Volume 7, Issue 2

Homing of HSCs From Their Niche by Honey And Bovine Colostrum For Treatment Of Induced Infertility In Male Mice []


Background: Infertility affects 15% of couples worldwide. It is estimated that about half of the infertility cases are due to male factors .Male infertility could be caused by various reasons including failure in spermatogenesis, defects in sperm transportation or accessory gland function, genetic or environmental factors. Among these causes, spermatogenic defect is the primary one in male infertility. The dynamic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis determines the number of cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. Aim: Compare between the effect of honey bee , bovine colostrum and G-CSF on homing of HSCs that are used for treatment of induced infertility in experimental animals .Materials &Methods: Seventy male mice were randomly divided into seven groups ,six of them injected with cyclophosphamide to be infertile , then first group treated with honey, second treated with bovine colostrum ,third treated with MSCs, fourth treated with G-CSF , fifth treated with wheat germ, sixth saved as positive control group and seventh left as negative control group. The 2nd generation of stem cells were injected intraperitoneally. Different tissue and blood samples were taken at the end of study for tests. Results: Male fertility is improved by increasing sperm count and motility and level of sex hormones is elevated after the period of study.


Operational Policy of the Reservoirs in Malwathu Oya Riv-er Basin to Minimize Flood Damages in Anuradhapura, Vavuniya and Mannar Districts in Northern Sri Lanka []


The need for water is universal. It is present everywhere, and without water, life, as we know it, will simply cease to exist. Water is constantly in motion, passing from one state to another, and from one location to another, which makes its rational planning and management a very complex and difficult task under the best of circumstances. Water may be everywhere, but its use has always been constrained in terms of availability, quantity and quality. When the quantity of flood water released from the reservoirs in the upper catchment of Malwathu Oya river basin reaches a certain level, social, economic and environmental damages occurs to the people living in the downstream of the reservoir area. Further unplanned human activities in the Malwathu Oya river bank area crate a threat on the natural bio diversity of the river. It is essential to create a master plan to in cooperate construction of buildings for various purposes, crop production, livestock and tourism. To address these effects a study is being carried out. It gives a scientific emphasize on the necessity of modified / improved reservoirs operation.


Cultivation of Arable Crops at the North Central Region of Nigeria Using Different Agronomic Practices. []


Agriculture is the major tool the Federal government of Nigeria put on the spot light to save the declined economy of the nation. In view of this, the Ministry of Budget and National Planning came up with the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (2017- 2020). Arable farming using inter-cropping technique is the most practiced farming system in the nation due to its rapid cash back. Arable crops such as cassava, maize, okra, cowpea, yam, sorghum and sweet potato were cultivated on three (3) acres of land using several intercropping techniques. The growth pattern of the varieties of crops grown where noticed from the emergence to the harvesting period. The growth pattern data was taken accordingly. Harvest was made at the right time for the crops that are matured and sales were made both on the farm and at the local market taking note of the market behavior and the taste of the people. The effect of the farming activity improved the economic and the nutritional status of the rural dwellers in the vicinity. While sourcing for germplasm to use in cultivation, the target market should be considered and also, early planting or irrigation farming is encouraged for profitable agriculture.


THE PRODUCTIVITY OF NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) AND WATER QUALITY CONDITION IN DIFFERENT FILTERS IN AQUAPONICS SYSTEM []


This study aims to determine the effectiveness of filters in the cultivation of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in aquaponic system. The study was conducted from July to August 2017 at Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. The research method was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications, namely treatment A: circulation using bioball filter media, B: Circulation using water spinach filter media, C: Circulation using bioball filter media and water spinach plants and D: Circulation using media sponge (control).The container used for the maintenance of a fiber tub with the size of 70 cm x 70 cm x 70 cm filled with water as much as 257 L with a density of 15 fish/fiber. The parameters observed were absolute fish growth, survival rate and water quality, including pH, dissolved oxygen and ammonia. The results showed that there were significant differences in the growth of nile tilapia fry with a biological filter of water spinach plants with survival rate of 100% and absolute growth 98.32 gr ± 15.6 gr.


The addition of fermented Lemna sp. Against Physical Quality of Feed and Feed Response of Fish []


This study aims to determine the effect of the addition of fermented lemna flour to the physical quality of feed and the response of some fish to feed. This research was conducted in April to June 2018 at the Aquaculture Laboratory, while the physical testing of feed was carried out at the Fish Nutrition Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. The treatment given is the difference in the amount of lemna meal fermented in feed (0%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%). Data on the physical quality of feed and fish feeding responses were analyzed descriptively. The parameters during the study were feed flavour, feed color and texture, and feed response. The difference in flavour of feed during the study is closely related to the flavour of Lemna sp. as a source of vegetable protein, the higher the administration of lemna flour the higher the flavour of lemna. The more Lemna sp meal. fermented products added to feed, the more green color of the feed produced and the rather hard texture. Addition of Lemna sp. the higher in feed affects the increase in feed intake time by fish.


Removal of cadmium(II) ion from aqueous solutions by orange peels []


Abstract Cadmium is one of the heavy metals and that has adverse effects on human health and environment. The toxicity of cadmium is very severe, which appear after several years, and can cause cancer and disorder in the cycle of calcium within the human body to resemble cadmium with calcium. The present work deals with the biosorption of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution using orange peels. Adsorption of these ions was found to be pH dependent and maximum removal of Cd (II) by orange peel is 98.9%. Keywords: Cadmium, aqueous solution, adsorbent, adsorption, orange peels.


LEVEL OF ADHERENCE TOWARDS ANTI TB REGIMEN AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG PEDIATRICS IN TIGRAY HEALTH INSTITUTIONS, ETHIOPIA, 2018. []


ABSTRACT Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem throughout the world. It is a major problem of children in poor countries where it kills over 100,000 children each year. Almost 1.3 million cases and 450,000 deaths occur in children each year. Ethiopia is one of 22 high burden countries in which TB is the second leading cause of death. To the extent of my knowledge there are no studies conducted on the status of adherence towards anti TB drug and their related factors in children pediatrics in Tigray region. Objective: To assess the level of adherence towards anti TB regimen and associated factors among pediatrics in Tigray health institution’s 2018. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 190 children who use anti TB drug were included consecutively from the selected health centers of Tigray in the data collection period. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to the parents and to the children. Data on anti TB user children were reviewed from anti TB registration book. To describe the data percentages and frequency distribution were used binary logistic analysis was also employed. All factors with a p-value <0.25 in the bi-variate logistic regression analysis was further entered into the multivariable model to control confounding effects then factors that are significant was declared at p-value <0.05. The result was presented using text, tables and figures. Result: In this study the level of child adherence to wards anti TB drug among Tigray health institutions is 67.9%.Children who live in rural area (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.35-10.9), ant-TB drug side effects (AOR=1.82; 95% CI: 1.91,3.33), parents used any method of reinforcement to give children’s anti-TB medication (AOR=4.23; 95% CI: 1.66-10.7) and children with Comorbidity AOR=3.36(95% CI 1.21,9.31). were the factors significantly associated with anti TB drug adherence. Among the total rural residents, 37(60.7%) of children had poor adherence on anti TB drug and 24(39.3%) of urban residents also had poor adherence. One hundred seventy-four (91.6%) of respondents reported that there was always availability of ant-TB drug when they were arrived at health center Conclusion: Anti-tuberculosis treatment Adherence is low among children in Tigray region. The study revealed that adherence of children to their medication is not only affected by patient taking medication as prescribed but also parents method used to take medication, drug side effect, presence or absence of other reasons like feeling better, forgetfulness and residence area. The health centers and woreda health office develop strong follow-up of children on anti-tuberculosis treatment to improve status of adherence with focus on rural children. Key words: Anti TB drug, children, TB, adherence.


EVALUATION OF MARKETING SYSTEM FOR POLE-AND-LINE TUNA FISH-ERIES IN LARANTUKA, FLORES, INDONESIA []


This research was conducted at the Larantuka, Flores, Indonesia in 2015. The location chosen as being representative fish-ing bases for pole-and-line tuna fisheries in Eastern Indonesia. Data collected related to their tuna pole-and-line, market-ing system and data from companies. The market supply lines and selling data for the study were gathered from landing site managers; government fisheries offices; tuna processing companies at the three sites; a desk study; and a field survey. Information on the supply and marketing system was obtained by questionnaires to local tuna processing company staff, fishery office staff, landing site staff, fishers’ group leaders, captains, community leaders, scientists, and policy makers from local and national levels and their responses to the interviewer generated mainly qualitative data. The result showed that majority of the respondents from both the policy makers and public-sector workers (62.5%; n= 20) stated that they were aware of the overall tuna supply chain. The traceability process in the supply of tuna pole-and-line products consists of several processes declared that they were aware of the tuna traceability process. In Larantuka, tuna supply lines from both the processing and frozen companies showed that the traceability system was applied in their marketing strategy for both export and national markets. The pole-and-line fishers have a limited choice between sending their fish directly to the local market or selling it to the tuna processing companies. The marketing system for small-scale pole-and-line tuna fisheries in Larantuka, Indonesia controlled by middlemen and processors, who provide financial and other operational help to fishers to enable them to continue fishing, in return for which fishers are required to deliver their fish at prices set by the middlemen and/or processors.


EFFECT OF FEEDING FERMENTED LEMNA SP ON GROWTH IN FISH THAT HAVE DIFFERENT HABIT FOODS []


This study aims to determine the percentage of addition of fermented Lemna sp meal artificial feed that can increase growth rates in two types of fish with different food habits (catfish and tilapia). The study was conducted at Ciparanje Laboratory and Hatchery in Building 4 of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. This study used an experimental method with Completely Randomized Design (CRD), which consisted of four treatments and three replications, by giving feeds with the addition of Lemna sp meal with fermentation of 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. Parameters observed were growth rate, survival rate and water quality. Data on growth, feed conversion ratio and survival were analyzed using variance analysis and continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results show that the addition of Lemna sp. Fermented meal yields up to 30% of feed weight produce a higher daily growth rate in tilapia (1.40%), while in catfish is 1.12%. The survival rate of catfish in this experiment is 100%, while the survival rate of tilapia is 82.22%.


URBAN DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS OF COMMUNITIES AROUND ELEYELE WETLAND IN IBADAN, NIGERIA []


Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services supporting livelihoods of people around the world. However, in spite of these benefits, wetlands are continuously being degraded through over exploitation, poor management and other unsustainable uses. A major challenge on wetland development in Nigeria is how to raise awareness of, and provide guidance on, the importance of wetlands as providers of benefits to urban populations. This study assessed urban development and sustainable livelihoods of communities around Eleyele wetland in Ibadan, Oyo State. 240 respondents in three major communities around the wetland including Ijokodo, Eleyele and Apete were selected for this study. Also, indepth interviews and Focus Group Discussions were conducted in each on the communities. Findings revealed that almost all households surveyed derive benefits from the wetland. However, a wide range of human activities mostly resulting from urban encroachment have affected the wetland and caused their degradation hence negatively impacting the services provided by the wetland. The study recommends provision of alternative livelihoods for people living around the wetland. There is need to strengthen the implementation of existing laws and policies on wetland use, management and protection in the state and in the country as a whole so as to reduce the existing pressures on wetland use.


the effect of social cost on the extent of social environmental disclosure mediated by social environmental performance []


The aim of this research is to examine the effect of the relationship among social cost, the extent of social environmental disclosure, and social environmental performance. The study was an explanatory research using quantitative method. The sample consisted of 194 out of 612 total population of companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange. The data were secondary data in the form of annual reports, sustainability reports, and companies’ social environmental performance measurement by PROPER. The data were analyzed using SEM analysis by means of AMOS software with one intervening variable. The results of the research indicate that social cost positive effect companies’ social environmental performance. The social cost variable also affects the extent of companies’ social environment disclosure. Then, the company's social environmental performance variables positively affects the extent of companies’ social environment disclosure. The company's social performance variables are able to mediate the relationship between social cost and the extent of companies’ social environmental disclosure.


Emission Inventory of Elecricity Generation from Thermal Power Plants in Nigeria []


An emission factor approach was used in this study to quantify the emission of uncontrolled air pollutants discharge into the atmosphere from all the existing thermal plants in the country. The air pollutants examined were carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs); The estimated annual criteria air pollutants emissions from point sources in the existing thermal power plants ranges 47.76 – 26747.41, 80.28 – 44727.62, 1.80 – 1004.51, 0.92 – 512.66, 0.55 – 310.57 ton/ annum for CO, NOx, PM, SO2, and VOCs, respectively. From the specific data, the study discovered that, the higher the production capacity, the higher the emissions generated. Identification of sources of emissions assists in adopting efficient control technology during the design stage. The ability to adopt appropriate control measures will determine how much emission of criteria air pollutants released into the country’s airshed. Both technology and policy control options are recommended in order to reduce criteria air pollutants from thermal power plants for adequate air quality in support of environmental assessment and mitigation planning.


COMBINATION OF DOSES AND PARTICLE SIZE OF SIMPILISIA PAPAYA IN NATURAL FEED AGAINST THE GROWTH PARAMETERS OF GROUPER FISH (EPINEPHELUS FUSCOGUTTATUS LANCEOLATUS) []


In the aquaculture industry, the priority is to improve the efficiency of all aspects of feed, including the addition of feed additives that can increase the Daily Growth Rate (DGR) and Feed Convertion Ratio (FCR). Artificial feed and natural feed are treated with exoge-nous enzymes as feed additives to increase digestibility of feed proteins and increase DGR and FCR. Research into feed additive sim-plicia papaya which contains protease and saponin enzymes as immunostimulants has been carried out and provides good results for cantang grouper, but the use of nano and micro size enzyme powder and dosage will be tested on natural feed to see the extent of particle size and doses can affect digestibility natural feed on a grouper of bushel.


Increasing Battery Efficiency Through Utilizing Piezoelectric Sensors []


The problem of charging the electric wheelchairs used by our orthopedically disabled citizens is a common nuisance. The limited battery capacities and their long recharging times prevent them from getting too far away from their homes. Replacement batteries are both expensive and heavy, making it an undesirable option. To tackle this problem, we created our own electric wheel chair design, by implementing piezo electric crystals within the inner tires. By this way, we were able to produce a certain amount of electricity through the pressure applied on the crystals when the tires are rotating, thus increasing the battery life time. The fact that the piezo sensors are much cheaper and reliable than the nickel-metal hybrid batteries is also a very major economic advantage. Compared with solar energy, piezo sensors are much cheaper and their energy conversion process does not depend on weather conditions. Through our design, people with disabilities will be able to move comfortably without the problems of charging and high electricity consumption. Its energy savings also benefit a sustainable nature.


THE PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHIC ASSOCIATED WITH THE HABITAT OF SEA CUCUMBERS []


ABSTRACT The Biawak Island is a small island in the Java Sea, which is located in the north of Indramayu, west java province. Biawak island has a high potency of sea cucumber. This study aims to study the relationship between the oceanographic aspects and the habitat of sea cucumbers, and also to create the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers maps in the Biawak Island Waters. The distribution of sea cucumbers is strongly influenced by the oceanographic parameters. The sea cucumbers occupy limited space and specific conditions for survival. Oceanographic studies on a continuous scale of timing and a space are needed to understand the characteristics of oceanographic conditions as a habitat of sea cucumbers. The waters of Biawak island have varying condition oceanographics with high potential sea cucumbers. There are 3 species of sea cucumber spread over the Biawak Island, namely Holothuria atra (87,3%), Actinopyga miliaris (7,2%), and Stichopus hermani (5,5%). The distribution of sea cucumbers varies spatially in the waters of Biawak island with the highest number found in the northeastern part of the biawak island with habitat characteristics in the form of substrate sand and coral sand. Oceanographic parameters affect the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers as limiting factor of sea cucumber habitat. Sea cucumbers are found at the temperature ranging from 28 – 31 ⁰C, salinity ranging from 29,5 – 30 ppt, DO 1,5 – 3,0 mg/l and pH 6,4 – 6,5. KeyWords Actinopyga miliaris, Biawak Island, Habitat of sea cucumbers, Holothuria atra, Java Sea, Oceanographic parameters, Sea cucumber, Spatial distribution, Stichopus hermani


The Significance of Innovation to the Performance of Family Business in Nigeria []


The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of innovation to the performance of family business in Nigeria. The study was carried out through exploratory research, thereby providing an outline of innovation in family firms and the implication to the business development. The paper aims to understand the dynamics of innovativeness of family firms’ members towards the business growth. The researchers conducted in depth multiple case study of five family businesses to provide an insight into innovative abilities of family firms’ members and how it affects the general performance of the organisation in terms of productivity, growth, efficiency and effectiveness. The findings indicate that family firms innovate rapidly due to absolute participation, family ties and members’ commitment to the business sustainability.


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONSUMERS’ PRICE-SAVING ORIENTATION AND TIME-SAVING ORIENTATION TOWARDS FOOD DELIVERY INTERMEDIARIES (FDI) SERVICES: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY []


This study presents hypothesis testing to examine two factors, time and price, influencing behavioural intention to use online food delivery intermediaries (FDI) service. Convenience sampling was use for a survey and 106 questionnaires were collected to test the research model using multiple linear regression analysis approach. Multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the relationship between time, price and behavioural intention. The results revealed that time factor has a significant impact (p < .0001) while price factor has no significant impact on the dependent variable (p = .170). The findings implies that online consumer‘s perceives that time-saving is an important factor while price-saving is not considered in using online food delivery intermediaries service. Finally, practical recommendation and limitation are discussed.


Use of Moringa (Moringa Stenopetala) seed Extract for Removal of some Anionic dyes (Direct and Reactive dyes) in Textile Wastewater []


With textile wastewater being one of the most sources of pollution containing higher value of colour, BOD, COD and several pollutants, brings serious problem to the ecological environment. This study is particularly focused on evaluating the efficacy of removal of dyes such as reactive dyes, direct dyes, mixture of dye wastes and mixture of industrial and dye wastewaters by the natural absorbent Moringa. The seeds of the Moringa tree contain a coagulant protein that can be used in the treatment of industrial wastewater. The extracts of seeds (coagulant) obtained by two methods viz. simple extraction with distilled water and with saline water have been used for the study. The effect of some operating parameters on coagulation namely pH, coagulant dosage, mixing time, colour removal and turbidity was studied. It was observed that the colour removals in direct red and reactive red dyes are 94.45 and 98.4% respectively with simple extract of seeds done with distilled water and it was in the order of 96.6 and 97.3% respectively with saline extracts of the seed. These values of colour removal of dyes are optimized at 70ml/L of coagulant and pH 10. The mixture of industrial wastewater and dye wastes, colour removal and turbidity removal was 85.8% with simple extract and 53% with saline extract respectively at optimized point. Moringa stenopetala seed has demonstrated to have high removal ability for anionic dyes.


Composition, Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Schilbeidae (Siluiriformes) from Agbura Landing Site, Bayelsa State, Nigeria []


Composition, Length-weight relationship and condition factor of schilbeidae from Agbura landing site was investigated for three months (May-July 2018). Schilbeidae (a total of 431) landed catch was procured twice a month from artisanal fishers at the landing site. Species composition was determined with simple percentages, length-weight relationship and condition factor, (k) were determined using the equations: W=aLb and K= W*100/Lb respectively. Results showed that Agbura landing site consist of 5 species (Pareutropius buffei, Schilbe intermedius, Schilbe uranoscopus, Parailia pellucida and Siluranodon auritus. The dominant species was S. intermedius (n=160) representing 37.12% while S. auritus (n=3) showed the less dominance of the total Schilbeidae sampled. There were no overall statistical differences in the monthly b-value for the each species. The b-value and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r (in bracket, 2 decimal places) of the pooled data (May-June) were 2.89 (0.99) for P. buffei; 2.94 (0.88) S. intermedius; 2.56 (0.98) P. pellucida and 3.24 (0.99) S. uranoscopus. The results indicated negative allometric growth pattern for all the species apart from S. uranocuspus which showed positive allometric growth pattern at the end of the three months. There were significant variations in the monthly condition factor. The condition factor for P. pellucida increased (0.55-1.25) while S. intermedius decreased (2.00-0.34) from May-June. The highest condition factor (K=0.59) for S. uranoscopus was in June.


SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C SURFACE ANTIGEN AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL AT GENERAL HOSPITAL BOGORO, IN BAUCHI STATE NIGERIA []


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem which could easily lead to chronic liver disease and Cirrhosis. A study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HCV surface antigen among women attending antenatal at general hospital Bogoro was conducted. A total of 200 samples comprising of all women attending antenatal were screened using an HCV antigen-antibody reaction strip between 12 June- 2nd September 2017, samples were screened as they are collected. Out of the screened patients, 13 (6.5%) were positive for HIV infection. The seroprevalence with respect to the age group indicates that those within the age of 19 – 25 years and ≤18 years had the highest prevalence rate of 3.0% and 1.0% respectively. More so, those that fall within the range of 19–25 (3.0%) were more infected compared to their other counterparts. Prevalence according to tribes indicates a higher occurrence in Sayawa with 3.5% followed by Hausa 1.0%, Boiyawa 1.0% and those with least infections are the Fulani 0.5% and Jarawa 0.5%. Occurrence rate by marital status shows that the married have 4.0% followed by the single 2.0% while the divorced have 0.5%. According to religion, the Christian showed the highest prevalence of 4.0 % followed by the Muslims counterpart 2.0%. It is concluded that the seroprevalence of HCV in women attending Borogo hospital is greater than the world health organization (WHO) estimate of 2.0% for Nigeria. Thus, a public awareness programme to orient women on modes of transmission should be encouraged. This research work provided baseline data for further research in the near community. Keywords Hepatitis C, Seroprevalence, Bogoro, Bauchi


Participation of Civil Society Organizations in Ethiopian Policy Making Process: An overview []


The main objective of this study is briefly assessing the involvement of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the Ethiopian policy making process starting from the regime of Emperor Hailesilassie to the post 1990's of the EPRDF period until the appointment of Dr. Abiy Ahmed as a prime minister of the country. Secondary data as sources were employed for this descriptive survey study. The study indicates that the emergence of stupid and dominant executive leadership, the peripheral position of the people in policy making contribution, the exclusion of the public from government role, the partisan system of the government structure, subjugation based relationship of the government and the society, rigid government structure and lack of unified organization between and among the CSOs were the major challenges which affected the participation of CSOs in the Ethiopian Policy making procedure.Therefore, this study recommends that the government of Ethiopia must revisit the organizational structure of the system in order to enhance the full realization of civil society organizations and thereby they provide the best policy making outcome.


APPRAISAL OF DETERMINANTS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL AUDIT OF THE PUBLIC TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA - RESPONDENT PERSPECTIVES []


This study aims at appraising determinants of effectiveness of internal audit in Nigerian public tertiary institutions from the perception of respondents using Federal Polytechnic Ile-Oluji, Ondo State Nigeria as a research focus. The study’s research focus represented all other tertiary institutions of similar status under the regulatory framework of National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) in Nigeria. The management team which included all the principal officers of the institution, the internal audit staff and the bursary staff are the sources of primary data collection which were gathered through the questionnaire administered. To analyze and interpret the gathered data, ordinary least square regression method was used. Amongst the factors which were identified by respondents as determinants of internal audit effectiveness, internal audit independence was considered as the most fundamental and critical in ensuring effectiveness of internal audit in any tertiary institution of higher learning in Nigeria. The study therefore concluded that in order to ensure judicious utilization of public funds in Nigeria, the need for effectiveness of internal audit is sine-qua-non and as such cannot be overemphasized. Keywords: Internal Audit Effectiveness, Tertiary institutions, Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State, Nigeria.


A Review of Metal Nanoparticles Incorporated in Polymer Matrices for Water Disinfection []


The existence of microorganisms in water sources poses a threat in both environmental aspects and human health. With this, nanotechnology is of great importance nowadays because of their properties such as catalytic activity, optical and electronic properties, magnetic activity and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the use of polymer matrices for the incorporation of metal nanoparticles takes a commercial advantage to enhance the property of the material. In this context, synthesis such as ex-situ and in-situ of metal nanoparticles together with their antimicrobial activity, and their impregnation in polymer matrices is discussed to further understand the possible approaches in the study. Also, results from several related studies were elaborately compared to recognize the potential of the methods and materials used. These studies explore the chemistry behind the interaction between metal nanoparticles and the compositions of the polymer matrices. A close scrutiny on the relationship of the properties of metal nanoparticles and the morphology of polymer matrices will allow better understanding on the yet-to-be discovered potential of metal nanoparticles incorporated in different polymer matrices as an antibacterial water filter.


Parental sexual ornamentation and offspring performance in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) []


The expression of secondary sexual characters in both sexes (mutual ornamentation) is a relatively common, but rarely studied phenomenon in the animal kingdom. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between mutual ornamentation and offspring performance in whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus. We conducted an experiment using newly hatched whitefish larvae, originated from crossing 10 females and 10 males in all possible combinations ((wild fish from River Oulujoki stock). The parental fish were examined for breeding tubercle ornamentation—height of lateral breeding tubercles (BT height), roughness class of lateral breeding tubercles (BT class), number of lateral breeding tubercles (BT side) and the number of front head breeding tubercles (BT front), and for parasites. Offspring quality was measured as predation avoidance behaviour (freezing and swimming close to the side of the tank, in the presence of predator 0-yr brown trout) and survival (in the absence of predator). The “good genes hypothesis” predicts that in the families with elaborate parental breeding tubercles the larvae are of better quality. The “compatible genes hypothesis” predicts that the variation between families in offspring quality is not consistent in relation to parental ornamentation but there is a male-female interaction in offspring quality. In accordance with the compatible genes hypothesis, we found a significant male-female interaction in predation avoidance behavior of larvae, although the male effect and female effect as such were insignificant. On the other hand, the survival of larvae was affected by the male effect (sire), only, as the maternal effect and male-female interactions were not significant. This finding is in accordance with the good genes hypothesis. However, there was a negative correlation both between the number of breeding tubercles on the front head and offspring survival, as well as between lateral breeding tubercle roughness class and offspring survival in males. Thus, breeding tubercle ornamentation of male whitefish seems not to indicate offspring survival in laboratory conditions. On the opposite, ornamentation of male whitefish may signal parasite load since there was a significant negative correlation between the roughness of lateral breeding tubercles and abundance of Diplostomum spathaceum eye flukes in the eye lens, as well as with the total abundance of Diplostomatidae flukes in the eye. Thus lateral skin roughness could be used by females to discriminate between male parasite status. In general, in males all the breeding tubercle ornamentation measures were independent, not correlated to each other. No association between the ornament measures of males and predation avoidance behavior of offspring was observed. Opposite to males, in females there was a positive association between BT class, BT side and BT height.


Design and development of appropriate tyre sandal shoe. Case of rural peoples around Bahir Dar city. []


The current study was conducted with the objective of designing and developing appropriate tyre sandal shoe for rural people around Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. The study was carried out through questionnaire, interview and observational study. The researcher identified the existing situations and problem happened on tyre sandal users in the area. The current tyre sandal worn by rural people around Bahir Dar city not comfortable for their feet, due to rough surface and hardness of tyre straps and it caused a dry foot and foot crack related problem around their forepart and heel area of foot. More specifically, these tyre sandals are heavy in weight and the straps frequently tend to break at the connecting points, due to poor nail or tack attachment of tyre sole and tyre straps. Based on data analysis, the researcher designed and developed four appropriate shoe collections. Target group showed their willingness to use all shoe collection. The Author gave training on production of new shoe collection for tyre sandal producers in the area. Some of the target users who faced foot crack related problem used the new shoes and the author observed that the new shoes protected the target users feet from dirt and bacteria. Keywords: Automotive tyre, Footwear, Tyre sandals, Cows hides, Shoe design, Shoe development.


EFFECTS OF PASTEURIZATION ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF NUNU SOLD IN AUCHI, EDO, NIGERIA []


Abstract: Nunu is a locally fermented Nigerian milk product used as a staple food amongst the Saharan tribes of West African Sub-region, and is also popular amongst the inhabitants of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East where it is known as dahi or lassi. Samples of fresh Nunu were collected from Zongo farm (a small-scale farm) located in Auchi which is less than 15 minutes distance from the laboratory of Auchi Polytechnic Auchi. The Nunu samples were collected in the early morning to ensure the freshness. All Nunu samples were obtained under aseptic conditions from where the fulani herd women kept them for overnight fermentation and to avoid contamination which can influence the analysis. Nunu samples were divided into 7 portions and treated as follows: sample A, unpasteurized; sample B, C, D, pasteurized at 63°C for 30 min; and sample E, F, and G, pasteurized at 72°C for 15 Seconds. Proximate composition was carried out in triplicate for each sample using standard methods and the mean results were recorded. The result of the physio-chemical analysis reveals the protein, carbohydrate and pH levels of the Nunu samples decreased during the period of storage each day.


INFLATION AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN NIGERIA []


Commercial banks play an important role in the operation of an economy since these banks serve as the financial intermediaries that channel funds from savers to borrowers for investment which is an important thing for a country’s economic growth and development. The analysis of the effect of inflation on financial performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria is important. The aim of the study was to establish the effect of inflation on financial performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria. The study specifically aimed to evaluate the effect of inflation on financial performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. An ordinary least square regression model was used. Inflation has insignificant relationship with financial performance.


INTEREST RATE AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN NIGERIA []


Commercial banks play an important role in the operation of an economy since they are the financial intermediaries that channel funds from savers to borrowers for investment which is an important thing for a country’s economic growth. The analysis of the effect of interest rate on financial performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria is important. The findings indicated that real interest rate is negatively and significantly associated with the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that commercial banks operating in Nigeria should make plan to adjust their lending rates and financial activities when the rate of real interest rate set by the Central Bank of Nigeria increases since real interest rate has a negative effect on commercial banks financial performance. The study also recommends that commercial banks should be aware of the changes in interest rate and adjust their rates accordingly since an increase in interest rate worsens the performance of commercial banks.


Fish Food Habits In Upstream of Cimanuk, Garut District West-Java []


The study of food habits is the first step to manage the aquatic resources. This research was conducted in July-October 2018 at the Aquaculture Laboratory of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Faculty, Padjadjaran University and Laboratory of Research Institute for Fish Resources Enhancement. The purpose of this research is to determine food habits of fish in the upstream of Cimanuk river. This research used survey method (non-experimental) with two research stations, station one was Copong Dam area and station two was Sasak Beusi with twice sampling at each station. The fishes caught during the research were 54 fishes of two families and six species, that were barb fish (Barbodes balleroides), carp (Mystacoleucus marginatus), masheer (Tor tambroides), hampala (Hampala macrolepidota), beardless barb (Diplocheilichthys pleurotaenia), and goonch (Bagarius yarrelli). Plant material was main dietary item of barb fish, carp and beardless barb. Insects was main dietary item of masheer and hampala. Crustacea was main dietary item of goonch. The trophic level of fishes in the upstream of Cimanuk consists of herbivores (barb fish, carp, beardless barb), omnivorous (masheer) and carnivorous (hampala, goonch).


MICROCONTROLLER BASED FAULT DETECTION AND PROTECTION OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AGAINST ABNORMAL CONDITIONS []


Abstract The three phase induction motor is a very important electrical device in the present period of automation. These motors are commonly used in industrial drive because they are simple to construct, reliable, cheap and easy to operate. However, the induction motors experience electrical faults like over voltage, overcurrent, under voltage, overload, unbalanced voltage, phase reversing and single phasing. These electrical faults result in the heating of the motor’s windings which leads to reduction in its efficiency and life span. The motor needs to be protected against these electrical faults in order to prevent it from being damaged. In this paper, a new technique for the protection of three phase induction motor, using a microcontroller is introduced. A self-diagnosis which informs that a problem has occurred and by which parameter is implemented. Experimental results show that microcontroller based hardware system provides higher accuracy. And when compared with conventionally protected induction motor, the motor efficiency and power factor showed improvement. Key words: Induction Motor, Microcontroller, Overvoltage, Overcurrent


BENIN-EKITI RELATION: AN ONUS OF SUBSTANTIATION []


Pre-colonial times are characterized by the smooth and frequent relationship among societies. The nature of this relationship was mostly on the cultural, commercial and political ground. This, however, encourages inter-marriages, borrowing of languages and other features which were most times dictated by the needs of the various societies involved. Benin imperialism in Ekiti land is an aspect of cultural integration between the people of Benin and Ekiti. Although the nature of the alliance is said to have always run against the tide, it is, however, important to notice the impact of Benin's extension of influence in Ekiti land which brought about cultural integration between the two communities. This paper examines the various reasons of convergence between the Benin culture in one hand and the Ekiti people on the other side. It thus argues that Benin’s expansion on some parts of Ekiti land has brought about cultural relations between them and that the administrative control which Benin had over them in one time or the other has encouraged these cultural similarities. The work relies on both primary and secondary sources and also employed descriptive and analytic methods in analyzing relevant data for the research.


Sindh Handicrafts and Socio-Economic Status of Women; “A Case Study from District Tando Allahyar Sindh Pakistan” []


This study aimed at evaluating the socio-economic status of women; working to produce handicrafts products in comparison with other fields. The study has also examined the role of middle man and value of handicrafts in local and regional markets. It has adopted the quantitative research approach. Primary and Secondary both data sources are taken in this study. The study has found that mostly the women among the ages of 31 to 40 years are engaged in the handicrafts production work and about 97% respondents earn 3000 to 5000 as monthly income. The study has also found that about 72% of the respondent women are not educated and remaining is mostly primary passed. This study has not found any formal setup for handicrafts training for rural women in the research area. This study suggests educating the handicrafts producer for formal training about new techniques of handicrafts products, providing handsome value of their products, minimizing the role of middle man and to increase the access of producers to the handicrafts markets. Key Words: Socio-Economic, Handicrafts, Women, Middle Man, Earning


Nigeria Police Force and the challenges of Peace and insecurity Phenomenon in Nigeria, 2003-2016 []


ABSTRACT This paper was aim at identify the Causes and effects of insecurity in Nigeria and the challenges of attaining peaceful society as well the relevance of the Nigerian police force from 2003-2016 in managing, preventing crimes and provision of sustainable peace in Nigeria. It is on this premise that the study bases its emphasis on the Nigerian police force to appraise and ascertain efforts and limitation encountered in providing adequate security to Nigerians. The subject matter is both timely and pivotal in this era when Nigeria’s image and the issue of peace and insecurity become a phenomenon of discussion internationally and locally due to the pervasive nature of insecurity being experienced in the North East zone in states like Borno, Yobe and Adamawa as well as issues of conflict between Herdsmen and farmers in places like Benue, Kaduna and Zamfara State. This problem of insecurity and lack of sustainable peace has affected the conduct of good governance in the country. The study however, focuses on the causes and effect of insecurity in Nigeria, factors that have inhibited the Nigerian police force in performing its statutory functions and steps to be made to the enhancement of peace and security in Nigeria as well as making the Nigeria police force more responsive to her duties. This work also gave a chronological historical antecedent of insecurity in Nigeria. It also delves into the purview of the history, structure, mission and vision of the Nigerian police force. Moreover, the study revealed that the relevance of the Nigerian police force in relation to the peace and security of the country is incapacitated by the inability of the government to address root causes of insecurity and proffer solution to these root causes. This is manifested in the inequality and high rate of poverty and unemployment currently experienced in the country even since the return of democracy in 1999. The study recommended for Nigeria as a country to attained a level of secured and peaceful society we must restructure our security formations through proper training of Nigeria police officers, good welfare package to the force, provision of modern security equipment and fighting corruption in both security sector and the entire governance process. Keywords: Security, Police Force, Crime Control and Bad Governance.


The Experimental Analysis of Compressive Strength and bond strength of embedded reinforcement in Green Concrete by Using Rice Husk Ash and Silica Fume Ash as Cement Replacement []


The main components of concrete are aggregates and paste. During the manufacturing of concrete when water is added to the binding material and aggregates (coarse and fine) the chemical reaction occur which makes the bond between the aggregates and made it like artificial stone. The binding material cement concrete creates environmental pollution correlated with cement production in context of emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and raw materials natural lime extraction. The rapid utilization of concrete needs the ample amount of cement which decreases the natural resources and emits the CO2 in atmosphere. Because of that certain works is needed to minimize these big issues. In recent decade great number of scholars working on partial replacement of cement with the pozzolanic materials. To reduce the CO2 emission and saves the natural resources. Therefore, in research the rice husk ash and silica fume ash utilized as partially cementing material. The experimental analysis concluded that rice husk ash and silica fume enhance the bond strength of concrete. The optimum percentage of RCA as cement replacement was 10% which enhance the compressive strength up to 60% compared to the conventional concrete. Whereas 10% of silica fume ash was optimum cement replacement which improves the compressive strength up to 10% as compared to conventional concrete. Keywords: Concrete, Rice husk ash, silica fume ash, compressive strength, slump flow


Bad Netiquette of Digital Citizen in Sri Lanka []


This study examined the bad netiquette of digital citizens in Sri Lanka over past few decades. It was used qualitative technique content analysis methodology as the data analysis and newspaper article, published research article, web documents are used as the secondary data. The study is highlighted that from 2010 to 2018 Posting inflammatory or offensive comments online, Sharing personal information, photos, or videos that another person may not want to publish online, Gain unauthorized access to resource of the internet, Troll people in web forums or website comments by repeatedly nagging or annoying them and Posting inappropriate photographs, videos, and movies are most debatable bad netiquette behaviors in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, result had shown that Younger are the parties who are mostly involved to breach internet etiquette and Younger are parties who become victims of this game. In conclusion, it was emphasized that having a good netiquette will solve lot of social and privacy issues among digital citizens and it was recommended to include digital netiquette as the subject to Sri Lankan school syllabus.


A REVIEW PAPER ON SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS []


Building destinations still present high mishap rates. The appearance of cutting edge detecting advances has persuaded the improvement of remarkable mechanized frameworks, equipped for supporting wellbeing and security control. Their application is especially basic in those situations where customary wellbeing assessments may turn out to be deficient as far as averting dangers which, in light of their particular nature, are erratic. This paper reports the advancement of a first model for the proactive security the executives and ongoing motioning of potential overhead perils. It is required to upgrade standard wellbeing strategies and help assessors and organizers in executing their errands. The framework performs constant following utilizing ultra-wide band innovation and executes proactive virtual fencing rationales. The improvement of the framework, its research center test outcomes, the calculation enhancement, and the last field test results are accounted for in this. The outcomes accomplished show the capacity of proactive rationales to fortify wellbeing the board approaches and help faculty in adapting to unusual unsafe occasions.


A REVIEW PAPER ON RISK MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY []


The allotment of risk among the contracting parties in a development contract is a critical choice prompting the undertaking achievement. The basic leadership process, in view of the set up risk portion standards communicated in phonetic terms, requires subjective judgment and experiential information of the development specialists. Be that as it may, it is emotional and understood. This paper exhibits a choice model which changes the semantic standards and experiential master learning into a progressively usable and orderly quantitative-based examination by utilizing the fluffy rationale. Seven risk assignment criteria and a lot of learning based fluffy surmising rules are set up as indicated by the master information. Risk occasions are surveyed on every measure and the significant standards. The comparing risk designation choices between the proprietor and contractual worker are then recommended by the model. A handy case to show how the model functions is introduced. 2006 Elsevier Ltd and IPMA.


Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources and Its Eco-System in Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka []


Jaffna Peninsula is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka which has the unique geologic and physical patterns from other parts of the country. As it has the ironic source of groundwater influenced over other potential resources, the district derives more attention on groundwater contamination. The studies carried out in the region show that there is a huge impact on groundwater resource due to the dramatic variation in climate over the years whether it is anthropogenic or natural process.Basically, the climatic circumstances depend on the continuous weather patterns in a time frame. The overall climate pattern is decided by the observations of individual factors; temperature, rainfall and direct sunshine in a certain region. Meanwhile, groundwater contamination is identified with the factors of BOD, DO and other ion pres-ence. These groundwater contamination indicators fluctuate greatly even in terms of a tiny change of climatic condition. Thus, the ecosystem and other livelihood which depend on the groundwater resource face difficulties in regards to the survival on earth. This paper would emphasize on how the climatic factors will influence the parameters in terms of groundwater contamination in Jaffna Peninsula and the chronic issues faced by the surrounded ecosystem and livelihood. Also, it may reveal number of suggestions and recommendations aimed at the mitigation of the climate change impact on groundwater contamination and its ecosystem.


Plankton As Indicators Of Organic Pollution []


Planktons specific for particular environmental condition are best indicators of environmental quality.


Common Syntactic Errors in Written English among Emirati Secondary School Students Causes and Remedies []


This study was conducted to attain three objectives: to identify the most common syntactic errors made in writing by secondary school students in AlAin City, United Arab Emirates (UAE), to find out the causes and sources of these errors and to propose remedies for these errors. To achieve these objectives, the researcher employed a quantitative survey methodology. A writing task has been implemented as a main research tool and two different questionnaires were administered to both students and instructors. Using descriptive statistics analysis techniques, the findings revealed ten prevailing categories of syntactic errors in the students’ writings. The syntactic errors found in this study include substitution, addition, misuse and omission errors. These errors were categorized and tabulated according to their frequencies in the students’ writings. In addition, the data revealed that most of those errors were attributed to intralingua transfer, mainly linguistic factors such as incomplete knowledge, ignorance of rule restrictions, false hypotheses and overgeneralization. A few of the errors were, however, attributed to Interlingua transfer. Accordingly, implications and some recommendations which are significant to teachers and learners were provided. The originality of this study is a record of the common syntactic errors in written English among Emirati secondary school students in AlAin city. The findings of this research could possibly fill up the gap and advance existing knowledge.


REPRODUCTIVE FITNESS: A CASE STUDY OF REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF FOUR ENDOGAMOUS INDIAN POPULATION OF SAUNDIK VAISHYA COMMUNITY IN DISTRICT MUNGER (BIHAR), INDIA []


ABSTRACT A case study of reproductive status of four predominant Saundik Vaishya populations namely Dhaneshwar, Kalal, Jaiswal and Biahut Kalwar of Munger district (Bihar), India has been studied. Saundik Vaishya population has grown and developed remarkably as a result of the increased number of people choosing for higher education and better future life. This population is an interesting and challenging subject for demographic research as these groups are business oriented and have played important role in the social uplift of the district. The population has been preferred owing to the existence of endogamous groups within it. Reproductive fitness has been studied on the basis of the parameters such as age at menarche, age at menopause, sterility, fertility, mortality and twinning on a comparative basis. Early menarche is responsible for early menopause and late menarche is responsible for late menopause. Decrease in mortality rate might be due to proper medical facility, advancement in medical sciences, education of mother, age of mother at the time of marriage, hygiene, etc. During our survey we found that education of mother and family economic status play a significant role in determining fertility & mortality rate among the population and hence the reproductive fitness. The findings suggest that these data would be useful in medical diagnosis and genetic counselling. Keywords: Reproductive fitness, Saundik Vaishya, Fertility, Mortality, Menarche, Menopause, Endogamy


ASSESSEMENT OF THE NEST AND FEEDING ECOLOGY OF THE SYMPATRIC CROSS RIVER GORILLA AND NIGERIA CAMEROON CHIMPANZEE IN TOFALA HILL WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, SOUTHWEST REGION CAMEROON []


Preliminary studies of Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) and Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) have been going on in Tofala area since 2004. These studies were mostly focused on determining the distribution of these two great apes species in the area. Reliable information on the ecology of wild Cross River gorilla and Nigeria Cameroon chimpanzee is still scarce. Such information can provide insights into great ape cognition and evolution, and can provide valuable data to guide conservation efforts for remaining populations. The aim of this study was to make assessment of the nesting and feeding ecology of Cross River gorilla and Nigeria Cameroon chimpanzee in Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary. This study was conducted from November 2015 to August 2016. 55 kilometres reconnaissance (recce) walks and twelve camera traps functioning for1242 trap days (November 2015 to April 2016) were used to determine the nesting and feeding ecology of these great apes species. The study area was randomly stratified into 1km by 1km grids with laid down recce of different lengths in the centre of the grids, and camera traps planted along animal trails in the grids. The following data were collected; GPS coordinate of great apes nest, vegetation type, species, slope, canopy type, food type, nest site, nest type, undergrowth of vegetation and elevation and photos of great apes from camera traps. Data was analysed using the Microsoft excel. Results revealed that slope, vegetation and canopy cover have great influence on the ecology of great apes. 55.06% of nests and 60% of feeding signs for chimpanzee and, 61.5% of nests and 65.6% of feeding signs for gorilla were distributed across steep slopes. 56.2% of chimpanzee and 38.5% of gorilla nest were constructed in undergrowth made of small trees and lianas respectively. 40% of chimpanzee and 79.9% of gorilla feeding signs were distributed in bushes of secondary forest. 56.2 % of chimpanzee nest sites were constructed in very close canopy cover and 40% of feeding signs were distributed in open canopy cover. Similarly majority of gorilla nest (76.9%) were constructed under very close canopy and feeding signs (51.1%) were found in open canopy. Aframomum sp was the most frequently encountered food remains for both chimpanzee and gorilla and can be considered as the most stable diet for great apes in the area. Chimpanzee fed on giant snails, mongoose and porcupine. Though this study presents foundational research on the nesting and feeding ecology of Cross River gorilla and Nigeria Cameroon Chimpanzee it is limited in some important way, (i) the entire area of the Sanctuary was not survey, and (iii) faecal analyses were not conducted to determine the diversity of great apes diet. However, this information obtained can be used in the long-term conservation of Cross River gorillas and Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee in the Tofala Hill Wildlife Sanctuary.


NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF AFRICAN GIANT LAND SNAILS (Archachatina marginata) FED RUMEN CONTENT INCLUSION []


The nutritional quality of snail meat depends on the quality of feed they eat which then determines the preference and palatability by man. There are information on the relationship between the nutritional composition of snail feeds and palatability of their edible flesh to man. The research was conducted at Teaching and Research farm of Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria to evaluate the effect of rumen content inclusion on nutritional composition of meat obtained from snails fed diets with different levels of the test ingredient. Sixteen (16) mature giant African land snails with initial weight range of 220-250g and four dietary groups consisting of four diets were used in this study. Snails were randomly assigned to the four diets with four snails per replicate at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% replacement levels. Results of proximate analysis revealed that snail meat was high in protein (26.12%); moisture content (66.27%); Ash (3.18%) and low in fat (0.91%) and carbohydrates (2.63%) at 15% rumen content inclusion. The values of calcium (189.01ppm) and lron (1.67ppm) were the most abundant of all the minerals screened. Significantly (P<0.05) higher mean values of calcium and phosphorus were obtained from meat of snails fed rumen content inclusion. Phytate and tannin were statistically (P<0.05) higher in the meat of snails fed 15% rumen content inclusion but their levels were not toxic. It was evident from this study that the presence of rumen content inclusion up to 15% in the four dietary groups did not reduce the nutritive value of snail meat and was also safe for human consumption and may be used to treat nutritional deficiencies and manage diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and stroke.


The impact of Corporate Culture on Strategic Management: In case of Pakistan’s MNC’s. []


Corporate culture plays an important role in designing the strategic environment of the organization. Corporate culture is the basic ground of an organization that can result in its success and failure. A culture is defined as a set of shared norms and values that shapes the behavior of the people living together. This definition can be redesigned to address the question, “what is corporate culture?”. It can be said that corporate culture is the set of all the shared values and norms at the workplace. The relationship between corporate culture and strategic management have a major impact on the organizational productivity. Some of the factors of corporate culture positively impacts strategic management while others contribute towards organizational problems and disasters. The scope of our research is to highlight those positive factors that will contribute towards efficient strategic management of the organization. As we know, organizational cultures are unique, and they may offer strategically competitive advantages to the firms- we can say that firms consider their corporate culture while developing their strategies to obtain several business objectives. Strategic management majorly focus on accomplishing the vision and mission of the organization so the culture should also depict the same sense of vision and mission. For this research, we will study an organization in manufacturing Industry. The data collected will include both primary and secondary data. The data collection methods may include journals, books, magazines, annual reports, personal interviews. A Questionnaire will also be designed to test the relationship of corporate culture variable and the strategic management. Questionnaires will be distributed among several organizations’ employees. The data will be analyzed quantitatively. The study will focus on the Strategic & Operational level of management. The other dynamics like Marketing, Finance and Production will be excluded from the research. The research will help us to correlate a true picture of strategic management and the corporate culture. It will help to highlight the corporate cultural variables that are involved in enhancing the strategic management of the organization. It will also help to understand the importance and impact of their relationship for any organization’s productivity.


CRISES MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF BUSINESS CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT BEST PRACTICES []


Crisis management is a critical function in an organization because its effects can be disastrous if not effectively managed. It can result to loss of specialised employees leading to disruption of key functions. This research sought to investigate crisis management strategies for the attainment of business continuity management best practices in mobile telephone service providers in Kenya. Specifically the research investigated the strategies for managing; specialised staff turnover, technological changes, natural and manmade incidences and obsolete supplies for the attainment of Business Continuity Best practices. Descriptive research design was used in this research.


PARADOXICAL ROLE OF CROP RESIDUE IN THE AGRICULTURE OF ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS: A REVIEW []


The highlands of Ethiopia hold about 95% of the cropped area and two-thirds of the livestock population. Livestock-crop mixed farming practice is the characteristic feature of agriculture in the area. The manure produced and draft animal power supports crop production in a complementary manner to support the livelihood of the producers. Native pasture, crop residue and aftermath grazing are the major feed resources. Because of the pressure of the increasing human population on the natural grazing pasture, livestock production is being challenged by feed scarcity and under nutrition. The role of crop residue has Para amount importance in livestock production as well as conservation agriculture. From the total crop residue produced, 60% is used for livestock feeding the rest is used for other purposes including mulching. Contrary to this it has shown that removing even 30-40% from the field has negative effect on the soil fertility. The aim of this review is therefore to highlight the competing use of crop residues in agriculture.


Les Déchets d’Equipements Electroniques et Informatiques au Mali : Modes de gestion et de valorisation []


Abstract The amount of Waste Electronic and Computer Equipment (DEEI) is increasing rapidly in Mali. Informal management exposes the environment and stakeholders to the risks associated with certain toxic substances they contain. The study aims to determine the management characteristics of the DEEI by the actors and their knowledge of the valuable substances they contain. The methodology includes a review of the literature, interviews with stakeholders and field visits. DEEIs contain valuable precious metals, recoverable rare earths, but also substances toxic to humans and dangerous for the environment. The specificity of this research is to have the minimum of information on this stage of the life cycle which groups together the purchase, the use, the repair and the scrapping of the goods at the level of all the actors and users in order to evaluate the existing mechanisms for a better synergy of action for the protection of the environment and the prevention of human and animal health. This approach has produced knowledge through surveys and interviews with resource persons. The results show that the sector is poorly organized, the actors underestimate the advantages that can be derived from a more efficient management of the DEEI which would generate more revenue to the actors of the sector even if a majority of the actors ignore the presence of precious metals like gold in equipment. Those who know it are divided in terms of preference, 50% would look for copper, others money for 16.66%, gold for 16.66% and lead 16.66% of cases. It has also formulated proposals that will allow minimizing the environmental impacts associated with the use and disposal phase of electronic devices through awareness raising through environmental education and training of stakeholders. Key words: management, waste, electronic computer equipment, components, recovery.


Meetings Management: A Driver For Decision Making Success of The Brewery Sector in Rivers State, Nigeria []


The study investigates the influence of Meetings management on decision making in the brewery sector in Rivers State of Nigeria. Taking a cross sectional survey, the study investigated all permanent employees in the seven (7) brewing firms in Port Harcourt. The reason for the target of permanent workers is dependent on the fact casualization is very prominent in the sector that only few hands are maintained while others are hired on contractual arrangement. A sample size of 110 employees was drawn from the total population of 152 staff in the sector studied. Closed ended questionnaire was constructed and used to gather primary which were analyzed and results presented in using tables, mean and standard deviation. The hypotheses were tested using the Spearman Rank Order Correlation coefficient statistical tool. Findings from the study revealed significant positive relationship between meeting management and decision making success in the brewery sector in Rivers State, therefore, all the attributes of meetings management adopted in the study were recommended for management of the brewery sector in Rivers State.


ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI) AND SUITABILITY FOR CONSUMPTION OF ELELE-ALIMINI STREAM, PORT HARCOURT []


This study was carried out to investigate the water quality index (WQI) and suitability for consumption of Elele- Alumini water, Port Harcourt between January –June 2018. Elele Alimini stream is a major source of domestic and industrial water for use. Water quality is centred on the respective aspects of the physico-chemical parameters by which the quality of water can be easily ascertained. Water samples collected from the three respective locations were analyzed following the standard method for the parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Phosphate (PO4), Sulphate (SO3) and Nitrate (NO3). SPSS software version 20 was used to carry out statistical analysis of the values of the water parameters measured. The values of these parameters were used to calculate the WQI of the stream. The WQI of the three locations were found to be 31.269, 29.050 and 26.429 respectively indicating that the water in the respective locations were of good quality (category II) and so suitable for drinking and for agriculture.


SINO-PAK TRADE CORRIDOR BOON OR BANE []


The $46bn CPEC project connecting Xinjiang in China to Gwadar port in Pakistan has raised concerns in India.Srinagar, India-administered Kashmir - The multibillion dollar China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which is being called a "game-changer" in Pakistan, has raised apprehensions in neighbouring India.In June 2015, barely two months after Chinese President Xi Jinping announced plans to invest $46bn to develop infrastructure and energy projects in Pakistan as part of the economic corridor, or CPEC, India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi told China that it was "unacceptable".The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is China’s ambitious project for increasing connectivity and economic cooperation within Eurasia. Since its announcement in 2013, the BRI has been positively received by many countries covered within its ambit. However, notwithstanding the recent meeting between Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping in Wuhan, China, one issue associated with the BRI will likely be considered an irritant for China: India’s position on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).


THE LIMITS AND CONCEPT OF SCIENTIFIC HISTORY []


The concept of scientific history sprang up in the early 19thcentury by French and German historians who believed that scientific method could be applied to historical writings. They opined that one was being scientific if one aspired to the highest degree of objectivity. Overtime, the notable inventions which scientists had made had not only contributed significantly to man’s knowledge of the universe but also to the improvement of the material lot of humanity. Scientific and technological advances fired the imagination of historians and fuelled arguments by those who opposed that scientific method in history could ensure absolute objectivity. Hence, this paper explored the evolution of scientific history, its decadence and rebirth in the 19th Century. Furthermore, the work examined the concept of scientific history, its features and practices in modern times. The study, however, drew the curtain with the relationship between history and science.


INVESTIGATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL VALUES AND QUALITY OF SOIL IN THE FARM OF THE FLOATING REGION []


Food safety is very important for consumer who depends on the products that grows on the local farm yard. So, the investigation of nutritional values and the properties of soil quality are key roles for the production of effective and healthy food sources. This research work involved the investigation of physico-chemical properties of soils collected from Yenangyaung Township in the middle region of Myanmar. Firstly, soil samples from the farm of Yenangyaung Township were collected before and after flood followed by the determination of mineral contents, moisture contents, pH values and effective microorganisms of soil samples by using some spectroscopic methods. Moreover, nitrogen and potassium contents of the selected soil samples were investigated by alkaline permanganate methods as well as phosphorus content by colorimetric method. Finally, the mineral contents of samples were analyzed by EDXRF method and the identification of isolated bacteria lived in these soil samples were performed by Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology.


Productivity Improvement through Line Balancing - A Case Study in an Apparel Industry []


Line Balancing is equalizing the workload across all operations in a line to remove bottlenecks and excess capacity. Line balancing helps to assign tasks to workstations, so that optimal assignment is achieved. This study deals with increasing overall efficiency of single model assembly line by eliminating bottlenecks and reducing the non-value-added activities at each work station by line balancing and work sharing method. The research methodology here includes calculation of hourly production capacity, cycle time per head of each process, identifying the bottlenecks and non –value-added activities and balancing of the production line by work sharing method. Line balancing by work sharing methods results in improved line efficiency and improved labor efficiency at the same time.


Waste as Alternative Liming Material in Acid Soil Management []


Abstract This study was to appraise the comparative effectiveness of some industrial and domestic waste in managing soil acidity. The wastes investigated were: Fluedust, Silicate, Slag and Woodash. Calcium Carbonate was included for comparative purpose. The test crops were; Black-eyed bean, Phaseolus vulgaris,Ife brown cowpea, Vigna unguiculataand Soybean, Glycine maxima. These legumes were grown in the Greenhouse for 60 days. An assay of the waste showed that they were high in calcium, carbonate and phosphorus. The dry - matter yield of legumes were significantly improved when the soil was treated with any of the wastes. The highest dry-matter yield of legume (4.06 gram/pot) was obtained with black-eyed bean when the Soil pH was raised to 5.5. Plant uptake of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Calcium was significantly increased with the waste addition. Among the three legumes, uptake of calcium was highest in black - eyed bean and least in soybean. The waste used as liming materials in this study significantly increased the dry – matter yield of the indicator legumes. The order of effectiveness of the waste as liming materials followed this order: fluedust > wood ash > silicate slag. The wastes significantly improved the soil organic matter contents, thereby enhancing the soil health status. Key words: Acid soil, dry-matter yield, management, phytotoxicity, waste.


EFFECTIVENESS OF BEDSIDE TEACHING ON NURSING STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS IN MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHIATRIC TRAINING []


Abstract Background The present study aims to examine the effectiveness of bedside teaching on nursing Students’ knowledge and skills in mental health and psychiatric training in nursing colleges at Sudanese Universities as a clinical teaching method. Method Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used, a quasi experimental research design was utilized to assess the knowledge and skills of nursing students in mental health and psychiatric training, and a focus group discussion was conducted to assess clinical instructors’ perceptions about the effectiveness of bedside teaching on student’s knowledge and skills in mental health and psychiatric training. Data were collected from nursing students in semester seven in the two selected Universities one for intervention group and the other for control group. A total of (129) students and (6) clinical instructors were included in this study. A module of bedside teaching method was implemented to the intervention group and the control group used their routine method. Constructed questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection to collect demographic data and knowledge of students in bedside teaching skills, and observational checklists were used to assess implementation of skills, also a focus group discussion for clinical instructors was conducted to generate information about bedside teaching. Results The present study showed significant differences in the student’s knowledge among the two groups t (127) = -20.77. p = <0.01. The mean and standard deviation of the total score of knowledge in intervention group (M = 85.46, SD = 4.63) was significantly different to the mean and standard deviation in control group (M = 59.58, SD = 7.85) also the result showed 52.6% increase in knowledge for intervention group after implementation of bedside teaching. Student’s skills in mental health and psychiatric nursing were improved after implementation of bedside teaching from 39% at the beginning of the training to 91% at the end of the training. Conclusions Based on the study findings, bedside teaching was effective in teaching clinical skills for nursing students in mental health and psychiatric training; it improves knowledge and skills of students in mental health and psychiatric practical skills. To support and enhance the use of bedside teaching as clinical teaching method in mental health and psychiatric nursing training; implementation of the developed module of bedside teaching in clinical teaching in nursing education of mental health and psychiatric nursing training was recommended. Key words Mental health and psychiatric nursing, students‘s knowledge, bedside teaching, clinical skills, clinical instructors and clinical teaching.


Design of natural gas transmission pipeline (A case study of a typical marginal oil and gas field in Niger Delta, Nigeria []


ABSTRACT The natural gas transmission pipeline for a typical marginal oil and gas field in Niger delta has been designed. A secondary data of the field gas was obtained and empirical study was carried out to determine the nature of the gas. The gas flow rate, pressure, temperature was collated and used to design the gas pipeline. Hydraulic design equations from ASME B31.8 and API 5L standard codes and specifications were used to estimate some of the parameters used in the design. The sizing, design pressure, collapse pressure, burst pressure, hydrotest pressure. Pipe diameter, schedule number and thickness etc were calculated using appropriate design equations. Aspen HYSYS version 8.8 (34.0.0.8909) software was used to carry out simulation of the process flow and it all converged. Keywords: Pipeline, design, Natural Gas, Marginal Field.


Nutritional and Sensory Evaluations of Citrus Drinks Supplemented with Khat (Catha edulis) Powder: The Case of Khat Grown in Hararghe, Eastern Ethiopia []


Khat is a perennial shrub grown in most part of Ethiopia. It is socially favoured for its stimulating effects and may be beneficial if it were blended with citrus drinks and available to the community in use. Therefore the main objectives of this study were to analyse the nutritional contents and to evaluate citrus drinks supplemented with Khat powders. The study material consisted of three Khat types namely Awaday, Galamso and Kobo collected from three places as their name indicated. The clean and ripen mango and orange fruits were obtained from the open market of Harar. Khat types were sorted, dried and pounded and the powder was mixed with water and filtered by using muslin cloth separately. The extracted juice (mango and orange) were blended with filtered Khat (Awaday, Galamso and Kobo) in the ratios of (100%:0%, 97.5%:2.5%, 95%:5%, 92.5%:7.5%), respectively. The produced juices were then ready for sensory evaluation. The nutritional and sensory data were, respectively, analyzed using one and two ways ANOVA. The results revealed that significant differences were observed in nutritional composition among khat types. The highest total ash was obtained for Galamso (6.19%) and followed by Kobo (6.5%) khat types. The highest protein content was recorded by Awaday (14.41%) but the lowest protein content was recorded by Galamso (12.54%) followed by Kobo (12.68%) khat types. Ca content was highest in Awaday (193.59 mg/100g) and lowest in Galamso (150.94 mg/100g) khat types. The Zn contents ranged from 3.47 mg/100g to 4.03 mg/100g for Awaday and Kobo, respectively. Tannin concentration ranged from 111.12 mg/100g for Kobo to 126.16 mg/100g for Awaday. The sensory attributes scores of all khat types at all ratios of mango and orange were between 4.9 and 6.8 indicating that the juices produced were between liked slightly to liked very much on seven hedonic scale. Although the three Khat sources were different in nutritional contents, the juice drinks were well accepted by the panellists.


Carbon Emission and solar Installations: An Analysis of Indian Urban Dwellings []


With the increasing energy demand and depleting energy resources, the world is turning towards the SUN to meet its energy needs. Annual solar radiation to earth is 1.5 quintillion kilowatt hours of energy. The paper investigates the possibility of solar installations into the PM awas yojana-urban and thereby to reduce the demand for conventional electricity generation, leading to reduced carbon emissions. The paper also gives a future direction into the possibility of reduced LPG consumptions in Indian households.


Antibacterial Textile’s Surface via Bio-molecule Encapsulated Silver Nanoparticles. []


Introduction: The new sources of antibiotics or antibacterial substance are green synthesized encapsulated (Bio-molecules/Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) .In this research I have investigated Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extracts of bio-molecules encapsulated AgNPs against bacterial contamination on wool fiber surfaces. AgNPs synthesized by using AgNO3 solution, lab grade reagents and Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extracted bio-molecules etc.Objectives: My main aim of this study is to achieve a smart way for the synthesis of bio-molecules capped magnetic Ag NPs by utilizing Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extract and evaluatuation their antibacterial properties and feasibility against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria after assemble synthesized AgNPs on the surfaces of textiles substance.Materials & methodology: In this study we have functionalized Rayon viscose fabric surfaces by synthesized AgNPs after enhancing fabric surface adsorption properties (chemically surface modification). Then characterizations of the synthesized Ag NPs and surfaces properties of fabric have done by various techniques which are given in the experimental parts brifely.Result: Finally, evaluated results of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria & Gram-negative bacteria (to GB/T 20944.3-2008 (eq. ISO 20743-2007) showing that nanoparticles are active against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria on the fiber surfaces. So, results suggest that encapsulated AgNPs are active as an antibiotic on the surfaces and various inhabitation zones are found also. Inhabitation zone depend on nanoparticles concentration.Conclusion: Artocarpus heterophyllus leaf extracted bio-molecules encapsulated Ag NPs potential antibacterial which may very encouraging substance for application in the field of wearable anti-hygienic or medical textiles purposes.