures high enough for nuclear fusion of hydrogen to begin. These are known as brown dwarfs. The International Astronomical Union defines brown dwarfs as stars massive enough to fuse deuterium at some point in their lives (13 Jupiter masses (MJ), 2.5 × 1028 kg, or 0.0125 M).
KNOWLEDGE OF NURSES WORKING IN BENGHAZI CHEST HOSPITAL REGARDING HAND WASHING [PDF]
Mailud El Amari, salah mursi, HadirGawili, NaemaBargathy, Huda Mohamed, Aisha alferjaneProper hand hygiene is the most important techniques to reduce transmission of pathogen and an effective measure to prevent the incidence of health care associated infection. The paper starts and aims with exploring the knowledge and practice of hand washing hygiene among nursing staff at Kuwefya chest hospital, Benghazi, Libya. The study was conducted including 45 nursing staff in Kuwefya chest hospital were asked to answer ahand washing and hygiene questionnaire developed by WHO (2009). In this context, the questionnaire comprises two sections regarding hand washing knowledge and practice. The collected data was analysed using the SPSS software program. The study has shown that the knowledge on hand hygiene was positive in general, among the total study population. Most of nursing staff had poor attitudes about hand hygiene. As the results show, hand hygiene influenced knowledge, attitude and practice of nurse workers awareness and encourages them to comply with hand hygiene situations. This paper proposes regarding hand hygiene, the staff had good knowledge but overall poor attitudes and practices. The present study underscores the need to improve the existing training programs in KCH to address the gaps regarding hand hygiene.
PROFESSIONAL BANKING AND ETHICAL EDUCATION; A PANACEA FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOM DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA [PDF]
AGU, BERTRAM ONYEBUCHI, NWANKWO, SIMON N. P., ONAH, CLEMENT E. The study investigated the impact of Professional Banking and Ethical Education on Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria. Specifically, this study is meant to achieve the following objectives; Determine the relationship between work-based learning of our banking students on sustainable economic development in Nigeria, ascertain the impact of increased personal and social competence related to work-based learning on Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria, determine the effects of motivation and academic achievement through applied learning in practical settings on sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The study used secondary data from 2000 to 2016, sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria, documentations, statues, journals, communiqué and publications issued jointly by the regulatory authorities and non-governmental organizations (NGOS) and Charted Institute of Bankers of Nigeria. An ex-post facto research design was used which necessitated the use of advanced econometric techniques, the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) unit root test, the Engel- Granger co-integration residual test and the error correction model in data analysis to help address the objectives of the study. The estimated result of the study found out that professional banking and ethical education has a positive relationship with economic development of Nigeria. The study recommended that work-based learning should be encouraged in our schools to enable students acquire occupational and social skills, as well as information about industries and possible careers.
DEMOLITION HUBBLE'S LAW, BIG BANG THE BASIS OF "MODERN" AND ECCLESIASTICAL COSMOLOGY [PDF]
Weitter Duckss (Slavko Sedic) Zadar Croatia If two objects are represented by ball bearings and space-time by the stretching of a rubber sheet, the Doppler effect is caused by the rolling of ball bearings over the rubber sheet in order to achieve a particular motion. A cosmological red shift occurs when ball bearings get stuck on the sheet, which is stretched.
EARTHQUAKE VIBRATION EFFECTS IN PAKISTAN [PDF]
Mamoona Saher Earthquake creates serious vibration during its lifetime. It results from harmless to sever structural damage. Most of the destruction created by earthquake is unpredictable. Landslides displacement, Soil fertility and breakage of plate tectonics generate fault lines and earthquake. Mostly Earthquake Occur due to calibration of nonlinear static displacement and hit civil infrastructure system and economy. It bitterly effect the life and livelihoods that it cannot be recover even after few years of its occurrence. Most of the Pakistan area lies on fault lines which may cause great destruction after few years. Chaman Fault Line is the long line which starts from the north of the country i.e. Gilgit Baltistan and ends in the Balochistan. It may cause a big loss which will affect the all provinces of the country. By applying an integrated, reliable and refined assessment and planning the direction of destruction can be avoid. Combination of all necessary components against earthquake will revert destructive effects. Base isolation of buildings should construct on the Principal of resistance against earthquake. Material of mounted building should have low lateral stiffness like rubber, flexible base etc.
EYE MOVEMENT DETECTION USING MATLAB [PDF]
Aditi Ghosh, Divya Chandan, Tanisha Ghosh, Prof. Rajini G.K. Life is crucial hence safety precaution should always be taken before any kind of accident occurs. These days road accident is one of the major causes of life insecurity. Even a single moment carelessness can cause lifetime regret. According to many studies more than half of the road accidents occur because of carelessness and inactiveness of the driver. Drowsiness is one the major factor that causes inactiveness of the driver. It leads to increase in number of road accidents every year. If drowsiness is detected early enough then it could save many road accidents. Drowsiness can be detected by monitoring the eye movement of the driver. Here we are developing a prototype of the same. The system uses a small camera (webcam in this case) that points directly towards the driver’s face and monitors the driver’s eyes in order to monitor the eye movement. Firstly the system detects the face and then eyes, and then it determines if the eyes are open or closed. The system uses information obtained from the binary version of image to find the edges of the face, which narrows the area of where the eyes may exist. Once the eyes are located, measuring the distances between the intensity changes in the eye area determine whether the eyes are open or closed. If the eyes are found closed for 5 or more consecutive frames, then the system concludes the inactiveness of the driver. The system detects the direction in which driver moves his eyes and we get to know it, so that we can keep a check on him.
HOW INCOME LEVEL DISTRIBUTION RESPONDS TO POVERTY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN [PDF]
Sayyed Khawar Abbas, Hafiz Ali Hassan, Jawad Asif, Faiqa Zainab The study is proposed to examine the impact of income level of individuals on poverty in Pakistan. The research focuses on exploring the spending behavior of people and how it affects with change in income level. This is a cross sectional study. The time series secondary data ranges from 1987-2013 extracted from the World Bank data bank inflation and consumer price manual is taken for research analysis. The data further analyzed and interpreted by using multiple variable regression model with Stata 12. The findings reveal mixed responses of individuals towards spending level. The poverty headcount ratio @ $1.90 a day has the most significant impact of various income share consumption exercised by overall population of Pakistan.
ANATOMY OF TAKAFUL [PDF]
Hafiz Ali Hassan, Sayyed Khawar Abbas, Faiqa Zainab Islamic financial system presents a novel approach to the modern financial system with its procedures and applications. The underpinnings of Islamic financial system sharply contrast with the traditional financial system because it is developed outside the current financial system and a strong emphasis on common mutual benefits. This paper explains literature references from a series of papers which examined the evolution and emergence of Takaful (Islamic insurance). The study explores Takaful concept as an Islamic perspective of risk coverage which is an alternative to conventional insurance. The study also discusses Takaful structure, mechanism and elaborates how it differentiates from conventional insurance. Further, Takaful categories and Takaful models are explained which are being applied in the current Takaful market. The study concludes by exploring current Takaful market globally with reporting future prospects of Takaful and suggesting directions for its further sustainable growth.
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO CYBER SECURITY FRAMEWORK IN KENYA: A CASE STUDY OF KENYAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES [PDF]
Benson Muriuki NgareThe continuously rising cybercrime, in modern days, is being heavily being felt in developing countries and more so by the telecommunications sectors. Although Cyber security frameworks are also being developed to counter the same by the organizations, their objective has not been achieved to substantially, which demands for a cost-effective and responsive cybercrime framework in developing country to ensure security over telecommunications. Although research has been done on cyber security frameworks in the telecommunication sectors, it is not clear the factors contributing to cyber security framework in Kenya’s Telecommunication industry. The study was therefore conducted to explore factors contributing to cyber security framework in Kenya’s Telecommunication industry. The study, which adopted a descriptive research, had the 133 the telecommunications industry IT experts in Kenya as its target population and obtained a sample size of 100 respondents using the Slovin’s formula. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and inferential analysis to establish a study model. Based on the findings, the study established that at 0.05 (5%) level of significance, each of; personal data protection demands, computer use control, content exposure control, and data copyright structures are predictors of the cyber security framework in Kenyan telecommunications companies where 60.000% of variations in cyber security framework in Kenyan telecommunications companies is explained by these factors.
HOW COGNITIVE, EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DETERMINANTS AFFECT CONSUMER CREDIT APPROACH? [PDF]
Sayyed Khawar Abbas, Hafiz Ali Hassan1, Zair Mahmood Hashmi Nouman Waqar Consumer credit in the proportion of household debt has been largely increased in developed and underdeveloped nations. The notion is widely extended during last two decades. This paper seeks to examine the involvement of psychological characteristics in credit related choices of Pakistani people. A large extent of literature widely acknowledged that these factors significantly influence the behavioral intention. The study point of this research is to examining the role to attitude towards the household decision making choices. Attitude is further characterized with three further dimensions including cognitive, emotional and behavioral components. The finding reveal that attitude strongly influences the consumer credit decision by motivating towards spending behavior in the sense of well-being. While enriching the existing literature of consumer credit, the research also helps in the assessment of household economic benefits and expectation.
RESEARCH ON SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING STUNTING IN CHILDREN AGED 6-59 MONTHS: A CASE OF RONGAI SUB COUNTY KENYA [PDF]
Mutai, M. and Atuti, J. Adequate nutrition is important for the growth and development of a child. Nutrition is an important determinant of health and general development of a society. A society whose children are malnourished is more likely to be poor and has high incidence of preventable diseases. Several factors have been identified as causes of malnutrition. Immediate causes include inadequate or inappropriate dietary intake, infectious disease and household characteristics. While these could be main causes of malnutrition, context specific factors contribute to malnutrition in various areas such as arid lands, highlands, urban and rural areas. Despite the efforts of the government of Kenya and other partners, malnutrition rates especially stunting in rural areas remain exceptionally high. There are very few empirical context specific studies to investigate the determinants of the high stunting rates in rural areas in Kenya. This study was designed to investigate the determinants of stunting. It examined the socio demographic factors influencing stunting in children aged 6-59 months in Rongai Sub County Nakuru County in Kenya. The study used descriptive design and was delimited to Rongai Sub-County. Random sampling method was be used in selection of the respondents. Anthropometric measurements (age, weight and height) will be taken for children aged 6-59 months. Questionnaires with structured and unstructured questions were used to collect primary data from caregivers of children aged 6-59 months. Quantitative techniques were used to analyze the data obtained from the field. Statistical package for social sciences was used in data management and analysis of caregiver survey data while ENA SMART was used to analyze nutrition data. Findings were presented in the form of percentages, frequency tables and graphs. Findings indicated that food security, alcohol uptake during pregnancy, number of children in an household and exclusive breastfeeding influence stunting in aged 6-59 months. Results from this study will be used by the policy makers, implementers and other development practictioners such as nonprofit organizations to design programmes that will address malnutrition.
INVESTIGATION OF SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ON SORPTION CAPACITY OF AFZELIA AFRICANA SEEDS MEMBRANE [PDF]
M. A. Hamma'Adamal, E.A. Agala, S.A. OsemeahonThe membrane of Afzelia Africana Seeds (AAS) was developed. The bio-sorbent was used for the removal of Pb2+, Cd2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ in aqueous solution. Membrane sorption capacities were found to be: 99.59%, 98.50%, 97.38%, 97.20%, 94.77% and 93.61% for Fe3+, Cr3+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ respectively. The sorption behavior with respect to pH, contact time, ionic strength and initial metal ion concentration were investigated so as to determine the optimum sorption conditions. The result revealed that metal ion sorption by the membrane increased with increasing initial metal ion concentration, pH values and contact time while metal ion sorption decreased with increasing ionic strength. Maximum sorption was found to occur at pH 5 for all the six metal ions studied. The ability of the membrane to remove some heavy metal ions from aqueous solution was satisfactory and may be used in the treatment of wastewater.