Volume 6, Issue 1

A comperative study of Bioethanol Production ability of Bacillus subtilis and Sacchromyces cerevisiae using Banana and Orange Peels PDF

Amit Ranjan Prasad Singh

In present in present investigation a comparetive analysis of bioethanol production ability of S. cerevisiae and B. subtilis is done on varies parameters such as temperature, pH and incubation time to determine the best optimal conditions of bioethanol production using Banana and orange peels with these micro- organisms. Banana and Orange peels choosen as substrate in solid state fermentation for bioethanol production due to its cheap, easy and whole year availibilty.Collected plants material were dried and converted into fine power, then a pretreatment was given to plant material to delignifie the plant material.The enzymatic hydrolysis of both pretreated substrates were done with cellulase that depolymerized cellulose to monomeric glucose, that converted in to ethanol finally. S. cerevisiae and B. subtilis both exibited maximum yield of bioethanol at 400C, 4.07% (v/v) and 4.10% (v/v) respectively for orange peels. For banana peels S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis both has shown maximum ethanol production at 300C which is 2.86% (v/v) and 3.89% (v/v) repectively. For both orange and banana peels B. subtilis showed maximum ethanol production at pH 7 but S. cerevisiae shown maximum ethanol production at pH 5 from orange peel and at pH 4 from banana peel. Produced bioethanol purification were done through fractional distillation. Specific-gravity and Iodine values were determined for best optimal conditions to cheak the purity of bioethanol produced. Specific-gravity and iodine values of bioethanol produced through fermentation with S. cerevisiae was found to more close to pure ethanol.

GIS based Real time municipality management system (RTMMS) PDF

Dr.Sajid Rashid ahmad, Sana khushi, Muhammad Atif But

This paper is built on GIS based Real Time Municipality Management System (RTMMS). RTMMS is used for analysis of Municipality Management issues, like solid waste, water drainage situation, waste disposal, recycling and many more. It is the need of the time to improve municipality system through proper planning and management which is possible by using RTMMS. GIS is integrated successfully as the management tool in every sector and also in municipality management issues. The focus of this topic is to only check that how much RTMMS is effective for visualization of water drainage situation in the area of Lahore and how much beneficial for the decision making process.

Simulation of the Interaction of Solitary Waves and Breakwaters Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics PDF

Mahmoudreza Mollaeinia, Satar Ahmadian, Hamzeh Ebrahimnejadian

Designing safe and economical seashore structures such as breakwaters is of great importance in the engineering of seashore structures. Besides, breakwaters have a wide variety of applications in commercial and recreational harbors, military activities and offshore operations. In the designing process of aforementioned structures, wave rose and wave transmission coefficient are important criteria in determining the height of these structures. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is also a powerful tool for studying the free-surface and simulation of waves and structures interaction. Hence, in the present study, the performance of submerged breakwaters against solitary waves was examined. The main objective of this study was to investigate transmission coefficient of solitary waves in fixed submerged breakwaters. To study the standing waves formed in front of a trapezoid submerged breakwater, a two-dimensional numerical model, without Lagrangian mesh approach and using smoothed particle hydrodynamics method was developed. In this numerical model, solving Navier-Stokes equations are used to investigate the problem. The waves are generated using a pistontype wavemaker which is moving forward. At first, the results of the numerical model were compared to the results of experimental model, and the accuracy of the model was evaluated. Then the transmission coefficient of solitary waves over the submerged breakwater was studied in different scenarios.

Election Report and Political Analyzes of the 5 June 2011 Early Parliamentary Elections in the Republic of Macedonia PDF

Jeton Shasivari

The paper examines the seventh parliamentary elections in the Republic of Macedonia held on 5 June 2011 as a result of the pressure from the opposition led by the SDSM. These elections were won by the VMRO-DPMNE, by winning the elections for the third time since 2006, but with a lower difference compared to the previous early elections in 2008, and which made a coalition with the winner of the Albanian political camp DUI, winning the elections for the fourth time since 2002 in this political camp, but with a lower difference compared to the previous early elections in 2008. These elections had a special political weight for the country's Euro-Atlantic integration process considering the fact that with no progress in EU and NATO integrations, inter-ethnic relations will remain fragile because Euro-Atlantic integrations are the only issue on which there is complete inter-ethnic consensus between e the different ethnic communities in the country. Also, these elections were an examination for the democratic maturity of the country and they were performed under strong observation of the international community as a result of serious irregularities of previous elections in 2006 and 2008. The importance of those elections consists in the fact that they brought a more balanced Parliament, with a more powerful opposition, but no changes in government and in the state rigid policy positions over the name dispute with Greece.

Long Term Survival of CABG Patients in Age Groups Using Complete and Incomplete Populations (A New Approach) PDF

M. Saleem, K.H. Khan, Zafar Mahmud

In this paper long term survival of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG) patients in four age groups is considered. A new approach of complete population from its incomplete population of CABG patients of 12 years observations is applied for the survival analysis. Complete and incomplete Populations of the age groups are used in a well known survival model. In the complete population, censored patients are proportionally included into the known survived and died patients respectively. The availability of a complete population may represent better behavior of lifetimes / survival proportions for medical research. Survival proportions of the CABG patients are obtained from lifetime representing parametric model (Weibull). A classical technique, maximum likelihood method, in-conjunction with Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) optimization method and Cubic Interpolation method is used in estimation of survivor’s proportions from the parametric model. For complete population Drop Methodology is introduced i.e. we may drop the term for censored observations from likelihood function. The survival proportions of complete and incomplete populations of the CABG patients with respect to the four age groups are presented in term of statistics and graphs (survival curves) discussed and concluded.

An Experimental Analysis of Stress Relaxation in Nonwoven Fabrics PDF

Sajid Ahmed Qureshi

The current research deals with an analysis of stress relaxation in nonwoven fabrics with different gsm values with a view to understand how these nonwovens behave under an applied stress for a given load over a constant period of time. An electronic stress relaxation tester was designed indigenously for this purpose which works on the strain gauge principle of measuring loads applied to the specimen at any given instant of time during the experiment. The respective stress values were calculated for corresponding load values for each specimen with every thirty seconds passage of time. The results obtained were graphically analyzed and it was revealed that the stress relaxation percentage was significantly different for the same nonwoven materials but with different gsm values. It was observed that nonwovens do possess the property of decaying the stress generated due to external loads and the extent to which this happens depends to a considerable extent on the gsm of the structure along with other factors like type of fibers and type of bonding.

Fuzzy Logic based Expert System for Students’ Performance Evaluation in Data Grid Environment PDF

Dr. Sanskruti Patel, Dr. Priti Sajja, Dr. Atul Patel

In the current competitive era, every school, collages and institutes strongly focus on improvement of the students’ performance by applying fair evaluation methods. Performance of students is difficult to assess before the final results are declared. Major factors that affect on performance are the attendance of students in their theory and laboratory sessions, the exam grades they obtained in internal exams and the exam grades they obtained during term work evaluation. Assessing students’ performance is an area in which strict rules often do not represent the realistic situation. Fuzzy logic provides a way of representing the behavior of systems which are either too complex or too imprecise. Also, university is a very large domain and students’ data are generally stored in various distributed and heterogeneous data repositories which may span across different organizations and administrative domains. Such distributed data repositories can be integrated within data grid environment by implementing data grid middleware. Therefore, we have developed a fuzzy logic based expert system which assists the process of decision making of students’ performance evaluation within data grid environment. The system will utilize the fuzzy logic theory and develop the decision making process based on fuzzy rules to assess whether a student gets very poor, poor, good, average or excellent performance.

Data Transfer without using Internet or Bluetooth PDF

Vineeta Soni, Mrs. Sarvesh Tanwar

This paper is about sending Data without using Internet or Bluetooth because these days Smartphones acquiring the whole world via Android os where one uses apps to fulfill their needs. But for sending SMS or Data either they will have to send message by normal manner or by using E-mail or Apps. This application works on the same paradigm as E-mail does. What happen if Internet Balance get finished unfortunately at that time when he or she is in great need of that, than one can’t send data from any app , at that time this app can be proved to be a boon for the person, sometimes Government has to send guidelines via E-mail to their employees, villagers etc. or any Catastrophe occurs than Doctors could help the people by sending guidelines where mostly internet connection not available at that point of time this app can be fruitful and one can send files through sms to remote area also. With this low-cost application a user can send Attached file like .txt, .pdf, .doc etc. with maximum characters as compared to normal SMS. This paper proposes a sms application through which a user can attach a file from the SD-Card (retrieve) just like E-mail and send it to the recipient to the remote area. And nominal charge will be deducted from the user who sends data to the recipient.

Gender Differences on Marital Satisfaction and Social Relations among Diabetic Patients PDF

Rabia Maryam, Dr. Khalid Mahmood

The present study was carried out to analyze the gender differences among diabetic patients on marital satisfaction and social relations. Total 200 diabetic patients (100 males and 100 females), were selected by using convenient sampling method and were approached from different private and public hospitals from Faisalabad, Pakistan. Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale (Blum & Mehrabian, 1999) with its adapted and translated (Urdu) version by Khan, 2006 was administered to participants for the identification of their marital satisfaction, whereas Provision of Social Relation (PSR) scale by (Turner, Frankel, & Levin, 1983) with the Urdu translated version (Ayub, 2004) was used to determine social relations of the respondents. The results showed that there was significant difference on the basis of gender on marital satisfaction. Moreover it was indicated from the results that the male diabetic patients showed more marital satisfaction as compared to the female diabetic patients. Results also revealed a significant gender based difference of social relations among the participants.

Innovations in Science and Technology Education: A Case for Ethnoscience Based Science Classrooms PDF

Okechukwu S. Abonyi, Lawrence Achimugu & Njoku, Martha Ijok Adibe

It was previously believed that useful knowledge was only generated in laboratories or research institutions for subsequent transmission to the ignorant peasants. Available evidence has revealed that these peasants are not actually ignorant but endowed with complex knowledge system that could transform the world if appropriately harnessed, hybridized and incubated in a more organized science classroom. This paper presents appropriate background, rationale and procedures for integration of indigenous knowledge systems into formal science classrooms processes and instructional modules.

Data Security in wireless Sensor Network using Multipath Randomized Dispersive Routes PDF

Nagdev Amruthnath, Prathibhavani P M

Attacks are common in wireless sensor networks. In this paper we study the routing protocols to overcome the black holes formed by the attacks. We also discuss the problems that we have in our existing multipath routing and how to overcome the problems of our existing multi path routing by our proposed randomized random routing. In our proposed routing we generate random multi path routes and send the packets of information in these randomized multi path routes. By this proposed method it would be difficult for one to discover the routes in which the actual packets are being transmitted. Besides randomness the packets transmitted are highly dispersive and secure, making the bypass the black holes.

Effect of temperature, pH, and solids concentration on biogas production from poultry waste PDF

I.S.,Ogiehor, and U.J.,Ovueni

Anaerobic digestion of organic waste yields biogas as one of its bi-products, containing methane; a gas that has become popular in the search for alternative sources of energy. The efficiency of the anaerobic process is governed by a number of factors. The effect of temperature, pH, and solids concentration on production of biogas from organic waste (poultry waste) was investigated for a period of 14 days, using laboratory scale digesters constructed from 2L plastic containers. The feedstock consisted of poultry waste made into slurry of four solids concentrations (SC); 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The starting hydrogen ion concentrations (pH) of the slurries used in the study were, 5,6,7,8, and 9. Two digestion temperatures; 30 and 35oC were used during this investigation. The result of the anaerobic digestion indicate that slurries with starting pH 5, recorded highest cumulative gas yield of 3650ml for slurry with 15% SC, digested at 30 oC. Slurries with pH 6 recorded highest cumulative gas yield of 2880ml for slurry with 20% SC, digested at 35oC. Slurries with pH 7 had 3945ml highest cumulative gas yield observed in slurry with 15% SC, digested at 35oC. Highest cumulative gas yields for pH 8 and 9 were 4635ml and 4730ml respectively, recorded for slurries with 25% SC digested at 35oC. For both digestion temperatures, gas yield tend to increase with solids concentration, however, highest gas yield was observed at 35oC, and slurries with starting pH of 7 gave relatively consistent high gas yields.

Transesterification of dimethyl malonate with a novel catalyst derived from Musa balbisiana colla PDF

Swarnali Pathak and Dibakar Chandra Deka

Malonate esters are important synthons that can be transformed into variety of building blocks in organic syntheses. Trunk of Musa balbisiana colla triggered successful transesterification of dimethyl malonate with a series of higher alcohols efficiently. The catalyst is obtained from seedy variety of banana plant Musa balbisiana colla which is popularly known as kolakhar in the Assamese community of the north-eastern region of India and is used as an additive in many traditional cuisines. This work highlights the transesterification of dimethyl malonate with different types of alcohols resulting in the products from moderate to good yields. This newly developed catalyst can be considered as green catalyst as it is heterogeneous, natural, biodegradable, non-toxic, easily obtainable, inexpensive and environmentally safe. We are hopeful that it will contribute a lot in the field of organic synthesis.

Viscometric and Compressibility behavior of Arginine in Aqueous-Glucose solutions PDF

Umadevi. M, Kesavasamy. R, Palani. R, Priya N.S, Rathina.K

Densities (?), Ultrasonic Speeds (u) and Viscosity (?) of aqueous-glucose (5, 10, and 15% of glucose, in water) and of solutions of Arginine in three aqueous-glucose solvents were measured at 303, 308, and 313 K. From these experimental data Compressibility(ß), Apparent Molar Compressibility (Ks,?), Limiting Apparent Molar Compressibility (K°s,?) and the Slope (Sk), Transfer Compressibility (K°s,?,tr), Falkenhagen coefficient (A), Jones–Dole coefficient (B), Free energy of activation of Viscous flow per mole of solvent ( ?µ1°#) and Viscous flow per mole of solute (?µ2°#) were calculated. The results are interpreted in terms of solute–solvent and solute– solute interactions in Arginine systems. It is observed that there exist strong solute–solvent interactions, which increases with increase in glucose concentration.

Distance training for physics teachers in education sciences: flexible and efficient. PDF

Khalid MAHDI, Mohammed CHEKOUR and Mohamed LAAFOU

Continuous training courses for the teachers of the Minister of National Education are essential to update their disciplinary and pedagogical skills. However, teachers in Morocco rarely benefit from continuous training courses, especially in educational science. This lack is due to organizational constraints as well as temporary unavailability of teachers. In this paper, we propose distance learning, across the Moroccan Kingdom in educational science based on complete, intelligent and communicative e-Learning platform. The main objective of this distance learning is to provide teachers with solid, efficient and flexible training courses in educational sciences. Flexible, because our distance learning use some approaches that allow each teacher to preplan their learning activities and collaboration with other teachers. Efficient, because traditional training is done at each city and requires an important budget, while our distance learning is at the national level and without cost of the training courses (movement of both teachers and Supervisors, Indemnities of the supervisors, catering and also accommodation). The added value of our distance learning platform is to offer various advantages: First, updating their knowledge in physics science, Second helping teachers improve their methods and teaching strategy, Third sharing courses and new teaching strategies between the teachers, fourth encouraging teachers to educational research and also preparing teachers to become future scientists in education.



This paper examines whether the transition in accounting standards has an effect on the use of management of earnings. Using the item provisions from 4 equally large listed companies in The Netherlands and Germany from before the year 2005 and compare them with the annual reports of these companies after 2005 in order to get a clear picture about the possibilities to apply management of earnings before and after IFRS. Annual reports from before the year 2005 have all been formulated according to Dutch and German GAAP. From the year 2005 onwards Dutch and German listed companies have been obliged to report according to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Also I have engaged more specifically into the balance sheet item ‘Provisions’. For this item I have debated regulations under Dutch and German GAAP and indicated what has changed after the obligation to report under IFRS. Also in the item provisions it can be clearly seen that IFRS rules are stricter than Dutch and German GAAP. The results show in this paper that the transformation in regulations has an influence on the level of earnings management.

Using Feature Extraction to Recognize Handwritten Text Image PDF

Khamael A. Khudhair, Itimad Raheem Ali

In this paper, a robust technique for identifying and recognizing Handwritten Text images is presented. There are many methods for Handwritten Text, but most of them require segmentation or connected component analysis. The Recognition process utilizes the determinant value that produces the features for the Handwritten Text. Image’s determinants values are computed by dividing image into blocks then designed Threshold (T) to extract feature, afterwards, use chain code to find the centric point and direction of text. The least square criterion is then utilized to determine the similarity between the existed (in Database file) Handwritten Text with a new query Handwritten Text’s images.

Toward an automation increasingly interconnecting PDF

Abdelhafid RACHIDI, Abdellah KHATORY & Abdennebi TALBI

The evolution of Information and Communications Technologies ICT and their reliability in the different areas of the industry has changed completely the design of automated systems. The vision today is to manipulate the media of communication such as generic Ethernet since the connection of a sensor up to the network of workshop or for business, for this the programmable logic controllers (PLC) are become more and more of a communication through communication interfaces such as Ethernet/IP, PROFINET, PROFIBUS…,which allow you to perform a remote communication between the field level( production tools), the workshop level ( the production service) and the local network which concepts the different service of the company. The maintenance is part of the features that can pull the advantage of interconnection of production systems.The communicative function allows you to perform the remote maintenance or at least to establish a precise diagnosis in order to reduce the time of intervention.

A study on Impact of Cross-Cultural Marketing mix on Asia and Asia pacific region PDF

Swapan Kumar Saha, Samia Tarannum Chowdhury, Suman Chowdhury, Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman

The study highlight on the marketing mix cross-cultural Issues from the Asia and Asia pacific Region like as Australia, China (PRC)Bangladesh, Japan, Pakistan and India. There are a number of key cultural elements that international marketers need to take into consideration when designing products, developing promotions and implementing distribution systems in foreign markets. These elements include values, beliefs, thought processes, symbols, traditions, religion and language. In international markets this will involve taking into consideration a number of different factors including consumer's cultural backgrounds, religion, buying habits and levels of personal disposable income.

Security Aspect of Cloud Computing PDF

Ms. Vaishali R. Wadhe, Dr. Vinayak A. Bharadi

Cloud computing is the use of computing resources that are delivered as a service over a network. Today, cloud computing generates a lot of excitement. It is both promising and daunting. Businesses world see its potential but also have many issues for discussion. Cloud computing offers attractive financial and technological advantages but some of them has not been fully evaluated with respect to security. Security is considered one of the most critical aspects in cloud computing due to the sensitivity and importance of data stored in the cloud. Cloud Computing has several major issues such as data security, trust, expectations, regulations, and performance. This paper discusses the privacy and security issue of cloud computing and some existing security solutions about Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs), Antivirus (AV), and Email Security, suggested by some researchers.

Effect of the Waste Weight on Nitrogen Oxides Formation in a non Temperature-Controlled Laboratory Scale Rotary Kiln PDF

Jean Fidele NZIHOU, Salou HAMIDOU, Medard BOUDA

Waste incineration, both urban and industrial, is one of the way of reducing their volume and weight. However, environmentally sound waste incineration can only be achieved if done according to well known physico-chemical conditions. This study focused on the formation and reduction mechanisms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with a non temperature-controlled laboratory scale rotary kiln. It was found that NOx releases vary with the weight of the waste in the kiln. For temperatures lower than 900 °C, it appears that NOx emissions are strongly influenced by the temperature and the local concentration of oxygen. Experiments show the effect of combustible weight on emissions of nitrogen monoxide (NO). NO2 was not found for peak temperature less than 1012°C or waste weight less than 3kg. In ours experimental conditions, NO is essentially formed by the mechanism of “fuel NO”. It is highly influenced by local oxygen concentration in the reaction place, but moderately influenced by the temperature. Lack of the kiln’s temperature control implies kiln’s operation temperature variations. We found that these variations are related the combustible load. NOx and residual O2 concentration in the kiln’s combustion zone where correlated to the combustible weight.

A Novel Method of Secure Communication through Randomized Pixel Variation (RPV) PDF

M.Thanga kavitha, S.Sangeetha, N.Manikandaprabu

A Novel Reversible Data Hiding Scheme (RDH) using Randomized Pixel Variation (RPV) is proposed here. It is based on the biological process of controlling the color of the epithelial tissue by a pigment cell, named as melanocyte. The pixel pair mapping technique is utilized to select the pixel randomly to hide the data bit. The main objective of this work is to satisfy robustness, imperceptibility and high capacity simultaneously. A new informed image watermarking scheme with a simplified complexity of 1.511x10-3sec and an information rate of 1/150 bit/pixel is obtained. While comparing the proposed approach with conventional method, the image redundancy is exploited, thereby embedding performance is improved. Due to slight variation in the pixel values, the high image quality is preserved. The performance is analyzed using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) calculations and Structural Similarity (SSIM) index for watermark imperceptibility and robustness, respectively. The Experimental results show that the value of PSNR and SSIM is 72.95 dB and 1.00, respectively.

Improved approach of applying data mining in SCM decision making PDF

Kajal Chachapara, Prof. Rajesh Nigam

ERP is huge and wide application containing various modules like CRM, SCM, marketing, employee management etc. SCM stands for supply chain management which deals with managing supply of products based on market needs. In supply chain management, organization needs to have a model that can identify them which product should be sent in bulk to a given location and which should not be. If organization sends product in bulk then transportation charge will be reduced but stock keeping charges will increase and vice versa. This location selling rate finder algorithm is about analysing data and generating result that can let organization make appropriate decision about this. Using this algorithm, an organization can fed there data in and can have result displaying selling rate of that product to that given location. This algorithm is mainly use full to business that is having large number of branches and a huge bulky data warehouse.

Rethinking Environmental Friendly Technology for Sustainability in Bangladesh PDF

Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Saha, Suman Chowdhury, Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman, Shahidullah Miah

Most of the textile industry discharges the polluted textile waste-water directly into the waterways as the cost of treatment process is high. To minimize the cost, an effective and advanced treatment process has been setup at Mascom Composite Textile Ltd and Dalas Fashion Ltd. at Gazipur, Dhaka. The treatment process consists of a combined process (anaerobic and bio-filtration process) which is mentioned as High Rate Biological Treatment (HRBT) process. This biological treatment process is successfully operating without chemical process. The raw textile waste-water is highly polluted with high level of alkalinity in nature. The pollution parameters were removed successfully with standard quality by using the HRBT process. The ETP treatment capacity was 50,000 Liter/hour. Case study on chemical ETP process has revealed that taka 8.984 million is required for chemical ETP whereas taka 1.784 million for HRBT ETP process. Thus HRBT ETP process has been proved to be highly economical than the Chemical ETP process.


Mr.Mahalingam T, Ms.Jeevitha.R, Dr.Shunmuganathan K.L

Intrusion Detection Systems have been used along with various techniques to detect intrusions in networks, distributed databases and web databases. However, all these systems are able to detect the intruders with high false alarm rate. In this paper when the intruder enters the grid system with the help of brute force attack to the data base stored in the grid environment. When a intruder enters the grid system a R- LOGIN-ID is created, to avoid the such kind of attacks create the DIDS . Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Grid environment which has the ability to detect the intruder in the grid environment, track and monitor his malicious activities until a threshold. Once the intruder reaches the threshold, he is prevented from moving forward in his malicious activities. The grid environment and the identification and prevention of intrusions in the distributed grid environment is to be simulated.with the help of central manager to secure storage, data analysis to detect intrusions, discovery of distributed sensors, and sending of alerts.

A Software Implementation Of RSA Algoritm Using 19 bit Prime Digit Number PDF

Gurpreet Kaur , Vishal Arora

RSA cryptographic is a technique used to encrypt and decrypt the messages.So that the secure communication is done between sender and receiver without any loss through transmission channel like internet. It will also throw some light on the flaws of some other public key cryptographic algorithms in comparison to RSA algorithm. In this 19 bit prime digit is used to encrypt and decrypt the messeges by generationg two key pairs (private key and public key), Algorithm is implemented using Big Integer which makes Algorithm work efficiently and time complexity is also reduced.

Smartphones and off the shelf hardware for 3D scanning in mobile robots PDF

Hasit Mistry, Sayali Lunkad, Sphoorti Joglekar, Anuj Deshpande

3D scanners are gaining a lot of momentum. In this paper we wish to highlight a possible solution to make 3D scanning portable and affordable. The way in which we intend to do is this is to use the processing power and sensors already present in smartphones. Smartphones are becoming increasingly available to the majority of the world’s populace. Our approach involves using additional hardware to provide some amount of processing along with a second camera which is necessary for stereovision.

Performance Analysis of Spray and Wait Protocol and Epidemic Protocol in VDTN PDF

Mr.Mhamane Sanjeev C, Prof.Dr.Mukane. S. M

Mobile ad hoc routing protocols allow nodes with wireless adaptors to communicate with one an- other without any pre-existing network infrastructure. Existing ad hoc routing protocols, while robust to rapidly changing network topology, assume the presence of a connected path from source to destination. Given power limitations, the advent of short-range wireless networks, and the wide physical conditions over which ad hoc networks must be deployed, in some scenarios it is likely that this assumption is invalid. In this work, we develop techniques to deliver messages in the case where there is never a connected path from source to destination or when a network partition exists at the time a message is originated. This paper mainly two DTN routing protocols: Epidemic Routing and Spray and Wait Routing, are advocated and compared in terms of Message Delivery Probability.

Prehistoric “J” – Element?.. PDF

M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

In this Scientific Research Article, it is focused that the “first element” evolved in the material universe shall be considered as only “single element”. This single element shall be hypothetically called as element “J”. In Pre-historic Tamil language this element shall be called as “CHISU”. CHISU shall mean “INFANT” or “Glittering Star” and shall be denoted by single alphabet “J”. The “J” element is considered originated ever before origin of so called PLASMA matter. The newly classified “J” element shall also be called as “MU-ASMA”. Plasma shall mean species matter to Mu-Asma.

Determinants of Customers’ Acceptance of Electronic Payment System in Indian Banking Sector – A Study PDF

Sanghita Roy, Dr. Indrajit Sinha

Internet is perhaps one of the most important tools to businesses and individuals in the recent world economy. Globalization, financial liberalization and technology revolution have opened the door of new and more efficient delivery and processing channels as well as more innovative product and services in banking industry. With increased educational qualification and growing wealth consumers’ need and expectations are continually changing and they are involving themselves more and more in their financial decisions. After deregulation and reforms in Indian Banking scenario payment systems like Debit Card, Credit Card, ECS, EFT, RTGS, NEFT have offered variety of services to the customers. Despite the growth of electronic payment system over physical check-based system, its rate of adoption in India especially in Metro cities like Kolkata has been relatively slow. Its slow adoption rates raise many questions.. The aim of the study is to determine the factors influencing consumer’s adoption on the light of Technology Acceptance Model. Survey based questionnaires are designed and Factor Analysis is used to find reliable and consistent factors. Proposed model illustrates the level of fulfillment of each acceptance factors and therefore predicts its adoption and indicates areas of improvement.

An ergonomic study on the assessment of work related musculoskeletal disorder risks among agriculture workers of Uttarakhand, India PDF

Pragya Ojha, Seema Kwatra

Safety of the workers and productivity of work in rice cultivation is impacted by the human drudgery. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common work-related problems among farm workers involved in rice transplanting activity. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the causation of discomfort related to working postures and to assess the work related musculoskeletal disorder among the farmers. For this study, 60 agricultural workers aged 25-45 years were selected randomly from the Kalinagar Village of Udham Singh District of Uttarakhand and a detailed posture analysis was performed among them by REBA and VAS methods. For the study, only uprooting and transplanting activity were selected from the rice cultivation activity. Agricultural workers suffered from pain especially in the low back, knees, hands shoulder and neck. The average REBA score observed was 10. Prolonged work activity, high repetitiveness, and remaining constantly in an awkward posture for a prolonged period of time etc. were the major factors of drudgery, acute pain and discomfort among farm workers.

Speech Recognition : A Comprehensive Study PDF

Mohsin Manshad Abbasi, Dr. Abdul Majid Abbasi, Anees Qumar Abbasi

Speech recognition is a topic of modern research. It is the process of converting spoken input into text. Different techniques are used to design equipment’s that are used for speech recognition. In this study, different methodologies, techniques, hard ware and software are discussed in a precise manner. In last section, future expectations are discussed in a detailed manner.

A Critical Comparison Between Distributed Database Approach and Data Warehousing Approach PDF

Sohrab Hossain, Farhana Islam, Razuan Karim, Kazy Noor-E-Alam Siddique

Distributed database system and data warehouse are used to analyze data for decision support. There are some similarity between distributed database and data warehouse. However, the Concepts of federated database systems are confusing with the concepts of data warehouse. But they are quite different. There is a debate which approach is better for decision support. It actually depends on the types of business and information required by the business.


Phuoc Si Nguyen

Two matrix equations, Pascal matrix equation and inverse Pascal matrix, are derived and demonstrated in this work. These matrix equations are used for making a conversion and inversion between the coefficients of an analog low pass filter transfer function H(s) and a digital transfer function H(z). The involving of the Pascal’s triangle in both matrix equations is helpful, easier to transform between analog filter and digital filter and therefore, the procedure of design a digital filter form another digital filter is presented in this paper.

Software Project Management Models PDF

Dr. Abdul Rauf, Meshal Alshahrani

Project management is a process tasks and activities are planned, organized, assigned resources and executed within a given budget and period. There are several software management models that are used in the process of managing a software project. Since there are many of the techniques and models, this articles selects and analyzes some of them. This is to help managers in making a decision which tool to use depending on their needs. Model in software project management means a standard practice that sometimes with guides and procedures on how to carry out activities. Models are sometimes diagrammed to illustrate procedures that project team members will use.

Effect of Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Spray Pyrolysed CuSbS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications PDF

S. Thiruvenkadam, A. Leo Rajesh

The CuSbS2 thin film is one of the most promising materials for absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aqueous solution of precursors containing cupric chloride, antimony acetate and thiourea was deposited on heated glass substrates at various temperatures between 513K to 593K with the interval of 20K. By using spray pyrolysis deposition method, CuSbS2 thin films were successfully deposited on soda lime glass substrates and the influence of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CuSbS2 thin films were investigated. The GIXRD pattern showed that all the films were polycrystalline nature having (102), (111), (006) and (116) phases and the crystallinity were improved with increasing substrate temperature. The microstructure of CuSbS2 thin films were studied by Raman spectroscopic measurement at room temperature. Surface morphology of the thin films was studied by employing Atomic Force Microscopy that revealed the average roughness decreased with increasing substrate temperature. Optical band gap of the CuSbS2 films deposited at various temperatures was found to lie between 1.35-1.50 eV which is close to the ideal band gap for the highest conversion efficiency of solar cell.

An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms: A survey A practical Issues PDF

Ahmed A. EL- Sawy, Mohamed A. Hussein, EL-Sayed M. Zaki, A. A. Mousa

The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a relatively simple heuristic algorithm that can be implemented in a straightforward manner. It can be applied to a wide variety of problems including unconstrained and constrained optimization problems, nonlinear programming, stochastic programming, and combinatorial optimization problems. It is widely used in several fields such as management decision making, data processing ...Information and Financial Engineering. Because of their population approach, they have also been extended to solve other search and optimization problems efficiently, including multimodal, multiobjective. In this paper, a brief description of a simple GA, GAs vs. traditional methods and GAs to handle constrained optimization problems are described. Also, GAs for multiobjective optimization MOP is proposed. Thereafter, GAs applications are presented. The intended audience of this paper is those who wish to know the main concepts of GAs and how to apply it to different optimization problems. Also, to familiarize readers to the algorithm proceeding.

Performance Evaluation Of DWDM System With Dispersion Compensation PDF

Sumitpalsingh, Karamjeet kaur

Fiber-optic dispersion and its effect on optical transmission system are analyzed. We have investigated the performance analysis of dispersion compensation in WDM network using EDFA. In this the variation of Q-factor and Bit error rate with respect to the system length is analysed. This simulation is done for 16-channel transmitter at 25Gbps; 30Gbps and 35Gbps data rate and various dispersion compensation schemes are analyzed for defining the optimum results

Hotel Rooms as an Investment: An Analysis on Investment Opportunities in Major Markets across the Globe PDF

Naganathan Venkatesh

Worldwide hotel industry is taking a new shape in today’s emerging trends of consumer’s perceptions; earlier hotels rooms were used by the guest to stay for their holidays, business trips etc., and the guest pay the rent for the rooms accordingly. Later concept of Condo hotels came in, here buyers of condo hotel units can use the room when needed, when the owner isn't around, management rents the unit as just another hotel room. Room owners share the profit, if any. Condo hotels differ from time shares, which give buyers, use of a property for a fixed number of days each year but not outright ownership. Now the trend is changing Hotel rooms as an investment across the globe is something that's beginning to surface in today’s business markets, says Mark Woodworth, senior vice president in PKF Consulting's hotel practice. Investing in a unit in a hotel is just like a Buy to let investment; you buy the unit and "let" it out to paying guests. The hotel acts as a management company by overseeing the process for the investor (IPIN Global, Peter Mindenhall). In 2013, Jones Lang LaSalle Hotels & Hospitality Group forecast global deal volume of $33 billion, in line with the most recent three-year average. My thesis will provide a comprehensive analysis of the global hotel investment market, revealing key drivers of investment, emerging trends, markets to watch and investment opportunities in major markets across the globe.

A Hydraulic Mechanism Which Works Like an Engine PDF

Shirsendu Das

Heat Energy produces during the combustion in engine & then it converts into mechanical work. But the exhaust gasses which contain (CO,CO2, NOx etc) are the main cause of air pollution. In this mechanism thrust of water jet is responsible for the reciprocation of piston. Like conventional I.C Engine this mechanism does not have several strokes like suction, compression, power & exhaust. In this case water comes through nozzle with high kinetic energy during suction stroke and send back to reserve during delivery stroke.

Fingerprint Minutiae Extraction and Orientation Detection using ROI (Region of interest) for fingerprint matching PDF


Motivated by the term minutiae extraction for fingerprint matching. Fingerprint Recognition refers to the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints. Fingerprints are one of many forms of biometrics used to identify individuals and verify their identity. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints. Fingerprint recognition algorithm extract’s primarily uniqueness of the images obtained from the fingerprint. Fingerprint Recognition is a widely popular but a complex pattern recognition problem. Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method which has been successfully used in numerous applications. A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the minutiae points. Minutiae points are local ridge characteristics that occur at either a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending. Here a new approach of identification of minutia term‘s with bifurcation, termination, orientation detection and region of interest (ROI) has been proposed. Extraction of minutiae from the image is developed using termination and bifurcation process and elimination of false minutia from the image is carried out using distance formulae’s. All those minutiae points are thus undergone with orientation characteristics’ which gives the determination more powerful in case of image sizing and plasticity. All these terms are stored in a user profile for matching .Results and testing is performed by taking different user profiles. This may provide a useful clue to the field of image – processing and fingerprint matching as well.


Neelam Kumari, Seema Mehra

Let G = (V, E) be any simple, connected and undirected graph with p vertices and q edges. A vertex magic total labeling is a bijection f from V U E to a set of integers {1, 2, ..........., p+q }such that if v is a vertex then the weight of each vertex f(v) + ? f(uv) =k for some integer constant k i.e. a constant, independent of the choice of the vertex v ? V [7,8]. In this paper, we deal with specialized graphs that are V-super vertex magic graph and another is E - super vertex magic graph and find out the relation between these two graphs.

A Simple and User friendly tool for determining R-R intervals from the time series data of Electrocardiogram PDF

Abhilash Sengupta, Soma Roy, Arnab Sengupta

Heart rate is a non-stationary signal and varies continuously in health and in disease. The pattern alteration in its variation contains indicators of current or impending diseases. Heart rate variability (HRV), a popular noninvasive tool is the variation over time-period between consecutive heartbeats. It assesses the activities of the autonomic nervous system and is highly useful in diagnostics, and as prognosis and research tool. As R wave is usually the tallest and most conspicuous component of ECG, for assessment of the beat to beat interval, detection of R to R interval is the standard practice. The conventional, industry derived fully automated R-R detection system are closed and compact and provides automatic output in the form of interpreted results, gives hardly any scope of innovation and independence in research. There is risk of error in case of low amplitude R waves, high amplitude T wave, arrhythmia, block, ectopic beats and also loss of valuable physiological information during the pre-processing. Instead of a fully automated computer algorithm using complex mathematical models, in the present project, a simple and user friendly tool to determine R-R intervals is developed, and use them for evaluation of Cardiac Electrophysiology, ANS profile etc. The semi-automated interactive algorithm, for which a preliminary understanding of ECG tracing is sufficient; is based upon the amplitude based technique (ABT), where simple comparison is performed with the ranges of sample ECG points falling beyond an amplitude threshold are determined to be R wave candidate.

Study of 338 Galaxies of Vigro Cluster PDF

Varsha Gupta, Gopal Upadhyaya

The Virgo cluster is the nearest and best studied rich cluster of Galaxies.

A Combined Open-Closed Loop Power Control for LTE Uplink PDF

Jacqueline J. George, Namarig Mohamed Taha

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a new standard of the 3GPP, designed to increase capacity and improve service performance. Single Carrier FDMA is the multiple access technique used in the uplink, it avoids the intra cell interference typical of CDMA systems, but it is sensitive to inter-cell interference. This makes the power control functionality a vital issue. Power control needs to reduce inter-cell interference level and at the same time achieve a required SINR level. This paper proposes a combined open-closed loop algorithm component that enhances the uplink power control and set the power smartly for the user. The combined algorithm uses the fractional power control algorithm in the open loop and the conventional closed loop algorithm in the closed loop. In this paper the uplink power control schemes were analyzed and the results showed that the combined algorithm outperformed both the open and the closed loop algorithm since it features a cell autonomous mechanism that controls the interference and sets the UEs to transmit with a psd according to the gain in the throughput it would generate. Also, it introduces the possibility of setting the transmission power of the users to provide a minimum SINR.

Equivalent 1-Minute Rain Rate Statistics and Seasonal Fade Esitmates in the Microwave Band for South-Western Nigeria PDF

O.O.Obiyemi, T.J.Afullo and T.S.Ibiyemi

The knowledge of 1-minute integrated cumulative rain rate distribution is required for predicting the attenuation induced by rain on satellite and terrestrial microwave and millimetric links

Dielectric Properties of 0-3 PZT/PVDF/Graphite Composite PDF

Avadhesh K. Sharma, GD Sharma

We prepared the composites of PZT/PVDF/Graphite composites having 0-3 connectivity using hot press method. These samples were poled under different conditions i.e. at different poling temperatures and fields. We characterized these composites for their dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. We are reporting and discussing only the dielectric properties of these composites in this paper. The highest dielectric constant was found to be around fifty for composite with almost equal percentage of ceramic and polymer.



Rauvolfia serpentina and Catharanthus roseus, Linn. (Apocynaceae) are an important medicinal, ornamental and evergreen shrubs. Alkaloids of these plants have a great medicinal importance to treat cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, malaria, menorrhagia, cancer, etc. The members are wild as well as cultivated with milky saps that contain secondary metabolites which have medicinal value. In view of these facts the study was conducted for micropropagation of Rauvolfia serpentina and Catharanthus roseus. MS media supplemented with different concentrations (0.5–10.0 mg/l) of NAA, 2, 4-D, BAP and KIN were used singly and in combination. Among all the growth hormones 2, 4-D was the best for callus induction in Rauvolfia serpentina (93% in stem and 97% in leaf) and in Catharanthus roseus (85% in stem and 87% in leaf). In combination 2, 4-D and BAP in Rauvolfia serpentina (85% in stem and 95% in leaf) and in Catharanthus roseus (65% in stem and 71% in leaf). Day of callus induction started from 13th to 37th day. This variation is due to the differences in culture conditions and the age of explants. The fresh and dry weight and moisture content showed good growth of callus, which may be used for further studies in alkaloid production. Micropropagation of these plants allows production of clones at fast rate and in continuous manner. This work can lead to development of an efficient protocol for callus induction and other issues.

A survey of the physico-chemical characteristics of river Jameson, Delta State, Nigeria (part 1) PDF

Ighere E. Jacob, Sogbaike E. Clara, Emudianughe Prosper and Mayor Andrew

Water is a most valuable resource to man and living things and being universal solvent can dissolve many substances. A research work to ascertain the Physico-chemical characteristics (PCCs) of River Jameson was carried out. The surface water from five randomly sampled locations was tested for twelve PCCs. The results showed that eleven of the PCCs- apart from the water surface temperature (26.95OC, ±0.8) existed within WHO permissible limits. The pH values from all the studied stations (Efrurokpe = 7.0, the others = 6.5) were all within permissible limits. Ebrifo recorded the highest temperature (27.3) and ironically the highest DO (7.5). The BOD (12.25) was comparatively higher in Pamol. Lead and Mercury were virtually undetected in three of the five stations and were very minimal in the other two: Ebrifo (Pb = 0.01mg l—1 & Hg = 0.000 mg l—1) and Pamol (Pb & Hg = 0.0005mg l—1). The other PCCs were more or less the same in all the stations except the BOD in Otefe (8.75mg l—1) and Pamol (12.25mg l—1). There is need to ensure sustainable uses and guide against future contamination of this natural fresh water river in the Niger Delta zone of Nigeria.


Laly Jose, Simi Ismail, Sara Ammu Chacko

A study was conducted to identify the most suitable grey scale features to differentiate between malignant and benign thyroid nodules and to study role of Doppler in assessment of thyroid malignancy. In this descriptive study 100 subjects referred from surgical OPD of Dr. SMCSI Medical College Hospital, Karakonam, Thiruvananthapuram for a period of 2 years were included. The study was done using Siemens Sonoline 50 ultrasound scanner with Colour and Duplex Doppler features. Linear 5-10MHz probe was used. Nodules in thyroid were studied in detail and morphological features were identified using different ultrasound parameters and doppler features. The nodule is further evaluated by fine needle aspiration cytology under ultrasound guidance and the Cytopathology report is compared to that of the ultrasound features. Among the 100 subjects studied, the incidence of malignancy observed was 12%. The commonest lesion was colloid nodule (n=69) followed by follicular adenoma (n=13). The commonest malignancy lesion was papillary carcinoma. All the morphological gray scale features like margin of the lesion, echogenicity, echotexture, peripheral halo, microcalcification were studied and had significant P value. Hence grey scale evaluation using them can be used for objective analysis of thyroid masses. Among the doppler features studied, Type III vascularity was seen on 54% cases, which included 45 benign and 9 malignancy cases. Type I/ Type II vascularity was seen in 3 malignant cases and 43 benign cases. Sensitivity and specificity of the type III vascularity in prediction of malignancy is 75% and 48.5% respectively. The findings of the present study indicated that grey scale features provide the most discriminating parameters than intranodular vascularity for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules.

Investigation of flexural behaviour of RCC beam using GFRP bars PDF

Saraswathy. T

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer bars posses mechanical properties different from steel bars, including high tensile strength combined with low elastic modulus and elastic brittle stress- strain relationship.. Due to the linear elastic brittle behaviour of GFRP bars, the flexural behaviour of GFRP reinforced concrete beam exhibit no ductility. GFRP reinforced concrete beams must be over reinforced so that they fail by concrete crushing rather than by rebar rupture. The flexural capacity of the beam was computed by sectional analysis in which the rebar is assumed to maintain perfect bond with the surrounding concrete. In all these work the longitudinal reinforcement is assumed to be perfectly bonded to the surrounding concrete at failure. The low modulus of elasticity of GFRP rebar resulting in relatively large deformations and smooth surface characteristics of the GFRP leading to debonding type of failures are important in determining the serviceability performance of GFRP reinforced beam sections. Hence the serviceability constraints generally will control the design of the GFRP reinforced beam sections. The unique advantages of GFRP materials such as excellent resistance to corrosion, high strength to weight ratio, electromagnetic neutrality and ease of handling make these materials potentially suitable for the use in reinforced concrete under conditions where conventional steel reinforced concrete has resulted in unacceptable serviceable problem.

A Brief Study on Speech Emotion Recognition PDF

Akalpita Das,Laba Thakuria , Purnendu Acharjee.Pran Hari Talukdar

Speech Emotion Recognition is a current research topic because of its wide range of applications and it became a challenge in the field of speech processing too. In this paper, we have carried out a brief study on Speech Emotion Analysis along with Emotion Recognition. This paper includes the study of different types of emotions, features to identify those emotions and various classifiers to classify them properly. The first part of the paper is enriched with an introductory description. Second part covers the different features along with some popular extraction method. Third part includes various classifiers used in SER and finally the conclusion part puts an end to this paper.

Characterization Studies on the Chemically Synthesized α and β Phase PbO Nanoparticles PDF

N. Mythili, K.T. Arulmozhi

The α and β phase lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were synthesized by the simple chemical precipitation technique. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD analysis confirmed the tetragonal structure for the α-PbO and orthorhombic form for the β-PbO nanocrystallites with an average crystallite size of 36 and 47 nm, respectively. From the UV-Vis spectra the direct band gap energies were estimated as 3.91 eV for α-PbO and 3.85 eV for β-PbO. The PL studies revealed the blue and green emissions due to excitonic recombination and synthesis originated defects. No peaks appeared corresponding to near band edge emission. The density of defects in α-PbO was lower than that of β-PbO.

A study of placenta and its blood vessels in high risk pregnancies by Colour Doppler USG and its correlation with maternal and neonatal outcome PDF

Dr Deepti Gupta, Dr Preeti Jain,Dr Radhika parashar, Dr Moolraj Kural

Objective-To study the placenta and its blood vessels by colour flow Doppler ultrasonography and its histological correlation with neonatal and maternal outcome. Methods- A prospective comparative study was conducted in 60 antenatal women >28 weeks gestation. Out of these, 30 cases of high risk pregnancies and other 30 normal antenatal cases were taken as controls. All the women were subjected to colour Doppler study and study of placental anatomy and histology done and results were correlated to perinatal and maternal outcome. Results- It was found that colour Doppler was abnormal in 63.3% cases of high risk groups and abnormal histopathological changes were found in 100% cases of high risk group while 33.3% cases of control group where colour Doppler was normal. And it was seen that perinatal outcome was poor in the group with abnormal pulsatility index and it was correlated with abnormal histology of placenta. Rate of caesarean section was also higher in high risk groups. Conclusion- By doing colour Doppler we can detect placental pathologies at their earliest so that the pathological process can be checked at an early stage thus leading to favourable maternal and fetal outcomes.

Personal Medical Wearable Device for Distance Monitoring X73-PHD PDF

I.N. Korsakov, Ph.D., S.M. Kuptsov and D.A. Raznometov

Distance patient monitoring during daily activity can provide medical information from different sensors . Recording of related cardiac signals such as ECG, respiration and also other information such as body motion can improve diagnosis and monitor the evolution of many widespread diseases. Key-issues for portable or even wearable personal healthcare devices (PHD) are: power consumption, longterm sensors, comfortable wearing, easy and wireless connectivity. For example, hearing aids batteries you have to change every 7-10 days, but wireless sensor for securities system you don't need to change it for 3-5 years that is very convenience. Power consumption of wearable PHD depend on what kind of sensors, which technologies of communication and processor do you use and function that it calculated in real time, temperature, humidity and many other factors. To improved the comfort of using PHD we need reduce the weights of device, reduce the power consumption - move some functionality from device to host computer (application server), improve recharged batteries ( use wireless charger), used new materials for ECG electrodes. The ECG front end (based on TI AD1293 chip) offers ultra-high input impedance allowing use of dry, long-lasting electrodes such conductive rubbers or novel textile electrodes that can be embedded in clothes. A small size digital ADXL245 3-axes accelerometer was also integrated. Patient monitor incorporate a 16 bit low power microprocessor that controls 24-bit ADC of signals at programmable sampling frequencies (e.g. 500 Hz) and drives, digital temperature sensor and the Bluetooth BLE module from Bluegiga capable to reliable transmit real-time signals within 20 m range.

Estimation of Moisture Content of Household Solid Waste in Some Selected Areas of Jimeta Town PDF

Muhammad Tanko Baba, Alkasim Abubakar and Mohammad Bashir Abdurrahman

This study analyses the moisture content of Jimeta metropolis in Adamawa state, Nigeria. The purpose of the study is to assess the amount of moisture present in household solid waste of Jimeta for use in energy generation. The study will assist in promoting the development of technologies to utilize municipal solid waste as energy sources. The study was carried out in order to determine the suitability of the waste in energy production. The study area was classified into three different waste areas according to their income as follows:-(i) Waste area A (High income Area) Comprising 80 unit housing estate, Dougirei housing estate, and Government Reserve Area (GRA) (ii) Waste Area B (Medium income Area) which comprises State Low Cost housing, Nasarawo, and Demsawo (iii) Waste Area C (low income Area) comprising Luggere Quarters, Yelwa Quarters, and Rumde Quarters. The components of the waste and percentage composition were determined by hand sorting process and calculation respectively. The moisture content was determined by drying method using hot air oven set at105?. The results show that the major portion of municipal solid waste in the areas under study was organic material and the average moisture content was found to be 61.33% indicating that the waste is wet and therefore may not be suitable for energy production.

Method of initial functions for beams PDF

Rakesh Patel, Dubey S.K., Pathak K.K.

In this paper, method of initial functions (MIF) is used for the analysis of concrete beams. The equations of two dimensional elasticity have been used for deriving the governing equations. Numerical solutions of the governing equations have been presented for simply supported beam loaded with uniformly distributed load. Two cases with varying depth to span ratio have been considered for analysis. The method of initial function is an analytical method of elasticity theory. No assumptions regarding the distribution of stress or displacements are needed in this method. This method can be applied for beam of any depth and loading.


P.Sujatha, Dr.M.Bharathi, Dr.C. selvakumar

This paper presents one of the simplest method to tune decentralised PI (PID) controllers for two-input and two-output (TITO) processes. The TITO process was decoupled through a decoupler matrix. To handle loop interactions a model reduction method with suitable FOPDT and SOPDT model for each element of the resulting diagonal process through fitting the nyquist plots at particular points. Simulation examples of MIMO systems are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Compared to other tuning methods it has less number of tuning parameters and more over uses only less number of controllers, therefore it is one of the cost effective method to control the process.



A close look at Yahwism and African concept of sacrifice and sacrificial rites will immediately reveal to an observer, some stunning similarities. These similarities re-echo the point that “the soul of religion is one”. The African generally express their worship to God through the agencies of the divinities and other spiritual intermediaries. Yahwism however claim a direct worship of God. Both people subscribe copiously to sacrificial rite as means by which it is believed that the Supreme Being can be reached. The preponderance of sacrificial rites as a core in both religion foregrounds our attempt in this paper. As can be inferred, the work adopts evaluative and analytical methods and submits that sacrifice is a core in both religion and that striking similarities exist in both conceptions. The writers discover that these similarities are not well appreciated by adherents of Christian religion which is an offshoot of Yahwism, and command large subscription in Nigeria. This paper concludes with the note that if religions in Nigeria emphasize these commonalities in religious beliefs, this will engender peace and unity which forms the bedrock for ideal national development.


Mr.R.Nirmalan and Mr.R.Dharmaraj

Today new technologies were introduced for the comfort of people to manage their data ubiquitously. But in Adhoc Networks there were several issues arises in real time access. Normally mobile devices are contrary to virtual reality, it pushes computing devices work with people anywhere and anytime. Further it’s infrastructure less and licenses free for individual product. One of the major drawbacks in Adhoc Network is related to optimization of bandwidth, because of Uniqueness of the model, effective dissemination of packets in multihop wireless adhoc networks with the objective to minimize the operational expense associated with it. In this paper, various techniques for packet distribution are discussed in detail. This paper would benefit both Adhoc network users and research scholars in overcoming the challenges faced.

Characterization of Novel Biodegradable Polymer Stabilized Nano Silver PDF

S.Kavitha, D.Geetha and P.S.Ramesh

Biodegradable Polymer (Chitosan) stabilized Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by simple chemical reduction method. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) used as a precursor in an aqueous solution of chitosan, which is behaving like stabilizing and reducing agent. Three different sample solutions were prepared viz., 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2% w/v chitosan at a constant temperature (80°C). The formation of nano silver was identified by the color change from white precipitate to pale brown color. Also Surface Plasmon Resonance band (SPR) at 400-432 nm range and the N-H band of the FT-IR spectrum. Stability of the maximum absorption wave lengths of the samples was monitored for 100 days by UV-visible Spectroscopy. The sample AgNO3 in 1.2 % w/v chitosan was more stable than the other two samples. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed a shifting of N-H stretching vibration band from 3367-3228 cm-1 with the formation of nanoparticles. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern suggests small particle which was size consistent with cubic silver nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with EDS and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of the prepared samples showed a size distribution with spherical morphology of silver nanoparticles. The average particle size of the stabilized samples ranged from ~10-20 nm. It was demonstrated that this convenient method is versatile to produce silver nanoparticles with controlled size and shape.


Ezz Elddein Abd Elwaly, S.K.Elagan, Esam Edfawy and Mohamed Elsayed

Similar to Kantorovich method for variations of calculus, a new method called the fractional series expansion is proposed to solve nonlinear fractional differential equations. The solution is assumed to be an infinite series of separated functions of independent variables. The solution procedure is elucidated by two examples. The fractional generalized coupled MKDV and KDV equation is used as another example to show that its solution depends strongly upon its initial conditions, a special condition is given when no solution exists for the discussed problem.

Benefits and Security Concerns of Cloud Computing PDF

Irvin Singh Dua

In last few years, cloud computing concept has emerged a lot which result that it has become the fastest growing business for the IT industry. There is no doubt it has become a promising business concept with win-win situation for the clients to shift. Cloud computing is a latest emerging business concept [1]. Now, recession-hit companies have acknowledged that simply by shifting into the cloud they will gain the fast access to best breed of business applications or appreciably enhance their productivity, all at negligible cost. As more and more data and information of individuals and companies is placed in the cloud, their concern about data and environment safety, security issues, requirements and challenges has also grown. In today’s scenario, each and every organization is totally dependent on the latest technologies those are updating & growing on daily basis. So that now it is becoming more challenging to secure the digital assets of a company in accordance with the changing demand & growing technologies which were almost fixed earlier [2].

Production of Bio Diesel Oil from Algae in Coastal Area of Balochistan-Pakistan PDF

Bashir Ahmed Leghari, Syed Ali Raza Shah, Wazir Muhammad Leghari, Abdullah Mengal, Mohammad Mushtaque.

Transportation is the backbone of our society, powering the economies of the world every day. The Transportation network is responsible for a large amount of the hazardous emissions causing global warming and air pollution problems worldwide. Bio-diesel is one of the most important suitable oil to eliminate greenhouse gases emissions and alternative of the fossil fuels. The demand of energy is increasing on day-to-day basis, because enhancement in industrialization and population. Bio-diesel (mono-alkyl-esters) is the substitutive fuel, which obtained through the process of transesterification of monohydric alcohols with triglyceride oil. Bio-diesel oil obtained from the renewable sources of fuel having no properties of degradable and toxic. The waste cooking oil, such as sunflower, canola, soybean, coconut, corn oil, fish oil, rice bran, chicken fat, and algae can be used for preparation of Bio diesel, by adopted this process, the dependency on petroleum-based fuel decreased partially. This paper will focus on production of bio diesel oil from algae (micro algae and macro-algae) having higher efficiency of photosynthetic process by the other biomass products. The algae are best sources for the production bio-diesel, and having best yielding stock for bio-diesel. The macro algae is available in abundant in the form of seaweed at coastal area of Balochistan which extends over 750 kms. The micro algae cultivated near the beach of coastal area either in wet land (ponds) or in saline lagoons. It will provide main source of income to the people of coastal area inhabitants and consequently, it will provide good opportunity to the Govt. in order to reduce the rate of unemployment within Balochistan. The national bio-diesel project can be launched in the coastal area, taking the stakeholders in confidences. It will play an important role in alleviation the rate of poverty among the people of Balochistan. Secondly, it will save the fertile land of other provinces, which are more suitable for cultivation of food commodities instead of fuel producing species; otherwise, it will adversely affect the economy of the country, due to the shortage of food commodities. The pollution in air as well as in aquatic life of marine will reduced. It will produce the best result, by adopting of Bio-diesel fuel in Transport sector.

Numerical bifurcation of a host-parasite model undergoing a variation in the growth rate of the host population PDF

Agwu, I. A, Ekaka-a, E.N , Galadima, I.J, Inyama, S.C , Esekhaigbe, E

A numerical analysis of a dynamic ecological system is an important tool. In ecological modeling, the behavior of the model is usually studied by a means of bifurcation analysis. This standard technique involves the analysis of qualitative changes in the stability of the system. In this paper, we study the bifurcation of the trivial steady state solution of a host – parasite model due to a variation in the growth rate of the host population when other model parameters are fixed. The critical values of the steady state solution due to fundamental changes in model parameters are obtained. It is found that the stability behavior of the trivial solution changes at this bifurcation point. We also found that as the trivial steady – state solution persists through the bifurcation point p = 0, d = 0, a2 = 0, this steady – state solution changes from a stable node to a cusp behavior and to a saddle node

Evaluation of Network Analysis Application to Project Management in Southwest Nigeria PDF

Oyewale Julius Ojo and Jide Joseph Obembe

Evaluation of network analysis application to project management was studied in southwest Nigeria. This was with a view to determining the level of application of project management tools and techniques especially network analysis in achieving project success. The study covered 129 large value construction projects in tertiary institutions in southwest Nigeria. The research instrument used was questionnaire. It elicited information on the issues such as project management tools and techniques applied, project duration and benefits of applying network analysis. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that 23.3% of the project supervisors applied network analysis while 100% applied work breakdown structure and monthly progress technical reports. Thus, the application of network analysis in project management in southwest Nigeria is very low. The study recommended among others that on the job professional project management training should be introduced to the project managers/project supervisors. This will assist them in acquiring knowledge and industrial skills in the latest project management tools and techniques available and practical application of network analysis.

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bamboo (Dendrocalmus Strictus) PDF

Dinesh Bhonde, Dr. P. B. Nagarnaik, Dr. D. K. Parbat, Dr. U. P. Waghe

Bamboo is the fastest growing plant in the world having growth up to 60 cm or more in a day. Bamboo has social, economic and cultural significance and is used extensively for building materials along with thousands of uses. It is highly versatile raw material for different works. The bamboo is light weight, flexible, tough, high tensile, cheap material than the other building materials like steel. Bamboo can be used in various building works. Bamboo structures are flexible, earthquake resistant, light weight and cheap. Bamboo can be used as reinforcement in various structural members. Bamboo is a green material for sustainable development and has various advantages. Use of bamboo may be promoted for green buildings and sustainable development

Problems Affecting Public Projects Execution and Control in Southwest Nigeria PDF

Oyewale Julius Ojo and Akinloye Lawal

The study examined problems affecting public projects execution and control in southwest Nigeria. This was with a view to determining the extent to which public projects deliverables and objectives met stakeholders expectations. The study covered 104 projects under construction in States and Federal Universities in southwest Nigeria. The research instrument used was questionnaire. It elicited information on the issues such as problems affecting public projects execution and control and factors responsible for the achievement of the goals and objectives outlined in the baseline project plan. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated among others that, there is difference between the original contract approved value and total value released for the project (4.87), project taking more time than estimated time (4.83), difference in the decisions of the project manager and project sponsor during project execution (4.80) and maintainability of the project quality standards as stated in the quality management plan (2.29) was low. The study concluded that any contractor, executed a project of poor quality should be sanctioned by withdrawing his certificate of registration.

Fault Analysis based on Selection of the Grounding Reactance At Generators Terminals of Iraqi Supper Grid PDF


The growth in size and complexity of power system networks with a large number of interconnections has exposed the system to various contingencies that would lead to system instability. Thus, it is important for a power system to be able to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating condition and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance, this paper discusses effect of the grounding reactance value to limit fault current at generators terminals of iraqi supper grid. The modern digital computer has a distinct advantage in that it provides mean for solving such large networks accurately. Therefore systematic procedure suitable for digital computer calculation is necessary. Modern fault-current programs for the digital computer are usually based on the bus impedance matrix. The program uses the data listed for the lines and their impedance as provided for the load flow program and includes the appropriate reaction for each machine in forming the positive, negative and zero sequence bus impedance matrices. In the present paper a computer program is developed using MATLAB package to analyze the effect of grounding rectance on fault calculations for Iraqi super grid.

An Optimization Algorithm for Finding Graph Circuits and Shortest Cyclic Paths in Directed/Undirected Graphs PDF

Rajesh R. Raina, Dr. Rakesh K. Katare, Shazad A. Mughal, Manjula Dwivedi

Computing combined circuits and shortest cyclic paths between two given nodes in undirected graphs is a fundamental operation over graphs. While a number of techniques exist for answering computing circuits and approximating node distances efficiently in directed graphs, but the actual circuit calculations, their generations and shortest cyclic paths in undirected graphs are often neglected. However, it is often essential to find out all combined circuits and shortest cyclic paths between two given nodes in an undirected graphs. In this paper, we have addressed this problem and presented an optimistic algorithm that not only supports calculation of circuits but also generates combined circuits and computes corresponding shortest cyclic paths in undirected graphs. This algorithm is also applicable to directed graphs as well.

Critical Evaluation of Teaching ESP for Tertiary Level Iranian EFL Learners PDF

Farah Shooraki , Saeed Ketabi, Azizollah Dabbaghi

Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) for all students except students of English is widespread in many countries of the world, also in Iran, however, with teachers facing many obstacles and trying to come up with creative solutions to the problems of teachers and students. The proficiency in different language skills is of utmost importance to these students at tertiary levels. In order to succeed, students need to develop proficiency in reading, writing, vocabulary, and translating from English into their mother tongue and vice versa. Therefore, the most important skills suitable for ESP objectives were studied and a short overview of some beneficial techniques for teaching reading, writing, translation, and vocabulary skills are presented. This study indicates that EFL teachers have to concentrate on the learner’s interaction (student-centered), be aware of different learning styles and employ a variety of assessment techniques, and make use of modern technologies and the worldwide web in their classes for different activities.

Standardization of Acconitum Ferrox PDF


Aconitum Ferrox is a highly poisonous herb found in almost all countries. It is widely used in India and Nepal in treatment of neuralgia, leprosy, fevers, cholera and rheumatism. Its tuberous roots are used as drug externally and rarely administered internally. It is one among the ‘Panchavisha’ referred in Sanskrit texts. The main constituents responsible for toxicity are diterpenoids and alkaloids. In case of processed drug the aconite alkaloids are hydrolysed to benzyl aconine and aconine derivatives. The article is an attempt to summarise the various aspects of A.Ferrox and standardise the processed and unprocessed drug by phytochemical study.

Comparative Modelling, Characterization And Molecular Dynamics Study Of Trypanothione Reductase (Ldtr) From Leishmania Donovani PDF

Hasnahana Chetia, Rituparna Sarma, Ankit Verma, Dhirendra Kumar Sharma

Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is the most lethal form of Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani. This disease is the second largest parasitic killer in the world. Trypanothione reductase (TR) is an enzyme commonly present in all members of Trypanosomatidae, including Leishmania. This enzyme, analogous to Glutathione Reductase (GR) of mammals, is crucial for the management of oxidative stress of the parasite; as it recycles Trypanothione. The three-dimensional structure of TR from L. donovani (LdTR) has not been determined till date. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of LdTR was built by homology modelling and refined using molecular dynamics program. Various properties of the structural hierarchy of LdTR was also attempted to study along with the recognition and characterization of catalytic domains present in the enzyme. The main tools and servers used for the research were- MODELLER 9.11, VEGA ZZ 3.01, and MESSA etc. The results involved creation of an energy-minimized, refined comparative 3-D model of LdTR. The study also predicted LdTR to be a mitochondrial protein that uses FAD as an electron donor and is involved directly involved in homo-dimerization as well as indirectly involved in reduction of reactive oxygen species. The structure was submitted in PMDB (Protein Model Database).

USB Capabilities and Bootability of Portable Devices PDF

Siddharth Kaul, Kamakshi Kaul, Parth Maheta

Almost every portable devices uses Universal Serial Bus(USB) for PC connectivity and to enhance their capabilities. Such capabilities include interfacing and connection of features like charging, Audio, Host and Video. This paper implements and explains the basic USB functionality of USB Audio, USB Mass Storage and Secondary Bootloading through USB channel. This paper provides the basic information one requires to implement these device classes using available stack library by clearly explaining the important aspect in implementation. It is also shown that a portable device can be read, write and reprogrammed using another portable device using the USB interconnection. By performing the implementation, readers can take the first steps towards non PC centric development environment.

Natural Convection with Heat Generation in Vertical Porous Annulus with Axial and Radial Magnetic Field PDF

Vivek Shrivastava, Pavan Badami, Mukesh Patil, K.N.Seetharamu

Effect of radial and axial magnetic field on natural convection in vertical porous annulus with internal heat generation has been investigated. Thermal equilibrium model has been considered for study. Study has been carried out for inner and outer wall subjected to same constant temperature. Top and bottom wall are insulated and impermeable. Strength of uniform horizontal and vertical field has been varied by varying Hartmann number. Effect of Hartmann number, magnetic field direction, Rayleigh number, Aspect ratio, Radius ratio has been studied. Variations of Nusselt number, streamlines, isotherms have been plotted for all parameters. Finite Element Method has been used to solve governing Partial differential equations.


Mohammed Arif Tikki

The major source of fluoride in ground water is the leaching of fluoride from the rock minerals of the earth’s crust. Presence of fluoride in low concentration (<1.5 mg/l) is beneficial to the people for the calcification of dental enamel and maintenance of healthy bones. On the other side, its presence in higher concentration become a monster and can cause dental, skeletal fluorosis and also non-skeletal problems. Many investigators conducted experiments and developed various low-cost technologies to remove fluoride from water and wastewater. However, selection of appropriate treatment method depends on local situation. This review paper presents the information on fluoride, sources of its occurrence, its effects on human & animal health and various control methods for the removal/reduction.

Performance of Rotating Biological Contactor in Wastewater Treatment – A Review PDF


The management of the medium and small scale industries feel burden to treat waste if the cost involvement is high. Hence there is a board scope for cheaper and compact unit processes or ideal solutions for such issues. Rotating biological contactor is most popular due to its simplicity, low energy less land requirement. The rotating biological contactors are fixed film moving bed aerobic treatment processes, which able to sustain shock loadings. Unlike activated sludge processes (ASP), trickling filter etc. Rotating biological contactor does not require recirculation of secondary sludge and also hydraulic retention time is low. This review paper focuses on works done by various investigators at different operating parameters using various kinds of industrial wastewater.


Parveen Yadav, Pankaj Sharma, Narender Singh

Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (WEDM) plays a vital role in the manufacturing industry to cut the hard and difficult tool and Die material which has the ability to generate intricate and complex shapes with high precision and accuracy. The material P-20, used in the present work study finds out the application as the mould steel. The main aim of the present investigation is to optimize the Process parameter for single response Characteristics. In this study, we are using the Taguchi method using the L-27 orthogonal array to find out the performance characteristics from the desired value. Experiments are carried out on P-20 mould steel as work piece electrode and zinc coated brass wire as a tool electrode. Response parameters are cutting speed, surface roughness and die width & material removal rate. Three trial experiments are conducted and the average is chosen as the particular experimental condition. Experiments are performed by using the different input variable such as Pulse ON(T-On),Pulse off (T-Off), Wire feed, Wire tension, Servo feed and Input current( IP). In the end, the confirmation experiment is carried out to validate the effectiveness of proposed optimal condition.



The paper is focused to reduce single phase current and make three phases current zero by using a suitable PWM technique for a three phase Multilevel inverter and making it suitable for electrical drives. The paper uses a new technology that is using the carriers of different amplitude and all the carriers of same frequency operating at higher frequencies and adding a summer in the PWM technique. The proposed PWM technique is simple and easy to understand and the number of components is reduced highly this is achieved by adding a summer as explained. The paper is concentrated not to use any filter the reason behind this is that it increases the single phase current to a very high value which is very dangerous this is avoided in proposed topology. The advantages and disadvantages of these PWM techniques are compared with other PWM techniques in this paper and it uses new NPC H-Bridge inverter.

Identification of Geological and Geomorphological Landforms in Thanjavur District Using Remote Sensing & GIS PDF

Dr.R.V.Raikar, Dr.S.Suresh Babu, Mrs. K.Shunmugapriya

In this Paper Abstract has been researched to study of Identification of Geological & Geomorphological landforms in Thanjavur District using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques. The Cauvery Delta is located in Thanjavur District. It is one of the important rice bowl of Tamilnadu. The total area of Thanjavur District is about 3396.57 Sq.km. The eastern part of Thanjavur is connected with Bay of Bengal. This study is carried out by using IRSP6 LISS IV Satellite image and Toposheet 1:50000 Scale. From this, the thematic maps (Geomorphology, Geology, and Drainage) are created. The Geomorphological features like Flood Plain , Alluvial plain , Deltaic plain and Eolian plain were studied .Similarly the Geological features like Fluvio marine, alluvial-fluvial, sripermuputhur / Sivaganga formation, Nasal formations were analysed .In the same way, the drainage pattern of Thanjavur district is found and the pattern was Dichotomic Using ARC GIS.

Enhancement of Power System Security by Particle Swarm Optimization Based Optimal Power Flow PDF

B.Venkata Silpa, C.Kumar, Dr.Ch.Padmanabha Raju

This paper proposes an algorithm to solve the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem with an objective of enhancing the security of power system. The proposed approach uses Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to obtain the optimal power dispatch meeting steady state security constraints under various loading conditions. This PSO based OPF algorithm computes the optimal generation schedule and effectively relieves line flow violations under different single line contingencies. The efficacy of proposed algorithm is illustrated by carrying simulation studies on IEEE 30 bus system .This analysis reveals that the proposed algorithm is quite simple and efficient for solving OPF problem.

Developing and Evaluating a New Scale for Product Positioning Uncertainty in India PDF

Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Managing uncertainty is a major challenge for thr start-ups.This paper aims to examine the reliability and validity of a new uncertainty scale as an instrument for measuring the fvariables necessary for product positioning for start-ups in India and its underlying dimensions. The literature is underdeveloped in providing a comprehensive list of product positioning uncertainty constructs and its underlying variables. Therefore, an uncertainty scale measuring the variables of product positioning is required. Initially the scale consisted of 16 items under three conceptual subscales.151 founders and co-founders of start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper presents the result of the final scale of the factor structure that resulted from PCA and consists of 12 items out of the 16 items, which has been supported by strong evidences.

Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy in Fundus Images Using Image Filtration PDF

M.A.Fkirin, S.Badawy, El saadany A, A.S.El-Sherbeny

This work proposes a new technique for early diagnosing diabetic retinopathy (DR) using rotating irregular filter form. We used four different edge detection filter types; each filter is rotated by specific angle and applied individually. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves are used to evaluate the performance of the used filters. The results recommended using Laplacian of Gaussian filter which gave the best performance and highest sensitivity value among the four used filters. Registration operation is used for comparison and change detection in blood vessels. STARE image database is used to apply the algorithms on its images. From this work the ophthalmologists could detect Diabetic Retinopathy at earlier stage than what is existing so far.

Sequence Alignment Based Citation Parser using BLAST and Smith-Waterman algorithm PDF

G. Guru Brahmam, R. Rakesh Kumar

The dramatic increase in the number of academic publications has led to a growing demand for efficient organization of the resources to meet researchers’ specific needs. As a result, a number of network services have compiled databases from the public resources scattered over the Internet. However, publications in different conferences and journals follow different citation formats, so the problem of accurately extracting metadata from a publication string has also attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a citation parser called BibPro for extracting metadata from citation strings by using a gene sequence alignment tool. The main enhancement of BibPro to previous tools is that BibPro does not need knowledge databases (e.g., an author name database) to generate feature indices for citation strings. Instead, only the order of punctuation marks in a citation string is used to represent its format. Second, BibPro employs the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to find the most similar citation formats in database and then uses the Smith-Waterman algorithm to choose the best-fit citation format as the extraction template.

Occupational Noise Exposure at Work: Case Study at the Toumanguie’s Palm-Oil Mill in Ivory Coast PDF

Andre TUO, Charlotte CHAMPOINSEAU, Jean Fidele NZIHOU

In this study we analyzed occupational noise exposure of Toumanguié’s palm oil mill workers and highlighted the group of workers exposed. Homogeneous exposure groups (HEG) were formed on the basis of their exposure to the same noise sources and their belonging to the same team. Measurement strategy based on the function according to ISO 9612: 2009 has been followed. The samplings permitted to measure and calculate the noise levels for each homogeneous exposure group. Noise exposure levels ( daily A-weighted noise exposure level) of workers in homogeneous exposure groups were generally greater than 85 dB (A) except for workers operating on the loading ramp. Most of the oil mill workers are exposed to high levels of noise which could cause health problems, hearing impairement or expose to security issues.

Sequence Alignment Based Citation Parser using BLAST and Smith-Waterman algorithm PDF

G. Guru Brahmam, R. Rakesh Kumar, P. Subbarao

The dramatic increase in the number of academic publications has led to a growing demand for efficient organization of the resources to meet researchers’ specific needs. As a result, a number of network services have compiled databases from the public resources scattered over the Internet. However, publications in different conferences and journals follow different citation formats, so the problem of accurately extracting metadata from a publication string has also attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. In this paper, we propose a citation parser called BibPro for extracting metadata from citation strings by using a gene sequence alignment tool. The main enhancement of BibPro to previous tools is that BibPro does not need knowledge databases (e.g., an author name database) to generate feature indices for citation strings. Instead, only the order of punctuation marks in a citation string is used to represent its format. Second, BibPro employs the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to find the most similar citation formats in database and then uses the Smith-Waterman algorithm to choose the best-fit citation format as the extraction template.

Effect of cover on bond behaviour of fiber rein-forced high strength concrete PDF

Ahmed. K, Mahmood. A, EL Rajy.A, Goraya. R.A.

Inclusion of steel fibers reduces the brittleness of high strength concrete. These fibers carry the circumferential tensile stresses, arrest the longitudinal bond splitting cracks and increase the bond strength. Experimentation was carried out to study the effect of increase in cover on bond strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete. It involved Pullout tests for different cover to bar diameter ratios. The steel bars of different diameters were selected for this study. Embedded length was kept constant for all the samples. Tests were conducted using linear variable displacement transducers and strain controlled universal testing machine. The results of the experimentation concluded that by increasing the (c/db) ratio bond strength increases for all the bar diameters. This increase was from 50% to78 % for pullout samples of 13.0 mm, 19.0 mm and 25.0 mm steel reinforcing bars. Moreover the failure was ductile showing a post peak bond yielding zone. The test results may have an implication of on cover provisions of fiber reinforced concrete in the building codes

Application of UASB Reactor in Industrial Wastewater Treatment – A Review PDF


The contents presented in this paper focuses on the performance of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor for treating various industrial and domestic wastewaters at various operating conditions. The reactors can be used conveniently for the treatment of tannery, distillery, food processing, metal mining, dairy, domestic wastewater etc. The performance of the reactor mainly depends on the OLR and HRT. The author highlighted to enhance the start-up and granulation in UASB reactors, biogas (methane and biohydrogen) production, coupling with post-treatment and the reactors to overcome the temperature constraint and pH, improving the removal efficiencies of the organic matter, nutrients and pathogens in the final effluent. Kinetics, models and hydraulic characteristics are useful to verify the experimental data and also helpful for the further research.

Models to forecast inflation in Albania PDF

Prof. As. PhD Valentina SINAJ

The main purpose of this paper is modeling and forecasting the inflation in Albania using ARIMA and VAR econometric models. In this study, we are mainly based on the consumer price index(CPI), as the main indicator of inflation in the money supply(M2) and interest rates(lending rates).The analysis will be preceded by a brief review of international literature on the development of various models in time, mostly ARIMA and VAR models.In our study we obtained data of 17 years period about CPI, M2 and interest rates. Examining the performance of the predictive ability of the models we built respectively two econometric models for concluding about the impact of these variables on inflation. Results gained by this analysis indicate a significant relation between CPI, M2, interest rates and a statistically significant autoregressive relation to the CPI with time delay. Also worth pointing out that although the study focuses on the problem of macroeconomic forecasting, empirical results have a more general application for models in macroeconomic smaller scale.

An Overview of Fuzzy spatial Data mining in an Object oriented Environment PDF

Sarita Tripathy, Prof. (Dr.) Laxman Sahoo

Fuzzy spatial data mining technique has been developed to extract relationships describing relative positions of classes of objects from raster images. Demand has been increased for complex data in various applications. These complex data can be easily represented and manipulated by Object-oriented systems it is also capable of managing complicated and uncertain relationship existing among them. They are also much suitable for engineering and scientific applications. This paper gives an overview of fuzzy spatial data mining in an Object-oriented environment.

The effect of positive intervention on satisfaction with life of college students PDF

Dr. Barsha & Dr. Prerna Puri

The purpose of this study was to focus on the effect of positive intervention on satisfaction with life of college students. Initially, the sample of 250 students were screened using the mental health Inventory. From them, 40 students with poor mental health and low satisfaction with life were randomly divided for the control and experimental group. The treatment in terms of positive intervention was given to experimental group for one month. The results indicate that positive intervention significantly enhance satisfaction with life from pre test to the post test scores.

Assessing the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management Strategies among the Staff of Economy and Finance Ministry PDF

Saeed Bakhtafrouz, Ali Mehdizadeh Ashrafi, Niloofar Imankhan

“Conflict” is not an avoidable phenomenon in organizations, so the management and staff must detect it and reduce its negative effects. If the appropriate strategies are not used to resolve the conflict among the staff, it will lead to a serious damage to the organization. The main purpose of the present paper is to assess the relation between emotional intelligence and management strategies among the staff of economy and finance ministry which has been performed as a case study in Iran. In order to analyze the data collected from 279 employees of the economy and finance ministry, SPSS software has been used; in this regard, the questionnaires of emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies have been applied. The results of correlation coefficients show that there is a significant relation between the emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies; also, the employees with high emotional intelligence apply solution-orientated strategy to encounter with conflicts.


Dr.A.R. Sudamani Ramasamy, R. Sutharani

In this paper double sampling plans for truncated life tests are developed using minimum angle method when the lifetimes of the items follows Various distribution. The values of operating ratio corresponding to the consumer’s risk and producer’s risk are calculated and using minimum angle method and the value ? is found. Tables are constructed and examples are provided.

Intermediate Data Scheduling in Cloud Environment with Efficient Privacy Preserving PDF

P.Raghavan & J.Princess Annaish

Distributed computing shows another approach to supplement the present utilization and conveyance show for It administrations dependent upon the Internet, by accommodating progressively versatile and regularly virtualized assets as an administration over the Internet. Information taking care of might be outsourced by the immediate Cloud Service Provider (Csp) to different elements in the cloud and propositions substances can likewise appoint the assignments to others et cetera. The utilization of distributed computing has expanded quickly in numerous associations. Commonly little and medium organizations utilize distributed computing administrations for different views, incorporating since these administrations give quick access to their requisitions and diminish their framework costs. Cloud suppliers might as well address protection and security issues as a matter of high and earnest necessity. Protecting the security of moderate datasets turns into a testing issue since foes might recoup protection touchy data by dissecting numerous halfway datasets. Encoding All datasets in cloud is generally received in existing methodologies to address this test. Different in which moderate datasets need to be encoded and which don't, so protection safeguarding cost might be spared while the security prerequisites of information holders can in any case be fulfilled. Protection safeguarding cost lessens heuristic calculation utilized for security spillage demands and Sensitive Intermediate information set tree/graph (Sit/sig) techniques are utilized.

Clinical Study Of Some Physiological Parameters in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in Thi-Qar Governorate / Iraq PDF

Alyaa Majid , Hadeel Rasheed Faraj , Sajda . S . Affat

Objective: The acute coronary syndromes [unstable angina (UA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)] are more dangerous than others ischemic heart diseases (IHD) due to acute morphological changes in atherosclerotic plaques which cause (acute ischemia) severe imbalance between myocardium demand and oxygen supply. The present study was designed to determine and compare the levels of (GOT, GPT, Total protein , Albumin ,Globulin and Uric acid) in patients with (ACS) and healthy individuals. Material and Methods: serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (S.GOT) , serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (S.GPT) , serum total protein , serum albumin , serum globulin and serum uric acid levels were measured in 75 subjects which were divided into three groups : (25) patients of UA and (25) patients of AMI , were compared with (25) healthy subjects (control).Results:The levels of serum glutamate oxaloactate transaminase(S.GOT) , serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase(S.GPT), serum albumin and serum uric acid were significant increase in patients of (UA) and (AMI) when compared with control. Whereas the levels of serum albumin showed a significant decrease in patients of (UA) in comparison with control group , whereas its levels was not affected in blood serum of (AMI) patients in comparison with control. While the levels of serum globulin showed significant increase in patients of AMI in comparison with control group, whereas its levels was not affected in blood serum of (UA) patients in comparison with control (p=0.01).Conclusion: High levels of GOT , GPT , globulin and low levels of total protein and albumin could be causative for ACS.


T. Lawrence, S. Gunasekaran

The alkaloid berberine is isolated from the leaf of Mahonia leschenaultii with various organic polar solvents and subsequent IR, UV, and MS spectral analysis on the berberine was carried out and characterized. The theoretical values of IR, UV spectral data and possible structure of the compound are obtained by the Gaussian and ChemDoodle software. These theoretical values are good agreement with the experimental values and the structure of the alkaloid confirmed.

The Supersonic JET FLIGHT-2014?... PDF

M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

A scientific research in this article focus that the Jet Flight-2014 shall be considered as the 3rd generation flight designed to travel at the speed of Sound. The Jet Flight-2014 shall be considered as Proto type of prehistoric “J-Flight”. The dark box of J-Flight shall be considered as emitting J-Radiation consists of J-Logics.

Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of Beetroot —a review PDF

Bhupinder Singh & Bahadur Singh Hathan

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is botanically classified as an herbaceous biennial from Chenopodiaceae family and has several varieties with bulb colors ranging from yellow to red. Deep red-colored beet roots are the most popular for human consumption, both cooked and raw as salad or juice. Beetroots (Beta vulgaris) are rich in valuable, active compounds such as carotenoids (Dias et al., 2009), glycine betaine, (de Zwart et al., 2003), saponins (Atamanova et al., 2005), betacyanines (Patkaiet al., 1997), folates (Jastrebova et al., 2003), betanin, polyphenols and flavonoids (Vali et al., 2007). Therefore, beetroot ingestion can be considered a factor in cancer prevention (Kapadia et al.,1996). They have antimicrobial and antiviral effects (Strack, Vogt, & Schliemann, 2003) and also can inhibit the cell proliferation of human tumor cells (Reddy, Ruby,Lindo, & Nair, 2005). The use of betalains as food colorant is approved by European Union and betalains are labeled as E-162. Dried beetroots can be consumed directly in the form of chips as a substitute of traditional snacks, that are rich in trans fatty acids (Aro et al., 1998), or after easy preparation as a component of instant food (Krejcova et al., 2007).

A Survey on Mobile Wireless Networks PDF

Nirmal Lourdh Rayan, Chaitanya Krishna

Wireless communication is a transfer of data without using wired environment. The distance may be short (Television) or long (radio transmission). The term wireless will be used by cellular telephones, PDA’s etc. In this paper we will concentrate on the evolution of various generations of wireless network.

Antimatter Rockets PDF

Nikhil Balkrishna Bole

The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. In our day to day life cost of fuel is being improved. So for launching satellite we need to spend more money for that, to avoid that we just planned to introduce advanced antimatter propulsion rockets. In propulsion power which is created using collision between electron & positron is used. It is a type of ion propulsion rocket. The important factor is availability of fuel, to avoid that we can use this type of rockets. Power produced by this propulsion is very higher than that the any other type of propulsion. In this paper Production and trapping of antiprotons for space propulsion applications are reviewed. Present and foreseeable production rates at Fermi lab are discussed, and experiments on trapping, confinement and transport of large quantities of antiprotons, as well as synthesis of atomic anti-hydrogen, are outlined. Unfortunately, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications.

Design and Construction of the Coreless Induction Furnace PDF

Dr. Ali K. M. Alshaikhli; Dr. Mohammed M. Al-khairo; Hayder K. Jahanger; Fatima H. Faris

The main task of the present work is to design and construct a coreless induction furnace. Many analytical methods could be applied to induction heating and melting problems. The most suitable method for the present work is equivalent circuit method, a second approach is the superposition method, to check the results of the first method in one step of the design.

Fabrication & Performance Test of a Low Temperature Differential Stirling Engine PDF

Md Arafat Hossain, Shubhra Kanti Das, Md Sazzad Hossain

In recent years, understanding of the Stirling engine has enjoyed considerable growth. Research and development on the Stirling engine has steady progressed, and many new insights, inventions, and potential applications have many discovered and explored. One of the most exciting recent developments is the so called “Low temperature differential” Stirling engine. This new type of Stirling is capable of running on very small differences in temperature between the hot and cold sides, or better to say, between the warm and cool sides. Low temperature differential Stirling engine have been built that run on differentials ranging. This means that Stirling engines can now utilize low grade heat sources for their operation ranging from passive solar or geothermal energy to industrial process waste heat. Whether Low temperature differential Stirling engines can be put to practical use is an open question and still the subject of ongoing research and development work is being carried out worldwide at universities, government laboratories, and in private sector.

The Significance Change of PPG Reflection Index in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Risk Individual PDF

A.Kamarul Bahrain, M.A.Mohd Ali, R.Jaafar

This paper describes the significance of the Reflection Index (RI) calculated from the Photoplethysmography (PPG) signals of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) risk group. A Dolphin One PPG system has been used in this work. During data acquisition, PPG signals have been recorded from the right index finger of two groups of subjects comprising of healthy and LVH risk subjects. The recording of PPG signal follows a custom protocol. The PPG signals obtained were analysed offline using a custom MATLAB algorithm (Math Work Inc) and SPSS version 11.5. The analysis result comparing between the risk and healthy groups shows that the reflection index (RI) is significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.03). Therefore, PPG parameter, RI may be used to characterize LVH syndrome.

Numerical Solutions of Two Point Boundary Value Problems Using Collocation Techniques PDF

Shelly, Inderpreet Kaur

A comparative study of weighted residual methods has been made on different types of advection diffusion equations. Both the linear and non-linear models have been discretized by orthogonal collocation method (OCM) and orthogonal collocation on finite elements (OCFE). Model equations have been solved by MATLAB ‘ode15s’ system solver. Numerical values have been compared with analytic ones and interpreted by relative error and L2 norm with respect to space variable, in terms of 2D and 3D plots to check the efficiency of numerical techniques. Non linear model equations have been simulated using the experimental data.

Access to new Pyranopyrazoles and Related Heterocycles. PDF

A.K. Elziaty, O. E.A. Mostafa, E.A. El-Bordany, M. Nabil and H.M.F. Madkour

The hitherto unknown 6-amino-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methyl-1, 4-dihydropyrano [2, 3-c] pyrazole-5-carbonitrile 3 was prepared and utilized as a synthon in annulation reactions to get new fused heterocycles. The structural features of these new compounds were confirmed by spectral analysis as well as elemental analyses.

An Introduction and Prospect of Geothermal Energy in power Sector of Bangladesh PDF

Md. Faysal Nayan, Shifat Mahmud, Md. Abu shahab Mollah, Shariar Ahmed, Md. Maruf Hasan

Power crisis is a major problem for a developing country like Bangladesh. To improve our power system situation geothermal energy can be a viable and useful alternative. Geothermal energy has vast global potential and its development can contribute significantly towards meeting the growing global renewable energy demand in both developed and developing countries. This paper proposes the prospects of geothermal energy in power sector of Bangladesh. The main agenda of this paper is to discuss about the significance and a detailed feasibility study of practical implementation of geothermal power plant in Bangladesh. This paper also emphasis the technological resource in conjunction with the ways in which geothermal energy is converted into electrical energy.

Examination of Movement of NPA Data over Time in Selected Public Sector Banks in India with Non Parametric Approach PDF

Gour Bandyopadhyay

The research paper is devoted to an analytical study to reveal the movement of the financial parameter, GNPA over time. Diagnostic tool like Quantile Comparison Plots of the Residuals have been used to check the presence of outliers and to detect departure from normality in the residual distribution for our data. Residuals vs Predictor Plot and Absolute Residuals vs Predictors have been employed to examine appropriateness of LOESS Fit (Non Parametric) model for the sample dataset. It is observed that there exist very few outliers in some of the selected banks and residuals follow approximately normal distribution for the sample dataset. It is also observed that LOESS Fit (Quadratic) model fits well with the given dataset and establishes curve linearity. Goodness of fit statistics represented by LOESS R2, Sig of F statistics establishes high precision of the model and excellent fit for dataset in respect of the parameter GNPA. Finally, the LOESS Fit model is extended to get the forecasted values for the respective data-set. Forecasted Values of GNPA for three years (2013, 2014 and 2015) of all the selected PSBs clearly demonstrates steep upward trend in future in respect of the financial parameter GNPA for all the selected PSBs, which is undoubtedly an alarming situation and deserves immediate attention on the part of the regulators to relook into the practices of credit appraisal and monitoring of credit in PSBs in India.

Effect of Functionally Graded Material of Spacer with Contaminating Particle on Breakdown Voltage inside Gas Insulated Bus Duct PDF

Sayed A. Ward, M. A. Abd Allah, Amr A. Youssef

For the enhancement of insulation reliability and the compact design in gas insulated power equipment, the solid insulators play crucial role of electrical insulation. In order to improve the insulation performance of the solid insulators, we should consider the following two technical points. Firstly, we have to improve the insulation performance of solid dielectrics itself. The second is the control of the electric field distribution in and around the solid insulating spacers. In this paper, we have proposed a new concept for spacer insulation; an application of a functionally graded material (FGM). We investigated the applicability of FGM for reducing the electric stress on triple junction point, which was one of the important factors dominating a long-term insulating property of the solid. Finite Element Method (FEM) has been used throughout this work, for its favorable accuracy, to calculate the electric field distribution inside gas insulated bus duct (GIBD). The electric field distribution around earthed particle contamination which adhered to uniform and FGM of disc-spacer is studied. Electric field relaxation effect (EFGM / Euniform) by introduction of the U-shape FGM spacer is also studied. The breakdown voltage calculations in case of gap with particles contamination are studied. The effect of gas pressure, SF6-gas concentration in various mixtures and the particle dimension (length and hemi-spherical radius) on the breakdown voltage are also studied. Finally, the effect of FGM of spacer on breakdown voltage is also studied.

RADAR Based Vehicle Collision Avoidance System used in Four Wheeler Automobile Segments PDF

R.Sivakumar, Dr.H.Mangalam

The Vehicle collision avoidance system in an automobile is used to prevent the accidents and ensure the vehicle safety and reliability. This system can make the job of driving vehicles easier and ensures to manage traffic efficiently with road safety. The proposed system uses Radar sensors (Short range Radars) placed at its front ,these vehicles can detect presence of moving objects in their path, and predict their speed, direction and calculate how to maintain a safe distance from them.At present all the Intelligent Vehicles are being manufactured with inbuilt collision avoidance system as a proactive crash mitigation system. Ranging and detection of the front end vehicles are accomplished by combining the RADAR sensors, Hardware’s, Communication devices and a Risk zone detection algorithm. By combine this makes the use of Vehicle collision avoidance system more perfect and available to the public allowing safe and secure driving experience. The desired speed and distance can be set at several levels according to the situation. The main goal of this proposed work alerts the driver on vehicle positions and will do on auto diagnostic of vehicle.

Analog Haptic Robotic Arm PDF

Jainish S Kothari, Tanay S Vaidya

Robotics is an engineering field which has developed since ages and has helped in reduction of human efforts. The invention of robots has increased the precision and repeatability in many fields of operation which would have been difficult using human hands. However, human intervention to control the robot through human actions and gestures extends the domain of its utility. The method adapted to sense human touch and gestures is known as HAPTICS. The robot motion is determined by the haptic feedback received from the user. Haptic feedback refers to the change in the output of a device corresponding to the sense of a human touch. This paper aims at designing and implementation of a haptic robotic arm which can recognize hand gestures of a user. The robotic arm follows the changes in the gestures of the user’s hand. The robotic arm is designed to have three joints consisting of servo motors to provide two degrees of freedom. The human movements are sensed by an electronic component like a potentiometer. The processing of the sensed output will be completely analog in nature which will reduce the effective cost of the robotic arm. Closed loop systems with the help of servo motors have been implemented which drastically reduces the error due to external noise sources.

Survey and Simulation based Performance Analysis of TCP-Variants in terms of Throughput, Delay and drop Packets over MANETs PDF

Prakash B. Khelage, Dr. Uttam Kolekar

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a reliable which maintains end-to-end senentics and it is one of the core of the internet protocol (IP) suite responsible for transmission of internet traffic and very efficient for wired networks. However, experimental analysis and research showed that, TCP’s congeation control algorithm performs poorly over Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks with degraded throughputs, fairness services and energy consumption. In this paper we present the reviews and simulated result based comparision of TCP-Variants in terms of throughput, delay and packet drop. Our result based analysis showed that, traditional TCP congestion control protocol fails in MANET whereas Proactive and BWE based TCP-variants gives improved performance in terms of throughput, delay and packet drop. Hence there is motivation for RTT and BWE based investigation and research desirable for adapting TCP over Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks.

Assessment of the environmental impacts on the groundwater resources in Southern part of Nile Delta, Egypt PDF

Dr Mohamed Kamel Fattah

This study aimed to give an insight on the environmental impacts on the groundwater aquifer in southern part of Nile Delta. Major and minor ions were determined as well as trace elements are used to determine the chemical types of groundwater and their relations to the prevailing hydrogeological and environmental conditions, and evaluate the suitability of groundwater for different uses. Regarding the chemical properties of groundwater, it was also discussed through the chemical analysis of 80 groundwater samples. The analytical data were interpreted using numerical and graphical methods. Appreciable increase in salinity contents and change in groundwater quality were recorded especially at the central and northeastern parts of the study area. Geochemical model named NETPATH was also used to simulate net geochemical mass–balance transfer of probable minerals and gases and evolution of groundwater in this region.

Does Organizational Health Enhance the Level of Commitment in Police Employees? PDF

Dr. Abhay Pratap Singh

Present study endeavored to investigate the role of organizational health in enhancing the level of commitment in police employees. A 3x2 factorial design with three levels of job hierarchy (officers, sub-inspectors & constables) and two levels of job tenure [short job tenure (0-5 yrs.) & long job tenure (above 10 Yrs.)] were used in present study .A total of 240 police personnel from Gorakhpur Zone participated as respondents. Organizational Health Questionnaire [30] and Organizational Commitment Scale [3] were used to determine the perception of organizational health and level of commitment of the employee towards their organization. Correlation results evinced that organizational health was positively correlated with various domains of organizational commitment. Organizational health was positively linked with affective commitment, normative commitment and overall commitment. Results revealed that different group of employees varied on perception of organizational health and commitment level. More specifically, police officers perceived greater level of organizational health as compared to sub-inspectors and constables respectively. Similarly, organizational commitments i.e., affective and normative as well as overall commitment were also greater in police officers as compared to sub inspectors and constables.. Findings have been discussed in the light of organizational and personal factors.

Agglomerative mean shift clustering embedding query set compression PDF

Suraj.S.Damre, L.M.R.J Lobo

Agglomerative mean shift clustering is a non parametric clustering because it does not require any prior knowledge about number of clusters and it does not put constraints on the shape of clusters. This approach provides a better quality than other clustering approaches. This algorithm constructs a family of d-dimensional hyper ellipsoids to cover the query set and the point inside each hyper ellipsoid will converge to a local maximum. Centres are used to form a new query set which is a compression of the original set with a reduced time complexity. This deals with each iteration level clustering to be done. The time complexity is mainly reduced due to the compression of the query set which results in better clustering.


Syed Shabbeer Ahmad

Image coding is the key and most prevalent component in multimedia communication and storage systems. In this paper image compression using binary wavelet transforms [1] and binary plane technique [2, 3] is proposed. This method is compared against the standard JPEG compression. Experimental results show improvement in compression ratio and PSNR for the reconstructed image.

Utility of Arylmethylenemalononitriles In Heterocyclic Synthesis : New Synthetic Procedures to Synthesize 4H-pyrano[3,2-c] quinoline, Pyrazolo[4,3-b] pyridine, 4H -Benzo [b]pyan , Pyridine and [1,3,4]Thiadiazolo[3,2-a] pyridin-2-yl)benzamide Derivatives PDF

FathyMuhammad AbdelAziz El-Taweel, Tarek Mohamed AboElMaati and Muhammad Mofeed

4H-pyrano[3,2-c]quinolines 7a,b were prepared via reacting arylmethylenemalononitrile 1a with 3-acetyl-4-hydroxyquinoline 2 or 4-hydroxyquinoline 3.Pyrazolo[4,3-b]pyridines 11a-f were obtained by reacting 1a-f with 4-nitrosoantipyrine 8.Reaction of 1g with dimedone 12 and the hydrazone 15 resulted in the formation of 4H-benzo[b]pyran 14 and pyridine 19 respectively. Compound 1 reacted with 1,3,4-thiadiazole 20 to afford [1,3,4]thiadiazolo[3,2-a]pyridin-2-yl) benzamides23.

Fungal Analysis of Water from Yusmarg Health Resort of Kashmir Valley PDF

Javid Majeed Wani, Asma Yousuf and Azra Nahid Kamili

To assess the density and diversity of fungal flora, a study of aquatic fungi along with some physical parameters like temperature and pH was carried out during the month of November and December 2010, in Yusmarg area of Kashmir valley at four sites differing from each other markedly in terms of biotic and abiotic factors. During the study the fungal flora showed variation in relation to the physical parameters. The colony count was maximum at Site IV Reservoir outlet (197) followed by Site III Reservoir Inlet (75), Site I Dudhganga (67) and site II Tank Area (52). The total fungal population was maximum at Site IV Reservoir outlet (1.0×104 in Nov and 0.9×104 in Dec.) and minimum at Site II Tank Area during both the months (0.3×104 in Nov and 0.2×104 in Dec.). Among the different colonies identified it was found that about 53% of the isolated colonies belong to Pencillium spp. 31% belongs to Aspergillus spp. and 16% were identified as Candida spp.

Context aware computing algorithms using Location Management Scheme PDF

Mrs. Sini Anna Alex, Dr. Anita kanavalli

Context awareness (CA) refers to systems can both sense and react based on their environment. The systems may have information about the circumstances under which they are able to operate and adapt their behavior accordingly based on rules or an intelligent stimulus. Such systems are a component of a mobile computing environment. Currently context has been considered as part of a process in which users are involved, hence specifying and developing context models are needed to support context-aware applications to adapt interfaces, tailor the set of application-relevant data, increase the precision of information retrieval, discover services, make the user interaction implicit, or (f) build smart environments. Context related to human factors is structured into three categories: information on the user, the user’s social environment, and the user’s tasks. Likewise, context related to physical environment is structured into three categories: location, infrastructure, and physical conditions.

Effect of Frequency on Fatigue Lifetime of SBR and NBR Compounds PDF

Abdullah Mohammed, Prof. Dr. Mahmoud M. Nemat-Alla, Prof. Dr. Karam M. Emara

Fatigue behaviour of rubber is a very important characteristic due to its extensive use in many engineering applications. In most applications, rubber is commonly subjected to fluctuating loads, which often lead to failure due to the nucleation and growth of defects or cracks. Due to their viscoelastic behavior, rubbers have a high damping ability. Very often rubbers are subjected to different frequencies in the service, such as engine mounts. The effect of frequency on the fatigue lifetime needs deep investigations. In present work, the effect of frequency on the styrene butadiene (SBR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with 0,20,30,50 and 70 Phr of carbon black was investigated. It was found that the fatigue lifetime decreased with the increase of the frequency. Increasing carbon black (CB) contents in rubber improved the fatigue resistant and increased of the fatigue lifetime.

Studies on EWMA Control Chart in Presence of Autocorrelation PDF

Ajit Goswami, Harendra Narayan Dutta

Control charts are used to monitor a production process. While using control charts, a standard assumption is that observations from the process at different time periods are independent random variable. However, the assumption of independency in observation is not always true rather they are dependent in many cases. For example, in many chemical process industries, the observation taken at different time points are often correlated due to the dynamic nature of the process. Sometimes, some process inherently produced data that are autocorrelated. The presence of autocorrelation in process observations can have a large impact on traditional control chart developed under independent assumptions. When there is significant autocorrelation in the process observation, it is not advisable to apply traditional control chart methodology without modification, as there is typical effect of the autocorrelation on the control limits. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of autocorrelation on EWMA chart which is used alternative to Shewhart Control Chart specially in detecting small shifts in the process. Both for positive and negative autocorrelation, the effect on EWMA control limits are studied and in order to account for the autocorrelation, control limits are adjusted with the modification of EWMA control chart parameters.

Bioinoculants as a tool to improve total bacoside content in Bacopa monnieri L. (Pennell) PDF

Rakshpal Singh, Sudeep Tiwari, Sumit K. Soni, Deepmala Singh, Rashmi Singh, Sivesh Pratap Singh, P.V. Ajay Kumar, Rakesh Pandey, Alok Kalra

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of five efficient bioinoculants [CRC1 (Pseudomonas monteilii, HQ995498/MTCC9796), CRC2 (Cedecea davisae, HQ995499/MTCC9797), CRC3 (Cronobacter dublinensis HQ995500/MTCC9798), CRC4 (Advenella spp., HQ995501/MTCC9799), CRC5 (P. aeruginosa, HQ995502/MTCC9800) useful in enhancing biomass and secondary metabolite content of Bacopa monnieri. The bio-inoculants treated plants, over two harvests, produced significantly higher (P=0.05) shade dried shoot biomass. The substantial improvements in herb yields were achieved with P. monteilii (CRC1) (17%) followed by C. dublinensis (CRC3) (12%), when compared to un-inoculated control plants during both harvests over two cropping seasons. The results of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) method showed a significant improved (16-24%) total bacoside content when plants were treated with bioinoculants. However, the higher concentration of bacoside content (24%) was estimated in the suckers inoculated with P. monteilii (CRC1). A significant improvement in nutrients (NPK) concentration was also noticed in bioinoculants treated plants compared to the un-inoculated ones.

Effect of cover on bond behaviour of fiber rein-forced high strength concrete PDF

Ahmed. K, Mahmood. A, EL Rajy.A, Goraya. R.A.

Inclusion of steel fibers reduces the brittleness of high strength concrete. These fibers carry the circumferential tensile stresses, arrest the longitudinal bond splitting cracks and increase the bond strength. Experimentation was carried out to study the effect of increase in cover on bond strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete. It involved Pullout tests for different cover to bar diameter ratios. The steel bars of different diameters were selected for this study. Embedded length was kept constant for all the samples. Tests were conducted using linear variable displacement transducers and strain controlled universal testing machine. The results of the experimentation concluded that by increasing the (c/db) ratio bond strength increases for all the bar diameters. This increase was from 50% to78 % for pullout samples of 13.0 mm, 19.0 mm and 25.0 mm steel reinforcing bars. Moreover the failure was ductile showing a post peak bond yielding zone. The test results may have an implication of on cover provisions of fiber reinforced concrete in the building codes

Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Using Ethanol as Fuel Additive PDF

Navaneeth Jayachandran,Jayabalaji, Dr. S. Thirumalini

Air pollution is the most serious environmental problem across the world. Diesel emission also the major part of the air pollution. The global pollution of environment is generally caused by using of fossil based fuels. Many researches on the reduction of pollution have been in progress. For this purpose, some of the researches have been focused on fuel additives to reduce harmful emissions. So my aim is carried out to analyze the performance of engine and level of variation of exhaust emissions on single cylinder, four stroke, CI engine by adding ethanol in different ratios to diesel. Starting from 0% to 15% ethanol in steps of 5%. It is observed performance increases in terms of efficiency that the exhaust emissions CO , HC,CO2 NO and soot are considerably decreased

Prolonged Curing of Green Concrete from Domestically Derived Cassava Peels Ash (DDCPA) and Laterite PDF

Agbenyeku Emem-Obong Emmanuel, Aneke Ikechukwu Frank

This study incorporates two locally available materials; Domestically Derived Cassava Peels Ash (DDCPA) and Laterite in concrete production for construction purposes. The abundance of these materials in West-Africa paved way for this study. The effect of partial substitution of cement with an agricultural waste-DDCPA on the compressive strength of Laterized concrete (LATCON) was investigated. Results of the physical and chemical tests on DDCPA and Laterite revealed them to have satisfactory characteristic properties for concrete production. A total of 48 cubic specimens of 100mm dimensions were cast and cured by complete submergence in water for 56, 90, 120 and 150-days hydration period, adopting a 28-day targeted strength of 25MPa as control. The cement/DDCPA and sand/laterite replacements ratios ranged from 0 to 30%, with a view to determining the best compositions matrix. The density and compressive strength properties decreased with increase in DDCPA and laterite content. However, a gradual strength development in the DDCPA-LATCON was observed as the curing age increased. Hence, the 150-days density and compressive strength of the normal concrete was 2373Kg/m3 and 73.57MPa while the 10%DDCPA+10%Laterite sample (i.e. best replacements matrix) had 2310Kg/m3 and 75.64MPa respectively. The strength of the DDCPA-LATCON (75.64MPa) was higher than the strength of the control sample (73.57MPa) at the 150-day, which makes it suitable as a construction material and proves that pozzolanas can produce concrete with close characteristics as normal concrete beyond age 28-days. As such, it can be adopted in the construction of simple foundations and masonry units as reliable alternatives to the scarce and expensive conventional materials for prime cost reduction in rural housing and development without compromising standards.

Blended Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Concrete; A Marginal Green Construction Material from Extended Hydration PDF

Agbenyeku Emem-Obong Emmanuel, Aneke Ikechukwu Frank

Numerous research findings have shown the cost saving benefits and potencies of using pozzolanas in blending cement without compromising standards. The use of artificial pozzolanas as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCMs) in concrete engineering is well established. In the continual search for substitute building/construction materials, the introduction of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as a cementitious material in green concrete was investigated. The availability of this material provided the impetus for the study of the compressive strength of concrete using RHA as a partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Chemical analysis on RHA showed it to have significant qualities of a pozzolana. A total of 60 cubes of 150mm dimensions were cast with the percentage cement replacement by RHA ranging from 0 to 40% while 28-day targeted strength of 25MPa was adopted as control. The cubes were cured at a relative humidity of 95 to100% and temperature of 22-250C in a curing chamber for extended periods of 56, 90, 120 and 150-days. The results and analysis showed trends of strength development, revealing a decrease in the density and compressive strength of samples with increase in RHA content. The 150-days density and compressive strength of the normal concrete was 2459Kg/m3 and 77.03MPa while the 10%RHA sample (i.e. best replacement matrix) had 2395Kg/m3 and 78.79MPa respectively. The strength of 10%RHA/OPC concrete (78.79MPa) was higher than the strength of the control specimen (77.03MPa) at 150-days; which proves that pozzolanas can produce concrete with close characteristics as normal concrete beyond age 28-days, thereby making it a suitable green construction material. It can be a major cost reduction factor in rural housing and development; where buildings of less structural emphasis are needed. As such, it can be employed in the construction of simple foundations and concrete composites.

Retrieval of Data from Very Large Databases Using Apriori Algorithm PDF


Now-a-days most of the Very Large Databases like Medical Databases, Multimedia Database are consuming Petabytes of memory. For extracting required data from this enormous amount of memory so many retrieval techniques were already developed. But all these techniques are time consuming. We can also use indexing supported by all the commercial databases. When we create an index internally it uses B-Tree data structure which is used for efficient retrieval of data. But, Oracle10g is supporting R-Tree indexes also which are more efficient than B-Tree indexes. On Very Large Databases it is not sufficient to create a single index because these Databases consist of large number of fields. Moreover, it is not necessary to create index on each and every field and it is also not possible because it requires large memory area. In very large databases also most of the times the user concentrates on few fields only. So, in our proposed system, the solution is to create some suggested indexes. And as and when the user’s query pattern changes the suitable index from the suggested index set is dynamically loaded into the main memory from the local storage. Our proposed technique continuously monitors the query patterns and it creates the suggested indexes using Apriori algorithm and this suggested index set is updated periodically based on the query pattern changes.

Artificial Intelligent Techniques for Modeling Solar Cell Based on FPGA PDF

Dr. Hanan A. R. Akkar, Nawras M. Akesh

The proposed need to construction of a solar tracking system is to extract the majority of solar energy solar panel. Work includes sports simulation and control of solar tracking system for dual- axis solar panel the program has been implemented using MATLAB. The tracking system can be mounted in areas that were considered rich in solar energy. In this work the design of the solar panel Biaxial characterized by the ability to move in the horizontal and vertical directions. Has been used a fuzzy controller which is dominated by the main portion of the solar tracker positioning of the engines that drives the solar panel to face the sun. Mechanical design consists of rotary joints and two engines. The tracking system makes the solar system more efficient by keeping the face of the solar panel perpendicular to the sun and thus extract the majority of solar energy has led to increased overall efficiency. In this work propos a method to track the sun's rays using sensors solar tracker by the sun and by changing the direction of the solar panel in the vertical and horizontal directions by two engines. Require a sun tracker controller effective. The user is controlled and fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The main idea of this work is to build a digital FLC using fuzzy equations and can be implemented on the FPGA in a practical way, and the advantage of this design is the possibility of FLC used for any other application without changing any part in the main design of the FLC only change the external standard inputs and outputs. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been used to implement digital fuzzy logic controller, because of their benefits, as well as the reprogrammability of the FPGAs which can support the necessary reconfiguration to program fuzzy logic controller. A VHDL design of digital fuzzy logic controller is proposed to evolve the architecture FLC circuits using FPGA-Spartan-6. The VHDL design platform creates digital fuzzy logic controller design files using WebPACKTMISE 13.3 program.

Virtualization of Campus LAN and analyzing traffic issues of these VLANs PDF

Mohammad Serazul Islam, Md. Javed Hossain, Mohammed Humayun Kabir

Recently, network virtualization has been pushed forward by its proponents as a long-term solution to the gradual ossification problem faced by the existing network and proposed to be an integral part of the next-generation networking paradigm. By allowing multiple LAN architectures to cohabit on a shared physical substrate, network virtualization provides flexibility, promotes diversity, promises security and increased manageability. This research work is basically on VLAN in networks and also the deployment of VLAN in various environments. It also includes some advantages and disadvantages of this technique. This research work also includes how traffic is passing between VLAN at different layer switch and also shows trunking of the VLAN. It includes basic security and enhanced security too. Network performance can be a factor in an organization's productivity and its reputation for delivering as promised. One of the contributing technologies to excellent network performance is the separation of large broadcast domains into smaller ones with VLANs. Smaller broadcast domains limit the number of devices participating in broadcasts and allow devices to be separated into functional groupings, such as database services for an accounting department and high-speed data transfer for an engineering department.

Redesigning of the combustion chamber for small scale static thrust turbojet engine. PDF

Sandeep Kumar Singh, Dr. S.S. Mondal

A research project was conducted at IIT-BHU, Varanasi for the development and redesigning of a turbojet engine for small scale applications and to enhance its commercial viability. The paper describes, in detail all the phases required to set up the combustion chamber of such turbojet engine: designing, manufacturing approach and operational aspects .The idea is to remodel the combustion chamber and devise a different operational methodology while retaining the basic structure and maintaining the prime operational integrity as that of conventional engines. The new model complies with compactness, cost effectiveness and helps in moderation of the emissions.

Effect of Intersecting Beam on Bond Behaviour at the Joint PDF

Kafeel Ahmed, Ahmed Al- Raji, Uzma Kausar, Muhammad Ilyas

Adequate and effective bond is necessary for composite action of reinforced concrete structural elements. At the joints of flexural members, bending stress of one beam magnifies the tangential bond stress around the main steel of the intersecting beam. This reduces the bond strength of intersecting beams and longitudinal splitting bond cracks initiate at lower loads, reducing the load carrying capacity of the structural member. Experimental study was carried out to determine this decrease in bond strength at the joint of intersecting beams. Beams, designed to fail in bond, were casted for this purpose. Each set consisted of three beams, two intersecting and one control. In all the beams steel and concrete strain gauges were used to measure the strain developed in steel and concrete. The results of the experimentation showed that the bond strength of primary beam of the joint of intersecting beams, reduced 15 to 30% as compared to bond strength of control beam. These test results may have an implication of on development length and splice length provisions at the joints of intersecting beams, in the building codes. This reduction in bond strength, necessitate the provision of bond improving measures like extra confinement through the stirrups or increased development length, may offer a solution to this problem.


Akindele Oluremi Akinropo

Against the background of urban poverty, slum characteristics and morbidity tendencies; this study assesses the health correlates of housing quality in selected core areas of Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Both the quality of housing and residents health were appraised. Six out of ten wards were sampled. Structured questionnaire was administered using multi-stage procedure to three hundred respondents among the sampled wards; eliciting information on quality of housing and state of health of residents in the area. Likhert scaling was used to transform the ordinal data into one of ratio or interval scales to make them amenable to parametric testing. Both ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to explain the difference in the quality of housing as well as incidence of morbidity among the sampled wards. Factor analysis was used to collapse the variables into fewer manageable composites and linear composite of housing quality (HQI) was regressed on that of morbidity incidence (RIMI). A reliable relationship was observed between the two composites with correlation (R) of -979. The study thus recommends a good investment in housing and infrastructural provision towards a better quality of housing.

Experimental Modelling wax preparation from Petroleum products and natural additives PDF

Nadira A. Hatim, Dr. Amer Abdul-Rahman Taqa., Ahmad W. Kh. Alubaidi

Introduction: Many modelling waxes are composed of complicated mixture of many constituents. Aims of the study: To modify Petroleum Iraqi natural waxes (hard and soft paraffin wax, natural and commercial beeswax) by adding some natural (gum Arabic, rosin, Na-CMC, starch, and amaranth) and chemical (ferric oxide) to prepare new experimental modelling waxes that can be used in prosthetic dentistry. Evaluate physical properties according to ADA specification No. 24 and ISO 1561 in comparison to two commercials modelling waxes (Major® and PolywaxTM). Materials and Methods: Total samples prepared are 478 samples, and divided into 3 groups: (1) Iraqi Petroleum natural waxes and commercial beeswax. (2) Iraqi Petroleum natural waxes mixtures, the mixtures are either binary (Hard + soft Paraffin) or tertiary mixtures (Beeswax). The binary mixtures are (90% + 10%) and (80%+20%).The Tertiary mixtures are (80% + 15% + 5%) and (70% + 20% + 10%). (3) Natural waxes and additives, the percentages of mixing are (90% natural waxes + 10 % additives) and (80% natural waxes + 20% additives). (100) samples have been failed in flow and thermal expansion test until obtained the proper percentage of mixing that give proper physical tests: melting point, flow, thermal expansion, and accuracy test. Results: there were significant differences (p = 0.001) between control and experimental modelling waxes {10 (80% hard paraffin + 20% beeswax) & (90% beeswax + 10% starch)}. The results showed that the addition of 20% Na-CMC, gum Arabic, Starch, and rosin to hard paraffin led to decrease the maximum melting point, flow, thermal expansion and dimensional changes but increase the minimum melting point. Conclusions: It was concluded that the experimental modelling waxes: (80% hard paraffin + 20% beeswax) and (90% beeswax + 10% starch) have the most nearest properties to control and ADA specification No. 24 than other waxes.

A study on the role of population change in spatial development of Zahedan between 2001 and 2011 PDF

Neda Golpayegani davijani, Masoumeh hafez reza zadeh, Maryam karimiyan bostani

The excessive growth of cities and unbalanced growth of them which is resulted from immigrations and population growth are the main problems of Iran urban network. These problems lead to the excessive population density, the increase of construction activities, physical development of urban centers, and destruction of the natural ecosystem. The present paper intends to study the role of population change in spatial development of Zahedan between 2001 and 2011 in Iran. According to the research studies, the residents’ information is processed in SPSS environment and via T-test, one-sample test, and Phi and Cramer’s V test. The results indicate that the mean of effective economic and political factors in Zahedan, the mean of the number of organizations, and the mean of population equals 3.47 and it is higher than the theoretical mean equal to 3. The level of significance of the test is less than 0.05 (sig= 0.000). In other words, economic and political factors influence Zahedan population development and it indicates that 61.4 percent of immigrants belong to the new districts of Zahedan; it means that the population has grown within the city and has caused the physical development of it.

The Implications of Good Governance in Corporate sector A Case Study of Bank of Khyber PDF

Dr. Habib ur Rahman

With ever expansion in the corporate sector, the risk of under utilization as well as misuse of resources increased manifold which phenomena attracted the attention of the business managers and company tycoons to manage the hazards and prevent the crisis from happening. This paper focuses on the root cause of mismanagement and its consequences on the operational results of the organization. It discusses the role of the organizational hierarchy, its exposure to accountability and all time auditability of the operational results of the organization which event alone can ensure the flawless conduct of successful business the paper explores in detail the ingredients of better management via good governance. It elaborates the concept of Good Governance for the purpose of better results by explaining the implication of loose control or for that matter ineffective checks and lack of regulatory instruments. Explaining the case study of local Bank it concludes that under Good Governance and with effective management the organizations have always succeeded in achieving their goals. Strong force of profit motive in conflict with goal of social wellbeing of the masses put the Statesmen as well as the business managers in a deep thinking pond. They are now required to achieve the only goal of maximizing the overall wellbeing of the society. They have either to concentrate on the public utilities through development of Social Over Head Capital or creating surpluses for taxation and funds for welfare dispersal. Neither today’s State nor industrial unit is absolved of its corporate social responsibilities. Hence the running of the business machinery for its requisite output needs to be properly organized and operated upon for ensuring the achievement of State goal along with meeting the expectation of the stakeholders


Shikha Kuchhal

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile), is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones. It became the de facto global standard for mobile communications with over 80% market share.It is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world. GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. There are five different cell sizes in a GSM network—macro, micro, pico, femto, and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. GSM was designed with a moderate level of service security. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM), that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually authenticating the network and the user, whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation. In this paper a new approach to encryption has been proposed which includes extra encryption with AES, DES and Triple DES algorithm. This technique is much simpler than existing techniques thus a more robust and efficient system is achieved.

Wal-Mart Supply Chain Management PDF

A retail store network founded by Sam Walton is operating at 6500 locations globally with the support of 1.8 million employees. The main strategy of Wal-Mart is the provision of best quality of merchandise and services at lowest affordable prices for consumers. Their everyday low prices (EDLP) technique is used over all discount stores especially of apparel, small appliances, housewares, electronics, even hardware and majorly at grocery stores. Wal-Mart also has a lot of competitors located in every category of stores. Even then Wal-Mart is the largest retailer operating from 15 countries and according to them, Supply Chain management is the main source through which their organization grows and achieves this status.

Tip Clearance Effects on Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor PDF

S. M. Swamy, V.Pandurangadu

Tip clearance effects on flow field of a low speed centrifugal compressor performance is tested experimentally by using partial shroud (PS) attached to the rotor blade tip at three values of tip clearances i.e.= 2.2%, 5.1% and 7.9 % of blade height at trailing edge are examined at three flow coefficients 0.18, 0.28, and 0.34. The effect of tip clearance on total pressure coefficient and static pressure coefficient exit of the compressor is analyzed. The drop in static pressure coefficient and total pressure coefficient with increase in tip clearance is found to be high at the tip of the blade due to high pressure fluid leakage at the tip of the blade. Performance reduction with tip clearance is observed. The mass averaged total and static pressures at the rotor exit at the three values of tip clearances clearly show that partial shrouds are beneficial in improving the pressure rise of the compressor. This benefit is found to be more at the higher value of tip clearance tested.

Decomposition of Pregroups PDF

Faisal H. Nesayef

In section one, we introduced the main concept and definition which we needed in later sections. In section two, we proved that some axioms are equivalent to the other ones. Section three contains the main features of work. In section three of this paper we proved that any pregroup satisfying P6 can be expressed as a product of factors which are also pregroups satisfying P6. We also proved that the universal group of a pregroup satisfying P6 is the free product of the universal groups of the factors of P amalgamating the core part Po.

Comparison of Fusion Techniques applied to Medical Images: Discrete Wavelet Transform and Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform Using Wrapping Technique PDF

Suvarna Wakure, Satish Todmal

Image fusion is an important research topic in many related areas such as medical imaging, microscopic imaging, remote sensing, computer vision and robotics. The term image fusion is an approach to extraction of information acquired in several domains. The purpose of this paper is to obtain an image with more detailed information from two complementary featured images. Wavelet based image fusion technique is useful for objects with point singularity and it has limited directivity and does not provide information about edges clearly. Whereas curvelet based fusion technique is very efficient in representing curve-like edges. Now-a-days image fusion is used in medical imagining, in this paper the medical images, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) and CT (Computed Tomography) are fused using discrete wavelet transform and fast discrete curvelet transform using wrapping technique. CT image and MRI image gives the complimentary information which is helpful for diagnosis of disease. The proposed algorithm combines Discrete Wavelet Transform and Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform based image fusion which gives optimal sparse representation and reconstruction of organs with edges and make image smoother. This approach is further optimized and compared visually and statistically such as Entropy, MSE and PSNR.

Practical Applications of Wireless Sensor Network Based On Military, Environmental, Health And Home Applications: A Survey PDF

Ananya chatterjee

The past few years have witnessed accumulated interest within the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a very big selection of applications and it's become a hot analysis space. This has been enabled by the provision, notably in recent years, of sensors that are smaller, cheaper, and intelligent. These sensors are equipped with wireless interfaces with that they will communicate with each other to create a network. This survey paper aims at reportage an summary of WSNs technologies, main applications and standards, options in WSNs style, and evolution.

Simulation of Dam Break Using Modified Incompressible Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (MPM-I-SPH) PDF

Mahmodreza mollaeinia, satar ahmadian, hamzeh ebrahimnejadian

Generally, hydrodynamic problems can be analyzed using the three different views of Lagrange, Euler and a combination of Lagrange and Euler views. Choosing any of these methods depends on the nature of the problem and its characteristics. Using the existing numerical methods, which are based on network production, for the analysis of such problems can be time consuming and problematic, also numerical propagation error in Euler's methods which may arise through discretization of transfer terms in Navier-Stokes equations, could have a negative impact on the accuracy of results. Considering these problems, it seems that only Lagrangian numerical methods without grid are suitable for the analysis of hydrodynamic problems. This study aims at simulation of dam break using MPM-I-SPH. This approach has been primarily based on integral interpolation theory. In this method, various fluid parameters such as density, velocity and pressure are specified, and the value of a dependent variable is calculated by summing over neighboring particles. Differential equations can be converted to integral equations using an interpolation function. In this paper, the governing equations for free surface flows are described based on the Lagrangian SPH method . Gradient and Laplacian terms modeling, execution of boundary conditions and the predictor - corrector standard method for the solution of dam break equations were presented The good accordance between modeling results and experimental results proved the capability of the resultant numerical model for simulation of complex phenomena.

Analysis of Maturity Information Security Governance Index By "KAMI" PDF

Asrani Kasiran, Sepuluh Nopember

Information Systems Administration (SIAK) is a public service system that supports the process of population administration, proper management is needed to support the improvement of the quality of public services in order te rwujud good governance. It is necessary to evaluate and measure the maturity of information security preparedness at the Department of Population and Civil Registration. KAMI Index is an evaluation tool for analyzing the level of readiness or maturity of information security in government agencies. Evaluation of the various areas of the target application of information security governance with the scope of the discussion that me me nuhi standard ISO / IEC 27001:2009.

A Performance Criteria for parallel Computation on basis of block size using CUDA Architecture PDF

Ashis Kumar Dash

GPU based on CUDA Architecture developed by NVIDIA is a high performance computing device. Multiplication of matrices of large order can be computed in few seconds using GPU based on CUDA Architecture. A modern GPU consists of 16 highly threaded streaming multiprocessors (SMs). GPU named Fermi consists of 32 SMs. These are computing intensive devices. GPUs have been found to be the best platform for massive data parallelism. CUDA architecture is based on the heterogeneous platform comprising of both CPU and GPU that offers enormous potential to solve complex harder problems with high speed. In most applications the sequential part of a program is executed using CPU and numeric intensive part on GPU. But mere execution of numeric intensive part on GPU will not increase the performance of the computation. Since GPU consists of highly threaded multiprocessors, threads must be well organised into Grids and Grid into blocks to maximize performance of parallel computation, depending upon architecture of the GPU. In this paper an organization of threads of a particular GPU is discussed and block size is determined to maximize the performance of parallel computation through matrix multiplication.

A Details Study of Data Transformation for Privacy Preserving in Data Mining PDF

Syed Md. Tarique Ahmad, Shameemul Haque, SM Faizanut Tauhid

The field of privacy has seen rapid advances in recent years because of the increases in the ability to store data. In particular, recent advances in the datamining field have lead to increased concerns about privacy. While the topic of privacy has been traditionally studied in the context of cryptography and informationhiding, recent emphasis on data mining has lead to renewed interest in the field. The problem of privacy-preserving data mining has become more important in recent years because of the increasing ability to store personal data about users, and the increasing sophistication of data mining algorithms to leverage this information. In this paper, we study the previos work regarding Privacy Preserving Data Mining.

Cybercrime and limits of Internet user PDF

Ankit Dongre

Cybercrime is emerging as a serious threat. Worldwide governments, police departments and intelligence units have started to react. Initiatives to curb cross border cyber threats are taking shape. Indian police has initiated special cyber cells across the country and have started educating the personnel. This paper is an attempt to provide a glimpse on cybercrime in India. This paper is based on various reports from news media, news portal and other web based survey reports etc.

Incompressible Viscoelastic Flow of a Generalised Second Grade Fluid in a Porous Medium between Two Infinite Parallel Plates PDF

Dhiman Bose, Uma Basu

The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid of generalized second grade type between two infinite parallel plates embedded in a porous medium has been studied here. An analytical solution for the velocity field has been obtained utilizing integral transforms technique in series form in terms of Mittage-Leffler function. The affect of fractional calculus and porosity parameters on the velocity field have been illustrated graphically. The two limiting cases have been discussed as the results of the velocity field of the generalized second grade fluid.

Optical and Mechanical Properties of PVA Films using Spectrophotometry & XRD Techniques PDF

Dr. Muhammad Attique Khan Shahid, Arfa Mubashir, Madeeha Mubashir

Polyvinyl-alcohol based reactive red 195-A films (PVA-R) were irradiated by Cs137 ?-source in the range of 200 Gy-105 Gy. The effects of gamma irradiation on optical and mechanical properties of PVA-R were studied using spectrophotometry and x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to check its feasibility in radiation processing. The found values of the ?max and the molar extinction coefficient of the dye were 520 nm and 48 Lgm-1mm-1 respectively. Parameters such as effect of dye concentration and pH values, Electrical Conductivity, % decoloration, Strain , % crystallinity, crystallinity Index (C.I.) and crystallite size (d) have been selected for the dosimetric and mechanical strength evaluation. Linearity between specific absorbance and absorbed dose showed that acidic samples of PVA-R films can be better chemical dosimeter as compared to alkaline ones in dose range of 200 Gy-10 kGy. At high dose i.e., 100 kGy of gamma irradiation, change in mechanical strength was found due to decrease in crystallinity, crystallite size and increase in strain values.

Simple Discussion on Stepper Motors for the Development of Electronic Device PDF

Tanu Shree Roy, Humayun Kabir, Md A. Mannan Chowdhury

This paper is designed and developed to have the general as well as basic knowledge about the modern electronic device named ‘Stepper motor’. A step motor can be viewed as a synchronous AC motor with the number of poles (on both rotor and stator) increased, taking care that they have no common denominator. Additionally, we have discussed about its characteristics, classification, operation, advantages and electric magnetic effects.

A Common Fixed Point Theorem under A Contractive Condition of Integral Type PDF

Rakesh Kumar, Arvind Gupta

In this paper, we study for some of the fixed point of mapping for a self map on a metric space under a contractive of integral type.

Thermal Analysis of Cement Paste Partially Replaced With Neem Seed Husk Ash PDF

Nuruddeen Muhammad Musa

Chemical changes that occurred during cement hydration at microstructure level can be identified using thermal analysis method. Calcium hydroxide (CH) is one of the major hydration products that determine both the hydration characteristics and the degree of hydration of a given cement paste. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods were carried out on cement pastes partially replaced with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% Neem seed husk ash. The chemical changes at various stages were identified, while the Calcium hydroxide (CH) contents were calculated for each sample. The results show that the CH contents increases with increase in Neem seed husk ash replacements, and it is deduced that Neem seed husk ash is not acting as a pozzalana but rather as filler.

Prospects of energy resources and analysis of hybrid energy at Bhola island, Bangladesh: A realistic way to alleviate energy demand PDF

Rashed Al Amin

Power is one of the most important factors for a developing country like Bangladesh. Human lives are closely bonded with electrical power. Like the rest of the countries of the world, the demand for power is increasing day by day in our country. The rapid increase of gap between demand and power supply has created power crisis in Bangladesh. This paper focuses on the fact that how proper district based investigation on the resources and its proper utilization can help to give an easy realistic solution on the way of sustainable energy security of Bangladesh. To make the renewable power system more stable and reliable a Hybrid Power System is introduced by interconnecting both conventional power sources and non-conventional power sources to increase optimized source of energy.

eXtreme Software Development (XSoft) PDF

E. Karunakaran, P.Radhakrishnan

The management of software cost, development effort and project planning are the key aspects of software development. Throughout the sixty-odd years of software development, the industry has gone at least four generations of programming languages and three major development paradigms. Still the total ability to move consistently from idea to product is yet to be achieved. In fact, recent studies document that the failure rate for software development has risen almost to 50 percent. There is no magic in managing software development successfully, but a number of issues related to software development make it unique. The basic problem of software development is risky. Some example of risk is error in estimation, schedule slips, project cancelled after numerous slips, high defect rate, system goes sour, business misunderstanding, false feature rich, staff turnover. XSoft addresses the risks mentioned above.. XSoft is a new methodology to manage software development successfully has been evolved and it is derived from Extreme Programming and COSMIC-Full Function Point and named as EXtreme Software Development (XSoft). XSoft covers the reasoning behind the XP process. Based on the experience gained on the original XP project, this paper describes what makes XSoft work, day to day and month to month from estimation to release. Successful software development is a team effort – not just the development team but the larger team consisting of customers, management and developers. XSoft is a simple process that brings these people together and helps them to succeed together. XSoft facilitates the needs of customers with the abilities of programmers and steering (managing the project to success). A complete case study gives the idea of developing software by XSoft methodology. A XSoft tool is developed to manage the XSoft projects.

Modified Slots Loaded with Four E Shaped Patch Antenna for Multiband Application PDF

Razin Ahmed, Mohammad Tareq, Dewan Ashraful Alam

Wireless communication has been growing exponentially over the last decade, where multimedia application, satellite and radar communication have developing with it, as well as demand for multitask features in same device has drawn attention to the consumers. Integration of Microstrip Patch Antenna in wireless equipments helps to fulfill requirement due to its miniature dimension, robustness and inexpensive attributes. In this paper, a modified slots loaded with E shaped patch antenna with dielectric substrate layer on the top has been illustrated. The proposed antenna has the capability to operate in eight different multiple frequencies having single radiator. The antenna has been design on the top of the dielectric substrate of permittivity 4.3 and thickness of 1.6mm. The proposed antenna resonates at 5.54 GHz, 6.51 GHz, 7.75 GHz, 8.15 GHz, 10.49 GHz, 11.98 GHz, 12.96 GHz and 16.11 GHz with impedance bandwidth of 44.51 MHz, 33.28 MHz, 330 MHz, 102 MHz, 1.101 GHz, 483 MHz and 4.532 respectively that covers C, X and Ku band. The design scheme and simulation results of proposed antenna are presented.

Environmental Science Federated Cloud Platform in the BSEC Region PDF

H. Astsatryan, A. Hayrapetyan, W. Narsisian, V. Sahakyan, Yu. Shoukourian, A. Stanciu and G. Neagu

Various types of research infrastructures available in the region of Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) make it possible to handle large data sets and provide significant computational resources. The environmental science community has a vital role in the region by exploiting the available computational and storage resources using several digital models, special data infrastructures and tools. The main aim of the article is not only to present the extended federated cloud platform for target user communities, but also to introduce the environmental science potential and geoprocessing facilities that may benefit from the suggested platform.

Simulation for remotely detecting Asthma attack using Gaming console-Kinect PDF

Yogesh Chauhan, Shivam Patel

The main aim of this research paper is to explore the use of a device which can perform the dual function of detecting an asthma attack without the intervention of any specialist for potential victim and also notify the emergency services. Attack can be tackled if it is detected in short time and appropriate measures are taken instantly. The research paper illustrates how a device called 'Kinect' can further be used to detect an asthma attack and the symptoms experienced along with it. It explains the steps of how this hardware could be programmed for the detection of attack. If an attack is recognized by the system an alarm is sounded and an alert sms is sent to relatives and emergency services. Using Skype a person round the victim can have a video conferencing with doctor and simultaneously take immediate action. Thus a person can be saved by programming this hardware for such medical safety purpose.

Design of an evaluation system and performance management of supply service: case study PDF

Naciri oumaima, Alami Ayoub, Herrou Brahim, El Hammoumi Mohammed.

The purchasing department is one of actors of supply chain who must be controlled because of its heavy weight on the performance of all business functions. This control requires a good implementation of measurement tools. In this context, we consider to measure the performance of service provision by indicators that inform policy with such a function in the supply chain. The methodology is to propose indicators based on the concept of Balanced Scorecard edges. Next, based on a questionnaire to collect the most useful indicators for the proper management of service provision within Moroccan companies.

Availability And Various Statistical Measures of Two Units Redundant System With Three Types of Failures Under Waiting Time To Repair With Common Cause Failures PDF


In this paper, the author has considered a transient system composed of two identical units in a standby mode, which can fail due to hardware and common cause failure. Initially, one unit is in operational mode and other is in standby mode. The operator unit may fail partially or totally. In case of total failure of first unit, standby unit becomes operational and system works with full efficiency.

Stochastic Behaviour of A Transit System Having Mixed Networks Under Head-of-line Repair Policy PDF


In this paper, the Author has considered a complex system consisting of two subsystem A and B connected in series. Subsystem A and B are connected in series. Subsystem A consists of N non-identical components in series, while subsystem B consists of four identical components in parallel redundancy..

Availability Analysis of A Two-unit Standby System With Delayed Replacement Under Imperfect Switching PDF


The author has considered a complex system composed of two identical units one operative and other in cold standby. Each of the units of the system has three modes viz., normal, degraded and total failure. The system fails when both units fail totally, and may also fail due to common cause failure. The time taken in replacement of a failed unit by a standby unit is a random variable. The switching device for standby unit is not perfect.

Seamless (Fully fashioned) clothing their Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications and Design Possibilities PDF

Sweety Jaggal, Puneet Garg, Dr. Anupum Kumar

Tthis paper represents a perspective view on seamless clothing, which is generally created in a single and continuous knitting process that eliminates the side seams of the garment gives more comfort and better fitting. There are some problems with seam. Seamless garments have more advantages. These are those garments does not have to cut and sewn.

Performance appraisal System of cooperative banks in pune region: Its implication to employee’s performance. PDF

Dr. Manisha Purohit

A performance appraisal is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual employee’s job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and organizational objectives. It is a vital tool to measure the frameworks set by any organization to its employees. It is utilized to track individual contribution and performance against organizational goals and to identify individual strengths and opportunities for future improvements and assessed whether organizational goals are achieved or serves as basis for the bank’s future planning and development. This study examined the status of the performance appraisal system of cooperative banks and its implication to employee’s performance.

Estimation of the Reliability Function for Four-Parameter Exponentiated Generalized Lomax distribution PDF

Anupam Pathak and Ajit Chaturvedi

The four-parameter exponentiated generalized Lomax distribution has been introduced. The uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimation methods are the way to estimate the parameters of the distribution. In this study we explore and compare the performance of the uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators of the reliability function R(t)=P(X>t) and P=P(X>Y) for the four-parameter exponentiated generalized Lomax distribution. Approach: A new technique of obtaining these parametric functions is introduced in which major role is played by the powers of the parameter(s) and the functional forms of the parametric functions to be estimated are not needed. We explore the performance of these estimators numerically under varying conditions.

Heat and Mass Transfer in Free Convective MHD Flow through a Porous Medium in the Presence of Radiation, Chemical reaction and Hall current with Periodic Suction PDF

Suresh Rana

In this paper the effect of hall current, chemical reaction, radiation on a free convective MHD flow bounded by an infinite porous flat plate with variable suction under the influence of uniform magnetic field, which is applied normal to the surface , is studied . The flow becomes three-dimensional because of the variation of suction velocity. The problem is solved analytically and expressions for velocity, temperature, concentration, rate of heat transfer, stress component and Sherwood number have been obtained. The effect of permeability, magnetic number ,hall parameter , radiation parameter ,Grashof number ,modified Grashof number ,chemical reaction on velocity ,temperature ,stress component and heat transfer are obtained and shown respectively with the help of figures and tables and are discussed in detail.

Free Convection Effects On The Oscillatory Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of A Visco-elastic Fluid Past An Infinite Vertical Porous Plate With Constant Suction And Heat Dissipation PDF

A.P. Mishra, G.S. Roy, S. Biswal, B.K. Patra, S.S.S. Mishra and A.Mishra

This paper deals with free convection effects on the oscillatory magnetohydrodynamic flow of a visco-elastic fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate with constant suction and heat dissipation. The problem is formulated developing equation of continuity, equation of momentum and equation of energy constant suction and dissipation have been taken into account. Above equations have been solved with the help of small parameter regular perturbation technique pertaining to the allowed boundary conditions. It is observed that the strength of the external magnetic field reduces the mean velocity of flow like the elastic parameter (Rc).

Hall Effects On Hydromagnetic Convective Flow Through A Rotating Porous Channel With Heat And Mass Trasnfer PDF

S.S.S. Mishra, G.S. Ray, A.P. Mishra, N. Dash and A. Mishra

This paper deals with the effects of Hall current on the combined free and forced convection flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid between two horizontal perfectly conducting plates rotating with an uniform angular velocity about an axis normal to their plane under the action of a uniform transverse magnetic field applied parallel to the axis of rotation. After formulation of the problem, solutions of the equations of motion, energy and concentration are obtained. With the help of graphs and tables drawn through numerical computation, the flow behaviour including heat and mass transfer has been studied. It is observed that the increase in Hall parameter (m) increases the skin-friction (?1) at the lower plate of the channel and decreases the skin-friction (?2) at the upper plate of the channel.

Heat And Mass Transfer In The Mhd Flow of A Visco-elstic Fluid In A Rotating Porous Channel With Radiative Heat And Chemical Reaction PDF

S.S.S. Mishra, P. Paikaray, N. Dash, G.S. Ray, A.Mishra and A.P. Mishra

This paper deals with heat and mass transfer in the MHD of a visco-elastic fluid in a rotating porous channel with radiative heat and chemical reaction. The problem has been formulated with the physical conditions involved, subjected to the adequate boundary conditions. Walters’ fluid model has been used to develop the equation of motion and the constitute equations of motion, energy and concentration have been solved with the help of complex function. Expressions for velocity, temperature and concentration are arrived at. Flow characteristics are known through graphs and tables drawn by numerical computation varying the values of fluid parameters. It is observed that the increase in radiation parameter decreases the secondary flow velocity and similar result is obtained in case of external magnetic field strength.

Magnetohydrodynamic Non-newtonian Flow And Heat Transfer In A Rotating Channel PDF

S.S.S. Mishra, P.K. Mishra, P. Paikaray, G.S. Ray, A.Mishra, A.P.Mishra

This paper deals with hydromagnetic non-Newtonian flow and heat transfer in a rotating channel. Constitutive equations of momentum, energy and continuity are framed. These equations are solved with the involved boundary conditions. Graphs and tables are drawn after numerical and computational analysis of the expressions of velocity and temperature of the fluid with the variation of fluid parameters. It is observed that the rotation parameter K2 influences the flow characteristics appreciably.

Virtualization security in Data Centres & cloud PDF

Prof Sarita Dhawale.

In the past decade, with the unprecedented growth in tech companies and advances in cloud computing, it has become increasingly common for companies to incorporate virtualization in their data centers to fully utilize their hardware resources. As a result, virtualization and virtualization security have gone through major transforms in the recent years. Virtualization and its unique architecture have many characteristics and advantages over traditional non-virtualized machines. However, these new characteristics create new vulnerabilities and possible attacks on a virtualized system. In addition, there are new challenges due to the infrastructure of virtualization. Luckily, solutions to the vulnerabilities have been developed or are in the process of being developed. Most of the solutions target either the virtualization architecture itself or the infrastructure. Some virtualization security companies have already utilized many of the solution concepts into their products to combat the vulnerabilities that are present.

Oscillatory Hydromagnetic Free Convective Flow of A Visco-elastic Fluid Past An Infinite Vertical Porous Flat Plate With Hall Effect PDF

A.P. Mishra, G.S. Roy and S.Biswal, S.S.S. Mishra and A.Mishra

Hall effect on Oscillatory hydromagentic free convective flow of a visco-elastic fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate has been studied with numerical and computational analysis. The constitutive equations of continuity, velocity components and temperature of the visco-elastic fluid under consideration are obtained in Cartesian co-ordinates pertaining to the physical situations of the problem. These equations have been solved by using complex variable technique. Expressions for velocity, temperature, shear stress and the rate of heat transfer are obtained. Velocity and temperature profiles are shown in graphs where as the values of the skin-friction and the Nusselt number are entered in tables for variour values of the fluid parameters Rc, m, G, Pr and ?. It is observed that the Hartmann number, Hall parameter, Grashof number, Prandtl number, Elastic parameter and the frequency parameter influence the flow field to a great extent. Temperature of the field is measurably affected by the heat absorbing sink. The permeability parameter produces a reverse effect as regards to that of the magnetic parameter.

Novel K-Means Clustering Approach for Compressing Hyperspectral Image PDF

Nutan Malekar, Dr.R.R.Sedamkar

The hyperspectral imagery can be very large, with a single image potentially occupying hundreds of megabytes making acquisition, storage and transmission increasing complexity. This paper is proposed to compress the hyperspectral image by using k-means clustering. The compression ratio is improved by using k-means clustering approach by clustering pixels into classes based on pixel spectral similarity with other class members. Reconstruction quality is measured with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) in decibels, peak signal to noise ratio(PSNR), mean-square error (MSE) and compression ratio(CR).The performance of the proposed approach is compared with PCA and DWT. Experimental result demonstrates that Novel k-means provide 90% compression ratio of the original image.

Effect of Nutrient Management on Soil Availability, Plant Content and Uptake of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium under Rice Cultivation in Black Soils of Kerala PDF

Danish Tamuly, B. H. Choudhury and Betty Bastin

A field experiment was conducted during 2012 to find the effect of nutrient management on availability and plant content at critical growth stages as well as uptake of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium under rice cultivation in the black soils of Kerala. Higher available N (335.55 kg ha-1), total P (0.18%) and uptake of P (26.91 kg ha-1) and K (142.69 kg ha-1) was found with the application of treatment T11 (STCR+ZnSO4+FYM) as compared to control. Higher N uptake (149.40 kg ha-1) was found with application of T7 (farmers practice +ZnSO4). Total dry matter yield was found to be highest in T2 (farmers practice) followed by T9 (STL+ZnSO4) which was 6688.54 and 6427.35 kg. Application of ZnSO4 reduced the yield. Application of water soluble phosphorous is recommended for the black soils of Kerala.

Experimental Study And Analysis of Harmonics Generation In Uncontrolled And Controlled Rectifier Converters PDF

Aslam P. Memon, Ahsan Zafar, M. Usman Keerio, Asif Ali. A

Experimental studies of power converters rectifiers, their performance with different loads and their analysis is included in this research. These results are laboratory based in which controlled and uncontrolled rectification (FW, 1-? & 3-?) are observed with different loads (R, R-L) with their output rectified waveforms. Software models are developed, bases on the attained parameters in order to compare their precision with laboratory models and the final harmonics and total harmonic distortion produced by the power rectifier converters due to non linear loads are concluded.

Structural, Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Sr1-XZnXTiO3(x=0.5) Ceramics PDF

K.Chandra Babu Naidu, T.Sofisarmash, T.Subbarao

The present study deals with structural, morphological, dielectric and electrical properties of Zinc doped SrTiO3 powder particles which have been prepared via conventional solid-state route method. These were ball milled for 8 hr and furthermore calcined at 10500C for 8hrs and sintered at 12500C for 2hrs.The dielectric constant (K), dielectric loss (tand) and thermoelectric powers (S) were computed. The obtained results using HIOKI 3532-50 LCR HiTESTER showed that the sample exhibited high dielectric constant of 246.6 at RT (100 Hz) and low loss of 0.50195 at RT (10 kHz).The samples were characterized using XRD, SEM,FTIR, EDAX and TEP for structural, micro structural, functional group, elemental and thermoelectric power analysis respectively.

Credit Card Fraud Detection Using Hidden Markov Model PDF

Jinal C. Thosani, Prof. Chetashri Bhadane, Harsh M. Avlani, Zalak H. Parekh

Due to a rapid advancement in the electronic commerce technology, the use of credit cards has dramatically increased. As Credit card becomes the most popular mode of payment for both online as well as regular purchase cases of fraud associated with it are also raising. In this paper, we model the sequence of operations in credit card transaction processing using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and show how it can be used for the detection of frauds. If an Incoming credit card transaction is not accepted by the trained HMM with sufficiently high probability, it is considered to be fraudulent. At the same time, we try to ensure that genuine transactions are not rejected.

Approximate Measurement of Brachial Artery (BA) Diameter with Response to Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD) Through Image Analysis Method from MATLAB Computation PDF

Zabariah Zakaria, Hisham Mohamad Desa, Siti Afifah Mohshim, Naszariah Mohd Noor

The analysis for the trend of change for diameter of the brachial artery (BA) during baseline (normal relax) condition and flow mediated dilation (FMD) response by using MATLAB software. Data and image (using ultrasonography technique) of BA diameter are taken from three healthy subjects. Results of the analysis reveal that after the release of blood flow blockage the trend for BA diameter change is rapid increase followed by gradual decrease due to FMD reactive response. The trend of BA diameter change as measured by the sonographer is more variable and the pattern of reactive hyperaemia response is less obvious when compared to the results from MATLAB computation. This shows that computation method (using MATLAB algorithm) produces more smooth BA diameter change and obvious reactive response when compared to the measurement by the sonographer indicating that MATLAB computation produces better accuracy than manual estimation by the sonographer. The main objective to employ and experience the learning process of performing essential image processing has been achieved.

Study of Optimum Safe Hydraulic Design of Stepped Spillway by Physical Models PDF

Prof. Dr. Abdulhussan Al Shukur, Dr. Safaa hashim, Ishraq m. Alsharifi

This study based on laboratory experiments aims to determine the optimum slope and step height of stepped spillway models, by investigating the flow characteristics and energy dissipation rate on a twelve physical models on conventional step at angles (a= 30, 40, 45 and 550). Each angle was modelled with three different heights of steps (h=3, 6 and 10 cm) under different flow regimes (skimming, transition and nappe flow regime). The experiments were done and the hydraulic parameters of flow over the models were measured and energy dissipation was calculated. Results showed that, the optimal height of steps in skimming flow regime was (h=6cm, number of step N=5) at high discharge but with reduction the discharge and tendency toward the nappe flow regime, the optimal height shows decrease (h=3cm, N=10). Also the results of investigations indicated that, the optimum slopes of stepped spillway models at (h=3cm) was (a=300) at all runs, but with increasing the height of steps to (h=6cm & h=10cm), the optimum slope increasing to (a=450& 550) according to the ratio of critical depth to the height of steps(yc/h).

Voltage control improvement in electrical power distribution systems using solar resources PDF

Mohammad Karami, Mahmoud Zadehbagheri, Amin Hajizadeh

Usage of distributed generation systems is increasing. One advantage of using distributed generation system is the stability of distri-bution network voltage. A distributed generation resource is photovoltaic systems. Photovoltaic systems are used along with energy storage component and incident angel tracer to be able to inject a monotonic flow of power into network. In this paper, the photovoltaic system is used without the mentioned equipments. To evaluate the effect of this system upon network voltage, a sample 33-bus network is introduced and the photovoltaic system is used on bus 18. The results have shown that if the radiation angel tracer is not used, then voltage of the bus on which the photovoltaic system has been installed reaches 0.986 near noon. Before sunrise and after sunset, when there is no sun rays, this bus voltage reaches 0.948 indicating 4% of changes in the bus voltage.

A Survey on Design Approaches towards Quantum ALU using Reversible Logic Structures PDF

Vijay G. Roy, Prof. P. R. Indurkar, Prof. Mrs. D. M. Khatri

Reversible logic is emerging as a promising computing paradigm in the recent years due to its ability to reduce power dissipation. It has numerous applications in low power VLSI design such as quantum computing, quantum dot cellular automata, optical information processing, DNA computing and nanotechnology. Fundamental reversible gates used for reversible logic synthesis are Feynman Gate, Fredkin Gate, Toffoli Gate, Peres Gate etc. Many researchers have investigated the design of reversible logic elements with different approaches. In this paper, we describe the significant contributions by various researchers in their literature towards the design of reversible logic structures and arithmetic logical units. In these literatures, reversible circuits has been designed that do not lose information and reversible computation in a system can be performed only when the system comprises of reversible gates. The efficiency of such circuits can be realized by comparing them in terms of quantum cost, garbage outputs, constant inputs, quantum delay and complexity of gates.

Synthesis and Characterization of Ceria Zinc Aluminate Nano-powder for Thermal Barrier Application PDF

T.Lurthu Pushparaj, V.Janakiraman, Balamurugan

Presently zirconium based oxide materials are used for thermal barrier applications. The major difficulty associated with this compund is peak stabilization.

Finding an Alternative Method to Convert Ambient Acoustic Energy to Electricity PDF

Mihir Kumar

This paper presents an alternative mechanism to the conventional method of converting ambient acoustic energy to electric energy. The proposed mechanism produces alternate current by harnessing the energy of background sound waves which can be converted it into direct current to be used by an electronic device. The proposed mechanism can remove the limitation of portable devices having to carry primary cells and provides an environment-friendly manner of using acoustic waves for energy production. Furthermore, it reduces the intensity of ambient acoustic waves and hence reduces noise pollution.

Development of new system for earthquake data based on ARM PDF

Miss.N.S.Marne, Prof.Dr.M.S.Nagmode,Prof.R.D.Komati

Seismology would be a very different science without instruments. The real big advances in seismology is done from around 1900 and onwards and was mainly due to advancement in making more sensitive seismographs and so that earthquakes could be properly located. the importance accurate measurement of the true ground movement became evident for studying seismic wave attenuation, and the magnitude scale depends on calculation of the ground displacement from recorded seismogram. In the last ten years, recording devices based on digital technology have completely replaced their old analog System. The latter systems are costly, require specialized maintenance and are incompatible with computer data processing and analysis. The Seismometers which uses now a days are costly, require specialized maintenance and consumables, and are incompatible with computer data processing and analysis. They are no longer produced although being still in operation at many older seismological stations and network centers.hence we are developing new system which required less maintenance and easy to processing with computer that means compatible with data processing.

Effectiveness of UV-Technique for Water Disinfection in Dhaka City PDF

A.M. Redwan, S. Ghosh, M.M. Rahman

This study concentrates on evaluation of microbial quality of drinking water and relates it with the performance of various purification technique used at household level of Dhaka city and analyzes feasibility of UV disinfection technique within several socio-economic groups at various locations of Dhaka City .The study areas were selected based on the vulnerability to water borne diseases. Various income groups and institutions were considered to reflect impact of water quality and disinfection technology options on the economic and social aspects. In this study it was observed that most of the drinking water samples were biologically contaminated. This study also tried to identify the probable reasons behind the poor quality of drinking water at user’s end. GIS based maps were developed to identify most vulnerable locations of Dhaka City with respect to microbial water quality. This study observed that UV inactivated general bacteria, total coliform and E.coli in almost all cases and the performance of UV did not depend on locations or the income group using it .This study discusses people’s choice regarding management of UV-system and source of power for operating UV-system. Finally some strategies were suggested for implementation of UV-disinfection system in Dhaka City.

Improvement of load ability in distribution systems using distributed generation PDF

Nozar Rahimi, Mahmoud Zadehbagheri, Amin Hajizadeh

Traditional approach of delivering the electrical power to end-users was done in the way that after required power was generated, huge power plants increased the voltage up to a desirable level using transformers. Then, electrical power was delivered via long-distance lines to the destination. After one or two stages of voltage reduction, consumers received the delivered power. Recently, due to higher demand for electricity and higher output of generation units, small power companies are more likely to exploit the mentioned units in their distribution system and near the consumers. These small units attached to the distribution systems are called non-concentrated generation or distributed generation. Nowadays, distributed generation plays a vital role in electrical distribution systems. For instance, reliability improvement index, stability improvement and loss reduction are some good examples. One main aspect of using distributed generation is to displace these resources in distribution networks. Loadability in distribution systems and its promotion are some keys in power systems. Up to now, displacement of distributed generation resources in order to promote the loadability of distribution system has not been discussed. It is obvious that displacement and usage of distributed generation using genetic algorithm improvement maximize the loadability in distribution systems. After the considered flowchart has been extracted, this method is used in IEEE standard 12-bus network. Results have shown the efficiency of the mentioned algorithm.

New Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of Toda Lattice Equations By Using New Mathematical Model PDF

S.K.Elagan, M.Sayed, and Abd Allah Asad

In this paper, we introduce a new mathematical model to obtain new exact travelling wave solutions for Toda lattice equations, we obtain the solutions and the results are presented graphically. By comparison our new solutions by the other results we found that our solutions are new and not be found before, also these solutions take the form

An Evaluation of Production Factors Productivity in Agricultural Holdings Producing Mazafati Dates: A case study PDF

Ehsan Asadabadi, Alireza Abdpour

Always, lack of resources has been considered as the critical limitations in the manufacturing process. Hence, due to progress of science and new technologies in the world today, identification of productive resources and optimal use of them should be considered as the main factors to achieve success in economic development, so that political and economic prosperity of every nation depends on exploitation and use of all facilities, abilities, and material and spiritual talents of the society. Studying the status of agriculture in developing countries shows the fact that lack of sufficient knowledge regarding the production resources and low productivity and efficiency of agricultural production factors leads to fail the agricultural development goals in these countries. Therefore, paying attention to the issue of productivity and efficiency in the agricultural economy of developing countries such as Iran is very important. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the productivity of production factors in agricultural holdings producing Mazafati dates which has been conducted as a case study in Bam-Iran.The data has been gathered using questionnaire and personal visit. The sample has been selected using stratified random sampling including 149 orchardists of Bam Township in 2011.

Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Based On Space Vector Modulation with Adaptive Stator Flux Observer PDF

Sajida Shaik, Naseeb Khatoon

This paper describes a combination of direct torque control (DTC) and space vector modulation (SVM) for an adjustable speed sensorless induction motor (IM) drive. The motor drive is supplied by a two-level SVPWM inverter. The inverter reference voltage is obtained based on input-output feedback linearization control, using the IM model in the stator D–Q axes reference frame with stator current and flux vectors components as state variables. Moreover, a robust full-order adaptive stator flux observer is designed for a speed sensorless DTC-SVM system and a new speed-adaptive law is given. By designing the observer gain matrix based on state feedback H8 control theory, the stability and robustness of the observer systems is ensured. Finally, the effectiveness and validity of the proposed control approach is verified by simulation results.

Healthcare Spending and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A Granger Causality Approach PDF

Abdulkarim K. Alhowaish

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between healthcare spending and economic growth in Saudi Arabia and the causal direction between them over the period 1981-2013 using Granger Causality approach. The result from the Granger causality test shows that there is a unidirectional causal relationship running from economic growth to healthcare spending. Economic growth positively Granger cause healthcare spending growth at one percent significant level while healthcare has an insignificant effect on Saudi economic growth. Economic growth as measured by GDP is strongly exogenous and whenever a shock occurs in the system (Saudi economy), healthcare spending must be reduced to maintain the long run relationship. In order to sustain Saudi healthcare system, Saudi health policy makers needs to formulate a long term healthcare policy that de-linking or insulate healthcare spending from current oil-revenue dependency.

Reclamation of Heavy metal Contaminated kaolinitic soil by OPC-FA Immobilization PDF

Aneke Ikechukwu Frank, Agbenyeku Emem-Obong Emmanuel

The reclamation of contaminated soils from domestic or industrial waste have been found to be cost demanding and involves further treatment requirements. The migration of potential contaminants from generated leachate is reduced by stabilization approaches involving the incorporation of cement-based hardeners. Samples of natural kaolinitic soil contaminated by heavy metals from landfill domestic waste and stabilized by the addition of commercially available cement blended Fly ash (FA) in comparison to plain Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in varying proportions were tested. The influence of immobilization of the kaolinitic soil on the density, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the leachability of heavy metals were investigated. There was clear indication that the use of blended OPC-FA as hardeners reduced the density and UCS of the samples and was more efficient in the reduction of the leachability of heavy metals contaminated kaolinitic soils than plain OPC.

Monitoring and Prediction of Urban Growth Using GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Dohuk City Kurdistan Region of Iraq PDF

Hussein D. Mohammed, Muhsin A. Ali

GIS, Remote Sensing Techniques and Information Technology are today used extensively for managing , controlling and predicting the rapidly growing urbanization of large cities, towns and villages. Urban growth is the expansion of towns and cities with respect to the increase of the size of a built-up area. Urban growth mainly depends upon the city requirement, facilities available and industrialization. These causes migration of people from rural to the urban areas, putting immense pressure on infrastructure, natural resources and lead to formation of slums or uncontrolled urban expansions. Urban growth areas increasingly encroach on the surrounding rural areas causing enormous pressure and dense on the limited scale of infrastructure, very often leading to the unplanned and unsustainable development. Urban growth is a recent phenomenon in Kurdistan Region of Iraq, as result of regional development plans that started during the end of 90th of the 20th century. The urban growth made in the study area has been occurred as a result of the stability of the security situation and the growth of the economic situation in the region.

Big Data: Intelligent Scaling of Query Service PDF

HemaMalini B. H, Dr. L. Suresh. Dr. Radhika K. R

Cloud is a good concept of using the existing resources efficiently, but still there is lot of room for improving the efficiency. The present work will be focused on Amazon web service namely EMR service. Today the user has to pay for 1 hour even he/ she uses the service for just 20 minutes. Similarly, if the user uses the service for one hour and ten minutes, he pays for two hours. A company who does extensive data mining, running 1000 instances of data nodes, running couple of thousand jobs for a week, will be paying a huge sum of money. The proposed tool or framework will help to reuse the existing clusters, without shutting down; saving bootstrap time & making sure the jobs are queued properly for execution.

Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) synthesis for removal of Chromium (VI) from waste water PDF

Adeleh Aftabtalab, Hamed Sadabadi, CH. Shilpa Chakra, K. Venkateswara Rao, SarahShaker, Eubert Privilege Mahofa

In this study adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) investigated by high adsorption iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticle under experimental conditions of the initial concentration and pH of chromium hexavalent by Fe3O4 nanoparticles from waste water. Magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by UV- Visible spectroscopy, XRD, EDAX, SEM and TEM. The adsorption efficiency was explained in terms of Freundlich equation. In this study we conclude that magnetite (Fe3O4) have potential in removal of chromium hexavalent from waste water.


Abd El-moneim M. Fouda

The conventional Direct sequence DS, and the frequency hopping FH are the common spread spectrum methodologies. The new trend in the spread spectrum communication systems is to use the combined hybrid techniques. The use of a hybrid systems attempt to capitalize upon the advantages of a particular method while avoiding the disadvantages. The paper presents general closed form of the system bit error rate BER assuming noncoherent hybrid DS/SFH employing M-ary frequency shift keying MFSK over Rician fading channel. Moreover; the effect of partial band jamming PBJ on the system performance will be analyzed. Two performance measures are considered; the average BER and system capacity (number of users utilize the system) against SNR for the hybrid DS/SFH is presented. The hybrid DS/SFH performance analysis will be investigated with and without BPJ effect. Moreover; the effect of the rice factor in the system performance will be investigated.

Maximizing Achievable Rate Of Cognitive Networks By Uncoordinated Beamforming PDF

Abhilasha Sharma

One of the recent trends in wireless communication are cognitive networks. But, these types of networks do have some drawbacks, main one is the interference caused by the cognitive user to the primary user or primary user to the cognitive user. This drawback will totally affect the performance of the entire system, to overcome from these kinds of problems we can use a technique called beam forming vector design at both sides i.e, at the receiver and the transmitter end. The beam forming vectors are designed such that the interference caused by the cognitive transmitter to the primary receiver and the interference caused by the primary transmitter to the cognitive receiver is completely nullified while maximizing the rate of both the primary and secondary links. The proposed algorithms also maximize the achievable rates of both links through uncoordinated beam forming. With beam forming the channel knowledge is exploited at the transmitter to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver by transmitting in the direction of the eigenvector corresponding to the largest Eigen value of the channel.



Zanthoxylum alatum is the species commonly known as” tumbru” in masanjore hills in Jharkhand. It is prickly dioeciously evergreen tree or shrub with dense foliage mainly found in tropical region. It grows widely in the hilly tracks.

A study on architectural spaces from psychological perspective emphasizing the autism rehabilitation clinic PDF

Navid mirzakhani araghi, hossein soltanzadeh

With regard to the increase of autism among children, it is possible to save autistic children via recognizing the required spaces and therapeutic centers for the autistic children. Unfortunately, there are not such places in Iran. The purpose of making such centers is to support the social services development for autism and support families of the autistic children. It also intends to gather data related to the required space for designing and making proper clinics for autism n the world. In order to study autistic children’s behavioral change at the time of facing architectural spaces, 19 parents of the autistic children were investigated via the field study. In this study, a questionnaire was designed based on the qualitative study of parents’ observation on children with the mild and severe autism spectrum and Asperger syndrome. The questionnaire was designed in relation with service, therapeutic, and educational spaces, moreover, the research had a comparative and descriptive-analytical nature. According to the research and field observations, using light colors, and avoiding colors that stimulates children and also disturb their concentration are recommended. A range of colors or a dark room could be used to enhance autistic children’s concentration and decrease their stress. It plays a positive role in their therapeutic process. Moreover, the architectures should provide flexible spaces with regard to children’s needs in order to help the autistic children and their parents.

Effect of the Hollow Cathode Geometry on Nitrogen Glow Discharge Plasma PDF

Shamoo Kh. Al-Hakary, Shreen Muhamad, Luqman MS. Dosky

An experimental study of DC hollow cathode glow discharge plasma at different nitrogen pressures ranged from (0.015 to 0.75Torr) has been proposed.Investigated was carried out under the influence of the hollow cathode geometry such as diameter and depth of hollow cathode at fixed discharge current (Id=1.88 mA). Langmuir double probe method has been used to measure and calculate the plasma parameters as well as a computer MATLAB program is performed for this purpose. The results shows that the electron temperature increased with the increasing both inter-cathode distance and depth of hollow cathode for the low range of pressure (0.015, 0.038, 0.06) torr, while this behavior is inversed in high pressure ranges (0.15, 0.375, 0.6, 0.75) torr, due to the hollow cathode effect. Electron density tends to increase by decreasing hollow cathode geometry. On the other hand both floating and plasma potential increases with the increasing geometrical factor. It's observed that the results have satisfactory agreement with previous work reported in this field of hollow cathode.

Node Level ANN technique for Real Time Power System State estimation PDF

H Nagaraja Udupa, Dr.(Prof.) R. Kamath, Ms. Minal, Ms. Thoshi Mishra

The growth of modern power system is phenomenal. The increasing demand for quality energy for various purposes, initiated both business and technological transformation. Today’s modern hybrid power system is on the lookout of complete SCADA implementation for better, reliable, efficient energy system. The major challenging task here is to solve complicated, non-linear system equations of large power system in very short interval of time. Because the control and security of the power system is being the highest priority and the real time solutions should yield results in mili-second to multi seconds for appropriate implementation. In any SCADA based Energy management system (EMS), real time state estimation is very essential. The conventional state estimation solutions (like NR method) are being slow, many researchers have worked on predictive solutions like AI, tracking, ANN etc. However, the compromise in mathematical modeling for the sake of fast computing is really not acceptable looking at the importance of the power system.

Raspberry Pi and image processing based Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) PDF

Md. Maminul Islam, Md. Sharif Uddin Azad, Md. Asfaqul Alam, Nazmul Hassan

Electronic voting machine has already been developed and widely used in many developed countries. But most of them use Radio Frequency ID. In developing countries RFID for each person does not exist. And using RFID is still a costly solution. Some of the developing countries use image processing technique to detect citizens. But the problem is not solved yet due to high price of host device (e.g. computer) to run. Implementation of image processed toll systems are only limited in some places. Keeping these problems in mind we have developed this project where raspberry pi will be used as host. This minicomputer has the ability of image processing and control complete voting machine system. A camera will be used to take picture of citizens national ID card and identify that this user is valid voter for that region. If the citizen is valid and also didn’t vote then the person will be allowed to submit his/her vote. Each voting machine is locked by finger print access module. As the user is identified his/her finger print will be sent to a specific machine for voting.each voting machine is networked with the central raspberry pi voting identification system.

Analysis of Housing Area with Sustainable Community Approach PDF

Andi Hildayanti, Nur Adyla Suriadi, Happy Ratna Santosa

In line with the city development, especially in meeting the needs of residential, public housing areas increasingly demanding healthy, safe and comfortable. To achieve the criteria of a healthy, safe and comfortable there needs to be some effort environmental friendly development. Not only the residential area of the environment itself, but also of building occupancy. A healthy environment can be realized from the community that participate in its implementation. So the purpose of this study was to determine the physical form and system of housing construction in the area in Surabaya with green development approach and the extent of community participation in achieving environmental friendly development. This research is a case study with the collection data methods of observation, interviews, and documentation. The results show that the building construction system has been good enough in practice. Most of the existing home form has been far different from its original form so that the community has shown the form of participation in creating environmental friendly buildings such as the procurement of building openings, the application of landscaped grounds, and components and eco-friendly products that have been used. Whereas in respect of public participation in the residential area are nearing a sustainable society but actively participate in managing the natural environment still needs to be improved. Therefore, it needs the support of a sustainable community that can help implement sustainable development. Residential neighborhood, healthy home, and sustainable communities can realize sustainable environmental friendly residential areas. The current development of environmentally sound development is being targeted today by the issue of global warming that has worldwide.

Passenger Bus - Seat modification to avoid accident damages and for comfort level PDF

Sriram Srinivasan, Prasanna S, Sambasivam S M

A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers.Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses. Bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same design appearing around the world. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, tourism etc.Buses generally run on internal combustion engine with diesel in it .The reason is that diesel can withstand heavy loads because of its high compression ratio.In addition cost of diesel is also less.But because of its high compression ratio and continuous detonation, the engine runs rough causing vibrations. The engine of the bus will generally be placed in the leading end without any proper casing and proper vibration dampers (generally viscous dampers).The seats in the bus are supported to the base by a pair of rigid fixed column (frame) which reduces the ease of movement of the passengers during turns and sudden braking. Lack of comfort of the passengers causes health difficulties and mental stresses for the individual and because of the rigid base, the load acts on the passenger causing body pain.

Design and Fabrication of a Single Slope Solar Still with Variable Collector Angle PDF

J. D. Obayemi, F. O. Anafi, S. T. Azeko, E. K. Arthur and D. Yiporo

This work presents the development of a flexible, efficient, robust and low cost single solar still. Experimental investigations were carried out on two single slope solar stills: a modified solar still with variable collector/inclination angle (still A), and a conventional solar still with rigid angle of collector/inclination (still B). The significance of the design is its ability to be able to optimally function properly by variation of the angle at which solar radiation is optimally incident on the system at different locations and time. Also, the experiment was carried out at latitude of 11º 20' in Samaru, Zaria – Nigeria, during an average period of solar radiation. Experimental results between the hours of 8.00 am and 5.00 pm for a period of 5 days were carefully obtained and analyzed. The results clearly show that distillate peak yield occurred between 2.00 pm and 3.00 pm while minimum yield was obtained between 8.00 am and 9.00 am during the period of experiment. It was observed that, still B had an average yield of 1.366 liter/day/m2 as compared to still A, (1.407 liter/day/m2). Furthermore, the results obtained for the two single slope solar stills were analyzed using a statistical model (a paired T-test). The outcomes clearly suggest that, there is no significant difference between the distillate of still A (efficiency of 42%) and still B (efficiency of 39%). Implications of the results from the design are discussed for the development of robust and dynamic single slope solar still systems with variable collector/inclination angle. This has the potential and capacity to produce distilled water for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes irrespective of the geographical location.

A Comparative Study of Factors Affecting Performance of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) Variant along with Distance Metrics for Face Recognition PDF

Er. Kirti Sachdeva, Dr. O.P.Vinocha

Face recognition based on local feature extraction approaches has gained a lot of attention in recent times. Among these approaches, local binary pattern (LBP) is one of the most useful face descriptor. LBP generates threshold binary codes for each image pixel which finally contribute to the feature set. The original LBP stores these binary codes in 256 bins corresponding to each gray scale value. It presents invariance towards monotonic gray scale illumination and computationally simpler approach. However, still the challenge remains in the selection of appropriate set of LBP features along with the precise classifier for recognition task. In this study, our focus is on some major factors which relates to the efficiency of the LBP based face recognition methods: 1) performance analysis of the original LBP (with 256 features) in comparison to uniform LBP (containing 59 features) 2) Include/Exclude non-uniform patterns from final LBP feature set 3) division of face images into optimal sized patches 4) selection of appropriate distance metric. After thorough evaluation of above factors, we have located an effective combination of the LBP feature set and the similarity measure for different kinds of variations present in the face images. The extensive experiments are carried out on three standard face databases namely FERET, ORL and YALE.

Electro-Catalytic Activity of Nano-Sized Pt-Ni Bimetallic Alloy Particles Supported on Carbon for Methanol Electro-Oxidation PDF

Ajay Kumar Agrawal, J. Rangarajan

A series of Pt-Ni bi-metallic electro-catalysts supported on carbon (Pt-Ni/C) with varying content of Ni were synthesized by an organic precursor route. The metallic composition and crystal structure of these bi-metallic catalysts were determined by EDS and XRD. The size of the alloy particles and their distribution and appearance were examined by TEM. Methanol electro-oxidation activities of these catalysts were evaluated by preparing a porous gas diffusion electrode (PGDE) and performing cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M H2SO4 and 0.5 M H2SO4/1 M CH3OH medium. The specific activity, roughness factor and electrochemical surface area values obtained from CV analysis for Ni containing Pt electro-catalysts were more than Plain Pt electro-catalysts supported on carbon. The CV obtained in presence of methanol also showed that the Ni containing composition gives more predominant methanol oxidation peak than Pt alone electro-catalyst.

A Comparative Study of Fentanyl and Clonidine on Hemodynamic Response to Pneumoperitoneum in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy PDF

Ravi Prakash, Brij B. Kushwaha, Subodh Kumar

Aims - To compare the efficacy of clonidine and fentanyl for attenution of hemodynamic response to pneumoperitoneum. Method – Sixty patient of ASA grade I and II were divided into two groups: Group A: patients receiving 2 mcg/kg fentanyl, as premedication Group B: patients receiving 2 mcg/kg clonidine, as premedication Patients were given general anaesthesia and hemodynamic response to pneumoperitonium was noted and patients were monitored for postoperative analgesia and sedation. Data obtained were subjected to stastical analysis. Result -SBP in subjects of group B remains significantly lowered during the different phases of treatment as compared to group A (p<0.01) from at intubation to till end except 5 min after intubation. The mean DBP in subjects of group B remains lowered during different phases of treatment as compared to group A. HR in subjects of group B lowered significantly (p<0.01) from at after 5 min to till end as compared to group A.Pain in subjects of group B (4.60 ± 1.43) just after surgery was found to be significantly (p<0.01) lower as compared to group A (6.00 ± 1.03) while in other periods it did not differed significantly (p>0.05) between the two groups i.e. remains statistically the same.Just after surgery, the mean sedation in subjects of group B (3.50 ± 0.76) were comparatively high as compared to group A (1.40 ± 0.50).

Optimum placement of SVC in electrical power distribution systems using Genetic Algorithm PDF

Alizaman Zamani, Mahmoud Zadehbagheri, Amin Hajizadeh

Placement of static voltage compensators and bus compensators in order to enhance the voltage is a common and fundamental issue in the power field. Nowadays, electrical systems are one of the most advanced man-made systems in terms of size, technology and price. Therefore, economical usage and optimization are very important. Developing facilities and increasing network load lead to fragile systems such that there have been some obstacles in the field of power stability due to voltage instability worldwide. One fundamental component of static voltage compensators is bus capacitor which plays an important role in static voltage instability. System loss and voltage profile are very important in optimal resource design. Therefore, placement of the mentioned parts plays an important role in enhancing the voltage stability. In this article, genetic algorithm is used to enhance voltage. Stimulation results have shown that genetic algorithm is very useful.

An Integrated approach to mapping the concentration and pathway of leachate plumes beneath a dump site in South-western Nigeria. PDF

Adabanija, M. A. and Alabi, T.O.

An integrated approach involving Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), and Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) methods has been used to map the concentration and pathway of leachates plumes beneath Laka dump site in Ogbomoso Southwestern Nigeria. In-situ analysis, specifically, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were also carried out on water samples collected from hand dug wells, bore holes and stream around the area. The objectives of the study were to describe the physical/hydrogeological conditions in relation to the extent of the zone of contaminated groundwater in the aquifer.

Alternative Outliers Detection Procedures In Linear Regression Analysis : A Comparative Study PDF

Moawad El-Fallah Abd El-Salam

A Common problem in linear regression analysis is outliers, which produces undesirable effects on the least squares estimates. Many widely used regression diagnostics procedures have been introduced to detect these outliers. However, such diagnostics, which are based on the least squares estimates, are not efficient and cannot detect correctly swamping and masking effects. In this paper, we attempt to investigate the robustness of some well known diagnostics tools, namely, Cook's distance, the Welsch-Kuh distance and the Hadi measure. The robust version of these diagnostics based on the Huber-M estimation have been proposed to identify the outliers. A simulation study is performed to compare the performance of the classical diagnostics with the proposed versions. The findings of this study indicate that, the proposed alternative versions seem to be reasonable well and should be considered as worthy robust alternative to the least squares method.

Research on Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Stainless Steel – An Overview PDF

D.Devakumar, D. B Jabaraj

Gas Tungsten Arc welding (GTAW) or Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) is an electric arc welding process, which produces an arc between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the work to be welded. TIG is used very commonly in areas, such as rail car manufacturing, automotive and chemical industries. Stainless steel is extensively used in industries as an important material, because of its excellent corrosion resistance.TIG welding is one of the welding processes, often used to weld similar and dissimilar stainless steel joints. In this paper, an attempt is made to review and consolidate the important research works done on GTAW of stainless steel in the past, by various researchers. It has been observed, that most of the works done, is on austenitic stainless steel, which is the most widely used type of stainless steel in the world. Major areas of research have been in characterization of weld, dissimilar metal welding, parameter optimization, process modeling, failure analysis and automation of TIG welding process. This paper is aimed at, to give a brief idea about the research works done in the past, on TIG welding of stainless steel by various researchers, by highlighting the important conclusions and results arrived at and thereby providing the right direction for fresh researchers for future research in this particular area.


Ms.Shaik.Haseena, Dr.Zahida Nasreen, Dr.Mohammed Siddique Ahmed Khan, Dr.N.V.S Choudhary, Dr. Ghouse M. Ali.

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world .It affects particularly women of reproductive age and constitutes a major health issue in many developing countries. The aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of Haemoglobin, serum iron, TIBC, serum ferritin in women of reproductive age group suffering from iron deficiency anaemia. There is significant difference in serum iron values among cases & controls with mean serum iron value of 18.6326± 6.05080 in cases & 69.0408±23.5248 in controls. There is significant difference in Hb values among cases & controls, with mean Hb value of 11.6184±0.9064,among controls & 6.544±1.5992 in cases. There is significant difference in TIBC values among cases & controls, with mean TIBC value of 447.245+31.3166 among cases & 340.7347 + 30.4451 in controls.There is significant difference in serum ferritin values among cases & controls, with mean serum ferritin value of 13.6747±38.2765 among cases & 61.4241 ± 56.4806 among controls.The normal physiologic iron losses among menstruating women make it inevitable for many women to develop anaemia if they do not receive supplemental iron. In developing countries, anaemia is often aggravated by repeated &and closely spaced pregnancies as well as by intestinal parasites. Well documented consequences of anaemia include diminished learning ability, reduced work capacity increase morbidity from infections and greater risk of death associated with pregnancy &child birth.Serum ferritin is the index of total body iron stores, whose levels predicts the events of iron deficiency anaemia & other infections .Serum ferritin level is decreased in iron deficiency anaemia where as it remains in normal range in some infections & sometimes it may be highly increased in the cases of chronic inflammatory disorders, infections, neoplastic disease & in chronic renal failure, there is a disproportionate increase in serum ferritin levels in relation to iron stores. TIBC is increased in(>420µg/dl) in iron deficiency but these values may fluctuate in a number of common clinical conditions and hence are less reliable indicators of iron stores than the serum ferritin. Serum iron is usually low (<50µg/dl).This in combination with serum ferritin, gives appropriate results of iron deficiency anaemia than single.


Chandaluri.Pragathi, G,Bal vijaykarthik, Afreen Sulthana,M.Prabhanjan, M.Umesh

This is a retrospective research study conducted on 800 case studies of various departments of private medical hospitals in Hyderabad and Mahabubnagar of which 260 cases were reported with food-drug interactions(FDI). The most commonly recorded FDI accordingly are categorised in conditions of infection(30.76%), followed by allergies(23.07%), which is preceded by arthritis,fever and pain accounting(21.15%), cardio-vascular disorders(17.30%) and the least was seen in asthma(7.69%). The given statistical data on research study can be useful in wide range of pharmacological, pharmacoepidemological studies. It is most common form of food-drug interactions occuring due to lack of knowledge and can be prevented by providing basic therapeutic patient counseling to improve the efficacy of treatment. Thus, it is the most common yet important role of a clinical pharmacist in the health-care system.

Angstrom Constants for Estimating Solar Radiation in Sokoto, North-Western, Nigeria. PDF

N. N. Gana, Jitendra K. Rai, and Musa Momoh

Detailed information about the availability of solar radiation on horizontal surface is essential for the optimum design and study of solar energy conversion system. For Sokoto (Latitude 13.00ºN, Longitude 5.25ºE and altitude 304 meters above sea level), the economical and efficient application of solar energy seems inevitable because of abundant sunshine available throughout the year. In this paper, a new set of constants for Angstrom-type correlation for first, second and third order, to estimate monthly average daily global solar radiation, has been obtained using global solar radiation and sunshine hours data for the period (1990-2005), capable of generating solar radiation at any given location and other surrounding towns of similar meteorological conditions. These results are then compared with other three models and the calculated global solar radiation data. The calculated global solar radiation for Sokoto (1990-2005), North-Western, Nigeria will enable the solar energy researchers to use the estimated data with confidence, because of its good agreement with the three applied models. Moreover, the maximum monthly average sunshine hours and calculated global solar radiation for Sokoto (1990-2005) on a horizontal surface are found to be 8.99 hours and 24.33MJ/m2/day respectively, and this occurred in the months of November and June. To test for the performance of statistical significance of the models, mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean percentage error (MPE) and t-test values were adopted, however, the MBE, RMSE and MPE gives a fairly good estimates while the results shows that at both confidence level of 95% and 99% for Sokoto, they are significant.

Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation for Kebbi, North-Western, Nigeria. PDF

N. N. Gana, Jitendra K. Rai, and Musa Momoh

Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable sources. It is environmentally friendly, plentiful and easy to utilize. Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising standard of living. A detailed and accurate knowledge of the solar radiation is essential for the optimum design and study of solar energy conversion system. The paper is to assess the applicability of solar energy utilization for Kebbi (latitude =12.47° N and longitude = 4.3ºE) for the period of fifteen years. The global and diffuse solar radiation was analyzed using the data obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for Kebbi (1990-2005). In general, measurements of the global solar radiation and sunshine hours data are utilised, but for many applications diffuse and direct fractions are also needed. The diffuse solar radiation was maxima during the months of July and August and as well as minima during the months of November, December and January. The result obtained shows the variation of Direct and Diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months. The percentage of diffuse solar radiation contribution to global solar radiation is low during winter when the sky remains bright and clear. Hence, the presence of direct solar radiation in February, March and April which are 30.96MJ/m²/day, 32.60MJ/m²/day and 31.87MJ/m²/day, will be very useful for utilizing it for solar concentrators, solar cookers and solar furnaces and other solar devices.

Evaluating Construction Management Techniques in perspective of International Law of the New Construction Technology PDF

Saleh Salehi Fereidouni, Seyed Mohsen Moghaddasi

At the international level, some rules have been determined and the present paper intends to study the rules in relation with assessing construction management technologies. Taking advantage of scientific methods and new technologies and materials are considered as one of the fundamental necessities to achieve qualitative development in the construction industry. Methods such as industrial construction lead to development of construction industry in many of the societies. Applying new technologies needs investigating technical, executive, and economic conditions of societies, as well as considering international law related to applying these methods and technologies.

Performance analysis of TCP in an IP network using fluid-flow models PDF

N.G.Goudru, B. P. Vijayakumar

There is a strong demand for Quality of Service (QoS) in the internet. One key element of QoS is traffic management during congestion. Congestion occurs when aggregate load exceeds the capacity on bottleneck link. In this paper, congestion is caused by heterogeneous traffic. A queue builds up in the router servicing the bottleneck link. We advocate RED (random early detection) as AQM (active queue management) policy to decrease the generated load when congestion detected and increase the load linearly in order to probe for available capacity when congestion subsides. The decrease and retransmission of packets due to drop persists decrease in TCP (transmission control protocol) performance. Large portion of the present work is to analyse and understanding of nature of CBR (constant bit rate) flows which are non-responsive to network traffic, on round trip time, TCP flows, packet losses, queue length. It is observed that CBR flows misuse cooperative nature of TCP flows. The unresponsiveness of CBR flows capture the bandwidth and make TCP starve without resources. The CBR flows benefit from their noncooperative behaviour and TCP flows suffer poor performance.

Steganography & tools used for Steganography PDF

Manisha Saini, Gaurav Saini

Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. Steganography is not only valid for images but it is valid for any digital media such as images, audio files, video files, and text files etc.

Component Retrieval Techniques-A Systematic Review PDF


With the development of the component technology and the expansion of component library, representing and retrieving components has become a major issue to reuse the components. Many papers have been published providing various techniques but none of the paper has given a systematic review of these techniques. This study discusses the current state of the reusability techniques for the retrieval of components. The result of the review is classified on the type of approach and the type of approaches to validate the approaches.

Automatic Segmentation of Kannada Speech Signal into Syllables and Sub-words PDF

Hemakumar G, Dr. Punitha P

This paper addresses the problem of Kannada speech segmentation. The designed algorithm automatically segments the continuous Kannada speech signal into syllables and sub-words using the dynamic threshold computation by the combination of short time energy and magnitude of signal. The proposed method first pre-processes the original Kannada speech signal then framing is done for every 20 millisecond with an overlapping of 6.5 millisecond. Secondly frames are passed through hamming window using the same size of frame. Thirdly voiced and unvoiced part is detected through computing dynamic threshold using short time energy and magnitude of signal. In this paper 20 unique sentences are used for experiment which can be used as commands to simple mobile sets. Each of these sentences was recorded for 10 times and segmentation testing is done for each signal and computed accuracy rate of segmentation. The automatic segmentation success rate of individually uttered of sentences in experiments is excellent and has reached accuracy rate of 96.69% and miss rate of about 3.31%. Computations are done using Mat lab.

Improving Customers Service at IKEA Using Six Sigma Methodology PDF

Adnan Miski

IKEA is an international home furnishing company with a goal of creating a better everyday life at affordable prices. However, in one of their international branches, IKEA has reported substantial revenue loss in 2011 attributed to numerous customer complaints.. We executed Six Sigma’s DMAIC methodology aimed at revamping the existing business process. SIPOC was used to define overall flow, Data Collection and KANO model for measuring and understanding customers’ discontent, Pareto Chart to identify the vital issues, Ishikawa Diagram to analyze the root causes, Affinity Diagrams for suggested improvements, and finally Control Charts to monitor the process implemented. The project successfully reduced the number of complaints from 333 to 43 per month.

Development of a Mobile Application Using the Lean Startup Methodology PDF

Adnan Miski

Knowing that 90% of startups fail, entrepreneurs often search for ways to reduce their risk and improve their chances of success. The lean startup methodology suggests a scientific way to start startups. After coming up with a good Idea, We decided to implement the lean startup methodology during the development of news service mobile application.

Acoustic Analysis of Female Voice during Menstruation cycle with reference to Assamese Language PDF

Mousmita Devi, Laba Thakuria, Purnendu Acharjee. Pran Hari Talukdar

Human voice is the medium through which one can communicate and share ideas and thoughts. It also provides a rich source of information about an object and its attributes such as body size, developmental stability and emotional state[4].Recently number of studies said that female voice characteristics changes across the menstrual cycle. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and provide information about the effects of the acoustic variations during a menstrual cycle. Besides, the paper also obtains certain statistical acoustic variables during the menstrual cycle like Mean Fundamental frequency, Jitter, Shimmer, Amplitude Variation, degree of voice break, Noise to Harmonic Ratio etc. The objective of this study was to examine if there is a change in vocal quality of female during different phases of menstruation cycle viz. menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, Luteal, and premenstrual when subject’s language is Assamese Language.

Different Models of Wind Speed Prediction; A Comprehensive Review PDF

S. M. Lawan, W. A. W. Z. Abidin, W. Y. Chai, A. Baharun and T. Masri

The energy crisis witnessed in the early seventies is a serious problem that had happened in the universe. Hence, induction of renewable energy into electrical power generation mix can serve as an alternative source to cater for the limited reserve of fossil fuels. Wind energy is promising and has emerged as one of the safest, cleanest and fastest growing renewable energy in the recent years. The bottleneck of this type of emission free energy is the variability, stochastic, unpredictable and complex nature of the wind speed. To harness the energy content in a wind efficiently, it’s of utmost importance to accurately predict wind speed and energy with minimum accepted errors for security and economics of wind power utilization. For this reason, it becomes necessary to appraise different types of models used in the wind energy forecast. This paper present review of available wind speeds and power prediction models and discuss their applications and current developments. Moreover, the survey also highlights an overview strength and weakness of these models.

Geophysical investigation of road failure the case of Opoji in Nigeria PDF

Ebhohimen Victor, Luke Mamah

Shallow geophysical investigation for road surface failure using 2D Wenner array electrical resistivity image profiling was conducted to produce models of the subsurface revealing horizontal and vertical geological discontinuities. Pseudo sections produced from electrical resistivity profiles show resist ivies of the substratum ranging from 273.94 ?-m -3566.7?-m in profile 1 to 1561.2 ?-m -4062.4 ?-m in profile 2 and 714.36?-m -3856.4?-m in profile 3 and 700.06?-m – 3994.65?-m in profile 4. An average of 2168.17?-m suggested a sedimentary environment while the low resistivity spectrum suggested areas of low permeability or clay intercalation. Geotechnically the high end of the resistivity spectra were attributed to competent zones. This result is in consonance with Weaver’s rip ability rating chart.

Cooperative Machine Learning For Intrusion Detection System PDF

Ravindra Bhosale, Sandip Mahajan, Dr. Parag Kulkarni

Firewall is employed for defense however they are doing not offer full protection. This ends up in implementation of intrusion detection and interference system. Intrusion detection system collects the knowledge from system event, system logs, or from network packets. Implementing intrusion detection system victimization single agent is easy however its simplicity ends up in degraded performance, as single agent might not ready to handle every event to supply correct result on time i.e. may not deliver the goods real time demand of the network. Also number of attacks and vulnerability areas are rising. This problem ends up in implementation of intrusion detection system using multi-agent approach wherever single agent works for particular operation. During this new projected multi-agent intrusion detection system the agent posses few data with him. Using influence diagram each agent generates the local decision and learns from the choice that updated in local information. Each agent sends his call to al l alternative agent. Victimization this as further call with native calls every agent tries to enhance his call capability.

Treatment of liquid waste by sorption of toxic metal (Cr) using one-step steam pyrolysis corn cobs activated carbon PDF

H. M. H. Gad, A. M. A. Hasan, M. A. Mahmoud, and T. F. Mohammaden

In the present study, a low-cost adsorbent is developed from the naturally and abundantly available biomass (corn cobs). The removal of Cr (VI) from synthetically prepared aqueous solutions and laboratories effluent of Nuclear Materials Au-thority was studied. The batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of type of the biomass and method of preparation, initial pH, contact time, temperature, adsorbent weight, and initial Cr(VI) concentration. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of Cr(VI) on steam pyrolyzed at 750 oC corn cobs activated carbon (CC-S75) was tested with various adsorption isotherm models; Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin equation. The Langmuir isotherm model is found to be the most suitable one with maximum adsorption capacity of 109.53 mg g-1 at an initial pH value of 1. The adsorption process follows the second-order kinetics. Desorption of Cr(VI) from loaded CC-S75 using acid and base exhibited a higher desorption efficiency. The interference of other ions which are generally present in the laboratories effluent streams on the Cr(VI) removal was investigated. Finally, the prepared CC-S75 is applicable for treatment of wastewater and laboratories effluents containing toxic heavy metals.

Simulation of DOS, DDOS attacks & Design Test its Countermeasures PDF

Aditi Srivastava, Deepak Chaudhary

Nowadays every organization uses an information system to maintain data and a web based network to make it available to its departments and outside customers. Various techniques have been developed to secure these systems and networks. Amongst various online attacks obstruct IT security, Denial of Service (DoS) has the most disastrous effects. It has also put immense pressure over the security experts lately, in bringing out productive defense solutions. These attacks could be implemented with diverse number of code and type. DDoS attacks are one of the crest security problems which is heavily affecting networks and damaging services to legitimate users. The indispensable step in dealing with DDOS attack is the network’s ability to find out such attacks.

Surface engineering of solid supports; Cellulose, Nitrocellulose and Nylon to increase the efficiency of antibody immobilization in diagnostic systems PDF

Mohammad Heiat, Ali Mohammad Latifi, Milad Mohkam, Ahmad Gholami, Fatemeh Abolhasani, Mohammad Sadraeian

Immobilization of antibodies is a critical stage for design and manufacturing of sensitive biological sensors. In this study, in order to increase the capacity of antibody capturing by the supports, different materials and polymer layers such as Cyanogen bromide, Acetonitrile, PEI and MAMEC were used for processing the surface of Cellulose, Nitrocellulose and Nylon, respectively. Increasing the surface charges in nitrocellulose and creating new active groups on the surfaces of activated nylon and cellulose were the most important chemical modifications on the mentioned solid supports. Assessment of immobilized antibody showed that the chemical modifications applied on the surface of supports have had significant effects on increasing their capacity to accept antibody, compared to control samples. Efficient immobilization of antibody on the supports can increase the sensitivity of immunochromatographic-based diagnostic systems. Immobilization processes can alter the physiochemical features of supports such as their capillarity, flexibility, surface charges, delicacy etc. which may intensively influence the quality of immobilization.

Resource Isolation Analysis on Virtual Server Performance PDF

Mardhani Riasetiawan, Ahmad Ashari

Virtual Server on cloud technology environment has advantages on maintenance, scalability, security and control. Virtualization have capacities on operating system, storage and network resources allocation. Virtualization Machine Management is manage the several machine to deliver the services through application such as Proxmox, Openstack and Eucalyptus. Virtual Machines performance need to be analyse on resource isolation to manage the computation process performances. The paper works on analysis on virtual machine simulation, benchmarking on Proxmox VE 2.1, Ubuntu Eucalyptus Faststart 2.0, OpenStack Essex. The analysis goal is to determine the resource isolation performance in each vritual machine on handling computation process. The analysis has resulted Eucalyptus have the resource isolation performance better than others. Openstack has speed performance better than other on computation process.

An Efficient DBSCAN using Genetic Algorithm based Clustering PDF

Lovely Sharma, Prof. K. Ramya

Data mining is widely employed in business management and engineering. The major objective of data mining is to discover helpful and accurate information among a vast quantity of data, providing a orientation basis for decision makers. Data clustering is currently a very popular and frequently applied analytical method in data mining. DBSCAN is a traditional and widely-accepted density-based clustering method. It is used to find clusters of arbitrary shapes and sizes yet may have trouble with clusters of varying density. In this paper an efficient DBSCAN clustering using genetic algorithm is proposed. DBSCAN clustering provides some problem such as the algorithm is not efficient for noisy clusters; hence it is enhanced using genetic algorithm. The proposed technique is efficient in terms of accuracy and execution time.

Virtual Machine Monitoring & Management in Cloud Environment PDF

Kamalesh Karmakar, Tamal Mukherjee

Cloud Computing is becoming a popular paradigm. In recent trend lot of new services are based on Cloud Environments, and a lot of peo-ple are using Cloud networks. Since different types of service providers coexist and their billing strategies are different, a VM monitoring system is being introduced to monitor VMs and to migrate VM in different Cloud. To automate VM migration a broker module has been introduced based on VM monitored data. In this paper a Broker Architecture has been designed to reduce effort of cost calculation and VM deployment.

Biosynthesis of Cubic Gold nanoparticles PDF

M. Jannathul Firdhouse and P. Lalitha

Green leafy vegetable (Amaranthus dubius) was used as reductant and capping agent for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The nanogold synthesis was carried out under various conditions to evaluate the rate of reduction of gold ions. The formation of gold nanoparticles was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. The shape of the nanogold was found to be spherical and the size was analyzed by XRD and SEM analysis. The FTIR measurements confirm that the protein molecule present in the extract aids the formation of gold nanoparticles. Hence green leafy vegetable mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles may find applications in nutraceuticals.

A Novel Method for Placement of Batteries in a Distribution Network PDF

That storage device like batteries can substantially improve performance of power distribution system is well established. These improvements can include attributes like reduction in line loading, reduction in losses, improved voltage profile, better voltage control by minimizing voltage deviations. The extent of improvement can provide clue to placement of the batteries. In the literature, the placement are generally based on only considering one of these attributes. This paper attempts to take an integrated approach considering simultaneous effect of all the above attributes. The feasible plans are generated by eliminating a number of generated configurations. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to assign the weights to different attributes. Data Envelop Analysis (DEA) is used to judge the feasible plans on common platform considering normalized values of the at-tributes. The plans with high efficiency can help in decision on placement in an integrated manner with proper trade-off of attributes. The proposed methodology is illustrated on a IEEE 14 and 30 bus distribution system.

Software Selection for Analysis and Computa-tional Calculations of Split Cycle Engines PDF

Muhammad Zeeshan Rafique, Suhaib Hanif, Muhammad Tariq Ch

The internal combustion engines are one of the world boosting machines on the earth. The world new upcoming leading approach in engines is split-cycle engine, in which the compressed air in one cylinder is transferred to the other cylinder which is in phase through the crossover passage. The compression in cross over passage helps ignition when the piston is moving away from TDC and that process enhances performance with reduction in pollutants. In order to understand the breathing issue & low thermal efficiency concept in more critical and better way, a proper calculative study of these issues is necessary before practical calculations. This calculative study can only be done through certain softwares which will help to attain computational values which lead to geometric modes. The research regarding software selection results in use of CFD analysis under NSYS atmosphere and use of CATIA for improvement in valves and cross over passage construction.

Pre Defined Trajectory Algorithm for Mobile Anchor Based Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks PDF

Ms.S.Divya, Mr. P.Purusothaman

Accurate and low-cost sensor localization is a critical requirement for the deployment of wireless sensor networks in a wide variety of applications. Many applications require the sensor nodes to know their locations with a high degree of precision. Various localization methods based on mobile anchor nodes have been proposed for assisting the sensor nodes to determine their locations. However, none of these methods attempt to optimize the trajectory of the mobile anchor node. Accordingly, this project presents a path planning scheme, which ensures that the trajectory of the mobile anchor node minimizes the localization error and guarantees that all of the sensor nodes can determine their locations. The obstacle-resistant trajectory is also proposed to handle the obstacles in the sensing field. Later this path planning algorithm is adjusted so that it suits most of the effective localization algorithms. The performance of the proposed scheme is to be evaluated through a series of simulations with the ns-2 network simulator.

Optimization of Well Placement at Water Injection and Surfactant Injection in Fractured Reservoirs by Algorithm Genetic PDF

Reza Ashourizadeh, Mohammad Amin Gholamzadeh

Although waterflooding is an effective process, surfactant flooding is used to recover oil from reservoirs by wettability altera-tion and interfacial tension reduction. Economical effectiveness is a main challenge in feasibility of any EOR method. In this study, we compare oil recovery of both surfactant and water flooding in Reservoirs with various conditions. One of the im-portant optimization variables is well placement. Various methods have been suggested for this problem. Among these, direct optimization, although accurate, is impossible due to the number of simulation required. Optimal placement of up to three injection wells was studied at two fields. One of the Iranian conventional field and a hypothetic fractured field. Injection rate and injection time was also optimized. The net present value of the surfactant flooding projects was used as the objective function.

Kinetic Energy Recovery System PDF

Pottabattini naveen, Mamidi ranga rao, Novle Krishna, Aashish ambekar, Monica naga sai latchireddy

The introduction of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) is one of the most significant technical introductions for the Formula One Race. Formula One have always lived with an environmentally unfriendly image and have lost its relevance to road vehicle technology. This eventually led to the introduction of KERS.KERS is an energy saving device fitted to the engines to convert some of the waste energy produced during braking into more useful form of energy. The system stores the energy produced under braking in a reservoir and then releases the stored energy under acceleration. The key purpose of the introduction was to significantly improve lap time and help overtaking. KERS is not introduced to improve fuel efficiency or reduce weight of the engine. It is mainly introduced to improve racing performance.

Modern Home Automation System Based On AVR Microcontroller PDF

Mohammad Arif Hossain, Md. Nazmul Hasan

Automation is the demand of present, was demand of past and will be demand of future. It has become a buzz word in the world of technology as it has unveiled a new era for technology lovers. Lately, automated system is being preferred as the system is time and power saving as well as reduces the complicacy of human work. Home automation is a widely used automated system. It may include mobile technology or involve voice recognition or have wireless technology. Now-a-days, most of the automation systems are microcontroller based. The paper presents an approach to control the electrical and electronic home appliances according to the attendance of person using an AVR microcontroller rather than 8051 microcontroller which has quite advantages over 8051 microcontroller. The system involves an infrared sensor circuit which can sense the presence of a person which is more effective than another sensor circuits. The system will be activated automatically when a person enters the house and the appliances will be controlled according to the attendance of persons. As a result, the system has become cost effective and power saving as well as an approach to minimization of human work. A future extension of the work has been proposed in this paper which can attribute more conveniences in automation system.

Investigating Cointegration between Some Indian Stock Indices PDF

Vishal Deo

In recent years researchers have taken keen interest in studying the long term relationships between stock markets of different nations and many studies have also been done on the cointegration of stock indices with major macroeconomic variables. In this study I have tried to investigate the possibility of cointegration between four indices of Indian stock market viz. CNX Small Cap, CNX Mid Cap, CNX Nifty, and CNX Nifty 500. All these indices have different market capitalization and it will be of great interest to study their co movement over a long period of time. I have used Engle-Granger test and Johansen Cointegration test for testing the presence long term relationships among the chosen indices. Results confirm the presence of at least one cointegrating relationship between the four indices.


Divya Gupta

The objective of the paper is to provide the overview of the principle of operation and designing approach that is used to design the conical corrugated horn antenna. This paper deals with the designing of the conical corrugated horn with large aperture and narrow flare angle of 15 degree using brass plates that would produce symmetric radiation patterns, good impedance match and low crosspolarisation which would be used as feed horn for the Cassegrain antenna working at 35.6 GHz for cloud radar. The final design using High Frequency Simulator System (HFSS), shows successful simulated results with symmetrical E and H radiation patterns with good impedance match and low cross polar levels.

Using Dulong and Vandralek Formulas to Estimate the Calorific Heating Value of a Household Waste Model PDF

Jean Fidele NZIHOU, Salou Hamidou, Medard Bouda, Jean Koulidiati, B. Gerard Segda

In this paper, Dulong, modified Dulong, Vandralek and direct formulas have been used to calculate the higher calorific value (HCV) and lower calorific value (LCV) of the waste model of the combustible fraction of the town of Ouagadougou. Different results from these formulas have been compared to experimental results obtained form measures made with a semi-industrial calorific heating value measurement apparatus. Comparison shows that the Dulong and Vandralek HCV formulas calculation gives us the lowest relative errors or differences in respect of the experimental LCV. On contrast, the direct LCV calculation formula give use the biggest relative error. This suggests that Dulong and Vandraleck formula could help quickly estimate the calorific value of a household waste combustible fraction model.

An investigation of the role of DNA as molecular computers: A computational study on the Hamiltonian path problem PDF

Alireza Heidari

The ability of silicon to make faster computer chips ends soon. Thus, scientists have introduced DNA as a proper and clean alternative and source. Research on molecular computers is at initial steps. Molecular computers, in their current state, are composed of DNA and enzymes and there, still, remains a long way to achieving this dream. DNA computers will hopefully useful in various fields including treatment and complex computing.


Dr. Abdul-Hassan K. Al. Shukur, Dr. Mohammed Abbas Al. Jumaly, Hawraa Ali Hussein

This paper shows the optimal design of reinforced concrete box culvert based on minimum cost (economical design(. The Genetic Algorithms )GAs( is the proposed method to optimize the structure which used as a tools box in MATLAB software version 2011, and the results of these method were verified by using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method which also used as tool box in MATLAB software version 2011. The formulation of the problem includes 11 design variables: two geometrical, and 9 structural variables for the reinforcement set-up and the thickness of top, bottom, and the thickness of side walls. A parametric study was conducted to specify initial population and population size and concluded that the optimum results were obtain for initial population= [1.8 1.8 0.2 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.000232773728 0.000232773728], and population size=100.


Vishal Sharma, Richa Sharma

In this paper, various techniques like DS, FH, PN sequences are discussed using MATLAB. Bit rate and error probability of these techniques is main focus of analysis in spread spectrum communication ,for this MATLAB SIMULATION is performed and a comparative study among various techniques is achieved. For comparison the parameters discussed are error probability, noise, power spectral density, error rate performance, interference and bandwidth.

Investigating the Combustion of Diesel Engines Fueled with Hydrogen-Methane Mixture PDF

Reza Nazari, Mohammad Sarabian

Diesel engines are widely used in to protect environment due to their high thermal efficiency and low Carbon Dioxide emission, as well as strict principles of Nitrogen Dioxide and particulate matter. Meanwhile, fuel mixtures significantly influence engine exhaust gas pollutants. Considering the appropriate characteristics of Hydrogen as a fuel source, the present study has attempted to investigate the combustion of diesel engines using Methane-Hydrogen mixture as gas fuel. In this regards, all speeds in full load and all loads of engine in two most common speeds have been tested to obtain a complete pattern of Hydrogen effect. The research findings have revealed that the power, torque and volumetric efficiency of the engine are decreased with the increase of Hydrogen fraction in Hythane mixture. Also, the increase of Hydrogen fraction in Hythane mixture cause CO and HC decrease but NOx increases.

ALBA-R: Load balancing geographic routing in wireless sensor networks PDF

S.Sujeet, Mr.P.Karunakaran and Mr.C.Venkatesh

In this paper, we focus on load balancing algorithms for back-to-back packet transmission, reduce delay, solving the problem of dead end. This paper gives a brief introduction to various load balancing techniques have been discussed and a detailed study has been performed. The comparison table shows it clearly that an algorithm satisfies the load balancing requirement.

Recurrence Relations for Single & Product Moments of Generalized Order Statistics from Generalized Power Weibull Distribution & its Charecterization PDF

Taruna Kumari and Anupam Pathak

Generalized power Weibull distribution was firstly discussed by Nikulin and Haghighi (2006). In this article recurrence relations for single and product moments of generalized order statistics (gos) for Generalized power Weibull distribution have been driven. Moments of order statistics and k-upper records are discussed as special cases. Characterization of generalized power Weibull distribution through conditional expectation is also presented.

Application of DoE to Determine Factor Settings for Optimum Internet Speed PDF

Adnan Miski

People have different opinions about what affect their internet speed at home, and since I’m one of those people I decided to use my industrial engineering skills to find the optimum factor settings to obtain a fast internet connection.

Scientific - Analytic Theory Of Life And Death Systems PDF

S. K. Srivastava, Yashodhara Verma, Avinash Varma

Life and death are some usual natural phenomenon known to human beings since long time. Humans cannot control them. Life is complex in nature. Such happenings make us believe about the existence of some super natural power. An effort has been made to understand these happenings on the basis of a new scientific theory based on order and disorder concepts. The roles of time‘t’ (order parameter ‘O’) and energy parameter (disorder parameter ‘D‘) towards the actions of life and death systems have been investigated. Interesting results have been observed. The existence of some super natural power, a time dependent entity has been realized. There are openings for life sciences and medical sciences to explore other secrets of nature.

A Comparative Study of Indigenous People between India and Bangladesh PDF

Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Swapan Kumar Saha, Suman Chowdhury, Mustafizur Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman

Bangladesh is well acknowledged to the world for its widespread poverty, extensive inequality, and slow economic growth. The recent human development index revealed that Bangladesh having better position rationally to Indian’s HDI index e.g. GNP per capita, life expectancy rate, infant mortality, child death rate, adult literacy rate, higher education ratio. The study focuses on Santal, a tribal community in Bangladesh those have no existence in measuring HDI. The study attempts to include the tribes like Santal, Bede (Water Gisppy) and few others nagging communities data into the considerable evaluation process of HDI. The findings of the study revealed that in case of due consideration of those deprive communities into the HDI index, the index will decline.

Application of Evolutional Algorithms for Productivity Improvement and Reduction of Active Power Losses in Radial Distribution System PDF

Meysam soleymani, Sadegh soleymani, Mahdiyeh eslami, Hadi zayandehroodi

Power losses in distribution system have become the most concerned issue in power losses analysis in any power system. In the effort of reducing power losses within distribution system, reactive power compensation has become increasingly important as it affects the operational, economical and quality of service for electric power systems. This paper presents a new method for determining capacitor placement in radial distribution systems. The capacitor placement problem consist of finding size & places to install capacitor bank in an electrical distribution network aiming to reduce losses and voltage profile Improvement due to the compensation of the reactive component of power flow. The capacitor placement is hard to solve in sense of global optimization due to the high non linear and mixed integer problem. To solve the problem efficiently, this paper by Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Colonal Selection Algorithm (CSA) that is one of the efficient optimization methods.

Genotoxicity prediction of common pesticides through QSAR based bioinformatics PDF

Shashi Aggrawal, Pragya Chaturvedi

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens. In prediction of genotoxicity , the use of in silico prediction methods such as QSAR (Quantitative Structural Activity Relationship) model is required or encouraged in order to increase efficiency and minimize the reliance on animal testing .In present study prediction of 100 insecticides, 40 fungicides and 40 herbicides were done with the help of T.E.S.T.(Toxicity Estimation software Tool, 4.1 version). In our present study 20 insecticides ,8 fungicides and 7 herbicides were showing positive mutagenicity and that there are 4 insecticides whose experimental mutagenicity were positive and predicted mutagenicity negative. And other 3 insecticides were showing experimental value negative and predicted value positive.

A Practical Approach to Optimal Selection of Conductors Planning Radial Distribution Systems for Productivity Improvement PDF

Navid Taghizadegan, S. R. Mousavi Aghdam, Sakhavat Saghi, Davoud Karimzadeh

Selecting the optimum type and size of conductors for planning and optimization of distribution networks is an essential part of the design process. In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm to the optimal selection of conductors of feeder sections of radial distribution networks is proposed. In optimization procedure, cost of conducting material, cost of energy losses, bus voltage profile and current carrying capacity of conductors are considered. The availability of an adequate amount of electricity and its utilization is essential for the growth and development of the country. Development of distribution systems result in higher system losses and poor voltage regulation. This paper presents optimal branch conductor selection of radial distribution systems using intelligent methods for based of CSA and compared with algorithm PSO to minimize the overall cost of annual energy losses and unavailability of conductors in order to improve productivity. Simulations are carried out on 69-bus & 30-bus radial distribution networks optimization methods. Results obtained with the proposed approaches are compared.

An Adaptive Control for Autonomous Micro-Grid Using Swarm Intelligence Technique PDF

J.Eswari, Dr.S.Jeyadevi

This paper aims at improving the quality of the power supply of the micro-grid where the DG units are connected as cluster of micro sources supplying loads. The micro-grid consists of two DG units connected in parallel to configure the grid. This work presents a controller for voltage-frequency regulation. The controller is designed with outer power loop and inner current loop. The proposed strategy for the regulation of voltage and frequency is implemented in two DG units when the micro-grid is islanded. Swarm intelligence technique is applied for the optimum control of micro-grid and to enhance the power quality by auto tuning of the controller.

Tuning error comparison analysis of two tunable edge-coupled Bandpass filters using different dielectric materials PDF

Poonam Shukla, Kanchan Cecil

In wireless communication systems, bandpass filters play a very important role. Bandpass filters need to filter signals at transmission and recieption at a definite frequency with a specific bandwidth. Tunable bandpass filters are those in which we can vary it’s frequency of passband by adjusting its components. In this paper we present a comparison of tuning error of two edge-coupled microstripline bandpass filters using two different dielectric materials i.e. plastic & ceramic. The operating frequency of two filters is same as 1.5 GHz.

Study of heat and mass transport in a temperature dependent viscosity fluid layer under temperature modulation PDF

B.S. Bhadauria and Palle Kiran

In this paper, we study the thermosolutal convection in a horizontal temperature dependant viscous fluid layer. The considered temperature profile consists of two parts: a steady part and a time-dependent periodic part that oscillates with time. A weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of temperature modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt and Sherwood numbers have been obtained in terms of the amplitude of convection which is governed by the non autonomous Ginzburg-Landau equation derived for the stationary mode of convection. Effects of various parameters such as frequency and amplitude of modulation, Prandtl number, diffusivity ratio and solute Rayleigh number, have been analyzed on heat and mass transfer. It is found that heat and mass transport can be controlled by suitably adjusting the external parameters of the system. It is also found that the thermo-rheological parameter is to destabilize the system.


Gladies Kezia J., Aparna K., Nausheen Dawood., Dawood Sharief., Joyce Priyakumari.C

In the present study, the interaction between the amino acids of organophosphorus compound (Malathion) and the principal neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were assessed through docking studies (i.e.,) with the help of bioinformatics online tool patchdock.

Survey on High Level Synthesis for Image Processing Applications PDF

J.Hemalatha, Dr M.Joseph

The term High Level synthesis refers to the generation of register transfer level designs from the user defined behavioral specifications in an automatic manner. The main goal of the HLS is to generate a RTL level design that implements the speci?ed behavior while satisfying the design constraints and optimizing the given cost function. High level synthesis is used in image processing because of its vast advantages in the field of automatic electronic hardware design. The research in HLS on image processing leads to the development of a better image processing results automatically by configuring it with perfect parameters. So, by using HLS for image processing applications lead to new development in this area. Here, present a detailed survey about the recent developments in the HLS on image processing and discussed the recent techniques used in HLS for image processing applications. To locate the further improvement in using high level synthesis in the field of image processing the obstacles in the existing techniques are also discussed. Additionally, the discussion is given about their approaches so that the new development in high level synthesis for image processing is easier for the researchers. Finally, some of the research issue is also addressed to precede the further research on the same direction.

Nodally Integrated Finite Element Formulation for Mindlin-Reissner Plates PDF

D. A. Simoes and T. A. Jadhav

This work describes a nodally integrated finite element formulation for plates under the Mindlin-Reissner theory. The formulation makes use of the weighted residual method and nodal integration to derive the assumed strain relations. An element formulation for four-node quadrilateral elements is implemented in the nonlinear finite element solver Abaqus using the UEL user element subroutine. Numerical tests are carried out on the new element and the results are presented.


Nwabunwanne Solumtochukwu, Ogechukwu N. Iloanusi, Charles C. Osuagwu

This paper presents a technique for fingerprint image enhancement using wavelet processing. The algorithm developed uses Daubechies’ wavelets for decomposition as well as reconstruction of the fingerprint image. Experimental results indicate that this algorithm is quite effective, and performs quite competitively with existing methods.

Genetic Algorithm and its application to Big Data Analysis PDF

Munawar Hasan

In this paper, I have described Genetic Algorithm for combinatorial data leading to establishment of mathematical modeling for Information Theory. The paper describes GA (Genetic Algorithm) in light of information theory and then derives Mathematical Framework covering but not limited to Big Data. This framework is a boon to any domain that has to harness data explosion like neurobiology, statistical inference, quantum computation, entropy management, encoding information theory (cryptography) etc. The efficiency calculated here describes incremental probabilistic approach to reach a solution which is highly stable, evolutionary and self adjusting henceforth invents a extremely new approach for computational analytics.

Modeling Of Travelling Salesman Routing Problems In Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria A Dynamic Programming Approach: Part 1 PDF

Nwaogbe Obioma, R, Ogwude C, Innocent and Galadima I.J

The main objectives of this study on Travelling Salesman Routing Problems are to find out how the salesman can minimize travel costs by choosing the right route and the shortest route to the zone or area where he or she is to sell. In this study dynamic programming is used in solving routing problem of a travelling salesman from Uyo to Uruk-Akpan in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, so as to find the optimal distance for the sales man’s trip and to minimize cost of transportation and other real life problems in the trip. From the study, the data was analyzed by using dynamic programming manually and Floyd’s shortest route algorithm of Tora software 2.00 versions for the analysis. From the analysis, it was observed that and the shortest route from town 1 (Uyo) to town 10 (Uruk Akpan) goes from town 1 (Uyo) to town 3 (Itam) to town 10 (Uruk-Akpan). Checking back to the calculations, we will see that the shortest route from town 3 (Uyo) to town 10 (Uruk-Akpan) is Translating the numerical labels into real towns, we realize that the shortest route from Uyo to Uruk-Akpan passes through Uyo, Itam, Ikot Ikpe, Ikot Ekpene and Uruk-Akpan, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria. Therefore the shortest route is from town 1 - 3 - 6 - 9 – 10, and has its length as

Improving the productivity of small and medium scale industries using linear programming model PDF

Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Umeh Maryrose Ngozi, Mbeledeogu Njide N, Ezeokonkwo John U

Productivity improvement in small and medium scale enterprise will develop both the economic condition and the industry on its side. During these research operation research techniques where employed to Golden plastic industry limited (GPIL) and a linear programming technique was used in maximizing profit. Productivity therefore improve by applying the linear programming instead of the normal trial and error been employed by the managers of the industry.

Modelling of Process Parameters on D2 Steel using Wire Electrical Discharge Machining with combined approach of RSM and ANN PDF

U.K.Vates, N.K.Singh, R.V.Singh

Aimed to investigate the experimental process and surface roughness optimization of cold working, high carbon high chromium hardened die (D2) steel during Wire Electrical Discharge Machining processes. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approaches have been applied to investigate the effect of six independent input parameter namely gap voltage (Vg), flush rate (Fr), Pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff), wire feed (Wf) and wire tension (Wt) over CLA value of surface roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR). A fractional factorial Design of Experiment of two level were employed to conducted the experiment on D2 die steel with chromium coated copper alloy wire electrode . The responses, CLA values of SR and MRR were observed by combined approach of training, validation and testing programme in MATLAB 2010a and mathematical modelling using RSM on experimental data respectively. Significance coefficients were observed by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95% confidence level. Prediction against second order RSM mathematical modelling technique is the best performing to MRR and ANN Modelling has most significant for surface roughness by conducting only very less experimentation.

Number Plate Recognition using Improved Segmentation PDF


Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a real time embedded system. It is an active area of research. Now a day the requirement of ANPR system is increased due to different formats of number plates. In this paper Indian vehicle number plate recognition system is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses region props function in Mat lab for localization and segmentation of number plates. By using only captured images this system is used in car parking, in car theft issues and many more.



Measuring the flow of liquid is a critical need in many industrial plants. The aim of this paper is to do the comparative study of conventional PID, fuzzy logic controller and PID-Fuzzy controller in the area of liquid flow control. In this paper, performance analysis of conventional PID, fuzzy logic and PID-Fuzzy has been done by the use of MATLAB and simulink and in the end comparison of various time domain parameter is done to prove that the PID-Fuzzy logic controller has small overshoot and fast response as compared to PID controller. PID controller is the most widely used control strategy in industry. The popularity of PID controller can be attributed partly to their robust performance and partly to their functional simplicity. In this paper, the response of the PID and PD controller is oscillatory which damage the system. But the response of the fuzzy logic controller AND PID-Fuzzy is free from these dangerous oscillation in transient period. Hence the Fuzzy logic and PID-Fuzzy logic controller is better than the conventionally used PID controller.

A Comparative Study of Photo-oxidation on mesoporous vanadium–titanium oxide catalysts with the application of ethanol PDF

Ar p a na Swa r a j

Photo-oxidation with the application of ethanol was investigated over mesoporous, amorphous V + TiO2 and V + TiO2(anatase) catalysts. Mesoporous V + TiO2 generally exhibited faster photo-oxidation rates than V + TiO2(anatase) catalysts did Under the UV + visible light,. VIV doping directed preferable formation of acetic acid rather than predominant acetaldehyde formation. Under the visible light only, mesoporous VIV–TiO2 catalyst exhibited best reactivity among all V + TiO2 catalysts. Ethanol dehydration reaction was preferred. Initial quicker water evolution may suggest greater oxidation capability compared to V + TiO2(anatase) catalysts.A comparative studies of the reaction done in the past is revived and comparative consequences are discussed in this work.

Study of Power and Field Distributions in Induction Heating system by Finite element method PDF

Prof.Dr.Ali K.Al – Shaikhli, J.A Al – Aboudi , Rana Ali, Abdullah sahib

To solve the electromagnetic problems of induction heating, there are two main types of solutions. Analytical solution which is limited to one dimensional problems of axially symmetric shapes, and numerical methods which are associated with the advent of digital computers and they can be developed in two dimensions. The finite element method FEM is one numerical methods to give an accurate solution to the given problem.

THD and Switching losses Analysis Of Multi-Level Inverter Fed 3-F Induction Motor Drive PDF

B. Lakshmana Nayak, G. Venkataratnam

Multilevel inverters are emerging as a viable alternative for high power, medium voltage applications. This paper compares total harmonic distortion and switching losses in conventional two-level inverters with multilevel inverters (three-level and five-level) at different switching frequencies. An optimized switching frequency has been obtained for a lower level of total harmonic distortion and switching losses.

Chick-fil-A's Simulation PDF

Hamad Mohammad Abouhneidi

The company started in 1946 at Hapeville, Georgia. Credited with inventing Chick-fil-A's boneless breast chicken sandwich. In the 1960s, Chick-fil-A pioneered the establishment of restaurants in shopping malls with the opening of the first Chick-fil-A Restaurant at a mall in suburban Atlanta in 1967. Since then, Chick-fil-A has steadily grown to become the second largest quick-service chicken restaurant chain in the United States, with over 1,700 locations in 39 states and Washington, D.C. In 2012, annual sales were over $4.6 billion. Chick-fil-A is still privately held and family owned.

Molecular Docking Study of Auto Inhibitory Domain Fragments to Calcineurin A PDF

Harish Bodagur Maregowda, Saraswathi Ramanna, Devaraju Kuramkote Shivanna

Cyclosporine (CsA) and FK506 are used to inhibit the activity of Calcineurin (CN), a well known protein phosphatase involved in the suppressing immunity during organ transplantation. Since AID, a C-terminal fragment of CN A inhibits CN activity in in vivo, hence there is a need to explore the possibility of AID and its fragments for their inhibitory properties. In the current study, the CN A was modeled using I-TASSER. Modeled CN A has been used to generate peptide fragments from its AID domain and these fragments were docked back with CN A using Hex docking software. Further CsA and FK506 known inhibitor of CN were also docked with CN A. From docking study we have found that fragments AIDP1 derived from AID has lowest docking Energy-total (E-total) than AID. Another peptide AIDP2 was also found to have similar docking E-total to that of AID. In conclusion the study predicts that the possibility of using AIDP1 as a potent inhibitor of CN either in vitro or in vivo.

Public Participation In Environmental Friendly Development PDF

Fitri Hakim, LH Budianti, Haryati,Johan Silas

In an effort to create residential and settlement environmentally friendly (green and clean) the role of community is needed. One of the programs that give awards to community participation, namely Surabaya Green and Clean program held every year since 2005. The program aims to create settlements environmentally sound and care environment community. One area that follows the Surabaya Green and Clean program in 2013 and succeeded as the Best 3 most flowering Environmental Management Beginner category is the region of RT 3 RT 4 RW 8, Sub - District of Sukolilo Keputih. In transform slums into a settlement with a green and clean environment (green and clean), both local people and communities outside the region plays an important role, namely by applying some of the elements of life , such as keeping the environment, greening, and managing waste to sort out the organic waste that can be processed into compost, and non-organic waste that can be reused by recycling.

Wave Properties of nonlocal Euler beam model in Carbon nanotubes PDF

B. Yakaiah, A. Srihari Rao

In this paper Eringen’s nonlocal theory of elasticity is applied to study the wave properties of single walled carbon nanotubes. The effects of wave number and nonlocal scaling parameter (e0a) on the frequency, phase velocity and group velocity are discussed for a particular material of carbon nanotube.

A Study on Second-Order Fuzzy Differential Equations using STHWS Method PDF

S. Sekar and S. Senthilkumar

In this paper, we study the numerical method for solving second-order fuzzy differential equations using single term Haar wavelet series (STHWS). And, we present two examples with initial condition [16] having two different solutions to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method under STHWS. Error graphs are presented to highlight the efficiency of the STHWS.

A Texture Segmentation Using Modified Hill-Climbing Approach PDF

Ajitha T S, Sharomena Aarthi B S, Adlin Shibin T S

Image segmentation is crucial to object-oriented remote sensing imagery analysis. In this paper, a newly modified texture segmentation algorithm is proposed using spectral, shape and intensity features. This algorithm is a robust technique that can be applied directly to the color images. The image is preprocessed using Adaptive Switching Median Filter, which removes the impulse noises and keeping the fine details of the image intact in the most efficient manner. Also, the preprocessed image is smoothened using morphological operators, which reduces the false detection of abnormal cells. Then, the preprocessed image is transformed into HSV (Hue, Saturation and value) color space representation in order to analyze and establish a color contrast gradient. The multiscale morphological gradient in the intensity channel of the preprocessed image is obtained and multiplied with the color contrast gradient. The shape feature is extracted from the preprocessed image based on the descriptors such as compactness, convexness, rectangularity and eccentricity, moment invariants. Based on these spectral, shape and intensity features, markers are extracted for this image and given as input to the watershed algorithm which uses a Hill-Climbing approach to identify and label the neighborhood pixels. This algorithm may reduce the computational complexity by avoiding the process of computing lower-complete image.

Leapfrog Numerical MHD Solution of Hale Bopp Comet PDF

Salman Z. Khalaf, Ahmed A. Selman and Elaff E. Al-lateef

We investigate the physical properties of solar wind interaction with comet Hale Bopp, taking a rectangular numerical solution of MHD Equations. Simulations were numerically made using computer codes written with MATLAB 7.8 based on a mid-point, 3-D Leapfrog explicit method. Our results excluded the pressure and energy results where it was shown that interaction near the cometary nucleus is mainly affected by the new ions added to the plasma of the solar wind, which increased the average molecular weight. When this effect was taken under careful consideration, some characteristics of the cometary tail could be driven in the presence of the IMF. The previous set of conditions used in [1] were also used in this study.

Impact of Effective Project Management on Building Construction PDF

Atoyebi Akeem A., Ayegbokiki Sunday T., Akomolafe Maryam A.

This paper appraised the effects of project management on building production in the construction industry in Osun State. This paper identified and assessed the performance of project management methods in Osun State and later evaluated their effects on project performance aim and objectives of the study include the identification of the methods adopted for managing construction industries. The scope encompasses organizing the field forces and backup personnel in administrative and engineering positions necessary for supervising labour, purchasing materials, combining of managerial talents required presupposes training and experience both in field and office operation of construction jobs. Field survey and well structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the subjects of the study. The analysis of the data reveals amongst others, that construction firms practice a decentralized system of staff recruitment, permanent of head office management on permanent/contract/casual employment, provide work measurement techniques, planning techniques, organize and manage resources, prepare quality and quantity of job performance. Based on these findings, the study concluded that the methods adopted were limited in scope and that there was moderate level of professionalism within the industry. The study then recommends that construction firms should expand their sources of management techniques; use of qualified personnel and the involvement of competent professionals with good managerial skill.

Reaction Mechanism of Schiff Base Formation in the Maillard Reaction PDF

Alex Gao, Richard Liu

This paper attempts to address the gaps in knowledge of how a chemical called acrylamide forms. Acrylamide, a possible carcinogen present in most fried, starchy foods, has been a subject of intense research for the past decade, and the most likely reactants in this reaction (asparagine and a reducing sugar) have already been found. However, there are still ambiguities regarding how exactly acrylamide and certain intermediates to it, such as the Schiff base, form. To determine on an atomic level how reducing sugars and asparagine can form the Schiff base intermediate and thus acrylamide, theoretical methods were used to find transition states in the reaction from asparagine to Schiff base, and these transition states provided insight into our conclusion: that the Schiff base intermediate formation was determined almost completely by the position of the hydroxyl groups on the reducing sugar. Knowing that the hydroxyl groups almost exclusively determine whether or not the Schiff base and thus acrylamide forms allows researchers to theorize and then test new ways to prevent acrylamide formation – for example, the addition of other molecules which more readily attract hydroxyl groups.

Conversion of Sound to Electric Energy PDF

Alankrit Gupta, Vivek Goel, Vivek Yadav

This paper presents the work done on the conversion techniques and methodologies of converting sound energy to its electrical counterpart. It focuses on the feasibility and the ground zero application of the same. The prediction of the future development of these kind of sources of energy is emphasized other than commonly known ones such as solar energy, biogas, wind energy and so on. So one can imagine if we were able to convert the sound energy to electricity then we can charge our mobile phone just by talking to our friends on mobile itself.

PAPR Reduction using Companding and FEC Coding in OFDM System PDF

Kanchan Choubey, Prashant Jain

The next generation of mobile wireless communication is based on OFDM technology. It is an efficient method of data transmission for high speed communication system. It provides high spectral efficiency, less vulneralibility to echoes, low implementation complexity and resistance to non linear distortion. However, the main drawback of OFDM system is high PAPR of transmitted signals. OFDM consist of large no. Of independent subcarriers , as a result of which the amplitude of such a signal can have high peak values. Thus a power amplifier must be carefully manufactured to have a linear input output characteristics or to have large input output backoff. Drawback of high PAPR is that dynamic range of power amplifier and D to A convertor during the transmission and reception of signal is higher. As a result, total cost of transceiver increases with reduced efficiency. In this paper, we have used combination of companding technique with FEC coding to reduce PAPR within OFDM systems. Performance evaluation is carried out in terms of CCDF(Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function) & BER(Bit Error Rate).

Crack Detector Robot Using LED-LDR PDF

S.Arul Mozhi, Avanti Prabhakaran,V.Mathivathani, R.Priyanka

Transport is a key necessity for specialization that allows production and consumption of products to occur at different locations. Commercially, rail transport plays a vital role and it is one of the cheapest modes of transportation. India has the world's fourth largest railway network. Any problem in the railway network affects the economy at a greater pace and also leads to the loss of lives. One of the problems encountered is derailment due to the cracks in railway track. The principle problem has been the lack of cheap and efficient technology to detect the problems in rail tracks and lack of proper maintenance of rails which have resulted in the formation of cracks in the rails. This project comprises of GPS, GSM, LED-LDR and microcontroller based crack detection assembly which is cost effective and robust to facilitate better safety standards in railways. The system is designed to run along the centre of the track.

Recycling of Culture Media by Re-melt & Re-plating Method PDF

Shaikh Zubair Ahmed, Mohseen Khan

Culture media is widely used in cultivation and identification of microorganisms from sample food, water, soil, pharmaceutical product etc .and discarded after the use. In our present paper we proposed the technique to reutilize the media. As per our objective average weight of E.coli is 2 Pico gram and average plate of culture media contains approxi-mately 1 gram of nutrition. All nutrition is not utilized by the bacteria within period of incubation of 24hrs to 48 hrs used in the pathogens except Mycobacterium tuberculosis which require 2 days to grow. As Global market of culture media is 16.85 billion dollar. And as Bactria does not utilize all the nutrition so it can be recycled by simple remelt and re-autoclaving method. Growing on same media after complete incubation of first culture. It maybe economically feasible and eco-friendly as less of it will be discharged and most of it will be recycled and used in the lab.

Ceramic Rn222 exhalation rates from different countries PDF

B.A. Almayahi, Asaad K. Alsaedi, Ali K. Alsaedi, A.H. Alasadi, Azhar S. Ali, Raad. O. Hussein, Hayder. H. Hussain

In the present study, the alpha radioactivity from radon emanated from some ceramic samples collected from different countries was measured using the can technique, containing CR-39. The average 222Rn and 226Ra concentrations are found to be 371.79 Bq m-3 and 1.68 Bq kg-1, respectively. The highest radon exhalation rate was found in Chinese ceramic. The values of effective radium content are less than the permissible value of 370 Bq kg-1.

Classification of Atrial fibrillation ECG and Malignant Ventricular Arrhythmia ECG using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Interface System PDF

Dinesh Yadav, Deepak Bhatnagar

Now a day we have various types of intelligent computing tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic approaches are proving to be skillful when applied to a different kind of problems. This paper describes the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. here we applied tool for detecting the two different type of abnormal ECG signal. Here the designed ANFIS model contained both approaches the neural network adaptive potential approach and the fuzzy logic qualitative approach.The Electrocardiogram (ECG) dynamic and nonlinear signal characteristic requires an accurate and precise detection and recognition system. This paper describes the detection of a MIT-BHI normal Artial Fibrillation ECG signal and MIT-BHI Malignant Ventricular ECG signal based on ANFIS approach. Some conclusions regarding the detection and classification of the abnormal ECG signals is obtained through analysis of the ANFIS. The proposed ANFIS modal gives the 100% accuracy for Artial Fibrillation ECG detection and 80% accuracy for Malignant Ventricular ECG detection. Classification accuracies and the results created by the ANFIS confirmed that the proposed ANFIS model is very efficient in classifying the normal and abnormal ECG signals.

Effect of Doping on Structural and Electrical Properties of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Thin Films for Gas Sensor PDF

Dr.Selma M.Hassan Al-Jawad

Undoped and nickel doped titanium oxide thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis by using a solution of titanium tetrachloride and ethyl alcohol. The films have been deposited on heated quartz and silicon substrates at 623 K. After annealing for 120 min at 823 K, the initially amorphous films became polycrystalline with a predominant anatase structure and average crystallite sizes depending on dopant (Ni) concentration. AFM results show that by the addition of the Ni to TiO2 thin films they become smooth. Electrical properties have been studied by means of electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements. The experimental result shows that nickel doping of titanium oxide thin films improve the sensor element sensitivity to NH3 gas. The influence of variation of Ni concentration on NH3 sensitivity of thin film sensor elements was investigated in this work. It looks promising to use the inexpensive nickel-doped titanium oxed thin films obtained by spray pyrolysis in smart gas sensing devices that are able to recognize gas species in low concentration.

Nutrient and Anti-nutrient Phytochemicals in Ficus exasperata Vahl Leaves PDF

Muibat Olabisi Bello, Misbaudeen Abdul-Hammed, Precious Ogunbeku

Ficus exasperata leaves were analyzed for the level of nutrient and anti- nutrients phytochemicals in an effort to determine their food benefits. Proximate analysis revealed that the leaves have 3.85 g/100g moisture, 12.19 g/100g ash, 4.25 g/100g crude fat, 6.91 g/100g crude protein, 17.24 g/100g crude fibre and 72.81 g/100g carbohydrate. The level of Ascorbic acid was 92.4 mg/100g. The mineral elements quantified by XRF were in the order potassium (3.36 g/100g) > calcium (1.13 g/100g) > titanium (0.03 g/100g) > manganese (220.31mg/kg) > iron (122.95 mg/kg) > copper (104.13 mg/kg). The levels of anti-nutrients (mg/100g) were tannin (122.95); saponin (44.50); alkaloid (48.80) and phytate (5.92). The leaves could contribute to nutrient needs of man and the domestication should be encouraged.

Reduction of Musical Noise by Weiner Post Processing Method PDF

S.Sulochana, S.Senthil Siva Manikandan.

A stand-alone noise suppression algorithm is presented for reducing the spectral effects of acoustically added noise in speech. Traditionally de-noising techniques are powerful in terms of noise reduction, have the drawback of generating an annoying musical noise. This paper proposes the problem of enhancing speech in highly noisy environments using non-diagonal audio de-noising algorithm through adaptive time frequency block thresholding. A block thresholding procedure empirically chooses the block size and threshold level at each resolution level by minimizing the Stein’s unbiased risk estimate. Numerical experiments show that this adaptive estimator is robust to signal type variations and improves the SNR.

An Architecture for Metadata Extractor of Big Data in Cloud Systems PDF

Fathy E. Eassa, Hassanin Al-Barhamtoshy, Abdullah Almenbri, Osama H. Younis, Kamal Jambi

In this research, we introduce an agent-based architecture for metadata extractor of big data, which is a part of a new framework for managing big data. In the architecture, many agents should be generated simultaneous to be migrated to existing big-data with different types: structured, semi-structured, and unstructured on the remote machines to collect the metadata and returned back to the user. The architecture includes the metadata storage that contains the metadata of existing big data: structured, semi-structured, and unstructured. These metadata describes the existing big data to be processed by software agents for knowledge discovery. The architecture consists of many mobile and stationary agents. The mobile agents migrate to remote machines that include big data to process and discover the required knowledge and return back to the main server. In the main server, the knowledge returned to the user by the interface agent. In this research, many techniques will be built for collecting metadata of different data such as natural language processing techniques, data mining technique, and lexical analysis technique, image processing technique, etc. The manager is built to manage big data on cloud distributed systems. In this paper, the technique of collecting metadata of tweets has been implemented and tested.

Instinctive Traffic Control and Vehicle Detection Techniques PDF

Deep Desai, Sunil Somani

Traffic congestion genuinely affects our living quality and environment in modern cities. Primary requirement is to increase the efficiency and capacity of the exiting traffic monitoring network due to continues expansion in traffic quantity and limited construction of new highways in rural and urban areas. Traffic congestion is a rising problem in major cities as it leads the fuel wastage in volume of billion gallons per year. In this paper, Concept of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is proposed and to solve Traffic problem different alternatives are explored as well as survey has been carried out in field of vehicle and traffic control system.

Optimal Load Frequency Control in a Single Area Power System Based Genetic Algorithm PDF

Ahmed Jasim Sultan

This paper proposes a Real-valued genetic algorithm optimization technique (RGA) to tune the PID controller for load frequency control of single area power system. This work has a large importance due to the wide range of disturbance that may happen in the power system. The RGA is applied to tune the gains of a PID controller and minimizing the error through different performance criteria algorithms such as: Mean of the Square of the error (MSE), Integral of Time multiplied by Absolute Error (IAE), Integral of the Square of the error (ISE) and Integral of Time multiplied by Absolute error (ITAE). The RGA is applicable to power system with non-reheated and reheated turbines. The simulation results using MATLAB R20112a shows that the performance criteria algorithm (ITAE) provides the best convergence and response than the other performance criteria based on settling time and peak overshoot of frequency deviation signal.

Screening of Cleome viscosa (L.) for Dose Mortality, Insect Repellency, Cytotoxicity and Larvicidal Activities in the Laboratory Condition PDF

M.M. Islam, M.Z. Islam, M.P.E. Shaekh, P. Das, H.K. Chowdhury, S.M. Shahik, N.H. Muzahid, M.A. Khan, A.E. Ekram

The Petroleum Ether (Pet.E), chloroform (CHClCO3) and Methanol (MeOH) extracts of Cleome viscosa (root, aerial part and fruit) have been thoroughly screened through residual film assay and repellent activity test against Tribolium castaneum adults; brine shrimp lethality test against A. salina nauplii; and larvicidal activity test against mosquito larvae were carried out as a supporting experiment to find bioactive potentials of the test plant. The residual film assay offered promising results with remarkable activity against the adult beetles of T. castaneum. A perusal of the data achieved in this experiment clearly showed the presence of insecticidal properties in C. viscosa (root, aerial part and fruit) extracts as well as traces of repellent potential. CHClCO3 and MeOH aerial extracts showed the highest and the second highest mortality (LD50 values were 0.170 and 0.248 mg/cm2 respectively) against the adult beetles of T. castaneum. But CHCl3 root extract was found to show no mortality against the adult beetles of T. castaneum. For the repellency test, the MeOH extract of C. viscosa aerial part showed the highest repellency between dose interval at 1% level of significance (P<0.01) against the adult beetles of T. castaneum. The Pet.E. extract of the aerial part and the CHClCO3 extract of the root showed repellency at 5% level of significance (P<0.05) while the other parts didn’t show significant repellent activity against the adult beetles of T. castaneum. The cytotoxic effect of C. viscosa extracts against the brine shrimp (A. salina) nauplii were found promising. The Pet.E. extract of the root and CHCl3 extract of the fruit showed the highest and the second highest toxicity (LC50 values were 21.905 and 26.675 ppm after 30h of exposures respectively) against the nauplii. The larvicidal effect of C. viscosa extracts against the mosquito larvae of Culex sp. were found promising. The CHCl3 extract of the fruit and the CHClCO3 extract of the root showed the highest and the second highest toxicity (LC50 values were 185.390 and 272.910 ppm after 30h of exposures respectively) against the larvae. A comprehensive phytochemical analyses of the test plants for its insecticidal, repellent, cytotoxic and larvicidal as well as the physiological studies of the active ingredients are very much to be solicited for their effective use in the future pest control and pharmaceutical endeavors.

Synthesis, Characterization and Dyeing Assessment of Novel Bisazo-Acid Dyes Derived from 2-hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid PDF

Hitendra M. Patel

New bisazo-acid dyes were synthesised by the coupling of diazonium salt solution of different aromatic diamines with from 2-hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid. The resulting bisazo-acid dyes were characterized by spectral techniques, i.e., elemental analysis, IR, ATS1H-NMR and UV– visible spectroscopy. The dyeing performance of all the bisazo-acid dyes was evaluated on wool and silk fabrics. Dyeing of wool and silk fabrics resulted in dark blue to red shades with very good depth and levelness. The dyed fabrics showed excellent to very good light, washing, perspiration, sublimation and rubbing fastness.

Apply MTS-MTO & Rule Base in Food Flow Processing System PDF

Ammar Noorwali

High competition in food forced companies to control their cost and that combine with reduce wastes and increase effciancy.The processing system of food considered as one of the most variable system because the nature of the product. The research can accomplish the goal by reduce variability in food processing system. Therefore, the research applied different steps. The steps include process map, identify different types of variability in food and in make to stock (MTS) and make to order (MTO), apply lean in food by categorize seven types of wastes in food, apply Taguchi orthogonal array, and implement Principle Competent Analysis for correlation between variables and factor to identify which variable has the most impact and from which factor the impact. This paper continues these steps as by highlighting MTS-MTO in food, existing variability measures. Minitab implemented to identify factors that affected with the highest variable. For process improvement rule base applied as an artificial intelligent tool for reduce effect of variability in the process.

Design and Analysis of Automatic Fuse Circuit Model Based on Simulation-II PDF

C.Maruthi Ratna Kishore

In this paper the author deals with the “Fuse construction” for the newly proposed Automatic Fuse Circuit (AFC). Also this paper examines clearly the process of construction of Automatic fuse, for high reliability, high accuracy and for effective working, since protection depends on the type of fuse construction.

Effect of Hole Dynamics on the Small Signal Cross Gain Modulation in Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers PDF

Hussein H. Warid

The hole dynamics in undoped quantum dots semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) is investigated using four-level rate equations model preserving charge neutrality. Simple analytical expression is derived which directly connects the cross gain modulation (XGM) response to the change of hole occupation. According to the initial conditions, the main XGM mechanism is the total carrier density depletion (TCDD). The calculated small-signal XGM response shows significant dependence on the hole occupation probability . The results indicate that for an undoped QD-SOA, the exact calculation of gain change due to hole effect leads to increase the 3-dB bandwidth of the small-signal XGM response of the SOAs.

Efficient Wireless Electric Power Transmission Using Magnetic Resonance Coupling PDF

Adil Salman, Ali Abbas, Javaria Maqbool, Dr. Kamran M. Liaqat Bhatti

This paper presents how one can effectively transfer electric power wirelessly using magnetic resonance coupling, this paper also shows the results obtained from effective wireless electric power transmission, these results are obtained by transmitting magnetic waves at specific resonance frequency between two coils. This paper also provides some ways to improve wireless power transmission efficiency. In the end this paper gives a lot of practical applications where results of this project can efficiently use.

Impact of Capital Structure in Indian Industries PDF

Dr. Rohit R. Manjule

This paper briefly tries to evaluate whether some a priori assumed macroeconomic determinants can be related to the leverage. For this purpose, an empirical study was undertaken on Indian industries covering 151 selected firms categorized 13 industrial sector. A major finding on the attribute of various explanatory variable used in the regression model is that the variables like liquidity and growth in terms of performance of the firm have significant influence on debt-equity ratio. In other words, sustainable growth along with credit worthiness of the firm influences debt-equity ratio i.e., degree of financial leverage. Further, the results from econometrical analysis reveal that determinants are industry specific, which implies that the weight of the explanatory variables varies from sector to sector.

Molarities effect on structural and optical properties of ZnO prepared by spray pyrolysis PDF

Atheer Ibraheem Abd Ali

In these paper describes the ZnO thin film deposition by spray pyrolysis technique with different molarities ( 0.05 , 0.1 , 0.15 , and 0.2 ). The studies were focused on the effect of variation of aqueous solution molarity on physical of the ZnO thin films. Increasing of solution molarity caused the Decrease the smoothing and homogeneity of the films and shape factor , further it exhibits increase in intensity of the peak preferred orientation (002) plane ( from about 1700 to 4000 ) , integral breadth ( from 0.015 to 0.016 ) deg. Decreased transmission especially in the NIR region at 800 nm (from 90% to 55%) and band gap (from 3.12 to 3.02) eV. It is more suitable for acoustic applications, due to the scattering effect recorded.

Performance of RCC Box type Superstructure in Curved bridges PDF


In this paper, various behaviours like bending, shear, axial & torsion are presented for horizontally curved RCC box bridges considering 3-D FEM using SAP software. FEM models are prepared for four different span lengths keeping the same material properties with varying degree of curvature from 0° to 90° for different load conditions & combinations to get multiplication factor for various actions like BM, SF, AF & TM w.r.t to straight bridge to multiply the desired parameters of straight bridge to get that for curved bridge. This approach simplifies analysis & the preliminary design of curved bridge section.

Implication of Ranganathan’s 5th law to library and information profession in the 21st century PDF

Hassan Hadizatu. Assistant librarian, I.A.R library Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

The paper discussed on how the Ranganathan’s 5th law (library is a growing organism) influences the 21st century library and information profession in some areas. the paper examine the concept of 21 century library and information profession, laws of library science, element of Ranganathan’ law, Ranganathan’ 5th law, Ranganathan’s contribution to the profession, the state of 21st library and information profession, as well as the implication of the 5th law to library and information profession, also conclusion were drown on how the profession have respond to paradigm shift in which the library is indeed a growing mechanism.

Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Enterprises to Achieve Organizational Benefits PDF

Dr.Fareeha.Zafar, Mudassar Farooq

In this paper the implications of CSR and its linkages with SME sector have been discussed. Unlike large scale organizations, SMEs have many constraints e.g. financial limitations, less government support and lack of knowledge. So they are not much familiar with the concept of CSR and its advantages. This paper examines how SMEs can make their financial performance better by properly engaging in CSR practices. CSR helps the SMEs to achieve many organizational benefits like reputation, trust, motivation, attracting better employees, cost reduction and increased revenues etc. A conceptual framework has been drawn to clearly understand different organizational benefits. Various studies, articles and research papers have been discussed in order to draw the conclusion.

Microscopical and Chemical Study of Cannabis Sativa PDF

Ankit Srivastava, Vijay Kumar Yadav , Veer Raj Saini, Smita Chouhan

Now a day’s cannabis is enormously using as for the drug abuse in India including other developing countries. The plant Cannabis Sativa is also known as marijuana, presents unique issues in our justice system, not the least of which is its identification both by law enforcement officers as well as Forensic Crime Laboratories. Present work is aimed for identification of that biological evidence of Cannabis plant, which can enhance the suitability of identification. Comprehensive studies of both chemical and morphological methods have led investigators to conclude that the two approaches are complementary[1]. In this morphological study was performed by using trinoccular biological research microscope while chemical study by colour/spot tests and Thin Layer Chromatography due to its ease of availability and handling. A combination of the two provides experienced analysts with a very reliable means for identifying Cannabis fragments. If any of the residue/fragments of Cannabis plant found at the crime scene, a Forensic Analyst (investigator) can adopt any of the identification technique as suitable as for their reliability [2]. Some of the researchers have been already qualified these types of techniques but present study included the anatomy of root, stem, with their visual feature followed by chemical & instrumental techniques which can provide accuracy of identification.



Embedded real time technology is widely used today in many safety-critical applications, researchers have only begun to explore its potential. Considering items such as ATM machine, washing machines and thermostats incorporate embedded processing capability, the number of such systems grown exponentially. However, unlike purely digital technologies, embedded systems are limited by more than our imagination. In this scenario, they’re also limited by the physical components used to perform its parameter up to the mark—considering their accuracy, size, weight, processing speed, and power requirements etc. Nevertheless, current trends favor the widespread deployment of embedded devices in the future. Humans basic requirement is cultivated eventually. For example Cell phones which permeate society, in processing and communication platform fast approaching ubiquity. And many different market sectors, which starts from game developers to the military application, with adequate motivation, create and refine new cognitive aspects, ensuring the availability of adequate R&D resources. One of the many areas in which embedded systems show great promise is gadget technologies, which address the special needs of those with impairments. Hence its necessary to built a grocery an embedded device. Prototypic sarcastic gadget which is a glove or hand shape material that can recognize basic hand gestures and convert them into speech using low-cost.

Analysis of nutritional value and mineral contents of three different parts of body of Cirrhinus reba PDF

Humaira Afroz, Mohajira Begum

The comparative analysis of the proximate compositions mineral contents of Cirrhinus reba were examined. The sample was collected from Chawlonbil, Rajshahi. Parameters of proximate composition analyzed were moisture, protein, fat, ash carbohydrate and energy.All experiments were carried in the laboratory. The proximate composition of head 13.89 % protein, 11.94 %fat, 4.36% ash, 65.97% moisture, 3.84 %Carbohydrate, 0.70 Mg, 0.85 Fe, 123.34 Ca, only flesh contain 16.70 % protein, 3.04 % fat, 0.89% ash, 77.37% moisture, 2.00 %Carbohydrate, 0.63Mg, 0.15 Fe, 22.28 Ca, and flesh with bone contain 19.89 % protein, 5.66 % fat, 3.60% ash, 71.76% moisture, 0 % (nil) Carbohydrate, 0.52 Mg, 3.09Fe, 126.83 Ca. Thus tatkini constitute a high source of protein and low fatty acid, as well as an ideal dietetic fish food for human consumption.

Instinctive Traffic Control and Vehicle Detection Techniques PDF

Deep Desai, Sunil Somani

Traffic congestion genuinely affects our living quality and environment in modern cities. Primary requirement is to increase the efficiency and capacity of the exiting traffic monitoring network due to continues expansion in traffic quantity and limited construction of new highways in rural and urban areas. Traffic congestion is a rising problem in major cities as it leads the fuel wastage in volume of billion gallons per year. In this paper, Concept of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is proposed and to solve Traffic problem different alternatives are explored as well as survey has been carried out in field of vehicle and traffic control system.

Determination of Serological Markers (Blood group markers) of Biological fluid (Semen) obtained from Crime Scene for Individualisation of the Donor(s) PDF

Ravindra Pal Verma, Ekta Arya

Semen samples from 20 donors with unknown blood group and secretor status had been determined from saliva. ABO typing on the concentrated samples was successfully performed after 1 month of storage. Semen stained clothing samples are often submitted to forensic science laboratories for ABH blood group antigen determination. The serogenetic markers of semen stains submitted can be used to determine the origin of any of these samples. ABH blood group substances have previously been identified from urine and semen. ABH blood group substance is low in semen in comparison with other body fluids.

Cloud Computing use in E-banking PDF

Laxmi Joshi

In this paper, we examine how cloud computing is rapidly grows in government across the globe, from Europe to Asia to America. The concept of Cloud computing has spread rapidly through the e-banking. Cloud computing helping nations make great gains through addressing major healthcare, education, and other societal issues. Cloud computing is ex-pected to be one of the fastest-growing technologies in the coming years. Business applications will be the largest market for cloud services pending, with a gradual transition from on-premise to cloud-based services especially for general business applications like customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP). Banks are expected to enter the cloud computing arena cautiously, with no single cloud services delivery model being a silver bullet for best meeting their demanding business needs. Cloud computing can offer financial institutions a number of advantages