Volume 7, Issue 6


In this paper, the author will use deep learning technology, specifically here to use techniques in convolutional neural networks (CNN) to identify objects, multiple objects and objects’ locations in images. CNN, Region CNN (RCNN), Fast RCNN, Faster RCNN techniques using in convolutional neural networks will be introduced and simulated, citing comparative results to assess the effectiveness of object identification in images. Faster RCNN is considered to be the most appropriate for identifying the objects and their location in the image.


Highly degraded semi-arid regions could be potential crop production areas to meet the ever increasing food and beverages demands of the growing population. The major production challenges this region faces are water scarcity, soils and biodiversity loss due to prolonged drought, erosions and leaching. These make farmers to depend on supplementary irrigation and commercial fertilizers for crop production and the conditions are even worsened with change in climate. In the past, organic amendments and polymers such as polyacrylamides (PAM) were used to improve soil physiochemical properties and protect soils from erosion but to no avail. The aim of this paper was to review different scientific research findings on the potential value of Biochar in green house gas sequestration, and Soil Amendment in particular in sites under serious degradation. Many scientific findings (170) published in brochures; journals, abstract, and thesis on biochar potentials on soil nutrient cycling, green house gas sequestration, and soil/land rehabilitation with methodology that can be reproduced were reviewed and synthesized. We found out that Biochar has proven potentials to improve soil physical, biological and chemical properties hence boosting soil fertility and productivity and as well as sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere-biosphere pool and transferred it to soil. Biochar also remained a promising solution to energy. With good extension service packaging, biochar can be effectively adopted as solutions to soil degradation and pollution. Key words: Biochar, Carbon, Climate change mitigation, Green house gases (GHG) sequestration, Soil properties, .

Essential Modern Way Of Teaching & Learning Process []

Essential Modern Way Of Teaching & Learning Process


The infra-red (IR) spectra analysis of moringa oleifera indicated the presence of the following functional groups and their frequency ranges which includes; O-H stretching vibrations (3790-3390), C-H stretching (2953-2752), N-H stretch(1643-1514),C=N symmetric stretching (2723-2351) bending, N=O symmetric stretching (1460-1305), C-N stretch (1265-1033),C=O stretching(1651-1566) and C=C bending (1033-721). The phytochemical analysis of moringa leaves shows it contains (%) saponin 5.0% flavonoid 5.42%, alkaloid 5.36% and cyanogenic glycoside 3.3% while the saponin, flavoniod, alkaloid and cyanogenic glycoside in flower are 3.20%, 7.12%, 1.55% and 2.6% respectively. This result shows that the presence of saponin, alkaloid and cyanogenic glycoside are higher in moringa leaves than its flowers while flavonoid is higher in concentration in moringa oleifera flower than its leaves.

Literature Review of Importance of Knowledge Management to Developing Nations []

Knowledge is very important for the economic growth of the country, develop meaningful relation between the industries and find new technologies by creating new ideas and formulating new theories. Developed countries use knowledge management for their educational development, economic development, health development, technology development and etc. Second category of nation is developing nations. A nations which have average income is much lower than in industrial nations. In this paper discussed how importance of knowledge Management to developing country.


Perennial mass failure in the English language has been largely attributed to the continued use of teacher-centred strategies and poor knowledge of students’ cognitive styles. This study examined the effect of explicit instructional strategy and cognitive styles on senior secondary school students’ achievement in summary writing. The study employed a pretest, posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Treatment lasted for eight weeks and results showed that explicit instruction and cognitive style have main significant effects on students’ achievement in summary writing. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the use of explicit and cognitive styles in language pedagogy have great potentials for improving achievement in summary writing. The strategy encouraged active participation of students through practice sessions and corrective feedback.

Comparative Analysis of Physiological and Pharmacological Parameters of Vas deferens of Uromastix and Rabbit []

ABSTRACT: Background: The male reproductive aspect of mammals and lizards is essentially different on the bases of the morphology of their reproductive tract. The lizards are devoid of secretary glands. Even then they have the seminal plasma for the suspension of their sperms. However, in addition to semen plasma, smooth musculature of vas deferens (VD) also helps in providing the driving force for the propulsion of sperm along with their own motility. Apart from differences in reproductive cycle and seasonal effects on lizard’s reproduction in comparison to mammals, it seems that there is a probable difference in the physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscles of their VD as well. Objectives: Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the physiological and pharmacological responses on receptors of VD against acetylcholine (ACh), adrenaline (Adr) and their antagonists in Uromastix (lizard), and Rabbit (mammal). Methodology: Freshly isolated muscle strips of Uromastix hardwickii & Rabbit Oryctologous cunniculus were mounted on organ bath assembly and their physiological (mechanical) activity was continuously monitored by adding different pharmacological agonists and antagonists on data acquisition system, Power-lab. Results: Results demonstrated that in Uromastix hardwickii the basal tone of VD was decreased by the administration of both the acetylcholine (Ach)&adrenaline (Adr) without the appearance of rhythmicity and their actions were significantly antagonized by Atropine (Atr) and Atenolol (Ate), respectively. While, the basal tone in Rabbit VD was increased by both the ACh & Adr, which later followed by the appearance of spontaneous rhythmic contraction. This preliminary study on the smooth muscles of VD in Uromastix highlights the differences in the physiological activity and the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors

Global innovations as benchmark to improving efficiency on road transport in the Russian Federation . A case study of the city of Novosibirsk []

The article takes an overview of innovations in the road transport sector in some selected countries and makes recommendations for their implementation in the Russian Federation


Abstract This paper takes a look at language norms with the major principal variables that control it. The concept of language code and its pedagogies in teaching English language from unset is examined. Language construct is highlighted in teaching pedagogy. Also, the language convention is considered along with classroom interactions.The linguistic norm is one of the essential characteristics of a language, ensuring its functioning and historical continuity as tacit agreements in society and an acceptable standard that users of a language are expected to reach. It is believed that norms guide and control the mutual intelligibility of a language in the society of its users. The more the society is dynamic the more norms of its language change. Therefore it is recommended that the language pedagogists must be seasoned professionals who can design and interpret the language programmes (the curriculum) and domesticate the contents of it to promote the full utilization of the language of instruction for the growth of the society in all fields. KeyWords:- Language, Norms, Code, Construct, Convention, Mutual Intelligibility and Pedagogy.


The expanding bacterial resistances to antibiotics have become a growing concern worldwide. Gomphocarpus purpurascens is one of the indigenous traditional medicinal plants in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of G. purpurascens against standard and clinically isolated microorganisms. The G. purpurascens plant leaves and root was collected from Gondar Zuria Woreda was shade dried and powdered using wooden-made mortar and pestle. The powdered leaves were extracted by using ethanol, methanol and acetone. The extracts from the leaves and root barks with different concentrations were tested for their antimicrobial activities against selected microorganisms. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) were determined against test organisms. The most sensitive bacterial species to the highest concentration of the extract from the leaf was clinical S. aureus strain with inhibition zone diameter of 17.66 mm; whereas the least sensitive bacterial species was clinical isolate of E. coli with inhibition zone diameter of 6.54+0.13 mm. These research findings suggest that G. purpurascens plants may contain antibacterial and antifungal compounds. These plants can be a potential source for the development of antibacterial and antifungal drugs.

Association of UBE2E2 and KLF14 gene polymorphisms and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Asian meta-analysis []

The association of UBE2E2 rs7612463 and KLF14 rs972283 gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes (T2D) was recently identified in East Asian and European genome-wide association studies, respectively. However, the replication studies in various populations showed inconsistent results. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate this inconsistency, especially in Asian populations.A systemic literature search inclusive to July 2018 yielded a total of 15 potentially relevant articles withe 20 eligible studies concerning the association of UBE2E2 rs7612463 and /or KLF14 rs972283 with T2D in Asian populations. The final meta-analysis was conducted for 10 studies (19248 T2D cases and 17968 controls) concerning the UBE2E2 rs7612463 and 10 studies (11165 cases T2D and 9551 controls) concerning the KLF14 rs972283 gene polymorphisms with T2D in Asian populations.The combined overall allelic odds ratio (OR), for association of UBE2E2 rs7612463 C allele and KLF14 rs972283 G allele with T2D in Asian populations, were 1.153 (95% confidence interval 1.11 - 1.20, p<0.0001) and 1.07 (95% confidence interval 1.004 - 1.133, P=0.036) under fixed and random effects model, respectively.The present meta-analysis indicated that the UBE2E2 rs7612463 and KLF14 rs972283 gene polymorphisms are significantly and nominally associated with the risk of T2D in Asian populations.

Assessment of Natural and Artifical Lighting Levels in Lecture Rooms (A Case of Sunyani Technical University) []

Lighting association recommended lighting level suitable for lecture halls was brought to the frontage in this research. The study sought to measure the average light levels in the lecture halls and compare with the international lighting standard for the lecture hall. A handheld photometer was used to measure the illuminance of sixteen halls at 6 am and 7 pm hours for three different days. It was observed that the average illumination in the hall around 6 am was as low as 0.01Lux. The average artificial light level was also determined using the calculation method, and it recorded 300.8Lux. The results show that the lecture halls architectural design has contributed to the achievement of the desired illumination level in a day.


The drug war of President Rodrigo Duterte was the centerpiece of his campaign and arguably the rallying point and core of his presidency. Despite furtive efforts to wipe the Philippines clean of illegal drug trafficking, this war has still become a subject of controversy and domestic and international criticism. This study poses questions of whether this would have positive or negative implications to peace and order, as well as gauging its impact to Filipinos who are affected directly and indirectly. Collateral damage with this kind of “war” has become a common occurrence. Often, innocent people are most vulnerable: citizens who belong to the poorest demography of the country. It is the aim of this study to present factual data and interviews to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of the implementation of the war on drugs of the President. Perspectives and points of view of those involved in the implementation of the program are local officials from the most affected barangays in Metro Manila, specifically in Quezon City who were among the respondents of this study. Aspects such the respondents’ residency as well their observations on the drug trade and crime rates before and during the Duterte administration were extracted to validate accomplishment reports or secondary data published by the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). In summary, data revealed satisfactory results which is a clear validation that the drug war of the government was effectively and efficiently carried out by government security forces and other state actors. Corollary to this, it was clearly manifested that positive effects to peace and order were visible and can be reflected through the country’s improving safety and security atmosphere. This study presents the strong points of the war on drugs program of the current administration, hence, a powerful anchor towards the continuous implementation and a founded plea towards its support from the Filipino people.


Background: Unsafe medical practices and care can be the cause of disabling injuries, infections and death. Every day millions of patients visit healthcare facilities to seek treatment of various ailments. In other words, healthcare professionals regularly hold in their hands the lives of others making it very delicate service and reason why healthcare services have been given the status as essential services. The precious lives of many people in the society to a large extent left in the hands of health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and para-medicals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2010) patient safety is defined as practices and processes or structures that reduce the probability of adverse events resulting from exposure to the health care system across a range of diseases and procedures. Objectives: i) To assess patients perception and knowledge on potential risks factors and incidents/accidents ii) To assess health workers perception and knowledge on patient risks and safety practices in both hospitals for policy interventions. Methods: The study compares a select example of health and safety practice among one of Ghana’s strong representation in the health sector-Christian Health Association of Ghana with that of the public health facility of Ghana Health Service, both located in the then Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. A mixed but non-intervention approach was employed to this research study with Qualitative and Quantitative approaches. A Descriptive but comparative cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain data from patients and staff to address the objectives Results: Overall, patients rated the performance of the two hospitals according to Excellent, Very Good, Good, Poor and Very Poor. Respondents from Wenchi hospital (32.95%) rated Excellent compared to only 5.37% from Sunyani Hospital. Similarly, 46.59% from Wenchi rated Very Good compared to 33.56% from Sunyani. Overall, 19.35% of health workers in Wenchi Methodist Hospital (WMH) rated very good while 5.38% rated same in Sunyani Regional Hospital (SRH) in terms of their hospital preparedness towards policy intervention on Patient Safety. Conclusion and Recommendations: Two important approaches must be considered in ensuring patient safety. That is, person-centred analysis and prevention approach and the systems-centred approach. In the person centred approach, individuals must assume personal responsibility to prevent incidents while the system approach ensures that working conditions do not promote individuals to commit medical errors.

On Analyzing Numerical solution of time-Independent Schrodinger equation []

In this study numerical solutions of time-independent Schrodinger wave equation (TISWE) under infinite potential well were analyzed. The TISWE is reduced to computationally tractable form by using Galerkin method and then the approximate solution is analyzed on the interval [-1,1] and Chebysheve polynomials were used as a trial function. The approximate solutions generated using this numerical scheme is highly accurate and physically acceptable. Finally the result is compared with the analytic solution which shows that this numerical method is one of the finest numerical methods to find approximate solutions of TISWEs.


Abastract: Objective: Breast cancer could be a variety of cancer that develops from breast cells. Carcinomas ordinarily originate the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that provide them with milk. a malignancy will unfold to different components of the body. . Cancer will unfold throughout one or each breast. Typically carcinoma spreads to different components of the body just like the bones the liver or elsewhere Moya et al. 2004 carcinoma in ladies could be a foremost unhealthiness each in developed and developing countries. The most issue of carcinoma is steroid hormone receptor alpha the current analysis was to screen the effective bioactive compounds from hopea-odorata. Methods: The molecular docking approach can be used to model the collaboration between a small molecule and a protein at the nuclear level,which allow us to characterize the conduct of small molecules in the binding site of target proteins as well as to elucidate essential biochemical processes The docking process contains two basic steps: prediction of the ligand conformation as well as its position and orientation within these sites (usually referred to as pose) and assessment of the binding affinity Result: specifically 4-hydroxyacetophenone bisnorstriatol grasshopper organic compound pcoumaric acid which can be very important inhibitors of steroid hormone receptor alpha er-α for looking a drug against the carcinoma A large vary of docking score found throughout molecular docking by Schrodinger. ampelopsin h balanocarpol betulinic acid betulonic acid caryophyllene oxide friedelin showed the docking score -6.141 -1.823 -4.420 -3.976 -7.324 - 4.510 respectively. Among all thecompounds caryophyllene oxide showed the best docking score towards estrogen receptor alpha. Conclusion: so caryophyllene oxide is the best compounds for focusing inhibitors of estrogen receptor alpha because it possessed the best value in molecular docking.

The performance analysis of optically transparent materials used in tunable devices []

Comparative analyses, as well as the performance of optically transparent materials such as glass, Mylar, quartz, PET and PEN, were presented. Different methods of measuring techniques have been used to determine the dielectric property of the optically transparent materials at low and high frequencies. Due to the unavailability of materials, time and test equipment in the antenna laboratory, three (3) methods were implemented in this research. Namely, split cylinder cavity resonator, quasi-optical mm-wave measurement technique and the matching technique, where simulated return loss matched with the measured value of a simple micro-strip patch antenna. An Electromagnetic (EM) modelling tool (i.e. Computer Simulation Technology, (CST) Studio suite) that takes into consideration finite integration techniques to execute computational analysis (i.e. Simulations) had been used in the matching technique to extract the physical properties of the material under test, by comparing measured and computational data. A frequency range of 8GHz-10GHz was used in the split resonant cavity measuring Glass, PET, and PEN at low frequencies. This method did not give accurate readings on glass simply because its measurement for accuracy was limited to low dielectric loss materials. Therefore, a glass material with high loss property at low and high frequencies could not be a good candidate for a split cylinder resonant cavity method regardless of its size and thickness. As shown in table 3.1, the loss tangent of glass (1.11mm) was noticed to be the same as the low-loss values of PEN and PET materials with 55µm, 0.131mm (i.e. 0.00622, 0.00608, and 0.00358). However, Quasi-optic millimetre measurement bench was able to depict the real loss properties of glass at low and high frequencies. The frequency ranges of 75GHz-110GHz and 220GHz-325GHz were used in this method. The results from this reading showed that glass is a material with very high loss at low and high frequencies. Mylar, on the other hand, is the optically transparent material with the lowest loss property. However, due to its complexity in fabrication and measurement at high frequency, the Matching Technique was, therefore, more preferable. The Matching Technique was observed to be more efficient and reliable.

Impact of Embedded Generation as a means of Power Supply Improvement. []

Two power supply systems, namely supply from National Grid and Embedded Supply in Trans-Amadi Industrial Layout Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria are modeled. MATLAB/SIMULINK was used to model a comparative reliability index to see the impact Embedded generation has had on a particular feeder that was previously connected to the National Grid. The analysis also included a study of the impact Embedded Supply had on Revenue, Fault and Consumption pattern of the customers using the Comparative (Mathematical) Analytical method. The analysis showed the increased performance experienced with Embedded Supply in the areas of reliability indices, faults, revenue, and consumption. The results showed that SAIFI for embedded supply had 15 fewer interruptions and the customer also experienced 11 hours overall improvement in SAIDI and a 39% improved availability from the ASAI analysis. While CAIDI showed no improvement, load shaving improved by 4% and revenue of the feeder studied also improved by 36% this was mainly due to reduced outages on fault and improved consumption by 54%. The study will serve as a guide in informing decision-makers on how to allocate scarce resources in the power industry to maximize benefit using what is already obtainable in the country. It will also better highlight the benefits of embedded generation for private investors who may want to venture into the power supply.

Critical Discourse Studies of Mobile Telecommunication Network Advertisements of 'Eto'o Peut' in Cameroon []

There is competitiveness in the telecommunications market in Cameroon which brings forth the implementation of strategies to attract consumers. This study examines MTN advertisements on their internet web pages using Critical Discourse Studies. The research pays attention to how the use of the metafunctions (ideational, interpersonal and textual) together with semiotic resources - participants, transitivity patterns, gaze, composition, modality, and distance, manipulates consumers and make them effect purchases. The used of the metafunctions is to demystify hidden power and ideologies embedded in the ads. The use of power and ideologies within the advertisements are to manipulate and influence consumption. The study uses Multimodal Discourse Analysis approach with Kress and Leeuwen (2006) method of reading images adopted in analysing the ads. The study uses the qualitative method in data collection and analysis. A purposive sampling was carried out on MTN internet web pages in Cameroon. The findings turn out that the use of the metafunctions together with the semiotic resources reveals how the use of power of celebrity ‘Eto’o Fils’, ideology ‘Eto’o peut’, age group ‘youthfulness and slim body, beauty of products and services, beauty as lifestyle’ of represented participant manipulates consumers into buying MTN products and services. The lifestyles portrayed by Eto’o on the ads is what the consumers aspire to be.

An Assessment of Radionuclide Concentration and Absorbed Dose In Rainwater from selected Areas in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria []

This study has been carried out mainly for the assessment of naturally occurring radionuclides i.e 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in rain water samples collected from five LGAs in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in the rainwater samples were measured by the means of a gamma-ray spectrometry using a sodium Iodide Thallium doped NaI (TI) detector.


Aquaculture sector provides Food, Employment and Prosperity to the people. The vast area of water resources available in the country provides huge scope for expansion of aquaculture for the production of finfish and shellfish. In order to enhance farmers’ income, there is a need to increase farm productivity through technological interventions, improve market access, and also to develop the industrial and service sectors to support various farmer activities in terms of marketing and processing of their produce and other requirements in terms of self-employment/employment in farming sector. The farmers can realize the doubling of their income within a contemplated period of five years by implementing recommended technologies in the farming system and reap the consequent social and ecological benefits.


In order to meet global energy demands with clean renewable energy such as with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, large surface areas are needed because of the relatively diffuse nature of solar energy. Much of this demand can be matched with aggressive building integrated PV and rooftop PV, but the remainder can be met with land-based PV farms. Using large tracts of land for solar farms will increase competition for land resources as food production demand and energy demand are both growing and vie for the limited land resources. Land competition is exacerbated by the increasing population. These coupled land challenges can be ameliorated using the concept of agrivoltaics or co-developing the same area of land for both solar PV power as well as for conventional agriculture.A coupled simulation model is developed for PV production (PVSyst) and agricultural production (Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire les Cultures Standard (STICS) crop model), to gauge the technical potential of scaling agrivoltaic systems. The results showed that the value of solar generated electricity coupled to shade-tolerant crop production created an over 30% increase in economic value from farms deploying agrivoltaic systems instead of conventional agriculture.Crop yield losses to be minimized and thus maintain crop price stability. In addition, this dual use of agricultural land can have a significant effect on national PV production. If this dual use of land is implemented nationwide, it can make significant impact by generating over 16,000 GWh electricity, which has the potential of meeting the energy demands of more than 15 million people.

Temperature Profile Study of Selected Natural Ventilated Greenhouses and Development of Temperature Prediction Models []

In India because of the least expensive cooling method of greenhouse, natural ventilated types of greenhouses are considered to be the most acceptable structures for growing of vegetable and flower crops. In natural ventilated greenhouse, the inside air temperature is affected by its geometrical dimensions, span, orientation, ventilation rate etc. In the present study, efforts have been made to study the diurnal variation of inside air temperature during January to April months for three different types of natural ventilated greenhouses constructed at Junagadh Agricultural University campus From the study it was found that for Type-I, Type-II and Type-III greenhouses, inside air temperature was varied from 13.520C to 35.130C, 11.540C to 36.870C and 12.430C to 31.590C respectively for January month 14.880C to 38.870C, 16.310C to 35.900C, 13.210C to 33.400C for February month, 16.830 C to 27.970C, 24.4 to 46.620C, 20.440C to 46.620C, 20.570C to 41.350C for March month respectively. In April month it was found to be 22.310C to 48.800C, 22.170C to 43.400C for type-II and type-III in April month respectively. The variation in average ventilation rate per minute from January to April months were observed to be 1.7 to 1.9, 2.0 to 2.3 and 2.1 to 2.5 respectively for type-I, II and III. The mathematical models developed for soil bed and pot cultivation conditions using the energy balance equations and comparison of predicted temperature values with measured data has shown good fitting to the pattern of diurnal variation of weekly average temperatures for all the three types of greenhouses. The maximum fitting efficiency of the models was found as 94%, 77% and 98% for type-I, II and III respectively.

Sensor Based Drip Irrigation Using Solar Pump []

Water and electricity are priced resources for agricultural production system, which correspond to each other because of parallel significance in this sector besides this around 40% of world population sustaining their livelihood on agriculture, some are living in poverty. Introducing of solar power to meet extra demand of electricity can boost the agricultural production and production system as well. This has became popular and increasing fast due to enhanced cost-competiveness, environmentally suitable, energy security, convenience, and applicable marketplace. Saurashtra, one of the major cotton growing regions in the Gujarat state. Scheduling of irrigation thus become important in cotton. Drip irrigation generally save 30% of the water for cotton. If mulch is conjointly adopted with drip system an additional 10% more water can be saved which is generally lost in evaporation from moisture bulb. Hence, this sound practice is adopted for Bt. cotton. In the present arena of climate change the temperature is going to be enhanced by 1oC which ultimately enhance water requirement and frequency and on the other hand reduce the water availability to crops. So we are sand witched between low water availability and high crop water demand.This study was undertaken to address issues concerning the welfare of cotton growers in the Saurashtra state of Gujarat. In which,crop was irrigated with the help of soil moisture sensors based drip irrigation along with mulch. Renewable source of energy used to pump the irrigation water. Results revealed that around 60% irrigation water saved along with energy.

A case study of Cow based organic farming System adopted by the farmer of Vadal, Junagadh, Gujarat []

There has been a rise in consumer’s demand for safe and healthy food due to increasing concerns over the quality of food, contamination due to chemicals, serious health hazards and environmental issues. This increasing demand has given way to a new stream of agriculture, popularly known as Organic Agriculture. Since the use of huge quantities of chemical fertilizers in the Indian farming has been stopped since the Green Revolution, it has changed the structure of our land. Today, the fast-growing agricultural land is changing in the wasteland. And millions of crores of rupees are being spent on the chemical fertilizers. The use of chemical fertilizers in the fields is also adversely affecting crop yield. Organic farming is being promoted to solve all these problems. Under organic farming, farmers have to take more yields by saying the resources available to them. Use more and more organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers. This paper highlights the practices of organic farming adopted by the farmer of Vadal, Dist. Junagadh, Gujarat for the production of various Agriculture and Horticultural crops exclusively by using farm made compost, vermi compost, Jivamrut cow urine etc. with higher productivity and better return. Key Words : Organic Farming, Organic Fertilizers, Chemical Fertilizers, Horticultural crops

Comparative evaluation of Indigenous traditionally used herbal tooth sticks (Datun) and toothpaste in cleaning of mouth microflora []

There are many plants, which are used as chewing sticks (Datun) in different parts of India and the world. Numerous studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of extract of seven different chewing sticks of India. The agar well diffusion Method was used to test the antimicrobial activity of seven Asian chewing sticks. It was found that at there was antimicrobial effect on pyorrhea causing bacteria at IC50 concentration of Kharijal (Salvadoraoleodes) from India. The inhibition zones were found in those two chewing stick extracts. It is recommended that the chewing sticks can be a great help in developing countries with financial constraints and limited oral health care facilities for their populations. Due to Indian traditional knowledge (ITK) this experiments can help to poor and make mission make in India more successful.


The purpose of this paper is to explain hierarchical clustering, the divisive and agglomerative hierarchical clustering methods. It mainly focus on the concept of the divisive hierarchical processes also known as the top-down approach by generating a workflow model, dendrograms, clustered data table which grouped the clusters based the chosen attribute, and display the distance between each cluster with the aid of a data mining tool called KNIME. The DIANA hierarchical approach used data samples of the list of employees in an Information Technology firm to obtain clusters from the position column in the data sample table. In this work, we also implemented statistical means by generating barchart that shows the ages of the chosen employee sets plotted against the positions which are the Researcher, Programmer and TeamLead.


Infant feeding practices is a major determinant of a child’s growth and development, therefore continuous assessment of individuals in different group setting is paramount. This study was aimed at assessing the feeding practices and nutritional status of infants from 2 to 5years of age. A cross sectional survey was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire on (1.) Socio-demographic characteristics of the mothers (2.) The breastfeeding practices (3) Anthropometric measurements (4.) Nutrients intake (24- hour dietary recall) Information was obtained from the mothers. A total of 100 respondents (infants) participated in this study. 58% of the mothers were between 30-34 years, 95% married with monogamous family setting, 95% of them were Christians and 89% had tertiary education. 91% breastfed their infants for the first 6 months, 74% practiced exclusive breastfeeding. About 8% of male and 2% of female were wasted, 2% of male and 6% of female were stunted, and 8% male and 4% female were underweight. The respondents did not meet their energy requirements, the protein requirements was met by all age groups, and only the respondents that were 5 years old did not meet their vitamin A requirements. Iron , calcium and Ascorbic acid intake were lower than the requirements. There was a positive significant (P<0.05) association between the anthropometric indices of the respondent and their mother’s educational level, also majority (74%) of the respondents who practiced exclusive breastfeeding had anthropometric indices that were above normal. The nutritional status of most of the respondents were not adequate.


Background: Consumption of local fruits in most countries is poor, especially seasonal fruits. There is a need for more processing of natural fruits blends to improve our fruit intake and enhance health. Objective: The study evaluated the nutritional and sensory properties of pure and mixed fruit juices from Soursop, orange and pineapple. Methods: Mature Soursop was washed and the shell removed, then the pulp blended and sieved. Pineapple was washed, peeled, blended and sieved. Oranges were washed, the juices squeezed out and sieved. Samples were produced using the following combinations, Samples D (40 % Soursop, 30 % Orange and 30 % Pineapple), C (50 % Soursop and 50 %Orange), B (50 % Soursop and 50 % Pineapple) and A (100 % Soursop). Nutritional properties and sensory evaluation were analysed using standard methods. Data was analysed using Duncan multiple range test. Results: Sample B (79.7%) had the highest moisture content, while sample A (75.0%) had the lowest, the difference was significant (p ≤0.05). Sample D had the highest levels of crude protein 1.1%, fat 0.5%, dietary fibre 0.46% and calorie 0.9%, although carbohydrate (18.68%) was higher in Sample C. It also had the highest PH 4.1 and TTA 2.8g as well as antioxidant (DPPH, Total phenolic compounds and reducing power) while sample A had the highest brix value (8.0), Sample B had the highest content of Vitamin C (38.92%). Sample D was the most preferred in the flavour, sweetness, aroma taste and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Overall data from the study showed that the fruit juice with three fruits (Sample D) contained the highest levels of nutrients, hence the most nutritionally beneficial. It was also the most preferred juice compared with the pure soursop juices and that from two fruits.

Diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Littoral zone of Shahpura Lake, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh []

water is the most critical for the survival of life existing on earth.aquatic organisms play important role in deciding the health of lakes, as certain organisms act as pollution or pollution free environment.

Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of glutaraldehydephenyl hydrazone as a chromogenic reagent for spectrophotometric determination of selected toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd and As) in water, environmental and biological samples. []

The work involves the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of glutaralaldehydephenyl hydrazone as a chromogenic reagent in the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for the determination of selected heavy metals in water, biological and environmental samples. The hydrazone was synthesized by single step condensation method. The product yield was 79.0% with melting points 129-131ºC, the nitrogen content yield was 18.91%. The infrared spectra data obtained from the measurement of glutaraldehydephenylhydrazone showed characterized absorptions bands in regions around 3492.5, 3451 due to –NHR groups. And stretches at 3085 and 1604 due to =CH and C=N respectively. The nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectrum showed peaks around 111.0-141.0 due to aromatic carbon atom, 129.3 ppm due to cyano carbon atom and 40.0, 39.2 and 31.7ppm due to the three methylene carbons. The 1HNMR spectrum revealed peaks at 1.64-1.69 ppm due to the multiplet –CH2- protons, 2.214-2.386 ppm due to quartet –CH2- protons. 7.331-7.345 ppm due to =CH protons, 7.015 ppm due to –NH signal and 6.59-7.34 ppm due to aromatic protons. The Evaluation of the analytical properties of synthesized glutaraldehydephenylhydrazone (GPH) on the metals (Cd, As, Pb, and Cr), the reagent GPH revealed a wavelength range of between 360.0 (Cr) to 395.0 nm for (Pb and As) as maximum absorption at a working pH of 6.5 to 7.5 room temperature (37°C). The reagent had a molar absorptivities (L mol-1 cm-1) ranging from 2.213 x 104 (Pb) to 2.460 x 104 (As), a mole ratio of metal to ligand of 2:1, a detection limit (µg/g) ranging from 0.3432 (As) to 0.5250 (Pb) and the metal-ligand complex was stable for 0-48 hours. The reagents had a Beer’s law validity range (mgL-1) of 0.001 to 100. The preliminary investigations of GPH as possible chelating reagents for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric determination of lead (Pb) on waste water and waste water soil from tannery was carried out, and the result were compared with results from Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods. The results obtained were satisfactory with good precision for the GPH methods.

Enhancing economic competitiveness in Nigeria: The roles of Exchange rate and interest rate. []

One of the three broad objectives of the Federal Government of Nigeria's economic recovery and growth plan (ERGP) is to build a globally competitive economy, with key executive priority of stabilizing the macroeconomic environment. Macroeconomic police instruments such as the interest rate and exchange rate remain prime monetary drivers of growth and competitiveness in any economy. This empirical study therefore proffers response to the question of which of interest rate and exchange rate makes more significant contribution to economic competitiveness in Nigeria. We have employed Ordinary Least Square Regression technique to measure the impact of interest rate and exchange rate on GDP using data spanning from 1981-2016. Results reveal that exchange rate has more significant impact on economic competitiveness than interest rate. The Federal Government of Nigeria is therefore advised to implement policies to improve the exchange rate system in Nigeria.


Nigeria is a pluralistic society with diverse culture and with the antecedent of criminal and insecurity activities. However Nigeria government with a view to promoting national security has established multiplicity of security outfits to cater for national security. For security to thrive in such situation there is need for intelligence sharing among these security agencies. Surprisingly, the multiplicity instead of achieving the utmost security among all odds, they promote lack of cooperation, ego boosting, favouritism, marginalisation among the various security outfits. Individual outfit keeps its intelligence gathered within itself with a view to promoting unnecessary relevance and competition among other outfits rather than sharing intelligence together to achieve common purpose. The study therefore examined the challenges of intelligence sharing among the Nigerian security agencies and the government that ought to execute intelligence report shared with it. Ironically, the politicisation of intelligence shared with government itself makes a mockery of intelligence sharing among the security outfits. The study also rests on observation and literature on intelligence and security highlighting the challenges of security outfits in Nigeria with their overlapping functions. The paper therefore recommends collaborative effort in intelligence sharing between the security agencies and government, de-politicising intelligence and more provision of security facilities to help gather information timely in order to forestall impending dangers.


Construction management suffers from many problems which need to be solved or better understood. The research described in this paper evaluates the effectiveness of implementing the Last Planner System (LPS) to improve construction planning practice and enhance site management in the Saudi construction industry. To do so, LPS was implemented in two large state-owned construction projects through an action research process. The data collection methods employed included interviews, observations and a survey questionnaire. The findings identify major benefits covering many aspects of project management, including improved construction planning, enhanced site management and better communication and coordination between the parties involved. The fact that the structural work in one of the projects studied was completed two weeks ahead of schedule provides evidence of improvement of the specific site construction planning practices. The paper also describes barriers to the realization the full potential of LPS, including the involvement of many subcontractors and people’s commitment and attitude to time. KEY WORDS: Construction planning, Last Planner System implementation, action research


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the moderating effect of intellectual engagement on the asso-ciation between peer relationship and social-emotional and character development among the elementary students in Caraga Region. Non-experimental quantitative research utilizing descriptive correlation technique was the design employed in the study. Respondents of 400 students from public elementary school in the 10 divisions/cities in the region were chosen through random and stratified sampling. Results revealed that the level of peer relationship was moderate while social-emotional and character de-velopment and intellectual engagement were high. Further, findings revealed that peer relationship and intellectual engagement are significantly related to social-emotional and character development. Importantly, results revealed that intellectual engagement demonstrated significant moderating effect on the relationship between peer relationship and social-emotional and character development. Intellectual engagement provides more profound effect on the relationship between peer relationship and social-emotional and character development. With these three constructs as support system superior perfor-mance and competitiveness among the elementary students may be expected. Keywords: education management, intellectual engagement, peer relationship, social- emotional, character development, Philippines.

Contributions of Traditional Belief Systems to Species Conservation in Mount Cameroon Area, Southwest Cameroon []

Taboos, totems, and rituals as belief systems have been very instrumental in conserving species in different African communities. This study was therefore carried out to assess how these belief systems contribute to species conservation in Mount Cameroon Area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire, focus group discussions, and in-depth interview sessions were conducted in 8 of the 41 villages within the Mount Cameroon Area in 2017. The study found out that 50% of the respondents still perceive taboos, and totem practices as key traditional practices contributing to the conservation of animal, tree and bird species including endangered species like the African Elephant and Nigeria Cameroon Chimpanzee. Though contributing to natural resources conservation, these belief systems are not cherished and respected by the younger generation and an increasing number of community members due to the adoption of Western culture and Christianity, as well as urbanization. The study, therefore, recommends that a detailed study be carried out on the effectiveness of incorporating traditional belief systems into law enforcement mechanisms for the conservation of natural resources to understand the complementarities of traditional belief systems and law enforcement in the achievement of conservation goals.


This study aims to determine the effectiveness of filters in the cultivation of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in aquaponic system. The study was conducted from July to August 2017 at Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. The research method was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications, namely treatment A: circulation using bioball filter media, B: Circulation using water spinach filter media, C: Circulation using bioball filter media and water spinach plants and D: Circulation using media sponge (control).The container used for the maintenance of a fiber tub with the size of 70 cm x 70 cm x 70 cm filled with water as much as 257 L with a density of 15 fish/fiber. The parameters observed were absolute fish growth, survival rate and water quality, including pH, dissolved oxygen and ammonia. The results showed that there were significant differences in the growth of nile tilapia fry with a biological filter of water spinach plants with survival rate of 100% and absolute growth 98.32 gr ± 15.6 gr.

Women Worker in RMG Sector of Bangladesh: A Case Study of CEPZ []

Ready made garment (RMG) industry is the key sector of the Bangladesh's economy in terms of Employment, production and foreign exchange earnings (World Bank, 1990). There are at present more than 4500 garment factories contributing about 80 percent of the country's export earnings. This tremendous success is greatly attributable to women workers, who account for the lion’s share of the total labor force employed in the sector. But women were exploited easily due to lack of technical knowledge and training. Globalization as manifested in the RMG sector, failed to offer opportunities to the female labor force. Garment industries were exploited them as cheap source of labor (Halim and Kabir, 2005). In the garment factory, most of the female workers age is between 18 to 30 years. Qualitative methods were used in order to get a reasonably true picture of the entire population. The data were collected during the period from February to April, 2019. This study find out what are the main reasons to becoming a women garments worker, what the problems they facing during her garments life and to recommend some measures to improving the problems of RMG sectors female worker by this study.

Impact of the Information Systems in certain services of medical imagery of Cameroun : case of General Hospital of douala and Yaounde, regional hospital of Garoua, Cameroon []

Objectives : The medical imaging is one of the specialities of the medicine which the most profited from computerization these last decades through the installation of the system from filing and of communication of the medical images (IF) which starts to become an option impossible to circumvent.This system allows a medical step in which the professional of medical imaging joins together in a virtual form all the relevant data for a holistic and effective approach of the customer.The study consisted in arising the importance of the establishment of and the filing communication system of images within certain medical establishments and its influence on the medical practices. Method : For that, one six months duration, a descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken in the services of imaging of the General Hospital of Douala and Yaounde and of the Regional Hospital of Garoua, functioning already with these systems of computerization. The data were collected using a preestablished standard questionnaire, then filled by the professionals of health of the services of medical imaging of thats sanitary structures. Results: Engineers in imagery (55%) whose age bracket varied between 19-28 years were in a majority and 60% of the professionals had never received a training in information system.75% of use of the information systems were based on the visualization of the images taking into account its facility of use. 60% of the radiologists users of the Information systems found them beneficial for their services.34,6% of the systems were equipped in majority with the application "management with the patient file". The speed of use of the functions "visualization of the images" was better in 70% of case. Conclusion: Have regard to the problems raised by the innovation in this field in medical imaging as for accessibility, the speed of execution of the tasks and the interpersonal and interprofessional communication, we note the unanimity of these professionals on the positive impact which the Information systems exploit the productivity and the good management of the services of medical imaging. Key words: Information system, Services of imaging, hospitals of Cameroun.

Analysis of bank Migration of Credit Risk using Transition Matrices []

Credit risk is one of the most critical areas of financial research of late. It is motivated by recent progress in risk management portfolio and techniques in management, trading in Credit growth derivatives, implementation of Basel II accord and concerns from regulators driven by credit crisis that occurred in the USA between 2001 and 2002. Within this vast literature, advances in research provides an analysis of the role, influence and meaning of the Credit ratings that merit Credit Risk. This paper analyses the links which are two way between Macroeconomic states and Credit risk assessment deciphered through business cycles phases. We propose a technique or methodology which can be applied in Banks data and is internally rated having project migration of ratings and their probabilities as well as integrating the economy state. We discuss first the matter on whether the risk of credit is low or high in diverse states of economy. In order to discuss these scenarios, we scrutinize each year having four quarters representing different states within the year. We then review how conservation of macroeconomic are integrated in models of Credit Risk and approaches in risk measurements having Basel II and Basel III as their core approach.

Cyberbullying of High School Students in Bangladesh: An Exploratory Study []

This study explores the cyberbullying experience of the high school students in Bangladesh. The motivation of the work is to identify the internet usage and online activities that may cause cyberbullying victimization of the students of the age between 13 and 18. The study also investigates cyberbullying prevalence and impacts both as victimization and perpetration perspectives, discusses their reporting practices to parents, school officials, other adults and suggest policies to teach cyber safety strategy and generate awareness among students.


Building Information Modeling (BIM) and off-site construction (OSC) are increasingly applied in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry due to their many benefits to project stakeholders, such as enhanced design visualization, improved data exchanges, reduced construction waste, improved productivity, and higher product quality. Substantial research efforts have thus been devoted to these topics in recent decades, resulting in a large amount of literature regarding BIM and OSC. This research explores the state-of-the-art in BIM for OSC by means of a bibliometric-qualitative review method. The objective of this research is to uncover the synthesis between BIM and OSC and to identify research trends as well as gaps in knowledge that can be addressed in future research on BIM for OSC. Science maps are constructed by means of bibliometric analysis in order to objectively identify the main research topics of these two fields both separately and jointly based on identified academic publications from Scopus (i.e., 4395 publications on BIM, 2841 publications on OSC, and 113 publications on BIM for OSC). A qualitative review is further conducted on 77 screened research publications (including articles, reviews, and conference papers) with a particular focus on BIM for OSC. Through quantitative analysis and in-depth discussion of BIM for OSC, research gaps are identified, and future directions are further proposed as follows: BIM-based generative design for prefabrication, cloud BIM-based data exchange for OSC, robotics and 3D printing for OSC, BIM-enabled big data analytics toward best OSC practice, benefits and its assessment model of BIM for OSC. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by synthesizing the state of the art of BIM for OSC and exposing the research needs in this area in order to improve AEC practice.


Climate change resilient varieties are considered to be a long term solution to the yield loss brought about by certain phenomena caused by the changing climate. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, submergence and saline intrusions to rice field, are the most common climate-change related phenomena that cause yield losses in rice. Modern biotechnology tools, such as tissue culture and induced mutation by gamma radiation, are used in rice breeding to address this threat by enhancing genetic variability to improve plant architecture and pheno-typic acceptability of rice cultivars with known tolerance to abiotic stresses but of poor phenotype. Tissue culture and gamma irradiation of submergence tolerant rice cultivar, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and saline tolerant, Pokkali, generated elite lines with improved phenotype and with retained abiotic stress tolerance. The study evaluated the field performance of the mutant lines in comparison with their respective wildtypes. The lines were evaluated for agronomic traits viz., panicle length, productive tiller, grain yield and yield components. Compar-ing Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and its mutant, the mutant line had longer panicle length (23.1 cm) than the wildtype (21.9 cm). The grain yield of the mutant (9.290 tha-1), though numerically greater than the wildtype (8.360 tha-1), was statistically not significantly different. In terms of yield components, though the wildtype had greater no. of spikelets per panicle compared to the mutant, the grains were signifi-cantly longer by 5.5 % than the wildtype which contributed to a higher grain yield. Pokkali-derived mutant was improved in productive tiller by 4.22%. Grain yield of the Pokkali-mutant (9.750 tha-1) was also significantly higher than the wildtype (2.740 tha-1) by 7.0%. Yield component parameters of the mutants were also significantly higher, but grain size and shape was not significantly different to the original Pokkali. The improved breeding lines generated from induced mutation of Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and Pokkali can be used as novel sources of genes for abiotic tolerance with acceptable phenotype and acceptable grain yield


Abstract Contemporarily for the first time in history a great number of people can hope to live into their 60s and beyond both in developed and developing nations as a result of advance in medicine. Again historically, public health systems have focused mainly on short-term health care for acute problems. This is basically on the grounds that transferable diseases were the main driver of morbidity and mortality also the long term care was an option that is generally too expensive. This paper therefore explores the Nigeria healthcare system the existing organizational and delivering structures and how the acute healthcare can be aligned with the long term care particularly to the elderly. The paper observed that the Nigeria healthcare system is shrouded with problems and fundamental shift in alignment of care for older people is needed. And that Instead of trying to manage several diseases and symptoms associated with the aged in a disjointed fashion, the emphasis should be on interventions that optimize older people’s physical and mental capacities over their life course. Therefore there should be more integration within the health system and between health and social services. However absence of political will, lack of evidence demonstrating that integrated care for older people can produce cost saving are some of the challenges militating healthcare integration. Finally the paper concludes that the development of coherent health systems policy and normative guidance on the implementation, evaluation and great political will is required for integrated health care for older people.


This research aims to evaluate the application of fisheries sector management policies in Jatigede Reservoir, Sumedang District, West Java. This research was conducted in Jatigede Reservoir which inundated five subdistricts namely Darmaraja, Wado, Jatinunggal, Jatigede, and Cisitu Subdistricts in Sumedang District, West Java. The research was began in October 2018 until March 2019. The method used was the Likert scale and analyzed descriptive. The sampling technique used a purposive sampling method of 30 respondents. The selection of respondents is based on their ability background, interests, and have influence in their existence KJA in the Jatigede Reservoir, Sumedang District, West Java. Based on this results of the research, there are still infraction of Perda No 2 of 2012 article 49 paragraph 8 issued by the district government of Sumedang regarding the prohibition of aquaculture activities using floating net cages with an average index of 49.33%, and Perda No 2 of 2012 article 48 paragraph 5 concerning prohibitions to construct a building in protected areas (sempadan) Jatigede Reservoir with an average index of 60.5%. The solution needed is to make a spatial map of the Jatigede Reservoir area, impose sanctions if there are infraction, and execute socialization to the community regarding the prohibition on the construct a floating net cages and to construct a building in sempadan area of the Jatigede Reservoir.


ABSTRACT This paper examines the socio-economic effects of youth unemployment in Nigeria as well as its causes and implications. Youths are very important stakeholder in any society. They are not only the future of Nigeria, but also a major stakeholder and useful resource in nation building. However, available data show that youth unemployment is very prevalent in Nigeria with far reaching implications for stability of the society. Unemployment has a negative multiplier effect not only on the individual involved but on the society as a whole. This paper therefore identifies the main causes of youth unemployment in Nigeria which include: adoption of untimely economic policy measures, corruption, wrong impression about technical and vocational studies, the neglect of the agricultural sector, poor educational Planning and poor enabling environment, anchoring the explanation of the causes of these youth unemployment on neo-liberalism that created economic and social dislocations. The paper argues that many anti-social activities such as political thuggry, militancy, restiveness and other social vices evident among the unemployed and jobless youths are real dangers to the stability of the country. Youth unemployment has been identified as one of the core causes of the rising level of social disorder and insecurity permeating the entire country of Nigeria. The paper concludes that addressing the problem of youth unemployment must involve all the stakeholders. Suggestion from the analysis therefore are that effective policy measures such as Re–prioritization of the Agricultural Sector, reformation of educational system and Provision of Enabling Environment that will drastically reduce unemployment and poverty should be adopted to eradicate the menace of youth unemployment.


Conservation areas are patches of unique natural landscapes and vital component of the environment inhabiting valuable ecosystem. They play significant role in sustainability of the natural system and humans in general. Due to their significance, their management becomes necessary. They were seen as a communal resource, and used for several functions ranging from social, economic, cultural to religious purposes. They were also managed by the local and traditional people. However, in the 19th century, the areas were hi-jacked by governments and international organizations, where formal governance of the areas replaced the traditional one. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) framework stands as a model for effective management of conservation areas and in determining their performance at either individual or system level. The body has also developed different methodologies for assessing effective management of conservation areas. Yet, management of several conservation areas across the globe have been reported ineffective, and most of those in the developing and under developed worlds are threatened by managerial factors. These have triggered the need for proper governance of conservation areas. This can be attributed to form of governance of the areas. These have subjected conservation areas to several forms of degradation, de-reservation, de-listing from IUCN database because they have become empty forest or paper parks. Recently, shared governance has been adopted in environmental management, where nature and conservation areas are managed effectively through involvement of public/local communities/indigenous people and stakeholders in the management of process. This has been proven to contribute significantly in effective management and better performance of the areas. This is evident in many conservation areas around the globe. This is because the public/local people can have sense of belonging and ensure their sustainability. Effective management of the areas depends heavenly on capacity of the government, which is a combination of several factors/requirements/indicators. Similarly, percentage of conservation areas adequately protected and manged indicates the level of commitment of a nation towards achieving sustainability, which is measured by its ability to deliver benefits at all levels.

Design of an Extraction column (A case study of separation of water -Aecetone-Acetic acid using chloroform as solvent) []

An Extraction column design for the separation of water-Acetic acid-Acetone using chloroform as solvent was carried out. the data for the design was obtained from handbooks. The simulation of the column was done using Apen Hysys version 8.6. the mass flow rate and composition of the extract and raffinate phases were determined along with the theoritical and actual number of stages, column diameter,column height, stage efficiency and tray spacing. stainless steel was used as the material of construction. Finally the results of the simulation was compared with hand calculation which showed a maximum deviation of 1.3.


Brain tumor is the second most frequent childhood solid tumor after leukemia. Neurosurgery remains the first outcome for biopsy as well as for anatomic pathology evaluation purposes for therapeutic resections. This study was a longitudinal descriptive design with a retrospective (10 years) and prospective (6 months) study periods. The study general objective was to appreciate and describe the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic aspects of childhood brain tumor so as to define a prognostic profile of these tumors. 68 cases of brain tumor constituted our sample size. Patients’ clinical presentation at diagnosis was dominated by the intracranial hypertension syndrome (80.4%). Presumptive diagnosis after brain scanner was dominated by astrocytoma (47.8%), followed by medulloblastoma (8.7%) and glioma (6.5%). Only 5% of the children underwent chemotherapy and just 1 patient radiotherapy. These were the only therapeutic modalities after neurosurgery whereby all the other children went through. The rate of mortality after surgery in this study was 21.7%. Key Words: brain tumor, chemotherapy, childhood, radiotherapy, neurosurgery


PAHs can be produced by burning such materials as coal, oil or trash asphalt among others. These PAHs can be carried by dust to un-imaginable long distances. In Yenagoa, several burning activities take place and these are possible sources of PAHs. The present work was designed to determine the concentration of PAHs in settled dust around and away from a slaughter; the largest and busiest slaughter at Swali Market, Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, was chosen for the study. Settled dust samples were collected in plastic basins, prepared and analyzed by GC-MS; samples were collected at the centre of the slaughter, 100 meters away from slaughter, 200 meters away from slaughter and they were respectively designated A, B, and C. The results for the different PAHs are as follows: Naphthalene, (Sample A, 276.007 sample B, 272.113; sample C, 276.007), Acenaphthylene (Sample A, 259.561 sample B, 254.022 ; sample C, 259.561), Acenaphthene (Sample A, 95.897 sample B, 89.1218 ; sample C, 95.897), Fluorene (Sample A, 495.085 sample B, 504.549 ; sample C, 495.085), Phenanthrene (Sample A, 268.417 sample B, 261.037 ; sample C, 268.417), Anthracene (Sample A, 135.546 sample B, 119.140 ; sample C, 135.546), Fluoranthene (Sample A, 71.417 sample B, 69.863 ; sample C, 71.417), Pyrene (Sample A, 362.956 sample B, 334.177 ; sample C, 362.956), Benzo(a)anthracene (Sample A, 140.801 sample B, 144.409 ; sample C, 140.801), Chrysene (Sample A, 76.919 sample B, 71 .000 ; sample C, 76.919), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (Sample A, 73.686 sample B, 62.668 ; sample C, 73.686). The results show no significant differences between sample around and away from the slaughter; suggesting that the slaughter under investigation contributes little or no PAHs to the environment.

Diagnosis and management of bowel obstruction in elderly patients at the general hospital of Yaounde []

Bowel obstruction is a serious affection characterized by a partial or complete and persistent interruption of the normal flow of luminal content. Bowel obstruction is one of the most frequent emergencies in general surgery, commonly affecting elderly patients, yet resulting with bad prognostics. Consequently, morbidity and mortality from bowel obstruction in elderly patients is high. Though, significant progress has been made in the diagnosis and management of bowel obstruction in recent years, little is known whether this progress has benefitted outcomes in elderly patients in Cameroon regarding morbidity and mortality related to this intestinal obstruction. As such, this design study aims at evaluating the morbidity and mortality of intestinal obstruction in elderly patients.


ABSTRACT: In the course of recent years, Washington has come to grasp an approach of key challenge with China. The Trump organization's National Defense Strategy and National Security Strategy clarify that the United States considers China to be an incredible power rival militarily as well as in a challenge for financial and mechanical amazingness. Accordingly, a successful alliance to deal with China's ascent can never again focus on Asian security organizations alone yet should now incorporate the world's foremost groupings of monetary power, mechanical advancement, and liberal popularity based qualities. Among these are a large number of the United States' accomplices in the Indo-Pacific, for example, Australia, India, and Japan. In any case, the European Union and its real part states are additionally winding up progressively basic U.S. partners in managing China. As EU-China summit approaches, Europe has started to on a very basic level reevaluate its China strategies. The move is so generous than even prepared Asia hands have depicted it as a "transformation." Despite contrasts among the EU part expresses, the general push of the change is in combination with the new U.S. approach.


Consumption of energy drinks has significantly increased in recent times. Students are among the best-known consumers for less sleep in school, sports or daily activities. However caffeine and many substances these drinks contain can have harmful consequences. The objective of this research is to contribute to improving the health of students at the University of Lubumbashi by reducing the uncontrolled consumption of energy drinks. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study through self-administered questionnaires to 800 internal and external students from different faculties and schools of the University of Lubumbashi from which 62, 4% were male and 37, 6% female. The results indicate that the proportion of students consuming energy drinks was 97%, of which 59,5% were regular consumers and 40,5% were casual consumers. Calculating BMI, 3,4% of students were overweight and 0,5% were obese. Among the most consumed energy drinks, Kungfu has a proportion of 37,6% followed by Volcano (22,3%) and XXL (16%). The majority of students surveyed (52,2%) reported that they drank energy drinks several times a day, followed by 42% who drank once a day

Economic and mathematical modeling of bank loan portfolio []

The major part of banks’ assets and loan interest income makes a significant share of banks’ income. Inappropriate loan portfolio evaluation might have negative impact on a commercial bank's performance, the overall banking system, and the economic growth of the country. It is not enough for a bank to have a precise strategy, high lending culture, and observance of general principles to ensure the further growth of profitable loans. It is necessary to apply various evaluation methods of historical and present data, of ratios and factors enabling to implement coherent and comprehensive loan portfolio evaluation, and to encompass different factors as far as possible


This research was conducted at the Karangsong Fish Landing Base Indramayu, West Java from April 2018 to July 2019. This research aims to analyze the utilization of shark resources in various regimes through Gordon-Schaefer model, actual utilization condition of shark and directives for proper management of shark resources in Indramayu waters. The results of this research showed the MSY regime in catch production (HMSY) was 397,461 tons/year with fishing effort (EMSY) of 39.253 trips/year, MEY regime obtained catch production (HMEY) of 385,661 tons/year with fishing effort (EMEY) of 32.714 trips/year, and the OA regime obtained catch production (HOA) of 220,274 tons/year with fishing effort (EOA) of 65.428 trips/year. The optimum profit was obtained in MEY regime of Rp 4.132.858.000. Actual utilization conditions for management shark resources have experienced overfishing. Management directions of shark resources are by reducing gill nets from 864 units to 216 units, and by adding fishing rods 0-5 GT from 56 units to 85 units, limited entry of shark fishing effort from 989 trips to 7.528 trips. Total Allowable catch for shark utilization is 317,969 tons, with a quota of gill nets of 276,633 tons and fishing rods of 41,336 tons. This management directive applies only to use of shark resources that can still be used (not prohibited), while the use of banned sharks (protected) is given strict sanctions through law enforcement against protected shark fishermen.


The farming of climbing bean is yet to be embraced by many, yet it is a variety capable of producing more than 75 percent than traditional beans, alternatively known as bush beans. Whereas the latter can produce up to 25 pods, with proper farming practices, climbing beans from certified seeds can produce up to 100 pods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation on production of climbing beans and subsequently the beans nodulation in Nandi North region. In this study a Randomised Block Design (RBD) model was used with three blocks/replications and the application of the four treatments (0=Control, 1= Inorganic, 2= Rhizobium inoculant and 3=Organic fertilizers). In addition, there were 12 data points for every treatment considered in the experiment which resulted to 36 observations for each block. The quantities that were applied at single level for each treatment will be 20t/ha for Cattle manure, 50 kg/ha for DAP and 100 g for rhizobium inoculum which was mixed with 15 kg of climbing beans. The results revealed that organic fertiliser has a significant effect on the yield of climbing beans; inorganic fertiliser has a significant effect on the yield of climbing beans and rhizobium inoculum has a significant effect on the yield of climbing beans. It was clear that all the fertiliser inputs had a significant effect on the yield of climbing beans. From the findings and conclusions, the study recommends that small scale farmers and large scale climbing beans farmers should adopt the use of fertilizer inputs so as to boost their yield.

Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics With respect to Dog Rabies Disease []

A SEIR model for rabies between dogs with vaccination effect is formulated. The basic reproduction ratio for this model is derived using the Next Generation Matrix Method. Graphical solutions of the differential equations are produced using Matlab. Stability analysis is performed and the impact of vaccination is analyzed.

On the Poetry of The Dog Beneath the Skin []

The Dog Beneath the Skin is the first play to be coauthored between Wystan Hugh Auden and Christopher Isherwood. It is a play written in verse, which creates a challenge of success for the dramatists for two reasons, the first is that it deals with verse, the second it is collaborative. The study through the collaborators, trying to show, to what extent, both achieved attainment in dealing with verse drama. This study also endeavors to trace the poetic features in The Dog Beneath the Skin and to attempt proving the capability and controllability in writing successful drama in verse through collaboration. This paper is done by using an analytic-critical method. It is an approach to a drama shared by both Auden and Isherwood. The study tersely traces the growth and elaboration of poetic drama until the twentieth century. It goes through the sort of collaboration between Auden and Isherwood. It is concluded by examining and analyzing, its central part, the poetic features and essentials in the play The Dog Beneath the Skin.


Animals’ natural locomotion shows a high level of robustness and adaptability which enable them to transfer through rugged terrains. Although hexapod robots have such great superiority to adapt with rugged terrains, it still has some difficulties to follow an exact smooth path. Regular periodic gates could not be able to adapt with such challenges. In this work, an adaptive walking gait is developed to deal with the challenge of following an exact pre-defined path in the Cartesian space. The case study hexapod Phantom_ll robot model is simulated at Sim-mechanics toolbox under MATLAB® to gauge the introduced adaptive gate. Besides, the case study hexapod Phantom_ll robot kinematic model is evaluated which consists of two main tasks, robot forward kinematics and robot inverse kinematics. Forward kinematic is calculated using Denavit-Hartenberg method and inverse kinematic algorithms are obtained geometrically. Moreover, the robot stability margin and kinematic constrains are considered. The simulation results proved the adeptness of the presented adaptive gait.

Assessment Of Sexual Troubles In Egyptian Women With Female Genital Mutilation []

Background: Female genital mutilation (F.M.G) is a national concern. It is known from previous researches that it causes complications as shock, hemorrhage, infections and sexual dysfunction. In spite of that, people still insist on practicing this tradition on their daughters regardless the consequences to avoid future adultery.Objective: This study was aimed to further assess the effect of F.G.M on the prevalence of sexual troubles among Egyptian women. Subjects and methods: This prospective case control study comprised 500 sexually active women in 2 groups "250 with FGM (case group) and 250 without FGM (control group) " at El Demerdash maternity hospital. All the study participants were asked to answer the Arabic translated version of Female Sexual Dysfunction Index(F.S.D.I) questionnaire and the individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and overall score of F.S.F.I were calculated. Results: The two groups were comparable in most demographic characteristics. There were no statistical differences in the mean desire score and the mean pain score (+/- standard deviation) between the two groups. However the mean scores for arousal, lubrication , orgasm and satisfaction and so the overall score showed significant differences between the two groups with the group with F.G.Ms scoring much less. Conclusion: F.G.M causes sexual dysfunction, not in the form of decreased desire as traditions aimed for, but on the contrary, in the form of an-orgasmia (not being able to end the stimulated desire to reach a latent period desire free) which leads to pelvic congestion and psychological frustration and depression.


The main objective of this project is to develop a home automation system with mechanical man application controlled remote. Modern homes ar bit by bit shifting from typical switches to centralized system, involving wireless controlled switches. Presently, conventional wall switches are more difficult for the elderly or physically handicapped people to do. In Bluetooth based home automation system the home appliances are connected to the microcontroller PCB board at input output ports using TRIAC. The program of microcontroller PCB board is based on high level interactive C language of microcontrollers; the connection is made via Bluetooth. The password protection is provided so only authorized user is allowed to access the appliances. The Bluetooth connection is established between microcontroller PCB board and phone for wireless communication. One circuit is designed and implemented for receiving the feedback from the android smart phone, which indicate the status of the device Remote operation is achieved by any smart-phone/Tablet etc., with Android OS, upon a GUI (Graphical User Interface) based touch screen operation. In order to achieve this, Android application act as transmitter, which sends ON/OFF commands to the receiver where loads are connected. By operational the required remote activate the transmitter, the hundreds is turned ON/OFF remotely through wireless technology. The microcontroller used here is of 8051 family. The loads are interfaced to the microcontroller using Opto-isolators and TRIAC’s.

Diversité des communautés des nématodes parasites associées aux cultures maraîchères dans la zone périurbaine de Bamako (Mali) []

Abstract : The development of market gardening is faced with numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. Among the latter are plant parasitic nematodes. For a sustainable management of these nematodes, a faunistic inventory was carried out in 5 market garden sites around Bamako to estimate their importance. The nematological analysis revealed the existence of 9 kinds of phytonematodes in the rhizosphere of the main sampled crops among which the very harmful Meloidogyne gall nematodes. They have been both common and abundant in all sites. Key words: vegetable crops, densities, ectoparasites, endoparasites, nematodes, sites


Abstract—the key point of this paper is to modify coding that may possibly determine the Horizontal Protection Level (HPL) from a GPS receiver. HPL is used to describe the user location errors with an assurance of 99.9999% and generally useful in aviation industry. The use of navigation systems in aviation demands a high value of belief in the result to be used. Integrity referred as the measure of the belief that can be placed in the accuracy of the information provided by a navigation system. Reliability characterizes a navigation capability to give well-timed caution to users when the Global Positioning System (GPS) ought not to be used for navigation. There is much architecture that permits calculating the degree of reliability on a solution allocated by the system. One of them are the reliability monitoring strategy known as Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) which consist of algorithms applied at the receiver and permit to calculate the reliability level and in case of a defective satellite that error is not only identified but the defective satellite may be excluded. Technology of RAIM has been developed around its two tasks (or functions). One of which is to identify whether there is a satellite failure. The other one is to establish whether the satellite’s spatial geometry fulfill the precision of navigation, or relevant to Horizontal Protection Level (HPL). This paper is concerned with the calculation of HPL and examines the outcome of variety in Protection Level using RAIM algorithm. RAIM algorithm identifies GPS abnormalities and satellite failures and provides the HPL value. HPL means the smallest detectable horizontal location error with available probabilities of a (FA) and (MD). The results acquired by this technique led to conclude that it could be a helpful opportunity to a future airport environment execution.

Design and Construction of a Solar Powered Evaporative Air Cooler []

Solar powered evaporative cooler using locally available materials such as galvanized iron, thin wooden strips, car radiator fan and submersible water pump of low power types was designed and constructed. The design and construction of this system are simplified in such a way that it can easily be reproduced by a lay man especially those living in hot and dry areas. In this work humidity and temperature control unit was integrated to control water supply there by regulating the humidity level of the room space while cooling. Energy consumption of this air cooler for 6hrs was 0.054kWh. This technology is cheaper and can efficiently improve indoor air quality and it is suitable for residential application especially for villages, schools and offices where there is a power outage problem or no grid extension.


This study aims to describe the activity of the fisheries industry sector in Indramayu. Analyzing the role of the fisheries industry sector in regional development Indramayu district based on comparison of the amount of production of regional and provincial fishery. This study began in February 2019 to March 2019. Research Methods literature survey was performed using data collected through surveys decisions then quantitatively analyzed and presented descriptively. Data of this study consisted of two types: primary data and secondary data. The data analysis was conducted on the Shift Share Analysis and Analysis of Location Quotient (LQ). Based on the research conducted on the Fisheries Industry Potential Studies in Indramayu, it can be concluded fisheries potential in Indramayu namely fisheries industry (LQ 1.75) and the aquaculture industry Pond (LQ 1.57) is an industry that excel in Indramayu. Shows the value of industrial production growth in net shift of Indramayu district fishery with the average of the years 2013-2017 amounted to 47.472,45 fisheries industry demonstrates the value PB> 0, which means that the fisheries industry in Indramayu had progressive growth rate. Keywords: Keywords: potential fisheries industry, Indramayu regency, Shift Share Analysis and Location Quotient (LQ) analysis.

Minasari Village Unit Cooperative Role To Improve Fishermen Welfare In Pangandaran Regency, West Java Province []

This research aims to analyze the role of Minasari Village Unit Cooperative in Pangandaran Regency and evaluate the performance of Minasari Village Unit Cooperative in Pangandaran Regency to increase the welfare of fishermen. Research was conducted at the Minasari Village Unit Cooperative in Pangandaran Regency starting from January to Februari 2019 . The method used in this research is descriptive method by using primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data. The collected data used purposive sampling for 60 respondent members of the Village Unit Cooperative (KUD) Minasari who worked as fishermen. The analyzed research by Likert Scale in data processing. The research results of fishermen who are members of the Village Unit Cooperative (KUD) Minasari have the role of Minasari Villange Unit Cooperative Pangandaran has an averange index value at 67,07. This average index means the role of Minasari Village Unit Cooperative to increase the welfare of fisherman in Pangandaran Regency is considered good by it’s respondent which catches layur fish the most using gillnet as fishing gear and boat with 3-5 GT of the fishing fleets.


In Nigeria various regimes, regardless of type, always play vital roles in decision making that could enhance national development. There are series of policies and programme, such as Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), Green Revolution (GR), Universal Primary Education(UPE), National Commission for Nomadic Education(NCNE) and many others. These programmes are expected to continue by succeeding regimes but unfortunately, they did not live to the expectation.


The increase in the world’s population has led to the increase in the demand for energy which is the base rock for economic growth of any country. In developing countries, the use of firewood, charcoal etc has been the major source of heat energy particularly in rural areas. The over dependant on fossil fuel as a source of energy both for heating and electricity generation is a major challenge facing developing countries. There is the need for finding alternative source of fuel that will address both health and environmental consequence of firewood for cooking. The use of biomass briquette can be a better alternative since it is relatively cheaper than fossil fuel. This research centres on the effect of paper pulp additive on some mechanical properties of maize stalk biomass briquette. The paper pulp additive was added to the various sizes of maize stalk biomass briquette in different proportions using starch as binder. Some mechanical properties such as length expansion, swelling thickness compressed and relaxed density of the various sizes and different proportions of maize stalk biomass to the paper pulp briquettes were examined. The maize stalk biomass briquette with particle size 1.5 mm and mixing proportion of 70:30 (maize stalk biomass to paper pulp) has Relaxed Density of 27.07 x 10-5 g/mm3 and Compressed Density of 34.02x10-5g/mm3 which is the best result from this research. With these densities it shows this particular size with this proportion will have a longer burning time, better calorific value than others and easy transportation. Also, because of its low swelling thickness and length expansion after briquetting, it is recommended that in the case of maize stalk biomass mixture with paper pulp briquette, the ratio of 70:30 for particle size of 1.5 mm diameter should be used..


The removal of Cu(ii) ions from aqueous solutions using plantain stalk powder (an agricultural waste) as a novel adsorbent was investigated using batch method. Factors influencing copper adsorption such as initial copper ion concentration (1.0 – 6.0 mg/l), pH (3 - 10) and contact time (1 – 5 hrs) at constant temperature 30o C (303 K) were investigated. The adsorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was established within 2 hrs. Maximum adsorption of 89.9% for Cu2+ ions was found to occur at around pH 5. The equilibrium data obtained were analyzed using different adsorption isotherm models. The result was best described by the Langmuir model with R2 value of 0.98. The maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption process calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was found to be 250 mg/g. The high value of the adsorption capacity indicated that plantain stalk powder can be used as an excellent alternative for the removal of Cu2+ ions from waste-water.

Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge about Physiotherapy Techniques in Basra Center Hospitals []

Assess the level of nurses knowledge in physiotherapy techniques and the relationship between the level of assessment with the practice of physical therapy and education level. includes History of physiotherapy, Benefits of physiotherapy and Physiotherapy techniques. So Methodology was a descriptive study, data were collected from staffs of physiotherapy units in Basra center hospitals number (30) samples. Instrument of this study was questionnaire composed (40) question about physical therapy techniques to evaluate nurse’s knowledge about this subject, each question had (2.5) scores from the total degree which is (100) degrees, where It was used arethematic mean, standard deviation, range, percent, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Pearson Correlation and one way ANOVA- F- test. 1- The percentage of nurse’s knowledge about physiotherapy techniques was (43.58 %). 2- Percent passed of nurses was (33.33 %) while not passed of nurses was (66.66 %), but Sample’s scores descriptive normally in Assessment of nurse’s knowledge about physiotherapy. 1- Add physiotherapy in the curricula of health institutes and colleges of nursing in Iraq. 2- Give training courses for nurses who working at physiotherapy wards about how to deal with existing devices.


The survey was conducted during 2017 to examine the role of mass media in dissemination of agricultural technology among the farmers of district Naushahro Feroze and the respondents were examined for their demographic characteristics and the aspects related to the role of mass media in dissemination of agricultural technology for productivity enhancement. The re-search study was conducted in the district of Naushahro Feroze to explore the role of mass media in the development of the agricultural production. The information through mass media include telecasting, broadcasting, print media and personal visits of Agricultural extension services and private institutions for diffusion of new technologies and techniques for improvement in the crops yield. During data collecting it was observed that mostly people live in extended families together with married and unmarried brothers and unmarried sisters under the leadership of their father, who seems the chief of household decision making apart of agricultural activities. In case of education, the data shows that only 31 percent attended formal education system where as religious education obtained through mosques and madrasahs were about 16 percent. In terms of agricultural land ownership, about 75 percent of respondents had personal land ownership, the rest were either share tenants or landless laborers. Majority of the agricultural farmers had more than 10 years crop cultivation experiences. The data reveals that major-ity of farmers that is 63percent using traditional varieties of seeds. It was reported during the data collection that about 52 percent of respondents get agricultural based knowledge through television followed by radio programs and other print media such as pamphlets, agro-based magazines and newspapers. Majority of respondents that is about 66 percent informed that sources of media was easily accessible, however, the agricultural programs often missed out due to electric outages. The sources such as print media were easily available from the nearest towns. The better timings of such programs on television or radio were suggested from the majority of the respondents between 7.pm to 9.00 pm. The respondents’ seemed pessimist when asked about the availability of government agricultural extension services. No visits were reported of the agricultural extension agents in the study areas to guide the farmers from the improved technologies and techniques of crop cultivation and better irrigation applications.

Probability of Default Estimation for Commercial Lenders in Developing Economies: Creditworthiness of Consumer Borrower []

The Business of advancing credits is gradually becoming a major target for many banks, as a result there is high competition among the nancial institutions leading to default of most credits. In order to raise the qual- ity of advancing credits and reducing the risk involved thereafter, CSM's have been developed to improve the process of assessing credit worthiness during the credit evaluation process. Previous repayments, demographic characteristics and statistical techniques were used in constructing the LR model to identify the important demographic char- acteristics related to credit risk. The results showed that DR is higher in males than in females. Married customers defaulted more than the singles and the higher the number of dependents, the higher the DR. The self- employed clients defaulted more than salary earners. Also, the higher the amount of loan collected, the higher the PD. With the knowledge of LR, it is possible to determine the credit worthiness of a borrower which may decrease bad debts, and help to set risk based credit pricing for the clients and make the credit advancing faster and more accurate.

De la littérature vers la diplomatie : Etude des éléments diplomatiques trouvés dans l’ouvrage Une vie de boy par Ferdinand Oyono []

Résumé Cet article cherche à trouver le lien entre littérature et diplomatie. En fait, la littérature depuis la nuit des temps a contribué au domaine de la religion, de la culture et même de la politique. Nous voulons voir si la littérature peut jouer le même rôle dans le domaine de la diplomatie. De plus, la diplomatie est devenue un sujet universel dans la vie des hommes. L’art de la diplomatie est nécessaire non seulement à l’international, mais également chez nous et même sur le marché. Nous pensons que l’art de la diplomatie est l’un des sujets les plus importants du monde universitaire et de la politique ; cette diplomatie est un domaine qui mérite beaucoup d'attention. Nous avons choisi un homme de lettres, d'origine francophone, Ferdinand Oyono, qui a également eu une carrière diplomatique. Nous avons choisi Ferdinand Oyono d’une part pour son rôle dans la diplomatie africaine et d’autre part pour le langage et le style souvent employés dans ses romans. Au cours de cette analyse, nous avons montré le style littéraire et diplomatique adopté par l'auteur. Nous avons également tenté de donner les raisons possibles pour lesquelles Oyono avait décidé d'adopter ce style. De plus, l'accumulation d'éléments littéraires et diplomatiques d'Oyono, la force sémantique de ses paroles, son langage parfois diplomatique, parfois satirique et parfois ironique, doté d'une force oratoire, contribuent tous à laisser une empreinte sur l'esprit du lecteur. Le style adopté par Oyono pour envoyer ses pensées au lecteur est unique et sans précédent. Tout d'abord, il adopte l'innocence d'un garçon Toundi dans The house boy, afin d'exposer la ségrégation et l'oppression de la race noire à l'époque coloniale. Oyono écrit à travers les yeux de l'innocence, une approche jugée plutôt diplomatique par rapport à ses contemporains à l'époque. Mots-clés : diplomatie, langue, littérature, négociation, interlocuteur