Volume 7, Issue 5

Employment options for strategies to combat violent extremism after 2014 ISIS model []


Terrorism has been defined within the framework of a State in terms of the objectives of the operations carried out by violent armed organizations and groups, and at other times a tool in the hands of the State employed by its intelligence agencies to achieve its objectives both internally and externally, but we note here that the phenomenon of terrorism has become since the beginning of the nineties of last century The phenomenon is complex and intertwined and sophisticated get away The various forms of terrorism have diversified, and its tools have expanded and its influence has expanded beyond the geopolitical limits of a country, so it has become a global phenomenon that threatens all countries of the world ISIS model Therefore, we find that behind this development are key factors, including the interdependence characteristic that made the world like the small cosmic village as a result of overlap due to technological developments and the secretions of globalization, as well as the trends of the American political discourse to the post-September 11, 2001 to the Arab and Islamic countries


Investigating Intentions of Female Graduates in Sindh by Utilizing The Theory of Planned Behavior []


Abstract This study has used three variables to predict the entrepreneurial intentions of female graduates of Sindh. Through thorough analysis and by examining the body of literature the present study tested the three components including attitude, Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control in context of Sindh province. Further data was collected from 200 female graduates who are studying in Shah Abdul Latif University and Sukkur IBA University. Therefore, SPSS version 22 was used for data analysis that found significant contribution of three variables on formal female entrepreneurial intentions by keeping in view the tough current economic scenario. From the last decade, Enhanced entrepreneurial education and increased cost of living has promoted formal female entrepreneurship other than traditional businesses at some extent particularly in semi –urban Sindh but still requires attention for rural female. Significantly this study will provide useful insight to graduates and policy makers of Sindh province. Keywords: Attitude, Subjective Norms, Perceived Behavioral control, Entrepreneurial Intentions


Women Empowerment: Rethinking Sankara’s Feminist Ideology as a Panacea to Development in 21st Century Africa []


Abstract The African socio-cultural configuration has remained fundamentally patriarchal. This has not only encouraged the domination and oppression of women, it has also promoted backwardness in Africa. It means therefore that if Africa must deliver on her quest for development, women empowerment is a fundamental issue to address. Sankara, being passionate about this, became one of the first African Heads of State to condemn the oppression of women in all its ramifications and was committed to the struggle to end it. He implemented policies that respected the rights of Burkinabe women, whose population was over half of the overall population and treated them with dignity and value as human beings. This was to break away from practices that were oppressive to women and retrogressive to the nation. This paper therefore, analysed the feminist revolutionary idea of Sankara, to advocate for gender equality as the fulcrum of African development. The paper argued that the empowerment of African women should not be seen as an act of human compassion rather, it should be considered as a well-deserved timely action. Also, as the saying; when a woman is empowered the whole nation is empowered, the paper argued that continues oppression of women through the traditional patriarchal system has not only brought African women backward, it has dwarfed African development. The paper concluded that, for Africa to deliver on her development goal, women empowerment should be treated as a timely issue demanding concentrated attention. The paper also, has offered some modest recommendations.


Physico-Chemical Composition and Active Principles of Leaves and Fruits of Pseudoacasia Robinia of Upper Katanga in the Democratic Republic of Congo []


Abstract There is a variety of the wild acacia plant in Upper Katanga / DRC. It is a pseudo acasia Robinia, but which does not give flowers and does not release any parfum. At the end of our research, the results show that the pseudo acasia plant Robinia growing in Lubumbashi and its surroundings is endowed with antioxidant, antiseptic and anti-venomous properties due to the presence of tannins in the leaves and fruits; This richness in tannins could be enhanced in oenology by the vinification of wild tropical fruits, generally poor in tannins. Domestication and protection in its natural environment of this plant are imperative.


The effectiveness of employee training and development programs of kitex ltd , Aluva []


Training is the process of increasing the knowledge and skills for doing a particular job. It is an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. The purpose of training is basically to bridge the gap between job requirements and present competence of an employee. Training is aimed at improving the behaviour and performance of a person. It is a never ending or a continuous process. The study is an analysis on the Training and development program followed at Kitex Ltd and is carried out by interviewing 100 employees of Kitex Ltd. The main objectives of my study is to Find the effectiveness of employee training and development programs of Kitex Ltd. Training programs main objective is to improve the productivity of the company’s employees which in turn will improve the company’s profitability. Through training, the employee skill levels are upgraded which will make the employees more productive. When an employee gets promoted from one level to next level, the skills required to do his/her job changes and training is essential in equipping the employee with the new skills. Training provides self-motivation to the employees. Key words: Training , Job, Skills, Job, Task.


The Impact of Diversity on Relationship Conflict (By keeping in view language & Ethnic differences) []


Abstract Purpose: Language & ethnic diversity is the basis of discrimination in Pakistan. In this regard it is important to understand diversity & relationship conflict in current economic scenario in context of multinational firms. The main aim of this study was to understand factors of diversity that lead to relationship conflict Design /Methodology/ approach: The conceptual framework implies the impact of diversity on relationship conflict. Therefore, this study utilized the descriptive methodology and data was personally collected from 19 groups of multinational firm. Survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 250 employees. SPSS version 22 was used for data analysis . Findings: The results of analysis revealed that Pearson correlation & linear regression revealed significant contribution of diversity on relationship conflict. Diversity showed good strength of relationship with relationship conflict Originality /Value: This study will provide useful insight to government, policy makers and managers to implement diversity strategy while managing relationship between employs for peaceful work place.


Different Sections Effecting Material Management in Construction Industry Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) []


Material management is in the leading concerns facing professionals in construction industry globally. The industry has a prominent part in economic growth for countries all universally. This study highlights the factors affecting material management which lead to cost overrun in the construction industry of Peshawar (Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) Pakistan. Improvement in material management and proactive approach in planning & management results in saving of cost and time. This study emphasized on various factors for improving material management practices and cost controlling in construction industry of Kpk, Pakistan. Questionnaire survey and practical material management approach assessment was adopted to assess the effect of each factor. The relative importance index (RII) of all the twenty (20) factors, affecting material management and cost was calculated. This study was also compared with the factors and procedures, affected material management and cost with projects studied as case studies in the target area, which can be utilized by the project managers to consider certain features related to material management and cost in diverse areas. The foremost factors which are sorted out and conclusions of this study will help project managers to anticipate weak areas of material management and cost impacts in their projects to offer precise approaches for project success. KEYWORDS: materials, construction industry, importance index, factors


THE IMPACT OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF TEXTILE INDUSTRIES IN SINDH, PAKISTAN []


The purpose of present study is to examine the effects of external motivational factors on employees. Current study is employed Herzberg’s two-factor theory to investigate the effects of extrinsic factors on employees’ performance.in textile industries of Sindh, Pakistan. Seven point Likert scale is used for survey purpose. Reliability test is conducted for knowing the internal consistency of extrinsic factors as independent variables and employees’ performance as dependent variable. Pearson correlation, Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), t test and multiple regression techniques are employed for data analysis. The results found that all extrinsic factors have positive and significant effects on employees. This study provides good amount of knowledge on the importance of extrinsic factors for improving the employees’ performance.


Short-term follow up treatment outcome and referral pattern of mental illness at a psychiatric outpatient clinic of Dhaka city, Bangladesh []


Psychiatric problems are increasing day by day through out the World as well as in Bangladesh. Psychiatric services have shifted its` focus from historical in patient service towards community based outpatient services which is even more important in a resource scarce country like Bangladesh.1 It is important to assess the impact of present outpatient services to identify the strength and weakness of such services to provide comprehensive service to the patients in future. This study was a cross sectional study conducted in 2015 at a private psychiatric outpatient service center located at Dhaka. Data was collected from 300 consecutive patients who gave informed consent. Patients’ socio-demographic data and referral information were recorded and treatment outcome was measured subjectively. Results were compared with data from another study conducted in 2007 at the same centre. For these two studies done in 2007 and 2015, patient registry book and their history of information in the form of questionnaire were used. Information was recorded both in hardcopy and softcopy. In this study, it was found that patients or their relatives reported subjective improvement in 94% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients were referred by GP/specialist and 84% of patients were referred by self/relative/cured patient which higher than the previous study done in 2007. This small study has shown the effectiveness of outpatient psychiatric service and has indicated the increased awareness about and acceptance of psychiatric illness among the population.


Antibacterial Textiles Surface via Synthesized of Nanopar-ticles from Brassica Rapa var. Japonica Leaf. []


Extracted green AgNPs from Brassica rapa var. japonica leaf application is really outstanding way to functionalize wool fabric surface. This research aims to investigate/analysis the antimicrobial activity, antioxidative & UV resistance of wool fabrics surface after treated with synthesized Brassica silver nanoparticles via exhaustion methods. This is 1st time ever, wool fabric surface functionalized by synthesized AgNPs from Brassica rapa var.japonica green leaf extracts. In this study we have analyzed surfaces after treated by green silver Nanoparticles onto the wool fabric via various ways (UV performance evaluated according to Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4399:1996 (AS/NZS4399)and the antibacterial activity evaluated according to GB/T 20944.3-2008 (eq. ISO 20743-2007) against bacteria i.e. Escherichia coli (E. coli). The results indicated that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully assembled on wool surface without any adverse effect on the surfaces of fabric by exhaustion method where Liquor, pH and temperature of application medium were adjusted to 4 and 45 ºC, respectively for 115-20min and proved that AgNPs are antibacterial, antioxidative, UV resistance properties and such fabric may be useable as anti-Hygienic or medical textiles for future textiles wearer .Thus, this finding may be a matter of interest for the consumer products production as an antibacterial and UV resist textiles which is known as medical textiles.


Comparative Analysis of Popular Web Forecasting Software’s []


Mobile apps or mobile applications are software designed specifically to run on a wide range of mobile devices including tablet computers and smart phones. The initial norm was the use of websites which was great but not always suitable for all clients as most of these sites were not mobile friendly. Research has shown that the use of these apps are a very good way to increase the revenue of a business as about 50% of search results were from mobile devices and smart phones. Even in other areas like the education sector, the use of software created by app developers in India has become quite widespread.


Towards Public Transport Improvement in the Lagos megacity: Lessons from the Bogota's Experience []


This review examines the role of transportation in urban development. It looks at public transportation in the Lagos megacity with emphasis on its shortcomings. Some of these shortcomings include congestion problems, parking challenges, longer commuting, public transport inadequacy, urban sprawl, pollution, lack of cycling and pedestrian facilities accidents and safety issues among others. It also examines previous attempts to address the transportation challenges in the city. The introduction of restriction in the use the roadway by odd and even number plates on different days of the week was one of such attempts. Another, amidst many others, was an extensive road construction works to cater for increasing traffic. The most recent is the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) initiative. The paper goes on to compare the recent BRT initiative in Lagos with a similar project in Bogota, Colombia. It shows that the city needs to upgrade its BRT system to the standard of the TransMilenio scheme. This will make public transport use attractive to Lagos residents to be able to effectively and efficiently make use of mass public transport. It also suggests other solutions to Lagos transport problems, some of which are improved parking management schemes, transit oriented development, and improvement in job-housing balance.


FLOOD INUNDATION MAPPING IN GELANA IN ETHIOPIA []


Abstract: The flooded areas along the Gelana River have been mapped based on the exceedance of highest flows for different return periods using the hydrologic engineering center for river analysis system (HEC-RAS) model, Geographical Information System (GIS) for spatial data processing and hydrologic engineering center geographical river analysis system (HEC-GeoRAS) for interfacing between hydrologic engineering center for river analysis system (HEC-RAS) and Geographical Information System (GIS). The velocity of 100 years return period would be 13.2 m/s, the velocity of 50 years return period would be 15.6 m/s, the velocity of 25 years return period was 5.1 m/s, the velocity of 10 years return period was 5 m/s and lastly the velocity of 2 years return period was 5 m/s. Proper land use management, river training work and a forestation are significant to reduce the adverse effects of flooding particularly in the flood prone areas. The result of this research will help the concerned bodies like; NGOs, governmental organizations, stack holders of the catchment, researchers to formulate and develop strategies, considerations and awareness according to the available flood inundation to the area. Key words: Gelana, HEC- GeoRAS, inundation mapping, GIS


Quantification of pluvial rice culture sensitivity to hydric stress in the of Lubumbashi agroecology []


ABSTRACT This work was undertaken to assess the effects of sowing and chicken droppings on the growth of rainfed rice (Oryva sativa) with a view to making recommendations for the use of chicken droppings in rice fertilization On the one hand, and propose the best sowing period in the Lubumbashi region and in the low rainfall zone. The test was set up using a 3-fold factorial system comprising 4 sowing dates of rice and 4 doses of chicken droppings. Observations were made on some growth parameters and on the need for irrigation water from rainfed rice crops. The results show that only the sowing date had a significant influence on all the growth parameters studied, whereas the interactions between the sowing date and the hen droppings did not influence them significantly. The same applies to the application, alone, of chicken droppings for which the effect is insignificant. Water deficit increases linearly with the number of days of delay in sowing rice.


DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MOBILE AIR COMPRESSOR []


Air compressors are used as versatile tool throughout the industries for a variety of purposes. They are used for various applications in manufacturing plants such as driving pneumatic tools, air operated controlling equipment’s, conveying of fly ash etc.. . Air compressors are one of the major sources of energy consumption in industries. In the present scenario, the importance of energy conservation is increasing day by day. For a manufacturing plant, improving energy efficiency or replacement of less energy efficient equipment with energy efficient ones can earn significant savings. In the manufacturing plant, it was found that compressors which are running were installed in the earlier stages. Due to aging, the efficiency of compressor decreased and it resulted in huge expense. As a solution, the performance assessment of the compressors were done. Compressor with an energy efficiency less than 35% is replaced with energy efficient Compressor. Modification in the compressor air system was done to improve efficiency. The latest trend in the automotive industry is to develop light weight vehicles. Every automotive industry is looking to reduce the weight of the vehicle as it helps in the better handling of the vehicle and increases the efficiency of the vehicle. Today, the heavy vehicles are known for producing a large amount of harmful gases like CO2, SO2 etc. which act as the major source for global warming. So research is going on to find a light weight vehicle which does not pollute the environment. One of the alternatives is the use of compressed air to generate power to run an automobile. Due to the unique and environmental friendly properties of air, it is considered as one of the future fuels which will run the vehicles. So in this paper an effort is made to study the extent of research done and the potential advantages and disadvantages of the compressed air technology. Keywords: - Light Weight Vehicles, Compressed Air, Global Warming, Alternative Sources of Energy.


HABITAT CHARACTERIZATION OF LITTORAL ZONE OF UPPER LAKE, BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH []


Water management is a critical issue for the survival of organisms residing on the earth. The present study is conducted in the city of lakes- Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Aquatic organisms habitating the area depends on the physical, chemical and biological quality of their habitat. Macro benthic organisms are indicator of pollution, therefore any disturbance in their habitat leads to survival of organisms.


Integrated Accident Detection & Reporting System []


Abstract: Many people around the world use their privtae vehicles as the main method of their daily transportation. Although, the use of such a method has its advantages, road accidents are very common and is considered as one of the leading causes of fatalities. Difficulties and delay in getting help on time after a road accedient, is one of the factors that ranks road accedients as a leading cause of death. One way to minimise the severity of this, is to equipe vehicles with an integrated Accident detection & reporting system. Hence, this paper presents an intelligent framework that can find the nearest location and report an accident place. This paper propose accident detection and reporting system by using GPS and GSM. The objective of this system to minimize the delay of reaching the rescue in the accident location. This scheme is fully automated. Thus it locates the accident spot accurately, calculates the distance, selects the nearest emergency station to the accident location and then sends alerting message to the selected location. Many kinds of research are heading to develop the features of the airbag. However, the success of any safety equipment depends on its correct implementation and specific rules to be followed.


Class Attendance record based face recognition using Raspberry pi []


Mainly there are two conventional methods of marking attendance which are calling out the roll call or by taking student sign on pa-per. They both were more time consuming and difficult. Hence, there is a requirement of computer-based student attendance man-agement system which will assist the faculty for maintaining attendance record automatically. In this project the automated attend-ance system using Raspberry pi 3B+ with OpenCV/Python libraries have been implemented. Our ideas have been projected to imple-ment “Class Attendance System Based on Facial Recognition”, in which it compasses large applications. The system is designed using OpenCV/Python platform. The proposed system uses supervisory neural network module with Local Binary Patterns Histograms (LBPH) algorithm which is based on LBP combined with histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) descriptor. This algorithm compares the detected image with training image in the dataset, then recognized the image and determines students who are present and ab-sent. The attendance record is maintained in MySQL (which contain the student data) as a tabular sheet which is updated automatical-ly in the system. Also, the system produces a monthly report with list of students who have reached/exceed the absenteeism per-centage and notify them via email.


CONTROLLED FOREIGN COMPANIES (CFC) RULES IN INDONESIA : TO ANALYZE THE LAW HARMONY AND AN IMPACT FOR START UP COMPANIES OR FOREIGN NON EXCHANGE BUSINESS ENTITIES []


The purpose of this research is to deeply analyze the role of CFC regulations in Indonesia. This regulation is important to be enforced in every country (especially developing countries) because of the tendency for start-up companies that choose to become private companies, it is used by taxpayers who want to invest without being monitored further by the government. The scheme which ultimately leads to cons from the government so the BEPS Action Plan appears jointly studied by the OECD member countries. This study analyzes the suitability of CFC rules with the nature of rules through the analysis of tax policies written on Rosdiana & Irianto (2014) to see the impact on start-up companies and foreign non-exchange business entities. The results of this study are 1) CFC regulations in Indonesia are in accordance with the nature of rules, but there’s different interpretation between the government and the taxpayer, 2) The latest CFC regulations have been able to accommodate and become alternative policies from the previous regulation, 3) The latest regulation of CFCs makes the taxpayer to postpone or delay their investment activity, this matter can also be disadvantageous the private companies.


TYPES OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES EFFECTING LONG TERM DIABETICS []


:BACKGROUND: Diabetes has become very common disease throughout in our country and the world. The situation has turn into an alarming condition as the prevalence of this disease is increasing day by day due to unhealthy lifestyle and many other factors. Long term diabetes leads to many macrovascular complications including cardiovascular complications. METHODS: Sample size was 109. The age range was above 37-92. There were three groups in the study. First was normal control group, second was group of diabetic patients and third was group of diabetic patients with CVD. RESULTS: Most of the diabetic and CVD patient had positive family history. Only 38.9% patients manage their stress after having CVD. 63% patients were having type II diabetes mellitus. 61.53% individuals were obese while 21.79% were overweight. CONCLUSION: The conclusion is that patients of long term type II diabetes have more chances to develop cardiovascular disease as compare to type I diabetic patients. People should be aware about their familial diseases in order to prevent them. Obesity should be controlled because if it remains untreated, it would ultimately result into diseases like hypertension, diabetes and CVD.


Assessing e-Governance Implementation in Nigeria through the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Application. []


The focus of this paper is to examine the e-governance implementation in Nigeria using the Technology Acceptance Model. The paper is qualitative in nature and relies on secondary sources for data collection and the discussion that followed. The paper found that there are certain obstacles that hinder the adoption and effective implementation of e-governance that would have engendered qualitative service delivery in public sector organizations in Nigeria. It is in line with the foregoing, that this paper concludes that tackling the obstacles to e-governance adoption, implementation is key to the achievement of better public service delivery. The paper therefore recommends the sensitization of public servants on the importance and benefits of adopting and implementing e-governance in their administrative and organizational processes that will ultimately lead to improved service delivery in Nigeria among others.


A Technology Transfer Model for Renewable Energy Based Agro-processing Technologies []


The term technology transfer has been viewed different by different writers and researchers. One wider encompassing view is where Technology Transfer (TT) begins during the development of an innovation, continues through its dissemination, and extends into its early implementation. A distinction is also made between horizontal and vertical transfer. This paper is developed based on technology transfer from vertical integration and from a wider perspective that includes; technology development, dissemination, and adoption. Technology transfer is one of the ingredients for development of technological capabilities of enterprises. Most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) including those using renewable energy and agro-processing technologies lack technological capabilities and require effective technology transfer. Some of potential renewable energy based agro-processing technologies for use by SMEs in Kenya are solar drying and evaporative cooling. The two technologies have not been effectively introduced or adopted due to various technical and socio-economic reasons, and adoption and usage still remain low in Africa. One major challenge to their use is poor transfer efforts. Review of various models show they are diverse in their visualisation of technology transfer, and one need to consider characteristic variation of involved institutions and technologies at each of the stages of development and commercialization. This study has attempted to develop a model for technology transfer that could be used to transfer renewable energy based agro-processing technologies. The study identifies the elements of some models used by selected players in technology transfer of renewable and agro-processing technologies in Kenya. The best elements are incorporated into a consolidated model that also factors other elements from literature review. The formulated technology transfer model has three components; planning component; the technology development; and the dissemination and adoption component. Such a model can be used by diverse organisations that are engaged in technology transfer and is ideal for most renewable energy based agro-processing technologies


THE EFFECT OF COMPANY SIZE, LIQUIDITY, PROFIT PERSISTENCE, SUPPLY METHOD, AND SALES GROWTH ON EARNINGS RESPONSE COEFFICIENT []


ABSTRACT THE EFFECT OF COMPANY SIZE, LIQUIDITY, PROFIT PERSISTENCE, SUPPLY METHOD, AND SALES GROWTH ON EARNINGS RESPONSE COEFFICIENT Muh. Yusuf The Objective of study to empirically examine the effect of company size, liquidity, earnings perspective, inventory method, and sales growth on earnings response coefficient. The data in this study used secondary data from manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2012 - 2016. Data were analyzed using a quantitative approach panel data regression analysis. The results of the study show that simultaneously the independent variables of company size, liquidity, earnings persistence, inventory method, and sales growth have a effect on the dependent earnings response coefficient variable. And partially variable company size, earnings persistence, inventory method, and sales growth have a positive effect on earnings response coefficient while liquidity variables partially have a negative effect on earnings response coefficient. Keywords: Earnings response coefficient, earnings quality, earnings response coefficient


INTEGRATION OF RSA WITH DELTA ENCODING TECHNIQUES IN CLOUD SECURITY AND PRIVACY []


With passage of time cloud computing has been on high demand due to its cost and high reliability along with high security and scalability. Cloud Computing enables shared resources, software, and information to be provided to computers and other devices as a utility. However in the area of research it is observed that cloud computing still has some issues in security regarding privacy. In cloud computing data are sent over an insecure channel and they are therefore subjected to so many types of intruders. This means that it has become necessary to protect the secrecy of messages which are sent over an insecure channel so that correct data are received by the receiver at the right time without any intrusion. In order to ensure secrecy of data when sent over insecure channel an encryption is employed. In this research work the encryption algorithm employed is an extension and modification of the RSA cryptosystem. In RSA algorithm the message to be encrypted does not undergo any form of transformation or encoding prior to encryption and the level of encryption is therefore homogeneous. In our work, we extended the level of encryption to two, which makes it heterogeneous. Prior to RSA encryption, the message is subjected to an encoding mechanism using ‘Delta Encoding Technique’. Thus the proposed security algorithm preserves the security in cloud computing in two phases that is by RSA algorithm and ‘Delta Encoding Technique’. Therefore the researchers objective is to develop an enhancement encryption scheme which is heterogeneous compared with the traditional RSA system that is homogeneous, which brings us toward improved RSA cryptosystem for privacy in terms of the level of transformation. For this purpose, Key Generation, Encryption and Decryption Time in Original RSA and the proposed algorithm have been compared according to the different size of exponents. Moreover, some of the common attacks against RSA algorithm have been analyzed to detect the resistance of the proposed algorithm against possible attacks. After thoroughly comparison between the original RSA and the proposed algorithm, the results showed that the proposed algorithm was better than the original RSA in terms of security and total execution time.


SOLUTION OF LINEAR VOLTERRA INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND KIND USING THE MODIFIED ADOMIAN DECOMPOSITION METHOD []


In this paper, linear volterra integro-differential equations are reduced to the standard linear volterra integral equation of the second kind in other to avoid unrealistic assumptions experienced with other methods and the exact solution are obtained using the modified Adomian decomposition method (MADM).


`EFFECTS OF GUM ARABIC ON THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYACYLAMIDE []


Abstract Graft copolymer of Polyacrylamide/Gum Arabic has been successfully synthesized with the aim of modifying the mechanical and rheological properties of polyacrylamide. This was done by preparing solution of different concentrations of acrylamide and gum Arabic and solution polymerization reaction was performed in a reaction vessel. The graft copolymer was characterized in terms of percentage graft level, shear rates and viscosity determination using the ubbelohde viscometer. The results obtained indicate that gum Arabic has a marked effect on the mechanical stability of polyacrylamide by improving the back bone rigidity and hence improvement on shear sensitivity behavior. Keyword: Polyacrylamide, Gum Arabic, Polymerization,Viscosity,Concentration


Effects of polyethylene glycol as alternative activator in a bamboo fibre filled natural rubber composite. []


There is a growing interest in the research community of the possibility of reducing or total elimination of zinc oxide (ZnO) as activator in rubber compounds. This study therefore is an attempt in that direction to study the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an alternative activator in rubber compounds. Various levels of polyethylene glycol (0,2,3,4,5,6 phr) and zinc oxide (as reference) were compounded with 100phr of natural rubber and other compounding additives. The effects of both polyethylene glycol and zinc oxide were investigated on the mechanical properties of the composite. The results obtained shows that polyethylene glycol has the potential as an activator. But one significant phenomenon noticed in this study is that for modulus polyethylene glycol shows no effect of reversion cure unlike zinc oxide. It is our hope from evidence shown in this study that polyethylene glycol could provide alternative route for activation of natural rubber compounds. Keywords: Composite, Mechanical properties, Natural rubber, Polyethylene glycol, Zinc oxide,


Relevance of Management Thoughts and Ideas to Private Sectors in Yola, Adamawa State []


The Managers in the private sectors are confronted with managerial decisions and issues on how to make use of the best decision possible in order to overcome the most pressing of the challenges they are presently confronted with. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess management thoughts and ideas and its relevance to Private Sectors in Yola, Adamawa State. The study adopted both qualitative and quantitative survey methods of research. Structured questionnaires were administered to 60 staff of Private Sectors using convenient sampling method, out of which 50 was retrieved. The data collected was subjected to percentage analysis and Chi-Square was employed for testing the hypothesis at 0.05 (5%) level of significance. The findings revealed that, management thought and ideas in Private Sectors Adamawa State bring expertise on social issues and improve efficiency to achieve the pre-set goals, whereas technical efficiency and effectiveness are the ultimate goals of management thought. Also, it was revealed that that management thought and idea have significant relevance to Private Sectors in Yola, Adamawa State (P<0.000 at 0.05). Based on the findings therefore, the study recommended that management of Private Sectors in Yola Adamawa State should cultivate the habit of developing vibrant thoughts and ideas in their organization as this brings expertise on social issues and improves efficiency, coordinating & facilitating transition between upper management and line agencies who implement them.


Comparison on the effectiveness of Hydrated alumunium sulfate and ferric chloride as a coagulant in brewery wastewater treatment. The case of Walia brewery, Heineken Ethiopia []


Abstract: Reclamation of process wastewater is a key to water resources conservation and sustainability. Since brewery is inherently associated with the use of considerable amount of water, this study was undertaken to investigate the appropriate dosage of ferric chloride and alum for the wastewater generated by Heineken (Wallia) brewery. For this work, samples of wastewater were collected and characterized. Series of jar test experiments were conducted in which the efficiencies of ferric chloride and alum were compared with in a coagulation/flocculation process at discharge pH.. The results showed that 20 mg/l of ferric chloride was enough for removal of both turbidity and COD where as in the case of hydrated aluminum sulfate, 40 mg/l of hydrated aluminum sulfate was found to be sufficient for the removal of both turbidity and COD. Both demonstrated the ability to coagulate colloidal particles in the brewery wastewater. Overall, hydrated aluminum sulfate was found to be a more preferable coagulant at a dosage of 40mg/l.


Kinesiophobia in Patients After Dynamic Hip Screw Placement with Open Procedure []


Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) is used in surgical procedures using a plate with a screw to hold a fracture of hip bone. Kinesiophobia (fear of movement or re injury) is prominent key factor in patient undergoing post-op DHS patients. The research aim to determine Kinesiophobia in patients after open procedure dynamic hip screw placement. This was a case series. The questionnaire was used as data collection tool. It consisted of demographics and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Total 26 patients were enrolled through sample of convenience. Patients were distributed in gender, out of sample size 26, 14 patients were male and 12 patients were female. The study setting was Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore. The collected data analyzed through SPSS software. Results show that maximum number of patients (20 out of 26) with DHS reported moderate level of Kinesiophobia. 6 patients reported high Kinesiophobia and none of the patients reported with low Kinesiophobia.The results of this study concluded that majority of the patients show moderate level of Kinesiophobia after post-op DHS with open procedure.


THE IMPACTS OF SEWAGE ON THE ENVIRONMENT []


Over the years and ages, the environment has experienced a rapid growth with respect to population and advancement in technological facilities which in return have resulted to much impact on the present-day environment. This paper critically examines the impacts of sewage on the entire environment in which man and other living things inhabit. It is indubitable to say that the impacts of sewage on man and his environment are indispensable and quite dynamic in nature. The impacts may be negative or positive. Constructive or destructive depending on the knowledge of Sewage; its treatment and pollution control in the Environment. On the other hand, the Environment is very important to man, hence, the need to make it sanitary. This paper revealed the physical, chemical and the biological tests as parts of the parameters used for determining the organic matter in waste water (sewage) .The physical test includes: Temperature, Colour, Odour and turbidity parameters while the chemical test includes test for PH, Sulphides, Chlorides etc Principal Parameters such as: Dissolved oxygen (DO), Bio-chemical Oxygen demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) were also highlighted. This paper unfolds that sewage is indispensable and unavoidable in the environment as long as people demand and utilize water for various purposes: domestic, industrial, institutional etc. Keywords: Sewage, Environment, Sewage treatment plant etc.


ROLE OF GRASS PEA (LATHYRUS SATIVUS L.) IN NUTRITION SECURITY AND RISK OF NEUROLATHYRISM []


The objective of this review was to draw attention to the possible role of grass pea(Lathyrus Sativus L.) in food and nutrition security. Grass pea is tolerant to adverse climatic variables and soil nutrient deficiency. This agrological characteristics of the plant are particularly important for the poor farmer living in arid and semi arid areas where the annual rainfall is very low. The plant is a good source of human food and forage for animal production. Despite the good nutritional profile, there are potential anti-nutritional and toxic substances such as phytates, tannins, and β-N-oxalyl-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) contained in the plant. One of the major limitations of the plant is the irreversible damage of the nerve system (neurolathyrism) if consumed for a long period of time. Both scientific and traditional efforts have been made to avoid the effects of the anti-nutritional factors and toxic substances of the plant. Different food preparation methods like soaking, boiling, roasting, and sousing are being practiced to avoid the risk of neurolathyrism. Different breeding strategies to produce a low level of β-ODAP has been also conducted and grass pea varieties with a low level of β-ODAP are released. Therefore; if the effects of antinutritional factors and the neurotoxin are minimized, the plant can assure nutritional security by direct consumption and supporting animal production.


Impact of sports-themed video games playing on real-life sports involvement of undergraduates in Rajarata University of Sri Lanka []


With the growth of the field of video gaming is given the extreme popularity among the older teenagers and emerging grownups with providing crucial breaks to investigate positive outcomes of sport themed video game playing during this development period. As a quantitative study complemented by explanatory research design, this study intended to identify the impact of sport themed video game playing on real-life sports involvement by selecting 200 undergraduates from all the faculties in Rajarata University Sri Lanka by using stratified sampling techniques employing a self-designed questionnaire. As per findings, there is a significant impact sport themed video game playing on the real-life sports involvement and affective engagement, behavioral engagement and accessibility is significantly impacted on real-life sports involvement. Thus, it is recommended that sports-themed video game play may be an effective tool to promote real-life sports participation and physical activity among older adolescents and emerging adults. As well as the finding makes vital support to an emerging body of literature on the positive outcomes of video game playing.


MASSIVE MIMO FOR HIGH-SPEED TRAIN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS []


With the current development in wireless communications in high-mobility systems such as high-speed train (HST), the HST scenario is recognised as one of the scenarios for the fifth generation (5G). Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, which are equipped with tens or hundreds of antennas has become an enhanced MIMO technique which can help in meeting the increasing demand of data for 5G wireless communication systems. In this study, the related 5G technologies and the corresponding channel modelling in HST scenarios and the challenges of deploying massive MIMO on HST was investigated The channel model was modelled using the WINNER II channel model. Based on the proposed non-stationary IMT-A massive MIMO channel models, the essential statistical properties such as the spatial cross-correlation function (CCF), local temporal autocorrelation function (ACF) of the massive MIMO channel model using different propagation scenarios such as open space, viaduct and cutting was analysed and investigated. The results from the simulations was compared with the analytical results in other to show that the statistical properties vary with time as a result of the non-stationarity of the proposed channel model. The agreement between the stationary interval of the non-stationary IMT-A channel model and the HST under different propagation scenarios shows the efficiency of the proposed channel model. Based on findings; the impact of the deployment of large antenna on the channel capacity should be thoroughly investigated under different HST propagation scenario. Also, more HST train propagation scenarios such as the tunnel, hilly terrain and the station should be considered in the non-stationary IMT-A massive MIMO channel models.


ASSESSMENT OF GROSS ALPHA AND GROSS BETA ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS IN SOME SELECT BRANDED OF NATURAL MINERAL WATER PRODUCED IN THE GREATER ACCRA REGION OF GHANA []


This work presents radiological baseline data on most commonly sold mineral water produced in Greater Accra Region of Ghana. A significant fragment of the population use mineral water as their source of daily water intake. It is known from the literature that some varieties of mineral waters contain natural radionuclides in higher concentration than the traditional municipal tap water. In this study, gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations were determined in ten brands of mineral water produced in Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The measurement was performed using Imatic Gross Alpha /Beta Counter system in the Alpha Spectrometry Laboratory of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The result revealed a recorded measured activity concentrations for gross alpha ranged from 1.32/±0.03 mBq/L to 5.62±0.04 mBq/L with an average activity concentration of 2.76±0.03 mBq/L. Gross beta activity concentration also ranged from 23.65±0.01 mBq/L to 45.96±0.03 mBq/L with average activity of 29.45±0.02 mBq/L.The activity concentrations of the radiologically important for gross alpha and gross beta in all the selected mineral water samples were found within the permissible limits of 0.5Bq/L and 1.0Bq/L, 0.1Bq/L and 1.0Bq/L, set by the Ghana Standard Authority and World Health Organization recommended guideline levels for drinking water respectively. In general, the carcinogenic risk due to natural radioactive doses for all mineral water samples was found below the acceptable limit.


IDENTIFYING STATIONARY PERIODS AND DISTRIBUTION SELECTION FOR QUEUEING PROCESS []


The study adopted a systematic plan to observe and record the events of customer arrivals (C(t)), interarrival times (It) and service times (St). The observations were recorded hourly at different periods (morning, afternoon and evening) daily in a week at Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Mega Station Port Harcourt Enugu Express, Emene, Enugu. Stationary periods were identified by considering two adjacent time intervals (0, t1) and (t1, t2), the invariance of It and St were checked for the different periods. Test of stationarity and invariance were tested with non parametric tests of Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon, and Friedman Two-way ANOVA respectively, which found stable for all periods. The It and St fitted exponential distribution in all the periods through the Anderson Dalling test of goodness of fit. At the stationary periods, the most suitable fitted exponential distribution for It and St were selected respectively for the distribution of the queue elements.


Quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome []


rritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is defined very broadly by the association of abdominal pain with transit disorders for periods of time more or less long, recurrent. Its high prevalence and its undeniable impact on the quality of life of patients make it a real public health problem. Although there remains a diagnosis of elimination, IBS is one of these benign pathologies, which induce significant health expenses and an indisputable impact on the quality of life of patients. The aim of this work is to evaluate the overall impact of the disease on the quality of life of patients, and thus to appreciate their experience in relation to their family, their social and work environment, with a view to awareness for better care. It is a prospective cross-sectional observational study with a descriptive aim in a sample of the Moroccan population (the southern region). 892 people responded to a questionnaire based on the Rome IV criteria, then, 296 patients among them, diagnosed as suffering from IBS, responded to a second questionnaire for an assessment of their quality of life. We used the medical outcome study short form (according to the MOS SF-36 Heath Survey) which evaluates 8 dimensions of health. The more sensitive indirect cost analysis was based mainly on the assessment of the number of days off work and on the alteration of presenteeism caused by the disease among persons with a paid professional activity. The average age of our participants was 41.6 years with extremes ranging from 18 to 86 years, a clear predominance of women was noted with a sex ratio = 0.5. The majority had an average economic level (62%). The symptoms were chronic and evolved on average for 103.2 ± 59.2 months. Abdominal pain was noted in all patients. Constipation was seen in 68% of our patients, while 52% of them reported episodes of diarrhea. Most patients had an incorrect lifestyle determining a statistical link (p = 0.0001) between diet and functional colopathy. Stress was present in 43% of patients with a significant correlation (p = 0.059). When the quality of life is impaired, the scores for all domains of the SF-36 are smaller than those observed in the general population of reference (French population), with a significant statistical link (p = 0.0001). Indirect costs are represented first by work stoppages induced by more frequent surgical interventions in patients with IBS, the impact of which is difficult to evaluate, unlike the judgments related to the pathology, which are easier to analyze. Although TFI is not life-threatening, it is a recurrent chronic disease that is often associated with impaired quality of life. The chronicity of the disorders generates economic and socioprofessional repercussions with absenteeism and a decline in work performance. the medical profession must improve the care of people with IBS by giving more information about the disease, by answering patients' questions, by showing empathy and support, by listening better, and having a more positive speech


Role Of Fishermen’s Wives In Family Decision Making. (Case study in Karangsong Village, Indramayu Sub-District, Indramayu Regency, West Java) []


This research aims to analyze contribution to the total income of fishermen household, decision-making pattern and the most influential factors in decision-making for fishermen’s wives who are only housewives (unemployed) and making extra money in the family. This research is done in Karangsong Village, Indramayu District, West Java. This research took place in the research location in Januray 2019 to February 2019. The research was conducted by study case method in Karangsong Village by using primary data and secondary data. Sample technique was conducted by using purposive sampling with 30 working fishermen’s wives and 30 unemployed fishermen’s wives in total with data is analyzed through quantitative descriptive using logistic regression analysis. The average total income of the families of fishermen’s wives who work throughout the year earn Rp 3.293.299 per month and the average total income of the families of the fishermen’s wives who are unemployed earn Rp 2.703.631, the contribution of a working fisherman’s wife is greater in improving the families’ economy than the unemployed fisherman’s wife. As for the working fishermen’s wives, decision making process is dominated by the wives by the percentage of decision making by the wife is 66,7% and by the husband is 33,3%, meanwhile for the unemployed fishermen’s wives, decision making process is proportional between the wife and the husband with percentage of each is 50%. The existing factors in decision making are the wives education background, the husbands education background, wives job status, family status and total family income. The result is factor that has a great chance in decision making is the wives job status factor, while other factors do not affect significantly except the total family income factor.


Media Ethics of PEMRA: Sensationalism in the Talk Show of Dr. Shahid Masood []


Word sensationalism, especially in the media used to create hype in a story. As the media have the responsibility of showing facts, figures, and the truth about the event. Since ever the media became free, sensationalism is the part of it. The content of the media is embedded with sensationalism in almost every country. Past researches have recommended that the media create sensationalism for the rating of their content or channel. The direction of the past studies is not very clear towards the unprofessionalism of the anchor persons Dr. Shahid Masood of Pakistani media. The purpose of this research is to finds out the ethics and regulations regarding sensationalism of Pakistani broadcasting talk show content. For the purpose of an investigation, the researcher will take talk show of Dr. Shahid Masood named as Live With Dr. Shahid Masood specifically Zainab’s murder case as a sample. The media framing theory is more appropriate to understand this issue. The expected result indicates that the reporters, anchors and decision makers of the media content should be educated and professional. They should know the media, ethics, and regulations so that they can produce useful and ethical content.


RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: CONCEPT, APPROACHES, CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS []


There is an overwhelming need to accord rural development a priority on the ‘must-do-list’ of government at different levels if the rural communities must contribute meaningfully to the social, cultural and economic development of Nigeria. A bulk of the Nigerian wealth is derived form agriculture, and oil which lie in abundant quantity in rural communities. Current estimates put the rural population at over 80% of the entire population of almost 140 million people. So far, not much in terms of infrastructural development has been done to bring this bulk of concentration of both human and material resources to contribute optimally to national economy. The neglect has resulted to the mass exodus of rural dwellers and in turn has made the rural area qualitatively and quantitatively depopulated, and progressively less attractive for socio-economic investment. There is the need to strengthen and encourage cooperative and community based initiatives in the formulation and management of rural development programmes. Also, cooperative philosophy should be inculcated in rural dwellers as its grassroot appeals make it an ideal means of promoting sustainable rural development. Keywords Rural development, development, programmes, grass root


REPOSITIONING CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN NIGERIAN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT []


This paper critically examines cooperative societies in the Nigerian higher institutions of learning with a view to recommending and proffering strategies geared towards the repositioning of such societies for sustainable national development. The researchers relied on information obtained through interview, observation, and review of related literature in textbooks, journals, periodicals, newspapers, magazines, Annual Reports and Accounts of some cooperative societies in Edo State, Nigeria comprising of universities, polytechnics, colleges of educations, teaching hospitals, etc,. selected with an even spread across the state using a combination of the purposive and random sampling techniques. Conclusion and recommendations were made based on such information obtained, which will be useful for the repositioning and proper management of existing cooperative societies, and the resuscitation of under-functional ones in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria for optimal performance and responsiveness to members targeted at improved welfare and wellbeing of staff and cooperators for sustainable national development within Nigeria in particular and the West Africa sub-region. Keywords Nigerian higher institutions repositioning, cooperative societies


Research []


Abstract Back ground: -worldwide, intensive care units have significantly improved the quality of care and outcomes of critically ill Patients, mostly in developed countries. Non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of medical intensive care unit death globally. Objective: Assessment of Admission pattern and outcome among patients admitted to Adama Hospital Medical College, intensive care unit from september1, 2016 to September, 2017. Methodology: Retrospective review of 316 patient case notes who were admitted to Adama Hospital Medical College Intensive Care Unit from september1, 2016-september1,2017, pretested and structured checklist was utilized for data collection and data was entered by SPSS20, for variable having association binary and multivariate logistic regression were used and the study period was on 2018. Results: From a total of 316 admitted patients to Medical intensive care unit, 197 patients are improved and discharged, 98 deaths with 31% mortality rate, 12 referral and 9 patients left against medical advice. Most commonly deceased age group were 25-34 which account 24(24.5%) followed by 35-44 and >65 age groups both account 17(17.3%). Most commonly admitted cases that lead to Medical intensive care unit death were severe head injury 17(17.3%), Congestive heart failure 16 (16.3%) and post-operative 12(12.2%) and there was statistically significant association between Diabetes keto acidosis, Congestive heart failure, Acute myocardial infection and Severe community acquired pneumonia and improvement. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of admission and most common diagnosis that leads to intensive care unit death together with severe head injury. Diabetes keto acidosis, Congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction and severe community pneumonia a patient has statistically lower hospital mortality on multivariate logistic regression. Key wards: Medical intensive care unit, outcome, mortality and intensive care unit


Multinational Companies And Largescale Scale Acquistion Of Land In Cameroon: Case Of The Iko Company In Nanga- Eboko 2006-2016. []


This study titled “Multinational Companies and Large Scale Acquisition of Land in Cameroon: Case of the Iko company in Nanga Eboko from 2006 to 2016” is aimed at portraying the impacts of land acquisition to the rural communities. Large scale acquisitions of land by multinational companies have increased in recent times tailored towards second generation agriculture in Cameroon. The concept that there is vacant and unproductive land in Cameroon opened land for foreign direct investment. The land laws in Cameroon classify land in to three domains; public, private and national domains. Land under the national domain is mostly occupied by the rural communities which is opened to foreign direct investments as the state is the custodian of land in this domain. The Sino-Cameroon Iko agriculture agreement was signed between the government of Cameroon and china for the Chinese Iko company to boast agriculture in Cameroon. In the agreement, the governments grant land concessions of 2000hectares in the locality of Nanga-Eboko for a period of 99years. From our findings, we came out with the conclusion that large scale acquisition of land by multinational companies affects the rural communities taking the case of the Sino- Cameroon Iko agriculture in Nanga Eboko. It deprives the community from access to arable land which is a source of their livelihood. To overcome the negative effects, recommendations were made to ensure a peaceful coexistence with the rural communities.


Smartphone Adoption Amongst University Students: Evidence From the University of Bamenda, Cameroon. []


Drawing from the focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted on students of the University of Bamenda, North West region of Cameroon, this study indicates that mobile phone adoption among University Bamenda students is pre-dominantly influenced by factors such as the need for connectedness, cost and perceived usefulness of mobile phone handsets. Moreover, this study reveals that acquisition of mobile phones among students is an ongoing process, as it in-volves a young person starting to acquire and use a mobile phone (initial adoption), and then developing a strong link with the device through continuous consumption.


Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters Analysis of Harvested Rainwater Using Earthen, Plastic and Concrete Pot for Drinking Purpose collected from Khulna City Corporation Area, Bangladesh []


Rainwater is natural fresh water.In Bangladesh because of salinity, flood and many more different disasters people rely on rainwater. The main causes of water scarcity in South-East region and North-western region of Bangladesh are salinity and drought. The paper contains analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of harvested rainwater. The study is done at Nirala (ward no 24 of KCC), Khulna (southeast region of Bangladesh). For the harvesting of storage rainwater three types of pots (earthen, plastic and concrete pot) had been used. Rainwater was collected through direct catch and runoff from roof (galvanized iron sheet roof and concrete roof). All the samples were collected in monsoon period (July to September). Physical and chemical parameters ( Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3- , PO43- ) decreased but microbial parameters (E. Coli, faecal coliform, total coliform) increased in stored rainwater day by day. Coliform bacteria were found in water which was collected from concrete roof and Galvanized iron sheet roof due to the presence of feces of birds and animals in roofs. By comparing with WHO and BSTI standards it is found that harvested rainwater can be used for drinking purposes as well as for household works in dry season in KCC. But in Bangladesh it is not a well known approach. So initiatives should be taken for the better uses and management of rainwater.


GENDER COLLABORATION FOR SUSTAINABLE TRADITIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN ILE-OLUJI: A REVIEW OF THE INSTITUTIONS OF JEGUN AND LOBUN []


The traditional political structure of Ile-Oluji of Ondo State in South-western Nigeria presents a unique example of gender collaboration in State administration. This is largely exemplified by the existence of the offices of Jegun (the traditional male paramount ruler of the town) and the Lobun (traditional female leader, or ‘King’ of the town), two collaborative political institutions in Ile-Oluji. Despite this sterling observation, there is a dearth of research on the evolution and activities of the Jegun and Lobun of Ile-Oluji. This raises some pertinent questions: when did the two institutions emerge in Ile-Oluji? How are the two state officials appointed? What are their respective duties? How have they been relating together in peace without any pronounced rancour? Adopting the historical research method of archival search, participant observation, focused group discussion, structured oral interviews as well as content analysis of relevant secondary sources; this study interrogates these problematic.


Dosimetric study at the adult subjects in standard radiography of the neurological system at the Regional Hospital of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon []


Dosimetry is a match between image quality and the low dose process in order to ensure the radiation protection of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of patients according to radiographic investigations at the radiology service of the Regional Hospital of Ngaoundere.


Treatment of brewery waste water using sand and carbon fixed Bed []


The beer brewing process often generates large amounts of wastewater effluent and solid wastes that must be disposed off or treated in the least costly and safest way so as to meet the strict discharge regulations that are set by government entities to protect the environment. Reclamation of process wastewater is a key to water resources conservation and sustainability. Since brewery is inherently associated with the use of considerable amount of water, this study was undertaken to investigate the appropriate treatment of wastewater generated by Heineken (Wallia) brewery for the possibility of reuse. For this work, samples of wastewater were collected and characterized. Series of experiments were conducted to determine the property of the sand filter, the usable portion and effective size of mojo sand, arrangement of the filter media and finally treatment of the wastewater was carried out using fixed bed filtration column consisting of granular activated carbon and sand. The physico-chemical parameter results obtained before application of the treatment for the wastewater showed that 55.11NTU, 89.33 mg/l, 4.4 mg/l, 1.06 mg/l, 4.3mg/l and 1.92mS/cm for Turbidity, COD, TN, Ammonia, TP and EC respectively. After convectional and direct fixed bed treatment was conducted and it is found that conventional treatment possess higher efficiency in removal of both COD and Turbidity. The conventional filtration achieves a final removal rate of 96.71 % of COD and 98 % of turbidity at discharge pH.


THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCUST BEAN DECORTICATOR WITH SEPARATOR. []


The Locust bean decorticator with separator was developed and tested in the National Center for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM). Dried harvested locust bean fruit bunches were detached from its bunch manually. The fruits were manually fed into the machine through the feeding tray. The operational time were taken using digital stop watch and recorded accordingly. It was tested using 3kg of the dried pods in three replicates. The machine preliminary test gave an average separation efficiency of 48.6 percent (%) and decortication efficiency of 82.8 percent (%) on dry base.


ISLAMIC AND CONVENTIONAL BANKING: ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ARAB GAMBIA ISLAMIC BANK DURING THE FINANCIAL CRISIS OF 2009 []


This article examines the performance of Islamic and conventional banks in the Gambia from 2009 to 2012. Many see the Islamic banking system as a modern phenomenon that has attracted a lot of attention and discussion over the last few decades. Islamic banking system is a banking system that complies with Islamic Sharia law. Islam does not allow payment or acceptance of interest charges (riba) in banking activities. Whiles Conventional banks deal with interest, Islamic banks method of operation is strictly based on Sharia principles (profit, loss and risk sharing). The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the 2009 financial crisis on the performance of the only Islamic bank in the Gambia compared to the performance of some conventional banks in the country. Financial ratios are used to measure the profitability, liquidity, and leverage of the banks. The empirical results of the analysis showed that the only Islamic bank in The Gambia was better than its conventional counterparts in terms of liquidity and leverage for the period under review. In addition, the conventional banks selected in the study were relatively more profitable than their Islamic counterpart bank between 2009 and 2012. Keywords: Sharia, Islamic bank, Conventional banks, Riba, Financial crisis


FACTORS AFFECTING THE UTILIZATION OF FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES BY MARRIED WOMEN AT PAIKON KORE MARKET, GWAGWALADA, FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA []


Family planning is a popular means of birth control method worldwide. It is the ability of individuals and couples to attain their desired number and spacing of their children through contraceptive use. It is one of the most cost effective public health interventions and pivotal to reducing the country’s rate of child birth. The non-utilization of family planning services declines the means of achieving a stable demographic dividend, with consequences of poverty and reducing economic growth in the society. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the utilization of family planning services by married women at paikon kore market, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. A cross sectional survey design was employed in this study, a total number of 214 respondents participated in this study. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select forty three sheds at paikon kore market, gwagwalada, Abuja, and simple random sampling techniques was then employed to select five participants per shed, among the married women under each shed. A structured and validated instrument with reliability of 0.8 was used for data collection and was administered to the participants at the market using direct contact approach. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and pearsons’ correlation which was fixed at 0.05 significant level. The results indicate that the respondent who stated that cultural norms disapproval was 48 (22.4%), Family planning was not affordable was 36 (16.8%), spousal disapproval was 48 (22.4%), those who indicate that family planning promotes promiscuity was 76 (35.5%). There was a significant association between the utilization of family planning and the knowledge of family planning services by the respondents (df=214, R= -0.189, p= 0.005). There was a significant association between the utilization of family planning services and the motivation of the respondents (df= 214, R= -0.185, p= 0.007). There was no significant association between the utilization of family planning services and the self-efficacy of the respondents. The socio-demographic characteristics (number of children, level of education and monthly income) of the respondents, there was no significant association between the monthly income and the utilization of family planning services by the respondents. There was a significant association between the level of education and utilization of family planning services by the respondent (df= 214, R= -0.153 p= 0.002). There was no significant association between the market women’s monthly income and utilization of family planning services. In conclusion, participants of this study demonstrated high Knowledge on family planning services, the level of motivation of the married women to use family planning services was low and the level of self-efficacy of the women to utilize family planning services was low. Furthermore, educational level had a significant relationship with utilization of family planning services. Participants of this study demonstrated that factors affecting the utilization of family planning uptake included believe of promoting promiscuity, cultural norm disapproval, spousal disapproval. It was therefore, recommended that programs could be organized to involve men in the sensitization of community members on family planning utilization. Keywords: Birth control, Contraceptive use, Child birth Spacing,Cultural norms, Demographic dividend, Reproductive age and Spousal dissaproval. Word Count: 480


NEXUS BETWEEN ELECTIONS, GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA: 1922-1979 []


That election is at the heart of democracy and democratization process has become widely acknowledged. Election performs indispensable roles and thereby remains central to the whole essence of democratic process. However, experience has shown that democratic process in Africa and the developing states in general collapse on the altar of bungled elections and electoral processes. Such failure can be easily traced to the doorstep of the institution saddled with the responsibility of managing the electoral process. This is because of the direct linkages that exist between electoral process and the managing institution. Indeed, it has been widely asserted that more than anything, the quality and credibility of elections depend greatly on the extent of competency and viability of the electoral institutions. No state shows better the strong relationship between elections and managing agency than Nigeria. Looking back at the Nation’s history it is glaring that past efforts at democratization collapsed due to the failure of electoral commissions to conduct credible elections. It is however, saddening that election managers in Nigeria have failed to learn from history. The problem faced by past commissions, continues to beset present electoral institution, while past shortcomings continues to manifest. The paper, however, in its attempt to explicate the crisis of governance and comatose democracy in Nigeria, focuses on the nation’s inability to conduct credible, acceptable, and fair elections. It tries to establish a nexus between election, good governance and democracy by arguing that democracy is inconceivable outside the context of rule-based, fair and credible election as election supplies the essential platform and vitality for the building of democracy. The paper therefore posited that until Nigeria is able to put in place a robust, transparent and credible electoral process, the country will continue to experience governance devoid of all the fundamental trappings of a sustainable democracy.


UNDERSTANDING VULNERABILITIES IN TANZANIA []


This paper presents an understanding of vulnerability in Tanzania. The study objective is to understand and identify all vulnerabilities in Tanzania. As well, this paper presents an overview based on available scientific literature from various scholars to examine the meaning of the word Vulnerability. Methodology opted have based on observation, literature review, and sampling. Finally, it has observed that the most vulnerabilities in Tanzania are from floods, earthquake, drought, storms, diseases like malaria, typhoid and cholera and winds. Within these vulnerabilities, there are a natural hazard and artificial hazard vulnerabilities. Some of these can be avoidable while other is unavoidable. The Country at large has a serious threat from various kinds of hazards


Antidotal Assessment of Hydroethanol Root Extract of Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) against Chemically-induced Hepatic Neoplasm in Wistar Rats. []


Curcuma longa L. (Family: Zingiberaceae; turmeric) is cultivated extensively worldwide, popularly used as spice and folk medicine but is native to Southeast Asia. Following urbanization, chemical exposure is incorporated into our daily living, threatening our health and ecosystem. Thus, the quest for ameliorative substances becomes imperative and continues. Study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective/ antitumour potentials of hydroethanol root extract of Curcuma longa (CLE) against chemically-induced hepatic neoplasm in rats. Acute toxicity was determined in Wistar rats using Up-and-Down Procedure. Rats (24) were randomly divided into 4 groups (6 each) and treated thus: Group-I received food and water ad libitum. Group-II received 200 mg/kg b.wt diethylnitrosamine (DENA, i.p.), followed by 3 mL/kg b.wt CCl4 (i.p.) and 0.05% phenobarbital (PB) (in drinking water). Group-III received 100 mg/kg b.wt silymarin (p.o) daily. Groups-IV received 1000 mg/kg b.wt of extract one week prior to the induction of hepatotoxicity and subsequently for 90 days. After 90 days, rats were euthanized under diethyl ether anaesthesia and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. From each euthanized animals, the liver was eviscerated, blotted and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Extract was safe on acute exposure with LD50 >5000 mg/kg b.wt. Results showed significant (P<0.001) reduction in DENA/CCl4/PB-induced biochemical alteration compared to control. Rats pre-treated with CLE prevented the formation of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and preserved hepatic microarchitecture similar to that of silymarin. Findings suggests the antitumour/antidotal properties of turmeric root extract against chemically-induced liver damage/tumourigenesis in rat model.


Inventing a good electrolyte system for a secondary cell []


The development of a magnesium ion battery system is primarily based on the interactions of mixed organic electrolytes solutions formed by the combination of dimethylformamide(DMF) and Propylene carbonate (PC) solvents with Magnesium perchlorate Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 salt.The binary mixtures were prepared for their physico-chemical properties in other to establish their suitability for magnesium ion battery. These properties include density, viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant. The cells of Mg2+ ion containing electrolytic solutions of the binary mixtures were also studied. Molar conductivity measurements investigated at 25 0 C demonstrated that the mixed systems exhibit a wide electrochemical stability and improved property than the pure solvents. The properties of the mixed electrolytes were affected by ion-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of the intermolecular interactions among the component molecules of the systems. The temperatures studied 25,40,50,60 and 70 o C show that the battery system remains stable even at high temperatures. The mixing ratio of the organic solvents for optimal battery performance is established to be between 50-70% PC for the battery system because it is at this range that the system gave the highest conductivity and electromotive force (EMF).


Road Accidents in Tanzania: Causes, Impact and Solution. []


A road accident is defined as an accident which took place on the road between two or more objects, one of which must be any kind of a moving vehicle. This article examines the road accident, causes, and solution in Tanzania. The methodology opted is table research of which secondary data are extensively adopted. The key causes of road accident are; Overloading, over speeding, poor infrastructure, and drunk driving. The revealed impact is loss of properties, fatality, unemployment and others and finally some solutions were pinned out as improvements of road education, reduction of speed, avoid drunk driving, avoid the use of phones when driving and strict laws to anyone who will violet the road signs.


‘Effectiveness of Content Branding Strategies on Social Media: A Study of Khaadi’ []


Abstract Social media is a successful dynamic and practical platform for branding and for commercial outreach, absolutely for brands related to fashion and retail industry. There are several brands to post pictures of their latest products on social media sites with regular updates in order to promote their brand and get the desired fame. In Pakistan, the fashion industry relies majorly on social media to create awareness and establish strong link with their clients. The retail sectors such as clothing brands in Pakistan are majorly dependent on social media for branding purposes in order to reach maximum audience in a short span of time. The objective of this study is to assess the possible influence of social media channels to Khaadi brand in Pakistan and consequently build an evaluation criterion regarding the usage of social media channels to the branding strategies of fashion brands. Khaadi belongs to the business field engaged in retailing and fashion clothing. This research implements qualitative research design with content research methods followed by case study analysis approach. Therefore, this is a desktop research that makes use of existed content to be used as a source of researching material. This study analyzed the branding strategies used by Khaadi in two social media sites such as Instagram and Facebook. The study reveals that Instagram tends to have few numbers of followers, yet the channel has the best user integration as compared with Facebook. However, Facebook has a great number of followers who like Khaadi’s Facebook page. The Instagram posts of Khaadi receive more interactions from followers by likes and comments on the brand’s respective posts in comparison to Facebook. The results indicate that Khaadi needs to inspire more interactions via user-generated content to the selection of images posted on social media sites in order to have effective branding of the company’s retail products. Keywords: branding, retail, social media, Facebook, Instagram, Khaadi


Automotive Industrial Robot - Selection Criteria for Body Assembly Application []


In automotive manufacturing processes especially at Body Shop, industrial robots are widely used to increase productivity while maintaining desired quality standard and design specification in production line. The application are mainly on welding (spot / arc welding), sealant / adhesive application and material handling. Therefore, the selection of the robot types and brand are crucial in order to get best fit to the application at minimum cost.


use of correlation, tolerance and variance inflation factor for multicollinearity []


Multicollinearity is a statistical phenomenon in which there exists a strong or perfect relationship between the predictor variables. The presence of multicollinearity can cause serious problems with the estimation of β and the interpretation. Most of the works on regression model did not check if there was presence of multicollinearity on the predictors and that led to poor estimation of the regression coefficient. This study was carried out to model a dependent and independent variables with a regression equation and compute variance of the estimated coefficients. Also to evaluate tolerance and variance inflation factor for each kth independent variable in the regression model. The data for this study was obtained primarily from students of Federal School of Statistics Enugu. The method of analysis adopted was multiple regression analysis. Focus was on correlation, tolerance and variance inflation factor to detect presence of multicollinearity among the independent variables. The multiple regression analysis was carried out on BMI, weight and height of the students. There was a moderate correlation between weight and height. Using tolerance and variance inflation factor, it revealed that there was no presence of multicollinearity among the weight and height. The absent of multicollinearity make the estimate of the regression coefficients more accurate of their parameters.


MEDIATION EFFECT OF SYSTEM SUCCESS FEATURES ON OPEN SOURCE ERP ADOPTION-USE AND ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE []


Organisations are shifting their attention towards flexibility, savings and efficiency in order to win or to survive in the market. The emergence of open source ERP for financial institutions can be viewed as one of the most important and constructive developments that has gained momentum in recent years. Consequently, it has become crucial for many organisations in their quest to improve and enhance their competitiveness through its adoption and use. The main objective of the study was to establish the mediation effect of system success features in the relationship between open source ERP adoption-use and organisational performance of Deposit-Taking SACCOs in Kenya. Target population was 168 Deposit-taking SACCOs with sample size of 378 respondents. Questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. PLS-SEM using smartPLS 3.2.8 was used to analyse the data. The study concludes that adoption-use of open source ERP will have significant effect on organisational performance; learning and growth, internal process, customers and financial indicators. To maintain organisational performance and sustain long term viability of the open source ERP, the service quality has to be effective has it has the largest effective size among other mediating system success features (system and information) qualities combined. The service quality components include the support staff competences, reliability and speed of attending to complaints concerning the system.


AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDG’S) IN THE GAMBIA []


The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent the greatest promise in the world: a global agreement to reduce poverty and human deprivation to unprecedented levels through multilateral cooperation. This paper appraises the implementation of the (MDGs) in the Gambia. The work highlights performance, identifies the key challenges encountered and policy interventions that were used to mitigate some of the problems. The (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 that address poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, infectious diseases, education, food gender inequality, damage to the environment and global partnership. Most of the world's activities have focused on maternal and child health and infectious diseases, while environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership have received less attention. At the end of 2015, the Gambia was close to meeting goal 2, 3 and 4 however, the other goals remain a challenge to the country. Keywords: MDGs, Poverty, Performance, Challenges, and Implementation


The Effect of Occupational Burnout on Employees' Performance at Kufa Electricity Distribution Department []


Occupational /Job Burnout is considered nowadays one of the most prevalent mental diseases among workers who are keen to perform their work with dedication and determination. They are even keener when their work requires direct contact with people in the society. The study aims to examine burnout and workers' performance in the Kufa Electricity Distribution Department and their relationship to the personal characteristics of workers. It is a descriptive-analytical study of a sample of all workers at the Electricity Distribution Department (35), excluding the service workers. Modified Maslach Burnout Inventory and the workers' performance. The results reveal that there is a direct relationship between the performance of employees and the occupational burnout in the near future, because more than (70%) of workers are close to retirement age and young workers are likely to come who may not have sufficient experience in the face of job burnout. Therefore, the study recommends educating employees about the risks of occupational burnout and its impact on them in their daily lives as well. Providing the available resources by the concerned authorities is also recommended to reduce the discontent of citizens on their performance in terms of providing electricity. Keywords: Occupational/job burnout, employees' performance, Electricity Distribution Department, Kufa city


Perceptions of Clients with Regards to National Health Insurance Services in a Selected Public Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania []


ABSTRACT Background: The National Health Insurance of Tanzania is commonly known as the National Health Insurance Fund. The scheme operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare together with an independent board of the NHIF. It is a mandatory form of healthcare financing primarily for public servants and other categories of employees in the formal sector. Purpose: To explore the perceptions of clients with regards to NHI services in a selected public hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: A descriptive and cross sectional research design was used and a self-administered structured questionnaire was administered for data collection. Data were analyzed using quantitative data analysis methods. Predictive Analytics Software was used to organize the data. Results: The study considered a sample size of 122 clients in the outpatient department to be adequate representation. The results shown that majority of participants acknowledged the benefits of being a member of NHI, with 93.5% agreeing that joining the scheme benefited them and their beneficiaries, 93.4% agreeing that it gave them reassurance that their family would receive care, 89.3% agreeing that it provided easy access to health care, 83.6% agreeing that it would save money from paying hospital bills and 82.8% agreeing that belonging to NHI was better than having to make out-of-pocket payments. Conclusion: The NHI is perceived as one of the beneficial medical aids which provide health cover for the majority citizens who are working in the formal sectors together with their beneficiaries. Keywords: Community Health Insurance, Health Insurance, and universal health coverage.


Contribution of coelioscopic surgery in the healthcare management of female infertility in Cameroon []


694 patients with either secondary or primary infertility were subjected to laparoscopy during the period of January 2006 to December 2016 at the general hospitals of Yaoundé and Douala as well as the gynecology/obstetric and pediatric hospitals of Yaoundé still and Douala. The technics used were mainly laparoscopic adhesiolysis in 35.9%, followed by laparoscopic fibroplastia in 17.4% case. The frequency of laparoscopic surgery in the units was 63% and the average years of infertility within the sample was 6.84 years. Regular patient follow up after surgery permitted to 83% of the sample to become pregnant. The study was mainly a cross-sectional descriptive study with a retrospective data collection period of 10 years. Hence, the study suggest that, laparoscopic surgery occupies a place of choice for diagnosis and therapy of female infertility in our society. Key words: laparoscopy, infertility, care management


Public-private partnership as a tool to increase efficiency and sustainable development in the road transport sector in the Russian Federation []


The article focuses on the need for effective public-private partnership in the road transport sector for sustainable development in Russian Federation. Measures are proposed for pragmatic approach to implementing public-private partnerships.


The Self-Interested Nature of American Foreign Policy as Revealed in the Trump Presidency. []


In the field of international relations, the concept of national interest has been used to describe the foreign policy goals of any nation state, for without it we cannot talk about the existence of well organized or clear foreign policy agenda which is determined and motivated by a set of interests. In the case of the United States, the concept was prominent during the period following World War Two, when the American foreign policy took new directions different from that adopted by the two wars period. Hence, any single move was hailed under the slogan of the protection of America’s national interests and security at home or abroad. Tens of America’s involvements in external regions and countries have been justified by the concept of national interests. So, one should not neglect the fact that these foreign policy traditions were implemented in the American soil and culture starting from the first day of its establishment. The realist school was an important school that has far reaching effect on structuring American foreign relations as it considered the pursuit of national interests as its core principle besides its emphasis on the role of nation state as a key actor in field of international relations. The presidency of Donald Trump represents a good occasion to affirm the self interested nature of American foreign policy. Starting by the slogan raised by that American president when he said “America first” by which he affirmed the realist spirit of American foreign policy, since he promised a foreign policy that puts America first and the priority of its interests over other nations interests.


Development Concept of Tourism Kampung Based on Ecotourism []


Tourism is a sector that can increase regional income. Tourism provides a new experience for tourists to travel by enjoying attractions. Indonesia has a lot of tourism potential. Because it has a variety of beautiful cultures and environments. Surabaya is one of the cities that has kampung tourism by utilizing the environment and culture of the local community. Mangrove Gunung Anyar Kampung Tourism is a kampung that has mangrove forests and local culinary as tourism potential. However, the condition of the kampung did not develop well due to a lack of knowledge of the community in managing tourism activities. So that a development concept is needed as an effort to improve the quality of the kampung by empowering local communities. The ecotourism concept is one of the concepts that support environmental conservation and able to improve the economy of local communities by involving the community in managing tourism activities. The purpose of this study was to formulate the concept of developing ecotourism-based kampung. Qualitative methods are used to complete and discuss the kampung through data collection techniques of observation, interviews, and documentation. This research resulted and development concept in kampung tourism based on ecotourism with a focus on utilizing the local potential and empowering the community.


Evaluation of the Level of Reference Diagnoses in the dosimetric study of the Abdomen Without Preparation (AWP) in the adult at the Regional Hospital of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon []


Introduction: Doses delivered in standard radiography surveys are not sufficiently mastered and the working protocols for the same exam given differ for similar morphotypes within the same hospital structure. Material and Methods: The dose at the entrance of the skin of the Abdomen Without Preparation (mGy) was evaluated on 30 adult patients with a mass of 70 ± 10 kg according to the Davies model from the 75th percentile irradiation. The analysis and processing of the data was carried out by Excel 2010. Results: The entrance dose of the ASP obtained in mGy was 8.13 ± 0.4 for the AP projection. Conclusion: This study revealed large variations in doses at the entry of the skin during the explorations of the abdomen without preparation. These variations made it possible to understand that the diagnostic reference levels depend on the delivered doses and integrate above all the notions of quality of the radiographic image, the quality assurance of the radiological equipment and the level of training of the manipulators. Keywords: standard radiography, Abdomen Without Preparation (AWP), entrance dose, Diagnostic Reference Level (NRD).


Evaluation of Physio-Mechanical Properties of Pellets Derived From Cassava Chips and Mash. []


The cassava pellets used in this study were produced with NCAM Pelleting Machine powered by a 5hp electric motor, die diameter of 1.4 cm and a fixed speed of 290 rpm. Pellets samples were produced through two treatments: cassava dough (chips) and mash. The pellets from the cassava dough (CDP) was produced by chipping, drying, milling, conditioning then pelleting, while the cassava mash into pellets (CMP) was processed by grating, dewatering then pelleting. Test results showed that Durability index of 99.7 %, Hardness test average of 9.78 N/mm2 for CDP while Durability index of 92.7 % and Hardness test of 11.98 N/mm2 %, for CMP respectively. Average lengths of 2.78 cm and 2.22 cm, diameters 1.28 cm and 1.23 cm fall within the standard for Pellets.


Effects of Smoking Process and Conditions on the Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). []


The effects of smoking process and conditions on the proximate composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was investigated and analyzed using the AOAC, 2001 methods. The analysis was carried out at the laboratory of the University of Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria. The objective of this work is to determine the effects of smoking process and conditioning on some quality attributes of smoked Catfish. The proximate composition parameters that were investigated include: Protein, Fat, Ash and Moisture content. Two different smoking processes were considered. These are: the traditional smoking process, and smoking process carried out with the use of a smoking kiln developed at the National Center for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM) Ilorin, kwara State, Nigeria. The preparation of the fishes before smoking was carried out in two batches, with one batch salted and the other set unsalted. The results obtained from the two processes were compared and it showed that there was a marked effect of the smoking process on the moisture content (MC) which dropped from 71 % MC to 24 – 30% MC range, the ash content rose slightly from 3 % to a maximum value of 6%, protein content of about 19% rose to 52%, and fat content of about 14% also rose to 21%. There was a marked increase in the ash, protein and fat contents while there was a noticeable decrease in moisture content of the different samples under consideration. Statistically analyzed data reveals that there is significant difference between the effect of smoking method and conditions on moisture, ash and protein content of Catfish at P < 0.05 while there is no significant difference at P < 0.05 in respect of fat content. The smoking of Catfish using NCAM smoking kiln resulted to significantly lower moisture content, higher ash and protein content compared to the traditional smoking method with no significant effects on the proximate parameters studied. The unsalted, smoked Catfish processed by using NCAM’s smoking kiln has better quality attributes than the samples smoked by using the traditional method. It is therefore recommended that, NCAM’s smoking kiln and the procedures should be adopted for the production of high quality smoked Catfish.


Fungal Decay of Yams (Dioscorea dumentorum ) sold in open markets in Nsukka, Nigeria []


Abstract Fungal decay of the yam cultivar Dioscorea dumentorum Pax sold at Nsukka Markets in Nigeria was investigated. The diseased and sound yam cultivar tubers were used to isolate and identify some fungi implicated in post harvest and storage decay leading to economic losses. This cultivar is not as popular as the Dioscorea rotundata and D. cayanensis but it is eaten in many parts of Nigeria in spite of its unpalatable bitter taste. A total of five fungi namely Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus sp, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp and Syncephalastrum sp were isolated from the tubers. The frequency of isolation was recorded and the most frequently isolated organism was Aspergillus sp. Both Asergillus sp were the most pathogenic while Fusarium sp was the least pathogenic. Pathogenicity was proved for all the fungal isolates and each of the isolate was associated with the decay. The fungus Syncephalastrum sp was however implicated for the first time. Inoculated tubers were examined visually and by the application of slight pressure and the nature of rot was varied. Key words: Fungi, yam cultivar, isolation, isolates, inoculation and pathogenicity


Food consumption and energy expenditure of students at Imara Primary School in Lubumbashi []


Abstract: In less developing countries pupils’ food has been a topic less studied. Thus, a cross descriptive study has been conducted in Schools to work out food habits and set out the nutritional status of School age Students. And a sample of 384 school boys, aged six to 12 years old, was used for this purpose. Our research results have showed that the height/age percentage is 2, 6%. As to BMI/age pourcentage <- 2 is 16, 75% of the pupils. In addition, the study indicates that Sport exercises are carried out once a week in school. Thus, 73.4% or 282 students practice sport. 63.3% practice football and spend 130 Kcal of energy and 36.5% practice jogging and spend 167.1 Kcal of energy, eating 3meal and snack between meals. As a result we have noticed that their food is not diversified and that other food groups such as fruit rich in vitamins and minerals are not consumed by pupils