Volume 7, Issue 4


Interaction between saving and investment has been a major concern to the economists and there exists substantial debate over the nature of long run relationship between them. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic linkages between saving and investment in Ethiopia using annual time series data covering the period from 1980 to 2016. The stationarity of the data is examined by using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Johansen co integration test. This paper applied the Johansen co integration test to examine the long run relationship between saving and investment and have long run positive and significant impact on the Ethiopia economy. In order to show the direction of causal relationship between saving and investment, the widely used Granger causality test has been used. The unit root tests revealed that both saving and investment are non-stationary at level forms and they become stationary after taking their first difference. The Johansen co integration test analysis suggests that, there exists a long run relationship between saving and investment as it is confirmed by both the Trace and Maximum Eigen-value test statistics. Results found from the Granger causality test suggests that bidirectional causality running from saving to investment existed in Ethiopia over the sample period for a lag length of two periods. Based on the results, pursuance of policy measures towards mobilizing domestic saving is recommended


At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the total population crossed the threshold of 1 billion people for the 1st time in history of homo sapiens sapiens. Since, the growth rates have been increasing exponentially, reaching staggeringly high peaks in 20th C and slowing down a bit thereafter. The Total word population reached 7 billions just after 2050 and is expected to count 9 billions by 2045. This paper reveals the differences in population growth between the world regions. Next, the Mechanisms behind unprecedented population growth are explained and plausible scenarios for future development are discussed. Crucial for the long term trend will be the rate of decline of the number of births per women, called total fertility. Improved in Education, reproductive health and child survival will be needed to speed up the decline of total fertility, particularly in Africa. But in all scenarios, world population will continue to grow for some time due to population momentum. Finally, the paper outlines the debate about the consequences of the population explosion, involving poverty and food security, the impacts on the natural environment and migration flows. Key: Population growth,World region, poverty


The basic purpose of this research is to ascertain the relationship between Category Management Practices (CMP) and Customer satisfaction with specific reference to three major supermarkets of Karachi viz. Imtiaz, Hyperstar and Naheed. The quantitative research design has been used and questionnaire is administered among the respondents. The SEM analysis is used via AMOS. Sample size is kept at 250 respondents and probabilistic sampling is used. The findings indicate that Product Promotion and Presentation are found to have significant impact on customer satisfaction. However, the factors like assortment,availability, pricing and customer service are shown to have minimal impact within the CMP and with customer satisfaction. Presentation, promotion and customer service have positive correlation while assortment, availability and pricing have negative association with the customer satisfaction.Thus, superstores need to pay more attention towards promotion and presentation of products on the shelves. Moreover, customer service should be enhanced to increase satisfaction. However, superstores need to pay less attention and resources towards assortment and pricing. This shows that customers of these Karachi-based superstores are not price sensitive; rather they tend to look for quality and thus marketing strategies should be accordingly designed. This study carries dual significance; it has negated certain factors of CMP in Karachi-based superstores of past studies and it has given a new road map for these stores to devise future marketing strategies. Keywords:Category Management; Customer Satisfaction; Assortment; Availability; Pricing; Promotion; Presentation; Superstores; Supermarkets; Karachi


This study aims to determine the effect of the addition of natural seaweed binder (Kappaphycus alvarazii) to the physical characteristics of feed and growth of Siamese catfish seeds. The research method was carried out experimentally using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used five treatments with three replications. The treatments used were treatment A (addition of 5% CMC binders) as a control, treatment B (addition of 5% Kappaphycus alvarazii seaweed binder), treatment C (addition of Kappaphycus alvarazii seaweed binder 7.5%), treatment D (addition of binders Kappaphycus alvarazii seaweed 10%), treatment E (addition of 12.5% Kappaphycus alvarazii seaweed binder). The parameters measured were daily growth rate, absolute weight, and survival rate. The effect of each treatment on parameters was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and continued with Duncan's Multiple Distance Test if there were differences between treatments. The results of the research on the addition of seaweed binders gave a significantly different effect on the daily growth rate, but did not give a significant effect on absolute weight, and survival rate. The addition of 10% seaweed produces the highest growth rate of 1.25%, absolute weight and survival rate on the addition of seaweed 0% -12.5%, each ranging from 50.33 - 88.67 grams and 99 - 100%.


Data mining involves the searching of large information of the data or records to discover patterns and utilize these patterns in the prediction the future events. In most educational sectors such as high schools, polytechnics and universities; classification technique is a vital analytical mechanism in prediction of various levels of accuracy. Classification is one of the methods in data mining for categorizing a particular group of items to targeted groups. Main goal of classification is to predict the nature of an items or data based on the available classes of items. Construction of the classification model always defined by the available training data set. In this paper we will only discuss about the classification algorithms, although there are different types of algorithms available in data mining for the prediction of the future strategy for a business. The decision tree classification technique utilized in this work focused mainly on data of the student’s performance obtained in a high school during a quiz using the KNIME tool.

An analysis of Village Health Workers as community health drivers of change. The case study of Shamva District []

Zimbabweans continue to experience challenges in combating communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, and HIV/AIDS. The country’s health sector decentralisation implementation is moving at a snail’s speed, triggering complaints of unsatisfactory service delivery at rural health centres. The study examined the impact of village health workers as community health drivers of change in Shamva District. The study was guided by interpretive and critical post-modernist paradigms. Qualitative methodology was utilised, key informant interviews, focus group discussion and desk reviews were data generation tools that were utilised. The data generated were analysed using grounded theory. The key findings are that village health workers improved community knowledge on health-related issues and encouraged communities to live in a clean environment. The study concluded that Village health workers were popular in communities and were the first port of call for health at community level. Village health workers doubled their mandate as community representatives and teachers of preventive health measures. The programme was institutionalised in the Ministry of Health and Child Care. However, the VHWs lacked clear grievance handling procedures that impacted negatively on their roles as health drivers of change. The major recommendation is that government should provide enough resources for village health workers to carry out their duties without budgetary constraints

Nuclear deterrence in Kashmir "The affections of nuclear tests in India and Pakistan in respect to the conflict in Kashmir" []

In 1998 both India and Pakistan tested their nuclear weapons by only a month apart. Stating their status as a nuclear power to the international community and showing each other their nuclear muscles. The relationship between India and Pakistan has had ups and downs throughout history and this is also evident in relation to the conflict in Kashmir. A conflict that grew out of the partition and that still has not been solved. Our hypothesis is therefore that nuclear weapons was a short term solution, however nuclear deterrence will not solve the conflict in the long term. The research question this paper seeks to answer is: How did the nuclear tests of 1998 change the political relationship between India and Pakistan in relation to the conflict in Kashmir? The paper will first present our methodology and data collection, before describing the theories that have been used. After this comes a brief history of the conflict in Kashmir. India for so Pakistan's approach to becoming a nuclear weapon state is then further discussed. We continue by analyzing the relationship between the two states in relation to the conflict in Kashmir post 1998 before discussing the aspect of human security and how the conflict has been managed. We will then finish the paper by summing up our findings and making a conclusion based on our research question.

Adopt-A-Creek Project of Dole Philippines: Its Environmental Impact and Community Participation of the Locals in Barangay Malagos, Calinan, Davao City, Philippines []

This study explores the impact of the Adopt-a-Creek Project as one of the corporate social responsibly programs of Dole Philippines in Malagos, Davao City, Philippines in the context of environmental changes and the participation of the locals living beside the Cogan creek. This study aims to determine the level of participation of the residents in the Cogan creek in the Adopt-a-Creek Project of a multinational company. The study also seeks to understand the lived experiences of the locals living in the banks of the Cogan creek since the establishment of the banana plantations in their community by Dole Philippines. Results of the study show that most of the participants are not aware of the project and have not participated on its different activities. Based on the shared lived experiences of the participants, the project was mostly participated by the employees of the plantation of Dole Philippines, Barangay officials, and some students. The locals experience negative impacts of the company’s banana plantation such as the distinctive odor of the chemicals used as pesticide and also suffered surface runoff due to the plantation’s modification of natural waterways for the latter’s drainage system. The tree planting activity of the project only utilized one variety of plant disregarding other varieties that could promote a dynamic ecosystem in the area. This study argues that the Adopt-a-Creek Project of Dole Philippines should involve the full participation of the locals in its different activities at the same time maximizing their capabilities and their roles in the sustainability, protection, and conservation of their environment.

Seasonal Variations and Impacts of Gas Flaring on the Dehydrogenase Activity of Soils of Three Communities in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. []

Abstract Seasonal variations and impacts of gas flaring on the dehydrogenase activities (µg TPFg-1 soil) on the soils of three communities where gas is flared in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria were investigated during the two prevailing seasons in the area which is the dry and wet seasons. Soil samples were collected around flow stations in three communities in the region belonging to one of the oil exploration companies in the area. Some physical and chemical parameters determined include; pH, moisture content, total hydrocarbon, total petroleum hydrocarbon organic matter, sand, silts and clay. These flow stations are labeled S1, S2 and S3 respectively. Soil Samples were collected and heat radiation was measured at 50, 100 and 150 meters away from the flare and the control taken at 2000 meters away from the flare and replicated three times. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance to get the means. Results showed that dehydrogenase activity in S1 (Station1) in the two seasons had values ranging from 3.03 - 255.6Ug TPFg-1 soil with the highest values (201.7 and 255.6 Ug TPFg-1 soil) respectively for dehydrogenase activity at 150 m from flare and the least values at 50 m having mean values of (3.03 Ug TPFg-1 soil) and (5.93 Ug TPFg-1 soil) in both seasons. Station 2 (S2) had the highest value for dehydrogenase at the control in the dry season with a mean value of (39.23 Ug TPFg-1 soil) in the wet season while at 50 m away from the flare, it recorded a mean value of (21.0 Ug TPFg-1 soil) and the least activity (2.50 and 5.53 Ug TPFg-1 soil) was recorded at the 150 meters away from the flare in both seasons. Station3 (S3) had the highest value at 100 m in the dry season with a mean value of 10.27 Ug TPFg-1 soil and in the wet season at the control with a mean value of 106.87 Ug TPFg-1 soil. The least at 50 m and the control in the dry season with a mean value of (3.13 Ug TPFg-1 soil) while in the wet season, 50m had the least (8.5 Ug TPFg-1 soil). Heat radiation in all three flow stations decreased as distances increased, except in Station 2 where radiation increased at 100m away from the flare and at the control with mean values of 200 and 220 µ/w/cm2 respectively.

Lymphoma Presenting As Multinodular Goitre []

Head and neck are the second most common site for extra-nodal lymphoma. It can involve virtually any region, including the orbit, paranasal sinuses, Waldeyer's ring, salivary glands, or thyroid but the commonest is the cervical lymph nodes. The diagnosis of lymphoma is based on the histopathology examination of tissue biopsy taken from the enlarged lesion or lymph nodes. The purpose of this report is to make the otolaryngologist aware of this entity as a cause of an anterior neck mass.


Adenocarcinomas of the paranasal sinus are uncommon, accounting for less than 1% of all malignancies and about 5% to 20% of all carcinomas in the sinonasal area and most often found in the ethmoid sinus. We report a case of 66 years old Malay gentleman with a recurrence of sinonasal papillary adenocarcinoma after a history of left radical maxillectomy, ethmoidectomy and sphenoidectomy in July 2004.

Assessment of Impact of Zero Tillage and Some Nutrient Rates on A wheat Yield of Iba 95 Variety []

Abstract The research aims is to evaluate the effect of the zero tillage system and compare it with traditional farming by using 4 rates of urea fertilizer 46% (zero, 30, 40 , 50 kg / d and 3 rates of superphosphate fertilizer 20% (zero, 30 , 40 kg / d.) on some vegetative growth and yield properties for wheat Iba-95 variety . The seeds were cultivated at rate 40 kg / dunum, by using RCBD design with 3 replicates. The results of the zero tillage revealed its superiority over traditional agriculture in all Iba-95 variety traits at a level 0.05,but did not differs significantly from the traditional cultivation at a level probability 0.01 in studied traits ; Plant height 81.3cm, Number of tillers 7 /plant ,Spike length 11.5 cm , Number of spikes302/m2,Number of grains 51/spike ,Weight of a thousand grains 43,2 g and total grains yield 3,680 tons / hectare , as in table (3), while values of traditional agriculture were ; Plant height 81.2cm, Number of tillers 6/ plant ,spike length 11.4 cm, Number of spikes 301/m2 , Number of grains 50/spike ,Weight of 1000 grain 42.1 g and total grains yield 3,520 t / h . The urea fertilizer showed its superiority at a rate of 50 kg / d in all of characters as in table (4) ; Plant height 92.3cm, Number of tillers 9 /plant ,Spike length 11.9 cm , Number of spikes 307/m2,Number of grains 57/spike ,Weight of 1000 grain 46,4 g and total grains yield 4,160 tons / h. The superphosphate fertilizer revealed its superiority at a rate 40 kg/h in all properties as in table (5) ; Plant height 88.6cm, Number of tillers 8 /plant , length of spike 11.6 cm Number of spikes 304 / m2 , Number of grains 55/ spike, Weight of 1000 grain 45.2 gm and total grains yield 4,060 t / h. The interaction between the zero tillage system and both levels of fertilizer (Nitrogen 50, Phosphate 40 kg / d) showed significant superiority in probability level 0,05 and not differs in probability level 0,01 in all traits as in table (6) ,where the total grain yield with both fertilizers (Nitrogen 50, Phosphate 40 kg / d) reached 4,269 and 4,165 ton/h respectively. Conclusion that the interaction of zero tillage with both N 50 kg/d, P 40 kg/d fertilizers was better than the interaction between traditional farming with both 2 kinds of fertilizer in all traits of the plant. Therefore, it is preferable to cultivation Wheat-Iba 95 by zero tillage system due to its ecological, economic importance in achieving of sustainable agriculture.


Multi-purpose cooperatives play an important role as the most effective tool for economic development. It has enormous ad-vantages as compared to other cooperatives like the purpose of augmenting the living standard of the members; risk-sharing among members; maximizing profit in a minimum cost; building unity among people, and providing education for the members’ development. Internal control procedures in this type of cooperative are crucial. The need of sound internal control is necessary in view of the growing complexity and the huge volume of transactions. Effective internal control is vital in order to maintain the integrity and reliability of reports generated by several transactions and independent activities. The study focused on investigating the internal control procedures of selected multi-purpose cooperatives in Occidental Mindoro in order to serve as a basis to improve its operational efficiency. Specifically, internal controls such as control environment, control activities, risk assessment, information and communication and monitoring were assessed by the respondents to determine the extent of implementation of these internal controls. Furthermore, the level of operational efficiency was also evaluated using the secondary data which is the audited financial statements of selected multi – purpose cooperatives. The research utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics as it test the significant differences among the internal controls variables and its influences on the operational efficiency of cooperatives. The findings of the study revealed that there were very significant differences among the internal control procedures. Also, there was a significant influence of internal control procedures on the operational efficiency of selected multi – purpose cooperatives. It is recommended that officers and management of cooperatives should maintain effective internal control strategies to ensure operational efficiency. Also, the cooperatives together with the Cooperative development Authority should come up with clear policies on internal control procedures. Keywords: Internal Control Procedures, Operational Efficiency, Multi – Purpose Cooperatives

Experimental Study on Flexural behavior of Metakaolin and Fly ash based Ferrocement panel []

Ferrocement is a form of reinforced concrete differs from conventional reinforced or prestressed concrete primarily by the manner in which the reinforcing elements are dispersed and arranged. It is the composite of ferro(iron) and cement (cement mortar) in which small diameter wire meshes are used uniformly throughout the cross section. This wire meshes are filled in with cement mortar. The mesh made of metallic or other suitable materials. This paper presents an experimental investigation to compare the flexural behavior of partially replaced metakaolin and fly ash based ferrocement panel with control cement mortar panel. The main objective of this study is to investigate different numbers of wire meshes on the flexural strength of the flat ferrocement panels and to compare the effect of varying the number of wire mesh layers in the ferrocement structure under two-point loading. Ferrocement panel of size 940x470mm,40mm thickness has been adopted. panel under two-point loading. In control panel, no meshes have been used. In ferrocement panel, mesh layers of 1,3, and 5 have been tested and their values are compared with control panel. Thus, the flexural strength of varying mesh layers and proportions of material in ferrocement panel has been studied.

Entrepreneurship Education In Ghana – A Study of Students’ Perspectives: Is Lecturer Capacity and Methodology Affecting Impact? []

Entrepreneurship Education has emerged over the last three decades as arguably the most potent economic force the world has ever experienced. It has become a critical tool for changing mindsets and giving business skills to students in business idea generation, opportunity examination and new venture creation. This paper analysed the perspectives of students on teaching methods, their experiences and lecturer perceptions on capacity so as to improve existing teaching methods in the classroom. Questionnaires were administered to day, evening, weekend and postgraduate students. The responses were analysed and used to determine student preferences relative to the teaching of entrepreneurship as well as lecturer capacities in the use of methodologies in the teaching of entrepreneurship. The authors argue that both students and faculty need the exposure to those entrepreneurs who have paid the price, faced the challenges and endured failures to make a difference. The authors conclude that for entrepreneurship education to embrace the 21st century, lecturers must become more competent in the use of academic technology and expand their pedagogies to include new and innovative approaches to the teaching of entrepreneurship as well as blend the teaching with industry collaboration to make the learning experience truly transformational. Keywords: Curriculum, entrepreneurship education, graduate unemployment, university-industry collaboration.

National Costs Assessment of School Meals Programme in The Gambia []

School Meal Programme is an expensive venture that requires colossal investment over the years. The programme’s cost continues to grow annually, hence the need to conduct a National Cost Assessment of the existing programme with a view of justifying a rationale for a continuation of the programme and for a smooth transitioning for more government involvement. The study was able to identify the costs drivers of the programme at the school and national levels. The cost per learner was also estimated at both levels. The costs drivers at the school level are: food cost, staff cost, transportation and logistics cost, capital cost, running cost and other cost. The major drivers of costs are running (i.e. administration and maintenance cost at the school level) food and capital costs which accounts for 42, 33 and 20 percent respectively of the total cost for 2014/15 academic year at the school level. At the central level the drivers are food cost and logistics, management and administration cost, staff cost and other running cost. The major cost driver at the central level is food cost. The cost per child of the school meals programme at the school level is GMD 562.70 or US$14.07 for 2014/15 academic year whilst for the national level cost per child is GMD431.80 or US$10.80. This variance can be explained by the fact that no cost is allocated for logistics, storage and utilities, management and administration and finally other running cost at the national level.

Treating Irritable bowel syndrome by digestive enzymes []

I have found a new relationship among Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency, EPI, and gallstones. By studying the symptoms of both gallstones and EPI on two groups of people, I realized that we can significantly reduce the bowel irritation by taking digestive enzymes before eating meals that contain large amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. The research has been applied on a group of people and succeeded under specific conditions.


This study investigates the partial replacement of clay with river sand in burnt clay production at 0 %, 5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, and 25 % river sand. Preliminary tests were conducted on the aggregates to determine its suitability. Experiment tests which include density, water absorption and compressive strength were also conducted. The density, water absorption and compressive strength values range from 1646-1743 kg/m3, 9.97-14.79% and 2.94-5.76 N/mm2 respectively. The results show that at 5% river sand replacement; the density increase with increase in sand content but gave the least value in water absorption capacity. Also, for the compressive test carried out, the samples at 5% river sand replacement gave the maximum compressive strength. It has therefore been established in this study that clay in partial replacement with river sand can improve the properties of burnt clay bricks especially when mixed at 5% river sand replacement with clay content as this gives the best possible outcome in the production of fired clay bricks carried out in this study. Conclusively, for most low cost residential buildings and other structural work where burnt clay brick is applicable for use, 5% river sand is recommended to improve the properties of the burnt clay bricks.

Flexible and High-Power Density Supercapacitor from Activated Carbon and DES Solvent Solution Coated Graphite Felt for Low-Cost and Fast Fabrication []

Supercapacitor cost and production variables should be looked upon equal as the performance of the su-percapacitor. In this report, the fabrication of symmetric supercapacitor using activated carbon and deep eutectic solvent solution infused graphite felt as positive and negative electrode is built, which allows for a single-step fabrication that requires less than 5 minutes. Fiber-made electrode allows for flexibility without material damage or performance loss, which makes greater range of application in supercapacitor. A single supercapacitor with 6 cm2 area shows a voltage range between 1.8~2.1 V and delivers capacity of 100 Far-ads or 17 mAh and energy density of 13 mWh. The supercapacitor also shows excellent voltage stability when the device is bent, which shows that 80% of the voltage remained at 40 degrees bent without any protecting case. The cost of the supercapacitor lower than an average commercial supercapacitor, which is 50 cents per square centimeter.

Effect of mindfulness on job burnout and work engagement []

In recent past, research on mindfulness has increased across several fields. However, very minute research has been conducted on mindfulness in workplace. The below study will give you a view by examining the effect of mindfulness on job burnout and work engagement, with a sample size (N = 149) of employees from several organizations in Islamabad, Pakistan. The results provided good support for the proposed hypotheses. As hypothesized, the positive relationship of mindfulness on job burnout and work engagement, however no significant correlations were found between mindfulness and work engagement. We consider in theory and applied assumption of these recommendations and highlight a number of approaches for conducting research on mindfulness in the workplace.


Ideribo and Ikara artisanal fishing traps were studied in the Lower Taylor Creek, Bayelsa State from January to December 2018. The study aimed at observing the most preferred bait, catch composition, most dominant fish species caught and the overall efficiency of the traps. Four sampling stations were established based on the fishing activities of the fishers. A Completely Randomized Design was adopted with four traps in each location resulting to 32 traps.


Many developed and developing nations are facing continuous pressure and increased environmental impacts from growing urbanization. Rapid and increased growth of population and urban development have altered natural and physical environments into zones and areas of extremely engineered setup and infrastructure. Generation of heat from automobiles like cars, and from industrial and commerce sector have joined with the preservation and retention of the solar energy which is renewable energy source by buildings as well as flagged surfaces, these all circumstances generates mysteriously atmosphere of urban area hot and can be named as urban heat islands. This causes various negative effects on physical as well as social environment. The conversion of land-uses from the natural landscape to the built environment has also created large areas of impervious paved surfaces, creating problems such as loss of vegetation and habitat, increased surface flow and heavy flooding. Each of these issues is being aggravated by a progressively variable change in climate. In the research case studies of different south Asian countries have been discussed to strengthen the view point of different various authors,significance of green top of buildings have also been explained and then conclusions are made accordingly.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Schistosoma haematobium Infections among Primary School Children in Yola North Local Government, Adamawa State, Nigeria []

Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called Schistosomes. The disease is spread by contact with fresh water contaminated with these schistosomes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, in relation to gender, age and risk factors associated with Schistosoma haematobium infections among primary school children in Jimeta-Yola. Each child was administered a semi-structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. Urine samples were collected from 150 pupils for microscopic analysis for the detection of S. haematobium eggs. The prevalence of S. haematobium eggs in Yelwa Primary School, showed that females had the highest prevalence rate with 12 (40.0%) infection while male had a prevalence rate of 8 (17.78%) infection. The infection in relation to age showed that the age range 8-10 years had the highest infection with 11 (44.0%), the age range 14> years had the least prevalence with 2 (10.00%). The prevalence in Limawa Primary School, showed that males had a prevalence rate of 9 (19.15%) infection while female had a prevalence rate of 7 (25.00%) infection. The infection in relation to age showed that the age range <8 years had the highest infection with 7 (28.00%), while nothing was recorded in the age 14 > years. In general, the prevalence rate of urinary schistosomiasis infection among primary school children in jimeta-yola, adamawa state is fairly low with a prevalence of 24.0 % among active school children. No significant difference was found between gender, age, source of water, and urinary schistosomiasis


Dennettia tripetala fruits collected from the local market of ‘orie ugba’ in Umuahia North LGA of Abia State Nigeria were studied for their nutritional composition, physicochemical and functional properties. Moisture, total ash, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and total available carbohydrate for the peel, whole fruit and dehull seed were determined. The percentage mean values for moisture, total ash, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and total carbohydrates of the peel, whole fruit and dehull seeds were 11.33, 10.83, 12.17 and 4.33, 9.17, 6.00 and 1.51, 1.09, 1.30 and 3.00, 2.17, 1.50 and 38.00, 21.00, 15.67 and 41.83, 55.75, 64.04 while the energy value were 200.50, 246.83 and 271.83 kcal/100 g respectively. The results of physicochemical and functional properties of Dennettia tripetala seed oil and flour samples indicated that D. tripetala can be used as a raw material for various food products manufacturing and provide consistency in food processing, analogous to other food crops. Therefore, the research findings can be used by food companies in recipe development of D. tripetala-based processed foods, including fortified food products to combat the protein-energy malnutrition problem in Nigeria.

Natural Resources from Curse to a Blessing: Conjuring the Curse []

Many countries are blessed with natural resources which in a perfect world means that they have the power to transform their economies, so that the abundance of the natural resource could produce wealth for the nation, but actually it leads to become overly dependent on one resource to the detriment of the rest of the economy. The volatile resource prices have especially negative impacts on weak-state economies and cause growth to be unstable, they actually become poorer. Given this very sad picture, one can ask if the curse of natural resources is a fatality, can anything be done? The main point for our purpose is to explore if the improvement of the governance, education sector , and high institutional quality with more transparency can be the antidotes and will help to conjure the spell and turn to "resource blessing". We estimated a regression variable for the period from 1986 to 2017, which is a function of a vector of explanatory variables, including the variable that measures the abundance of natural resources, those measuring institutional quality, as well as other control variables.


ABSTRACT- This study establishes the influence of e-inventory management systems on the performance of supermarkets in Nairobi County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to examine the effect of electronic data interchange, electronic point of sale, bar coding and radio frequency identification on performance of supermarkets in Nairobi County. The study was grounded on the resource based view theory. A descriptive cross-sectional survey research design was employed and stratify random sampling approach was used to ensure representativeness of the population of the study. The target population was 158 supermarkets in Nairobi County and the study sample size was 113 supermarkets. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data and was administered to the heads of supply chain management in the respective firms through the drop-and-pick later method. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression equation were applied to analyse quantitative data with the help of Statistical package for social science (version 21.0). The study established a positive significant relationship between e-inventory management systems and performance of supermarkets. The study therefore concludes that e-inventory systems significantly improve performance of supermarkets. Consequently, the study recommends that supermarkets in Kenya should implement e-inventory management systems in order to improve their performance through reduction of operation costs and improved inventory control. Further, the government should give tax rebate on IT infrastructure related to e-inventory management systems to encourage up take of the systems by firm as a way of boosting their performance and growth. Finally, the study recommends that future research should focus on undertaking a comparable study incorporating a larger population as well as research on elements affecting the effectiveness of e-inventory management systems once they are implemented by supermarkets in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter and contribute towards literature in the area of study

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS OF CLOVE ( Syzygium aromaticum (L). Merr. & Perry) []

Cloves ( Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merry & Perry) is one of the plant species in the genus Syzygium which has a lot of content of secondary metabolites which have the potential as a medicinal ingredient . Chemical component composition and special identification for clove varieties of afo, gorontalo and tuni buru selatan has not been reported. This research aims to identify the chemical components of the flowers, flower stalks and leaves from three varieties of cloves. Extraction and maceration of clove samples were carried out in the organic chemistry laboratory of the Chemistry Department IPB. The characterization of chemical components by the GC-MS method was carried out in the analytical laboratory of the UPI Bandung The analysis showed that the main component of clove is eugenol (phenolic) contained in all varieties of clove (gorontalo (81.16%), afo (80.32%) and tuni buru selatan (72.18%). The compound dominant in flowers, flower stalks and clove leaves are components of karyophilene (sesquiterpen) non-phenolic compounds. Key Words: Clove, identification, chemical components


The condition of mangrove is greatly influenced by nutrient by the availability of nutrients, physical factors - chemical waters and substrate texture. This research was conducted in April 2018. The purpose of this study was to identify the mangrove community structure and determine water quality and substrate in the Ciletuh Geopark area. This study used a survey method at three stations in the area of mangrove vegetation in the area of mangrove vegetation in the Village of Mandrajaya, Ciemas Subdistrict, Sukabumi Regency. Station determination based on distance from estuary. The results showed that there were seven types of mangroves. The results of this study indicate that the mangrove species in the study area were 7 (seven) mangrove species with the dominance of the species Lumnitzera racemosa, the diversity index including the low category (H ’= 1.4 - 1.6 <2.0). The quality of the waters shows the parameters of temperature, DO, pH, and salinity which are still within the range that are in accordance with the standard quality of water for mangroves. The substrate at the research location has a dusty clay texture, clay and clay. Nutrients in the research location waters had phosphates ranging from 0.02 mg / L – 0.03 mg / L and nitrates ranging from 17.57 mg / L – 23.43 mg / L. Nutrient content in the waters and substrate respectively for phosphate in water 0.02 mg / L - 0.03 mg / L, phosphate on the substrate 0.24% - 0.33% while for nitrate is 17.57 mg / L - 23.43 mg / L in water 0.02% - 0.03% on the substrate. The nitrate content in the waters includes oligotrophic whereas phosphate content in the waters includes oligotrophic.

Isolation and Characterization Of Novel Egyptian Regulatory Gene Tri 10 From Fusarium fujikuroi (MG211161) []

The Egyptian isolate Fusarium fujikuroi (MG211161) has been previously isolated and showed high accumulation of T-2 toxin. In the present study, Tri 10gene fragment was isolated and characterized from Fusarium fujikuroi. A regulatory gene that control the pathway of cluster genes (Tri 3, Tri 5, Tri 4, Tri 8, Tri 6 and Tri 7) to produce T-2 toxin. The gene fragment was PCR amplified using nested primer. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated 522 base pair fragment, that showed 98% similarity with the gene isolated from F. fujikuroi (HF679024.1). Amplified sequence was submitted to the gene bank and registered with the accession number (MG674224).

Does Risk Attitude Moderates or Mediates the Contribution of Personality Traits in Individual Investment Decision []

Keeping in view various theories of behavioral finance, the current study aims to examine the impact of personality traits including extrovert, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness ,on investment decisions of individuals with the contribution of risk attitude as either a moderator or a mediator. The study used convenience sampling technique. A total of 210 complete responses were taken from both private and public institutions of Punjab and the capital territory in cross section horizon were used to complete the analysis. The study reflects that risk attitude strongly moderates the impact of personality traits on investment decision and has a partial mediation effect as mediator. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.

Moral Problems and relative factors in Construction Industry of Pakistan (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) []

This paper discusses the significance of ethical issues and contributing factors in tendering process of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The role and importance of unethical issues and responsibility were established after a thorough literature review. Moreover, the stakeholders provided a measure of the severity of these contributing factors in context of construction in the KP province. The study includes construction professionals’ perceptions about the factors of ethical issues based upon their field expertise as a way to improve quality work in construction industry of the region. A pilot study based on inputs of literature study was conducted with twenty field experts to establish contributing factors towards ethical issues in the field of tendering. There after a questionnaire survey was conducted with 124 construction professionals made up of architects, quantity surveyors, engineers etc. and contractors of zone-2 of Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan to validate and rank the identified factors according to their own experience and perception about the problems. Ethical issues like ethics importance, ethics awareness, procurement flaws, incompetent leaders, unethical attitude, procurement frame work, corruption, bids strategies (a. Lowest bid, b. Ring formation, c. Delay tender), low pay of staff, ethical trainings and political pressures are highlighted. In the same way associated factors like lowest bid, bribery, ring formation, centralize registration, trainings & foreign Experience, transparency, ethical education, low education, ethical code of conduct, commissions, professional ethics, complicated documents, false bank statements, local enlistments, delayed tendering, non-professionalism, budgets leaks, false documentation, line Departments competency and bids opening without contractors are also highlighted. KEYWORDS: ethics, education, training and construction professionals


OPC manufacture is the second biggest source of CO2, which pollutes the atmosphere. In addition, a lot of energy was spent for adhesive production. Therefore, it is unavoidable to find another material to the most luxurious and resource-intensive Portland cement. The geopolymeric concrete is an groundbreaking building material that consequences from the biochemical action of mineral particles. Fly ash, a by-product of current control plants, is sold in large quantities throughout the world. The fly ash is rich in silica, and the alumina reacts with alkaline solutions and forms an aluminosilicate gel, which acts as a binder for the concrete. This is an outstanding other building material for existing cement concrete. Geopolitic concrete should be made without the use of common portland cement This article briefly describes the specific geopolitical components, their strengths and their possible uses. In addition to its advantages, the practical use of geopolymer concrete is very incomplete. The main reason for this is the lack of research on physical elements, design and applied research. This article studied the physical and structural characteristics of geopolymer concrete to identify gaps in research in this area for the development of future research. The analysis showed that geopolymer concrete can change the desired structural characteristics with better mechanical properties of the concrete, greater strength and greater than that of ordinary concrete. The practical design standards require more work and, finally, an exhaustive study of the structural elements to guarantee practicality.


This proposal comprise of literature survey on stabilization of subgrade layer of road structure using lime and cement. Pakistan consist of geographical diversity having different types of soils in different areas these types of soil includes sandy, clayey, silts, granular soil, black cotton soil etc. Some of these type of soil are having poor bearing capacity which are not suitable to bear the structural load of road.in order to improve these deficiencies of subgrade soil, stabilization technique are to enhance the bearing capacities of mentioned soils. For improvement of bearing capacity and strength of soil two process for stabilization are followed, that are chemical and mechanical stabilization.in mechanical process blending good quality soil in a required proportion used to improve the properties of subgrade soil. After this, spreading and compaction of blended soil is done. In chemical process stabilizing agents like cement, lime, flyash, saw dust ash etc are added to subgrade soil to impart properties like bearing capacities, CBR and strength of soil etc. By using cement as a stabilizing agent different types of soils can be stabilized but it is very effective in sandy soil sand with silt soil and clay soil whose plasticity is within the range of low to medium and lime is prefer for clayey soil having plasticity index very high.


ABSTRACT Mobile and Wireless dissemination of information is becoming big business and also becoming critical in the public places because of the convenience the system affords. This technology is useful in advertisements, stock market information dissemination and so on. Information has lifespan; therefore opportunities are wasted daily as a result of lack of timely dissemination of information and the convectional system of disseminating notices, of advertising to the general public or changing and managing information from time-to-time is a difficult and cumbersome process. There is therefore a need to develop a system that can be used to disseminate information on time anywhere the user is. A prototype of the system has been developed in the computer science department, Federal University of Technology Akure. The prototype aims at using microcontroller and Smartphone to wirelessly send information to a digital display board using GSM Technology. The hardware board at the heart of the system contains ATMEGA 328P microcontroller. The microcontroller is interfaced with GSM Modem via MAX232 level converter which is used to convert RS232voltage levels to TTL voltage levels and vice versa. A 16x2 Character LCD display and alphanumeric panel is attached to microcontroller for display. Microcontroller coding is done using Embedded C and MicroC software package. A test case carried out on the prototype developed performs excellently.


Infants worldwide are supposed to be fed on breast milk exclusively within the first six months of life and subsequent complementary feeding in addition until about 2 years. The study investigated how breasts and complementary feedings were practiced among lactating mothers attending a primary health centre, at Enuwa, Ile Ife Osun State Nigeria. The study was a cross sectional survey conducted in a primary health care facility centre in Ile Ife, Nigeria. Two hundred lactating women were recruited into the study by convenience sampling method. The data was collected by semi structured pretested questionnaire that elicited information on breast and complementary feeding pattern of respondents with children not older than two years. Data was analyzed using a software of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.Of the 200 nursing mothers interviewed,61% were between the ages of 21-35, 95% of the mothers were married. About 65.5% of the respondents were artisans and traders , while 62.5% among them were secondary school leavers. About 82% exclusively breastfed their babies, while 54% initiated breastfeeding within 30 minutes of birth and 50% practiced complementary feeding at ≥6 months). About 76% had their source of information on the importance of breast and complementary feeding from the health facility. About 75 % preferred 18 months as duration of breastfeeding, while 89.5% breastfed on demand , 97.5% knew the benefits of breast milk and 51% practiced good hygiene. About 23.5% weaned their children on family diet. The study showed that lactating mothers had good exclusive breast feeding and and an average healthy complementary feeding practices.

Severe maternal morbidityand intensive care in a public sector university hospital of Tunisia []

Recent years have been marked by a considerable reduction in maternal mortality rates in Tunisia. 60% of these deaths occur in intensive care units. Given the downward trend in maternal mortality rates, severe maternal morbidity is currently considered by several Western authors as a relevant indicator in the assessment of the quality of care delivered to parturients. As a result, we undertook a retrospective study of a population of patients in the gravid-puerperal state in need of a transfer from the maternity ward to the Surgical Intensive Care Department of the Monastir University Hospital between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2017.

Decoy technology in Fog Computing []

Initially we all were dependent on a computer to be physically present for storage and processing. No device could process information. Then cloud computing came into existence, where all computation was performed in the cloud.. But then the issue came for small processing, it took long to fetch data from the cloud and in cases when internet has some issue due to weather or any such reasons, it could take an extremely long time, which would result in a crash, which creates a major break in to it. This has security issues, where hackers can easily break it and manage to get themselves in. Hence a new technique Fog computing came into play, this reduces the computing and latency, because it runs most of its computation on Edge i.e. the user device itself. To ensure more security in case the device is in wrong hands or the account credentials have been obtained illegally, fog computing uses Decoy technology, where if any unusual activity it raises an alert , which in correspondence it will show the unauthorized user the data, but it will not be the original data, it will be manipulated garbage data which if the user is unaware will presume its original, so while the user is accessing the system, they are being tracked and all process is logged till they can be identified!


Abstract This study examined the impact of technology gap (relative backwardness) on productivity growth using a panel of 26 resource-rich Sub-Saharan African countries over the period 1996–2016. The study employed two measures of relative backwardness, namely: the distance from the technological frontier (DISTF) and the income gap (GAP). Two-step dynamic panel estimation methods were used to investigate this relationship. The findings from this study reveal that FDI inflow has a positive impact on the productivity growth with conditioning on the absorptive capacity or relative backwardness of the host countries in SSA. This implies that FDI is a means of transferring existing technologies from the frontier countries through direct investment by multinational corporations. Meanwhile, both measures of technology gap (relative backwardness) do exhibit a negative relationship with TFP growth. This reveals that, the larger the distance of the host countries to the technologically advanced countries, the wider the evidence of catch-up. In addition, evidence from the result as shown in the model the FDI inflow to Sub-Saharan are significantly impacted TFP growth in resource-rich countries. Hence, this result divulges that FDI inflows to Sub-Sahara Africa are more of natural resources extraction rather than the knowledge base.


The binary quadratic Diophantine equation represented by the positive pellian y2=34x2+18 is analyzed for its non-zero distinct solutions. A few interesting relations among the solutions are given. Further, employing the solutions of the above hyperbola, the solutions of other choices of hyperbolas, parabolas and Pythagorean triangle are obtained.


The binary quadratic Diophantine equation represented by the negative pellian y2=102x2-18 is analyzed for its non-zero distinct solutions. A few interesting relations among the solutions are given. Further, employing the solutions of the above hyperbola, we have obtained solutions of other choices of hyperbolas, parabolas and Pythagorean triangle.


During the past 50 years, there have been reported cases of increased child abuse and harassment across the globe. Irrespective of the economic status, almost all the countries globally have faced heinous incidents on child abuse and sexual assaults that have disgraced the worldwide phenomenon of gender equality. Child abuse and sexual assaults on children being global issues have considerably plagued the global culture and integrity to a significant extent. The traumatized cases of child abuse have been so devastating that it destroys the psychological growth of the child mindset. It even pushes the child towards conducting outrageous acts of self-destruction and suicidal indulgences. For a longer period of time and greater social eventualities, the aspect of child protection have been a notion of importance and initiates a locus of discussion to deal with the child abuse incidents. The legal structures of the nations across the globe including the developing nations like India have placed special focus on the phenomenon. The introduction of the POCSO act in 2012 within the Indian Judicial System has been specially designed and to cater to the child abuse and sexual assault cases at large. This act forwards itself as a discipline to mend the barriers of child protection and safety in order to bridge the gaps of national security standards. This article is based on the derivate that has been inducted from a range of studies conducted on the basis of a myriad of sources that decode the implications and limitations of child abuse cases in India. With a special focus on the POCSO, Child Labour Act, Child Marriage Act and other such pertinent legal acts hedging the issue of child protection are being explicitly discussed through the literature review. Considering the experience of child abuse as early as at the age of 11 months, the article offers a strong artifact of evidentiary renditions and the significant constraints that need to be resolved.


The contemporary Nigerian society has in recent times being confronted by the challenge of human trafficking. This phenomenon and the menace it poses to the society are rapidly on the increase. It is rather unfortunate that efforts at eradicating this obnoxious phenomenon have yielded little result in view of the clandestine nature of the activities of traffickers. Complex in its nature and forms, human trafficking has raised deep divisions on issues of principles, theories, perceptions, and the strategy to address it.


ABSTRACT Against popular belief, Libya, which western media described as “Gaddafi's military dictatorship’ was in actual fact one of the world's most democratic. The nation State of Libya was divided into several small communities that were essentially “mini-autonomous States” within a State. These autonomous States had control over their districts and has make a range of decisions including how to allocate oil revenue and budgetary funds within these mini autonomous States, the three main bodies of Libya’s democracy were Local Committees, People's Congresses, and Executive Revolutionary Councils. The study uses secondary data from previous studies of related area of study to analyze the leadership style of Gaddafi of Libya using local institutions from grassroots level. The study has the following findings that leaders in Africa in the process of practicing democracy they tend copy some leadership values that are giving advantage to the development of Western Nations than their immediate communities that voted them in to power, secondly, leaders in Africa prefer to die in power by using various mean of manipulation to retain power deceiving the large as if they are practicing democracy. Keywords: People’s Congress, Nation State, autonomous States.

Concept of Male Gaze in Sara Suleri []

Pakistani society is male dominant society and patriarchal values are rife there from time immemorial. Sara Suleri has tried to portray this scenario through her both memoirs named as Meatless Days and Boys will be Boys. Though Sara touches the topics of politics, history and culture of Pakistan but main focus is circumstances in which concept of male gaze seems to be overloaded. Norms of traditions prevalent in Pakistan always favor male member of society. Male gaze concept is one of the off-shoot of feminist ideology; where patriarchy, dominance and upper-hand are norms.

Use of sequence GnRH III for philogenetic analysis of red hard lipped barb carp, green hard lipped barb carp, mangot hard lipped barb carp and beureum panon []

The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between hard lipped barb carp strains based on encoding sequences of GnRH III. This research method uses an explorative method with descriptive analysis. Primers GnRH III-F (5'-GGACCTAAGAGCATGGAGTGG AAAGGAAG-3 ') and GnRH III-R (5'-GGGCTCGAGCACTCTTCCTCGTCTG TTGG-3') used in the GnRH III coding sequence analysis. Based on the coding sequence analysis of GnRH (forward and reverse directions) the genetic distance of red hard lipped barb carp and green hard lipped barb carp is 0.0033 and 0.0049, red hard lipped barb carp, green hard lipped barb carp, with mangot hard lipped barb carp of 0.0054 and 0.0093 and the three hard lipped barb carp with beureum panon of 0.0603 and 0.0558. The coding sequence of GnRH III red, green, mangot hard lipped barb carp has similar amino acid sequences with sGnRH Osteochilus hasselti (no. accession AFH41001.1) of 98% and beureum panon of 96%. The results showed that the coding sequence of GnRH III could be used in determining the kinship relationship of hard lipped barb carp strains.

An Analytical Review of Weather Forecasting Software’s through Data Mining Techniques []

This research paper will widely analyze the weather forecasting software that are been utilized to determine the weather conditions in the hilly areas of Uttarakhand. The paper will help to understand different standards of the assumption and also draw to a conclusion of how much précised assumptions this devices are providing.


The leaf of Garcinia kola is an ethnomedicinal leaf used in the treatment of diseases. This present research sought to investigate the antidiabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Garcinia kola on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six animals each: vehicle (distilled water); leaf exract only (100 and 200mg/kg respectively); untreated diabetic rats; treated diabetic rats (extract: 100 and 200mg/kg respectively, glibenclaimide: 0.5 mg/kg). The extract was orally administerd to the diabetic rats for fourteen consecutive days. A Significant decrease in hyperglycemia, active regeneration of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, restoration of pancreatic architecture, increased level of glutathione and increased activi-ties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and antioxidant enzyme were observed in the extract treated diabetic rats compared with the untreated diabetic rats. The leaf extract compared favourably with the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclaimide. This result suggests that the leaf extract of Garcinia kola possesses antidiabetic activity possibly through antioxidant mechanism. This may have implication in herbal medicine.

Performance Evaluation of GSPEBH Based on Mean Average Precision []

Abstract The rapid growth in the volume of data has resulted to what is known as big data. This data are indexed for efficient retrieval in the cloud environment. Recently, attention of researchers is drawn to designing efficient indexing techniques searching schemes in the field of data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, and object matching. ANN methods is needed for similarity search to reduce the computational complexity and memory requirements as against the straight forward techniques that uses exhaustive comparison. Hashing based indexing algorithms are gaining much attention due to their memory efficiency and search accuracy. However, the use of selective projections generation has shown to be inefficient due to the long code length. For an efficient indexing algorithm, we propose a Geo-similarity preserving embedding-based hashing algorithm for improving the search accuracy and memory cost. Extensive experiment is carried out GIST 1M dataset and evaluate the performance of our method and compared our result based on the mean average precision. The results shows that our method outperform-state-of-the-art techniques.


The quest for the quality of life for people should be the ultimate desire for good governance. This is to relieve the poverty condition in pursuit of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). More so that the era of MDGs has ebbed out to give way for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) transformative 2030 agenda, it is imperative that whatsoever economic model, strategy and approach, embraced in this determination must not be at the expense of the citizens’ quality of life. Privatisation benefits the lives of citizens in the developed countries, where the provisions of goods and services deliveries succeeded and fostered equitable and egalitarian society. The reason for this was independent regulatory frameworks for proper monitoring and political transparency put in place to form enabling background for private investors to operate in. Nevertheless, the consequences of privatisation in Nigeria are not as intended, as the costs of services superseded its benefits, owing to some reasons the paper is out to discuss. As a literature review paper with its discussions predominantly based on secondary data sources on the conceptual issues, the paper seeks to explain the socio-economic consequence of electricity service delivery privatisation in Nigeria. Privatisation policy has been claimed to have adversely impinged on the quality of life of the populace, aggravating the poverty condition of people. Based on identified policy gap of non-harmonising of policies with the actual situation on the ground, this paper argues that the issues of social-economic impact were occasioned by the privatisation policy, identifying the inadequacies of this approach to service delivery of electricity. The paper finally recommends the necessity of comprehensive planning that takes into consideration certain factors that are fundamental to decision making, policy resolution and implementation in Nigeria.

Practical of the mammography in Cameroun []

The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of application of the recommendations as regards technique of mammography by the manipulators in the medical structures through the appreciation of the quality of the stages of realization and protection against radiation measurements and protection against the infections at the time the examination of mammography and the analysis the criteria of success on images of mammography.

Hybridity, Ambivalence and Mimicry in Postcolonial Algerian Novel []

The present work, at length, constitutes of a broad study on postcolonial literature where are underlined the concepts of ‘Ambivalence’, ‘Hybridity’ and ‘Mimicry’. These are mainly the literary devices most of which postcolonial writers made inclusive in their novels so as to show the reader to what extent the coloniser keeps on dehumanising the colonised and makes him deprived of his identity, his culture and his language. All too often, writers of this kind of literature actually targeted to shape the thoughts and assumptions of the Algerian people to ensure a thorough “prise de conscience” of the harsh of incessant social, cultural and linguistic effects in a neo-colonial era. We, therefore, and accordingly proceeded with a comparative study of the extracts from the above mentioned concepts from the following novels: Feraoun’s “Land and Blood”, Kateb Yacine’s “Nejma” and Mohamed Dib’s “La Grande Maison”. This was on the purpose to validate the convergence of the findings within the interpretation of different extracts which at the junction of this study would appear no divergence in their intents to express a negative attitude towards the coloniser. Hitherto, though these writers emphatically had distinctive individual, direct and determined styles and approaches to writing, their literature’s goal was to produce common sense and sensibility among the Algerian as well as a worldwide readership. This paper is, therefore, to highlight these writers’ aspirations which can be viewed as being the bias that describes their postcolonial literature using, hybridity, ambivalence and mimicry. yet, having one common concern which is the awakening of a national consciousness by producing a literature of denunciation and revolt against the colonial system.


Contemporary Nigeria presents an excellent laboratory for the study of war and peculiar problems associated with the values, principles and dynamics of crisis prevention, management and resolution. There are also fundamental shortcomings in the areas of peace building. Nigeria transited from military dictatorship to multi-party democracy on the 29th May, 1999. The country has been bedeviled by various forms of violent communal conflicts since then. Thousands of people have lost their lives, many were maimed or displaced from their communities and even lost their properties as a result of these problems. While some of these conflicts had their roots in the past, others were manufactured by the elite, seeking to stretch the liberty inherent in the new democratic process in Nigeria. All these conflicts have continued to constitute a recurrent destabilizing factors and a serious impediment to the survival of democratic transition in the country. A major of these conflicts is the Ife/Modakeke conflict which took several dimensions and years; claiming so many lives and properties. The paper however examines the social and economic implications of this conflict not only on the two groups involved, but as well as the country in general. The work made use of both primary and secondary data.


Objective: This research article was aimed at finding out influence of various factors including physician and paramedic interaction, waiting time, diagnostic processes and hygienic conditions on patient satisfaction. Study Design: The study is explanatory is nature. Deductive approach was adopted whereby hypotheses were formulated followed by preparation of a research instrument i.e. a well-structured questionnaire for data collection. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Karachi and two leading hospitals i.e. Abbasi Shaheed and Jinnah Hospitals were taken as target population. For the study, data were collected from the hospitals from 12 to 26 June 2017. Patients and Methodology:Responses of 152 patients admitted in different departments of Abbasi Shaheed and Jinnah Hospitals were obtained. Patients who were admitted in different wards of the hospitals during 12 to 26 June 2017 were approached by adopting convenience sampling technique. To analyze the data, statistical tools, Pearson’s Correlation (to examine relationship of variables) and Regression (to test impact of IVs on DV) were used, with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 22. Results: Results have revealed that out of the five independent variables, two (Paramedics Interactions and Hygienic Conditions) have significant impact on patient satisfaction since p value is less than .05 whereas remaining three (Physician Interaction, Waiting Time and Diagnostic Processes) do not have significant impact of patient satisfaction as p value is greater than .05 (Table-8). Besides, Correlation analysis indicates that all variables have varying degree of positive relationship with patient satisfaction. Conclusion: It is concluded that patient satisfaction is better with regard to paramedical interaction and hygienic conditions. However, patients are not satisfied with physician interaction, waiting time, diagnosis process. Taking benefits from the study, it is hoped that higher management of the hospitals shall evaluate their internal operative systems and take appropriate measures to improve hospital services and facilities for achieving greater patient satisfaction.


Reliable information on crop statistics is vital for agricultural policy design and decision making. Diverse tools have been employed to achieve this aim. The utilization of satellite data for agricultural purposes has been well adapted. These applications include vegetation mapping, crop growth monitoring, crop yield prediction, crop disease assessment, stress detection, and component identification in plants, etc. The interest in Imaging Spectroscopy for agro–based applications is increasing. It is a promising approach that incorporates traditional imaging and spectroscopy in a single system to acquire spatial and spectral data jointly from a feature or an object. The current paper is a review of literatures on Imaging Spectroscopy for crop monitoring in Nigeria. Finally, this review demonstrates the fact that, combining both spectral and spatial information in one system, data acquired through Imaging Spectroscopy guarantees the ability to accurately classify different land feature types and even subclass types. Hence it is applicable in crop monitoring.

Age Effect on the Mechanical Properties of acid treated Yushania Alpine Bamboo Species. []

Age Effect on the Mechanical Properties of acid treated Yushania Alpine Bamboo Species. Dawit Tessema Ebissa, awwce2005@gmail.com Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion technology Institute, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Bamboo has received increasing attention over the last two decades for its economic and environmental values. In Africa, Asia and Latin America, it is closely associated with indigenous culture and knowledge and is widely used for housing, forestry, agroforestry, agricultural activities and utensils. In countries undergoing economic development, traditional bamboo culture gradually disappears. However, industrial development of bamboo is offering a new opportunity to younger generations to retain and continue developing cultural traditions related to the cultivation, harvesting and use of bamboo. Ethiopia is one of the few countries in the world endowed with a vast bamboo resource base. The country has an estimated one million hectares of natural bamboo forest, 7% of the world total and 67% of the African total. There is large amount of bamboo distributed in both highland and lowland areas including areas not suitable for other plants. And also there is a new species ‘jiant bamboo’ that is cultivated under amhara agricultural research center. Currently these different bamboo species uses in the country as construction material, for making furniture, and as livestock fodder whereas, their mechanical properties are not characterized yet. Therefore in addition to these bamboo applications for advanced industrial development textile and other energy production all properties have to be characterized for researcher and users. To characterize, first the fiber is extracted with different extraction method. In this study, Yushania alpine species bamboo fiber at different age is extracted chemically(acid HCl tratment) in different concentration and then test their mechanical properties based on ASTM D3822-07 international fiber testing standard by using FAVIMAT FIBER TEST and finally Analysis the age effect on the mechanical properties of the bamboo fiber. Key Words: - Bamboo Plant, Yushania alpine species, Mechanical properties, age effect, acid treatment.


Energy is a measure of system’s ability to do work. The need for energy in all sectors of life which include industry, transportation, hospital, home, etc, cannot be over-emphasized. This is because of its universal importance to mankind. The use of energy pervades every aspect of modern society but it is not efficiently used in many sectors of life. In view of this, there is an incessant increase in fuel costs; energy efficiency studies are thus rapidly becoming more important. Considering the population of Nigeria and quantity of power supply, there should be need for energy efficiency. This paper assesses alternative fuels, energy conservation, building design, appliances, industry and vehicles.

The practice of pharmacists In educating diabetic patients In Benghazi Hospitals []

The practice of pharmacists In educating diabetic patients In Benghazi Hospitals Mailud El-Amari, Hend. A. Mazani , Antisar Al-Abdlwanis, HadirGawili, Faculty of public health, University of Benghazi Correspondence : Email: mailudamari@gmail.com Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia .it is associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate ,fat and protein metabolism ,and result in chronic complication. The pharmacist is a very important member specially in drug giving instruction. descriptive cross-sectional study about education role of pharmacist as part of the health care provider in Libya health system institutions. The study was carried out among pharmacist working as full time and patients available and accept to participate in our study. The study include 151 of pharmasists and DM patients, coming for follow up in the DM clinics, we found gender 47.0% male & 53.0% female in different age groups about half from the age group of 40 –59 year old. Our present study show that pharmacist did not participate much in health education programs for patients in general and for DM specifically. While they think that the medication use time, and the dose should be explained to patient, due to the need for it.

A Study of “An American Brat” through Self Defense Mechanism []

One of the blame against Pakistani female fiction writers is that they have narrow view. They do not have multifarious themes at hand. They harp on the same string again and again. They just repeatedly vocalize their thoughts about patriarchy and male chauvinism. This study is conducted to show that this is not case all the time. This research relates that what kind of defense Mechanisms are used by characters created by Bapsi Sidhwa to evaluate the consequences of usage of these mechanisms in her novel An American Brat. Sigmund Freud’s defense mechanism theory is feasible to answer all such questions while delving into the personality of all major characters. Research shows that Feroza uses defense Mechanism to achieve the level of self-amendment. Feroza has led a hard and dreary life and she offers reasonable causes as to the mode of life she leads. Rationality and wisdom always helps her on her way. People use defense mechanisms to cope with uncertain conditions of life.

Possibility of Life in Titan []

Astrobiology, a branch of life science, has shown possibility of life in celestial bodies including titan. Titan comprises of earth-like dense nitrogen atmosphere and liquid methane on its surface which acts as solvent to interact molecules with movement. Carbon and nitrogen which is present in titan are the major components from which various life supporting complex molecules arises. Complex molecules like acrylonitrile, sugar, amino acids and many more are present there which is best candidate for protocell. The ultimate goal of our research is to detect methane-based oxygen-free life forms at such low temperature having different structure and metabolism than those which have been recognized yet. Azotosome, a nitrogen body, is capable of forming and functioning in liquid methane at cryogenic temperature may survive there. Like we have adapted ourselves to the environment of the Earth, may some aliens have adapted themselves to the environment of Titan making use of hydrocarbon as requisites of life. So, to disclose its mystery a space craft should be send. In a spacecraft, we might as well use spectroscopies and apply Bragg’s law and grating for the identification of molecules and structures on the surface through structural fingerprints and chemicals in all forms. Due to insulating icy surface, there is no heat transfer between core and atmosphere such that core may be warm. So, applying cryobot we can penetrate the icy crust to investigate life beneath the surface. Thus, titan has a huge possibility of life in a chemistry different than the Earth.


The use of primordial factors of religious affiliation and political party loyalism in recruitment in Imo State Civil Service, Nigeria, were examined in this study. For the purpose of this study two hypotheses were formulated in line with the objective. Literatures were reviewed to determine what was done previously in the area, under study. The researcher chose a sample of 420 Civil Servants from selected ministries in Imo State Civil Service. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, interview, and secondary sources. The data gathered were analyzed using tabular modes of presentation including frequencies and percentage, while the Chi-square (X2) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that primordial issues of religious affiliation and political party loyalism affected workers recruitment in Imo State Civil Service. Therefore, the study recommended that there should be a reorientation and sensitization of the members of Service Commission members to the effect of the use of primordial issues in recruitment, that those guilty of this should be punished and examinations into civil service be conducted and published for transparency.


The dissertation described the interlinking relationship of public secondary schools’ organizational culture, principals’ leadership styles and performance. The descriptive correlation design was used where a total of 84 schools in Region III served as main sources of data. Using three questionnaires adopted from the works Cameron and Quinn (2011), Bass and Avolio (2004), and Juliano (2017), answers to the questions were sought. The study found out that the schools’ overall culture was a mixture of the four archetypes with most emphases on a people – centered environment. Clan was the dominant culture in four of six key dimensions of the actual situation, and was also the most favored in the preferred settings. It was also revealed that the schools’ actual and preferred cultures are congruent, thus, there was no obvious necessity to introduce a new mix of culture. Findings also postulated that most of the principals had fairly often or highly practiced transformational and transactional leadership while sometimes or moderately exhibiting laissez faire style. The principals were also rated very satisfactory in their performance on school leadership, management and operations. Ultimately, it was proven that significant interlinking relationships do exist among the public secondary schools’ organizational culture, the principals’ leadership styles and their performance. Primarily, it was found that clan culture, transformational leadership style, and leadership performance have significant positive correlation. Consequently, implications to Educational Management were drawn based from the salient findings of the study. Principals, as educational leaders, have the ultimate responsibility to shape the cultures and be shaped by the cultures of their schools. They set the directions of the schools, and are basically responsible in the overall management operations of their schools. This implies that the principals should be mindful that no single best leadership style applies in every situation. Thus, it is critical for them to have a thorough understanding of the leadership style behaviors that are most appropriate in different circumstances in order to create or shape a positive school culture, thus, achieve optimum performance.