Volume 6, Issue 10

Production of Biogas from Different Ratios of Rice Husk and Kitchen Waste PDF

Orhevba, B.A, Onojitayoma, E. E

Production of biogas produced from different ratio of rice husk and kitchen waste was conducted under anaerobic conditions. The experiment included loading three different mix ratios of 3:1, 1:3 and 1:1 of rice husks and kitchen waste respectively diluted with the same amount of water before being mixed in varied proportions. 75g of rice husks and 25g of kitchen waste was mixed with water and loaded into digester A. 25g of rice husks and 75g of kitchen waste was mixed with water and loaded into digester B. Finally, 50g of rice husks and 50g of kitchen waste was mixed with water and loaded into digester C. Each treatment was performed once. Biogas production was measured for a period of 14 days and the volume of gas produced was determined by water displacement method at different temperatures. Biogas production started on the 2nd day, and reached apex on the 9th day for digester A. For digester B, biogas production started on the 1st day and attained maximum on 9th day. Production reached its peak on the 9th day for digester C. The total gas production for digesters A, B and C were 19.30ml, 28.42ml, and 24.94ml respectively at different temperature. The study shows that the largest volume of biogas production was obtained using the 1:3 mix ratio of rice husks and kitchen waste, while also the 1:1 mix ratio of rice husks and kitchen waste as compared to 1:3 mix ratio respectively has more yield. Therefore, kitchen waste is effective for the production of biogas than rice husks. Finally, for a developing country like Nigeria, where wastes are not productively used, wastes generated from animals and plant wastes can be effectively managed through conversion into biogas. Wastes are therefore turned to wealth which increases the income generation of the society.


Windows Bioinformatics Platform: Approach for Molecular Docking in Drug Discovery PDF

Ayad Ghany Ismaeel, Suhad Jihad Al-Dulaimy, Forat Falah Hasan

There are many reasons may cause effort useless, impossible or incapacitating in traditional drug discovery, e.g. the traditional way of development a new drugs takes 10-15 years and costs 400-800 millions US dollars, and complex diseases like cancer are regulated by large, interconnected networks with many pathways affecting cell proliferation, invasion, and drug resistance reaching to deadlock [18]. The fact that most of bioinformatics tools based on linux environment when try to dock using open source the Autodock Vina (a next generation of Autodock 4) in drug discovery and avoided working under windows platform (which is common in use) because from view of practice it has some gaps/drowbacks. This research offers the development of high-throughput method in both biology and chemistry that can be used the bioinformatics tools in drug discovery, as insilico method in drug discovery based on molecular docking using Windows platform, and solving all technical problems which contained it. The experimental result reveals the suggested approach gives windows platform results matching to linux platform, i.e. experimental result shows solving all the conjugation bugs/gaps to the windows platform when implementing the docking procedure.


Application of Thermodynamic Models to Hydrate Formation Prediction during Surface Production Well Testing Using the Ratio Factor Method PDF

Green, I. S., Jimmy, D. E. and Wami, E. N.

Hydrate formation, one of the problems encountered during surface production well testing, is governed by many factors including, the kinetics and thermodynamics of the system. In this paper, a thermodynamic model which centres on changes in the Langmuir constant of the guest molecule(s) under operating field conditions as crucial parameter in hydrate formation process is presented. Acquired surface production well testing data (pressure, temperature and choke size) from a hydrate well using a real time data acquisition system were used to determine the effect of choke size variation on Langmuir constant and thus on hydrate formation. A generalized correlation for evaluating Langmuir constant for large cage/cavity under field conditions was developed and expanded to incorporate variations on the choke sizes. The developed model shows that as the choke size increases, Langmuir constant decreases leading to decrease in the rate of hydrate formation. Since the driving force for hydrate formation is the product of fugacity and Langmuir constant, it then follows that as Langmuir constant approaches zero due to increasing choke size, this product also approaches zero thereby leading to zero hydrate formation.


The geological and geotechnical properties of earth materials of Plateau State University, Nigeria in relation to its suitability for facility layout PDF

Ryeshak, Antipas Gabriel, Wazoh, Hannatu Nanman, Daku, Sunday Sani Daku

This study aims at establishing the sub-soil types and profile to ascertain the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying soils in Plateau State University, Nigeria and recommend appropriate foundation design and construction of projects in the area. Ten (10) trial pits were dugged from where representation samples were taken and subjected to laboratory tests. They are predominantly fines (silt and clay), an indication of its great influence on the engineering properties of the soil as a whole. From the plasticity values, the soils exhibits low to medium swelling potential of 11 – 23.6. The bearing capacity of the soil at 1.5m as compared with the standard values of net bearing capacity of North central zone which is between 250-500 KN/m2 is within the recommended standard for engineering works as by calculation stands at an average of 1131. 6kN/m2. Considering the moderate compressibility of the soils, any proposed foundation in the area should be supported on raft foundations founded. However, where the project precludes the use of raft foundation pile foundation should be employed to transmit the load to the underlying soil stratum.


Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Allium Cepa in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes PDF

Anthony E. Ojieh, Ese C. Adegor, Anthony C. Okolo, Ewhre O. Lawrence, Ikenna P. Njoku, Christopher U. Onyekpe

Type 2 diabetes is a global public health crisis that threatens the economies of all nations, particularly developing countries. It is generally characterized by hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia culminating in severe morbidities. Epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials show that type 2 diabetes is largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modifications without major recourse to pharmacological measures. This study aimed to assess the antidiabetic and antilipidaemic activities of Allium cepa (onions) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight (8) groups of five rats each (n=5). Groups 1a and 2a served as the control groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60mg/kg). The normoglycaemic groups (1b, 1c and 1d) and the streptozotocin-induced diabetic groups (2b, 2c and 2d) were treated with graded doses of A. cepa extract (ACE) (0.4g/100gbw, and 0.6g/100gbw) and metformin (0.5g/100gbw) respectively 28days. The body weights and fasting glucose level of the animals were monitored weekly. At the end of the experiment the rats were sacrificed, blood samples were centrifuged to obtain the serum for biochemical analysis. The pancreases were excised for histological study. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS statistical tool and expressed as mean±SEM. Results show that ACE caused an increase in the average weight at the end of the experiments in all non-diabetic animals treated with varying doses of Allium cepa. Fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic rats was reduced by 50.00% and 35.05% on administration of 0.4g/100gbw and 0.6g/100gbw of Allium cepa respectively. Treatment with Allium cepa significantly (p<0.05) decreased the total cholesterol level (0.4gm/100gm [230.22±15.79], 0.6gm/100gm [220.75±21.06] in a dose dependent manner. The levels of triglycerides (180.10±15.64), high density lipoprotein (80.15±2.97) and low density lipoprotein (224.22±32.88) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats studied. Histology of the pancreas showed evidence of aplastic islet cells that were not healed by the Allium cepa or metformin. In conclusion, Allium Cepa (EXTRACT) demonstrated significant antidiabetic and antilipidemic activities in diabetic rat, but the mechanism needs to be established.


Simulations of Seepage Flows in Dam Subjected to Varying Phretic Levels PDF

Oladipupo S.OLADEJO and Umaru A.NDATSU

New Ede dam embankment is loosed and permeable and results from previous report established the possibility of erosion of fine particles from upstream to downstream of the dam embankment. Seepage problem was also suspected within the dam embankment due to the internal erosion. In this paper, seepage analysis of the earth dam was primarily conducted to evaluate the dam safety against the leakages through the embankment dam. Steady- state analysis, using SEEP2D was employed to investigate the seepage within the dam body at different water levels. As a particular boundary condition for analysis, the water level fluctuation was incorporated to simulate seasonal change and as a result; the various seepage phenomena were quantified such as flow rate, heads, hydraulic gradient, pore water pressure, velocity and seepage quantity. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine coefficients and significant levels; while regression equations were generated, using ANOVA to relate the dependent variable - water level with other seepage parameters (independent variables). The results of the simulated flow net showed ranges of seepage values of 8.1033 x 10-7 - 2.4396 x 10-7 m3/s/ unit width; for water levels at 19.6 m and 11.6 m respectively. At maximum and minimum phreatic levels of 19.6m and 11.6 m and full length of 877 m of dam axis, total seepage value were 7.11 x 10-4 m3/s (42 L/min) and 2.14 x 10-4 m3/s (13 L/min). There was high level of correlation between the seepage parameters (R > 0.99) and significant at < 0.05. The seepage quantities flowing through the dam suggested that the dam body was saturated regardless of water level. The result of this study showed that there is possibility of piping, internal erosion and excessive leakage through the dam.


Assessment of Bulb pungency level in Indian onion cultivars under influence of low doses of Ionizing radiation and short term storage PDF

Suresh Kallai, Ravi, R Kudachikar V B

Investigation on the assessment of the chemical quality changes in different Indian onion (Allium cepa L) cultivars under the influence of low doses of gamma-irradiation and short-term storage was carried out. Cured bulbs of both onion (var.Bellary red) and shallots(var.Ascalonicum) were irradiated to low doses of gamma rays (0, 22, 72, 128 and 150 Gy) in gamma chamber (Model GC-5000) at dose rate of 6.28 kGy/hr and were stored at room temperature storage (26± 3ºC; 60-75% RH)conditions for short-term storage upto 75 days. Response of irradiated and non irradiated bulbs of these cultivars to short term storage in terms of major chemical quality parameter the total pyruvic acid ate content was distinct and notable. Combined effect of gamma irradiation (128.04 Gy) and short storage time ( up to 64 days) had significant impact on increase in pools of the total pyruvic acid content of both onion(22 µ mol/ml.juice) and shallot(28.50 µ mol/ ml.juice) bulbs as compared to their non irradiated ones(17 and 27 µ mol/ml.juice) with better retention of other quality attributes(texture, color) and with no significant losses of nutrients, and pungency characteristics in these onion cultivars during 64 days of storage period.


Alternatives to Cement in Concrete - A Review PDF

Atishay Lahri, Dr. Savita Dixit

In the present world, concrete has become a vital part of our lives. With each passing day, the use of concrete is increasing at a very high rate. One of the main constituents of concrete is Portland cement. With the increase in use of concrete, the manufacturing and consumption of cement has increased drastically. Although cement has exceptional binding properties and is very suitable for use in concrete, the manufacturing of cement results in emission of large amounts of CO2. Due to this, researchers have started finding alternatives to cement that are economical as well as environment friendly. Fly ash, Silica Fume, Metakaolin and Ground granulated blast furnace slag are industrial by-products which provide excellent binding properties to concrete and serve as a replacement of cement. These alternatives are generally termed as Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The use of these materials not only helps in reducing the consumption of cement but also serves as an efficient method for their safe disposal. This paper reviews the effect of using the various alternatives that can be used in concrete as partial replacement of cement. The literature review of various researchers reveals that a single alternative cannot provide all the benefits that cement does. Rather, a suitable combination of these products can be incorporated in concrete to provide properties similar to or better than that of Portland cement concrete.


Upgrading of Abu-Tartur calcareous phosphate via selective leaching by organic acids PDF

A.R. Bakry, N.A. Abdelfattah, A.B. Farag, and A.M. Elwy

Abu-Tartur PR contains about 49.20% apatite mineral equivalent to 21.8% P2O5 and more than 50% of undesirable components including about 26% carbonate minerals. In this study acetic acid was used to eliminate the carbonate content of Abu-Tartur PR which would save acid consumption besides increasing the tenor of P2O5, U and Ln. The relevant acetic acid leaching factors involved the grain size, the acid concentration, the S/L ratio and the reaction time. Upgrading of Abu-Tartur PR has resulted in a marketable and industrially acceptable phosphate grades (about 30% P2O5) besides improving the assay of both U and Ln.


Critical Analysis of Consultant’s Role in Bridge Design PDF

R. B. Gadge, Dr. P. S. Pajgade

Skilled and experienced manpower can create wonders in civil engineering, as it facilitates the development of country. This can be achieved by Design consultants who have a major role to playin the construction of civil industries. It may happen, as is gen-erally the case in many fields that some errors do creep in the perception of the consultants while designing structure. The case studies presents the status of situation in design and construction of bridges and also emphasises the need of proof consultant in complicated bridge designs.Some interesting examples of conflicting interests of consultant and client are presented here. The precautions that need to be taken in preserving the interest of client are described in this paper.


Tuning of Fuzzy Logic Controller for a DC Motor Based on Particle Swarm Optimization PDF

Hanan A.R. Akkar, Ahlam Najim A-Amir, Mohammed S. Saleh

This paper presents an active method to determine the parameters of the membership functions of a F.L. Controller. To provide an optimum performance of the system, the parameters of the membership functions of a fuzzy logic system can be tuned through particle swarm optimization (PSO), so the shape of these functions will vary according to the variables, then the fuzzy control output changes and the performance of the system will be changed.


Characterization of Biopolymers and Biosurfactant for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Niger Delta Reservoirs PDF

Nmegbu, C.G.J, Obah, B. O. and Wemedo, S. A.

Microbial EOR is a cost effective, environmental friendly technique used in the oil industry to increase recovery through the inoculation of microorganisms in a reservoir to extract residual oil by different mechanisms from microbial metabolites. For this study, Bacillus polymyxa (G2) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (G1) were isolated, characterized and identified in the laboratory among other microbes using brackish water. This was based on the cultural morphology, microscopic examination and other biochemical tests. Two main recovery mechanisms were focused on as metabolites from these microbes could prevent viscous fingering as a result of biopolymer production from G2 and interfacial tension reduction through the production of biosurfactants from G1. The action of these microbes on crude oil samples from the Niger Delta region was also investigated. Results from the analysis showed a considerable decrease in certain fluid properties such as gel strength and viscosity. However, this study has shown conclusively that considerations must be given to the type of oil reservoir and its characteristics before choosing a potential microbial candidate for the recovery process.


MODIFICATION OF A MOTORISED QUADCYCLE PDF

Oigbochie, Donald and Ejiko Samuel Omojola

Transportation is on the increase everyday due to the growth in population. Without transportation, there could be no development in both social and economic aspect, as a pursuit of sufficient and effective transportation; the society needs innovations and creations from those in the field of engineering to device a means to solve the problem. Based on the above, this research work has modified an existing quad cycle to ease transportation. The modification brought about improved rigidity by the use of a thick square iron of 50mm thickness. Its load bearing capacity moved from one passenger to 4 passengers (approximately 310kg). Comfort and stability was achieved by repositioning the wheels from one front, two rear to two front and two rear wheels. The development of the quad cycle was accomplished with a sum of N 232,660.00.


The effect of cohesion and level of groundwater on the slope instability using finite element method PDF

Ashkan GHolipoor Noroozi, Alborz Hajiannia

Slope stability analysis is one of the most important topics in geotechnical engineering. Slope stability can be analyzed using one or more methods. Analytical and numerical methods are available but numerical methods are quickly, reliable, accurately and so we able to perform parametric and comprehensive study of slope stability with complex boundary conditions. In this research numerical analysis by finite element software PLAXIS version 8.5 showed that the slope angle and rainfall has the most influence in the safety factor analysis. Also for layered slope variable cohesion or friction angle for each layer has been investigated. The analysis has been done using Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model. The slope stability analyses are performed to assess the safe and economic design of human-made or natural slopes (e.g. embankments, road cuts, open-pit mining, excavations, and landfills). In the assessment of slopes, engineers primarily use factor of safety values to determine how close or far slopes are from failure. When this ratio is greater than 1, resistive shear strength is greater than driving shear stress and the slope is considered stable. When this ratio is close to 1, shear strength is nearly equal to shear stress and the slope is close to failure, if FS is less than 1 the slope should have already failed. Thus, for this research the critical safety factor is considered 1. This means that in parametric study, change in the value of soil cohesion continues until the FS is equal to 1.


POSSIBLE EFFECT OF GROUND WATER ON CONCRETE STRUCTURES OF NOIDA AND GREATER NOIDA PDF

Vishwas Mishra, Sachin Tiwari, Shobha Ram, K Prabhakar and RP Pathak

Noida and Greater Noida are cities in India under the management of the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority and Greater Noida Industrial Development Authority located in the part of National Capital Region of India. Noida is a city that has grown very fast laterally and vertically in an unpredictable manner. Large number of buildings in the form of group housing societies, residential colonies, shopping complexes, hospitals, flyovers, small bridges etc has been constructed or under construction. Majority of these structures are designed for reinforced cement concrete type. Apart from few structures which have been built with pre-cast concrete or ready mix concrete, vast majority of the structures are being constructed in the conventional way. Ground water is the sole source which is being used for mixing and curing purpose. In present study water samples from twenty five locations of the Noida and Greater Noida region were analyzed for their suitability for mixing and curing purpose in concrete as per the provisions of IS 456-2000. Based on the outcome of the study some critical sectors which could experience different types of problem in concrete structures have been identified. The present paper highlights typical concrete durability problems being faced recently in some concrete structures which were constructed just few years ago or the structures upcoming in these sectors. A mapping has been done to assign the problems which may come in each sector.


Integrated Geophysical Approach to Aquifer Delineation in Crystalline Basement Environment PDF

AKINRINADE Opeyemi Joshua, OLABODE Oladunjoye Peter

Aquifer delineation and characterization could be somewhat challenging in Crystalline Basement Complex environment, where they are associated with either saturated weathered Basement or fractured Basement. Increasing demand for water occasioned by domestic and industrial purposes resulted in delineation and characterization of aquifer properties at a site within the crystalline basement environment, where two boreholes have been drilled (BH1 and BH2). Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Electrical resistivity methods were used. Twelve (12) VLF-EM profiles of length 120 – 160 m, with 10 m station separation oriented in east-west direction and twenty-five (25) VES stations were occupied. Three peak positive raw/filtered real VLF-EM anomalies identified are presumed to be water-filled fractures or faults; thus implying possible locations suitable for groundwater development. Four geoelectric layers were delineated namely: top soil, clayey sand/sandy clay, weathered layer and basement rock. The weathered layer is characterized by resistivity values which range from 28 to 1309 Om, and thickness values of 2.9 to 15.1 m. Longitudinal unit conductance (S), Transverse unit resistance (T), and coefficient of Anisotropy (?) have values ranging from 0.03 – 0.16 mhos, 382 – 8517 Om2, and 1.05 – 2.24 respectively. These results are indicative of the aquifer protective capacity, hydraulic conductivity, aquifer productivity and hydrogeologic significance. BH1 failed because it was drilled into the weathered basement at a location characterized by fairly low transverse resistance, while BH2 was drilled into a localized fractured basement with fairly high recharge attributed to extent of fracture network, high transverse resistance and coefficient of anisotropy. Thus, fracture network and its depth extent are of great importance in selecting fractured basement aquifer as groundwater development site. Integration of electromagnetic profiling with electrical resistivity methods has shown to be complimentary tools in determination of groundwater potential and reduces uncertainties in predicting drillable positions. Robust assessment of the weathered basement and fractured basement aquifer parameters has assisted in locating productive borehole position in basement complex environment. This creates opportunities for efficient resources management, and reduces the risk of sinking unproductive boreholes.


Measurement of Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations of Water for Domestic and Other Purposes in Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria PDF

K. Emumejaye and J.O.Ekibade

A survey of radionuclide concentrations in the various sources of water for domestic `and other purposes (like poultry, fish farming, recreation etc.) of the crude oil producing community of Ozoro, Delta State, Nigeria was carried out using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (heavy metals). The study area was divided into three sections for the purpose of sample collection namely; Okpaile, Polytechnic environs and NDC. Samples of well-water, rain and bore-hole water were collected from these areas and analyzed for heavy metals and radioactivity concentrations. The results indicated that values for 40K in Bq/l ranged from 12.68 – 769.68, 232Th < 0.12 – 3.38 and 0.62 – 1.48 of 238U. Annual effective doses computed from measured concentrations showed low values: 0.03 – 1.74 for K-40; 0.16 – 0.37 for Th – 232 and 0.01- 0.34 for U – 238 in mSv/y. For lead (Pb) (0.181 – 0.245 mg/l), copper (0.000 to 0.007 mg/l) Zinc (0.001 to 019gm/l), Nickel (0.1-0.13mg/l), iron (0.02 – 1.42mg/l) manganese (0.008 – 0.032 mg/l) and cadmium below detection limit. Some of these concentration levels in samples from Okpaile for both well and rain water are above World Health Organization (WHO) maximum permissible limits for Pd and Fe. The general results showed that water in the study area had acceptable quality for domestic utilization except the ones that contain excess lead and iron which may require treatment.


Critical State Behavior of Van der Waal gases & Conformation to Nelson-Obert Characteristics PDF

Aman M. Chogle, Hisham A. Maddah

Ideal gas law although widely used has restricted validity as it does not apply to gases which deviate from ideal conditions. Gases in a compressed state can no longer be described by ideal gas law. In this paper we discuss Van der Waal Equation of State which was proposed to account for the shortcomings of ideal gas law. We primarily discuss systems in which real gases are under equilibrium conditions. Compressibility factors for various substances are tabulated and the calculations are validated by accentuating conformance with Nelson-Obert standard compressibility chart. We also present the nature of pressure fluctuation curve with inversion temperatures which can facilitate designing of units meant for systems under phase equilibria.


The Effects of NIOMCO Iron Ore Dust Wastes on the Yield of the Pyrolysis of Rubber from Waste Tyres PDF

Michael Eneji and Kayode Ebenezer Samuel

The effect of National Iron Ore Mining Company (NIOMCO) iron ore dust waste on the yield of the pyrolysis of rubber from waste tyres was studied in this research work. 200g of the washed chipped tyre waste was weighed into a reactor (specially designed steel container that can withstand very high temperature) and connected to a distillation set-up. This was heated at a constant temperature of about 3000C and timed starting from when the distillate (fuel) started coming out, for 45 minutes. The temperature of the vapor was also monitored with a thermometer. The iron ore dust waste of a varied mass of 10g, 20g, 30g, and 40g were added to a fixed mass of 200g of the washed, chipped waste tyre respectively. It was observed that the higher the iron ore dust waste added to the waste tyre, the higher the yield and the lower the temperature at which the fuel started coming out. Flammability test was carried out on the fuel and it shows a typical burning to that of diesel.


EXTRACTION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE OIL EXTRACT FROM THE SEED OF UMBRELLA TREE (TERMINALIA MENTALIS). PDF

Kayode Ebenezer Samuel.

The increase in demand and different applications of oils foster the search for vegetable and seed oils that are of high quality to meet up with the increasing rate of its demand worldwide. Oils are known to have important biological activities. In this study, the extraction and physicochemical characterization of the oil from the seed of Terminalia mentalis (umbrella tree) was carried out. The physical properties of the oil compares favorably with those of the conventional vegetable and seed oils like cotton seed oil, soybean oil and groundnut oil among others. The results obtained for the chemical properties showed 38% oil yield, 1.5 refractive index, 0.871 g/ml density, 0.052 mgKOH/g acid value, 2.600 mEq/Kg peroxide value, 140.223 mgKOH/g ester value, 54.567 gI2/100g iodine value and 140.275 mgKOH/g saponification value. These make the oil suitable for use in the industry except in the ink and paint industries because of its non drying property which is due to its low iodine value content.


The Effect of Differential Settlement of Supports on a Large Steel-Framed Boiler Supporting Structure PDF

Gade Nagamani Devi

The paper gives details of the distribution of forces induced in the members and variation of steel weight of an existing Boiler supporting structure, due solely to a vertical settlement of any column. The construction is described and typical frames were chosen and analyzed elastically. From this approach, a pattern appears to emerge, and it is hoped that this information will be of use to engineers engaged in the design of such structures on difficult sites where sizeable differential settlements may have to be accepted.


EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON A COMBINED REGENERATIVE AND REHEAT GAS TURBINE CYCLE USING MATLAB PDF

RAJIV RANJAN AND MOHAMMAD TARIQ

In recent development of gas turbine cycles, new software for calculating thermal efficiency and power output of a combined reheat-regenerative cycle are applied.There are one compressor and one turbine used in regeneration gas turbine cycle and one compressor and two turbines are used in reheat cycle. In the combined cycle, one compressor and two turbines namely, HP turbine and LP turbine are used in this work. The temperature after reheating assumes to be reaching at the same temperature of HP turbine inlet.A full numerical model for the engine is built. This model takes into account the variations in specific heat and the effects of turbine cooling flow. Also, the model considers the efficiencies of all components, effectiveness of heat exchangers and the pressure drop in relevant components. The thermodynamic analysis has been performed using MATLAB software. The parameters taken in the well defined range for overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperatures and ambient temperature. The cycle performs the analysis for various regenerative effectiveness and various turbine inlet temperatures. It is found that the mass flow ratedecreases on increasing the regenerative effectiveness while increases on increasing the turbine inlet temperature. Also found that the heat required in the burner decreases for higher regenerative effectiveness.


The Effect of Relative Discharge on Local Scour Downstream Combined Structure PDF

Fadhel Abdulabbas, Saleh I. Khassaf and Hassan A. Omran

In this research, a study was conducted experimentally to investigate the scour hole dimen-sions downstream the combined structures which consist from weir and gate due to the effect of the relative dis-charge (Qr) between the flow above the compound weir to the flow under the gate. Twenty models have been de-signed, and every model is formed from composite weir consists of two geometric shapes with rectangular gate of constant dimensions.


Moving Object Detection and Extraction for Video Editing PDF

Mayur Ghogale, Prasad Marla, Nandan Daga, Ankush Kawanpure

A novel approach for extraction of foreground object and using the extracted object in applications like object cloning in a video, insertion of object in an another video, increasing speed of objects in a video. Gaussian mixture model is used for foreground extraction as it deals effectively with lighting changes, repetitive motions from clutter etc. Further a fully automated way of extracting the object from video along with its relative motion is developed. Such extracted object can be inserted in videos of same scene or different scenes to produce pleasant visual effects.


Prestressing Effect on Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened Against Shear PDF

Dr. Hayder H. H. Kamonna

The present study deals with the nonlinear finite element analysis of continuous reinforced concrete (RC) beam strengthened by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet against shear. Normal and high strength concrete are investigated. ANSYS V15 program has been used to achieve the present work. Nine beams have been studied. For some beams, longitudinal CFRP sheets have been suggested to be added to study the effect of prestressing on the beam response. Different levels of prestressing have been applied. Also the position and length of such sheets have been considered to determine the best configuration.


Using bentonite carbon composite material for adsorption of bromocresol purple and methylene blue PDF

Farida M. S. E. El-Dars, Hamed M Ibrahim, Heba A. B. Farag, M. Zakaria Abdelwahhab, M.E.H Shalabi

This study deals with the adsorption of bromocresol purple (BCP), and methylene blue (MB) dyes onto bentonite carbon composite material (BCC). Batch studies were perfomed to evaluate the influence of various experimental parameters: pH, contact time (t), adsorbent dose (m) and initial dye concentration (C0). Optimum conditions for removal of BCP, and MB dyes were found to be: m = 30 and40 gram per liter respectively , and the equilibrium between the adsorbate in the solution and the adsorbent surface was practically achieved in 60min for both BCP and MB dyes. The results showed that adsorption kinetics were found to follow a pseudo-second-order rate expression for the two dyes with a degree of inertaparticle diffusion and it was found to be best represented bythe Langmuir isotherm.


Estimation of workload using EEG data and classification using linear classifiers PDF

Greeshma Sharma, Akansha Gomes

Cognitive workload is a subjective term operantly defined as a worker’s perception of a work performance and work difficulty. To estimate workload through Electroencephalogram (EEG) requires good algorithm with best features. Objective of this research study was to estimate workload using linear classifiers on non linear data. Workload was presented by varying levels of Multi Attribute Task Battery II (MATB-II task). Two non linear features of Hurst exponent and Higuchi Fractal Dimension have been extracted from the data which was acquired from 28 subjects who were all male in the age group 25-40. The classification has been performed using three prominent classifiers i.e. K-Means, K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to test their efficiency in the case of workload data. We have hypothesized SVM classifier to give best results out of the three classifiers. Comparing the performance accuracy of the selected classifiers, we propose a classifier that will give best results for workload classification


Impact of Workforce Motivation on Productivity of Organizations – A case study of Apparel Industry, UK PDF

Sehrish Anam, Fatima Bajwa

The purpose of this research is to investigate Impact of Workforce Motivation on Productivity of Organizations in Apparel Industry of the UK. Relevant theoretical models related to employee motivation, productivity of organizations and employee attitude, moral and job satisfaction are present and analysed in this research. Deductive research approach has been adopted and questionnaire was used as survey tool. Employees filled questionnaire online through tool free online surveys. The findings of the research have significant recommendations for the managers of companies in the apparel industry of the UK, and other organization in general. It has been found that employee motivation is among the major issues faced by organizations, therefore, should be considered particularly if an organizations want to increase its productivity and to enjoy competitive advantage. It is obvious from the research findings that a worker may be doing his/her job duty, but it is not possible to achieve significant success if not willing to work with enthusiasm or motivation.


PHYSICAL PLANNING: A PANACEA FOR URBAN SECURITY CHALLENGES IN PORT HARCOURT MUNICIPALITY PDF

This research tends to focus on Urban Security Challenges and the Role of Physical Planning in fighting crime. In recent times, Port Harcourt has been faced with the problem of insecurity. The aim of this research is to investigate the urban security challenges and the role of physical planning with the objectives of examining the trend of crime over the last five years, to examine the causes of crime in the study area, to examine the use of urban design to improve on crime prevention. The methodology used in this research is both qualitative and quantitative methods, a random sampling was used and five wards out of twenty wards were selected from the study area. A total of one hundred questionnaires were administered after applying the Taro Yamane formula with a ten percent precision level, a scheduled interview was conducted. Data were presented and analysis through the analytical techniques of using tables, charts and maps. In the course of this research, findings were revealed that the main crime activities were caused by organized urban gangs. Burglary, car theft and armed robbery are predominant crimes in the study area. It was found out that police patrol was adequate in the study area; fences are the protective gear found in the study area. The most causes of crime in the area are based on youth unemployment, overcrowding and poverty. As a result of the findings, recommendation were suggested that government should improve the quality of life of city dwellers by creating jobs, police officers and security agencies should be equipped to effectively fight crime. Physical planners should incorporate the concept of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) in planning neighbourhoods.


Removal of Zinc from Aqueous Solution Using Adsorption Phenomena PDF

Sushma V Rachayyanavar

Adsorption is one of the most popular methods for the removal of pollutants from effluents since proper design of the adsorption process will produce high quality treated effluents. The most frequently applied adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal is activated carbon. However it is an expensive material. The use of alternative and perhaps cheaper adsorbents is attractive. In the present study, industrial wastes generated in thermal power plant and in sawmill i.e., coal fly ash and sawdust are used as adsorbents in both active and inactive form, for the removal of Zinc ions from the synthetic zinc solution and to evaluate the adsorptive capacities of the same. Increase in the solution concentration decreases the removal efficiency. The optimum contact time for inactive fly ash, active fly ash, inactive sawdust and active sawdust are 60, 120, 60 and 120 minutes respectively. Increase in mass of adsorbent leads to increase in metal ion adsorption due to increase in number of active adsorption sites. Maximum adsorption at pH 6-7 was observed for sawdust and at higher pH value of 8, adsorption was favorable for fly ash. The Freundlich Adsorption model was best fitted for sawdust and fly ash in active and inactive form for the adsorption of Zinc. The experimental data did not represent best fit for Langmuir Adsorption model. The industrial wastes: Fly ash and Sawdust can be used effectively as adsorbents in removal of zinc.


Novel Approach to Quantization of Hodgkin-Huxley Theory of Action Potential: Revival and Renewal of Mathematical Philosophy PDF

Muhammad Jamil, Nasir Uddin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Nasir Jamil

A careful analysis of experimental studies carried by Hodgkin- Huxley and Hodgkin-Katz for finding out the electrical impulse produced by sodium ions in the squid axon was done. They described their findings quantitatively in form of a mathematical model for the generation of potential necessary for producing action to be responsible for nerve excitation and current conduction. We are presenting innovative Quantized Model of their theory of impulse generation. It will provide new research platforms in exploring the theory from the point of view of Quantization principles and will make the use of electrodynamical and quantum field theoretical approaches possible in fresh analysis of Hodgkin-Huxley equations and their applications. Some plausible applications and some new conjectures regarding the use of Quantized model will be discussed. This can be thought as an effort supplemented to Revival and Renewal of Mathematical Philosophy.


FIELD CHARACTERS OF BASALT FLOWS, A CASE STUDY OF CHIKHALDARA HILL SECTION (AMRAVATI) PDF

Subhash Doke, Prakash Kulkarni

Field characters of Basalt Flows give clue to the nature of Deccan Trap volcanicity, therefore to determine field characters of Basalt flows i.e. their thickness, lateral extent, jointing pattern,etc, the Hill Section of Chikhaldara hill station, which is located 100 km. north west of Amravati (Maharashtra), has been selected along which these flows are exposed. This paper is detail geological information of the different types of Basalt flows, obtained by undertaking thorough field survey from R.L.600m (foot of the hill) up to R.L. 1092m. (Chikhaldara Hill Station). The attempt has been made to determine type of volcanic activity either Fissure type or Central type, which has produced these flows of Basalts.


Control of locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae ) by using imidaclorprid PDF

Sabbour M.M and S.M. Singer

The effect of imidaclorprid IMI on the target insect pest Schistocerca gregaria and the C50 recorded, 278, 214 223, 249 and 240 mg/L for newly hatched , nymphs, Last nymphal stage Adult ? and Adult ? respectively. Under semifield conditions, the corresponding LC50 obtained, 221, 243, 254, 256 mg/L for newly hatched , nymphs, Last nymphal stage Adult ? and Adult ? respectively of S. gregaria. Also, under semi field conditions, the number of S. gregaria were significantly decreased after the IMI first applications. The infestation number obtained 1.1±2.1, 9±2.1, 13±3.8 and 21±3.6 individuals after 20, 50, 90 and 120 days as compared to 12.2±3.4, 36±3.5, 58±6.6 and 98±8.7 individuals in the control.


ST Variability Analysis using Triangular Method, Linear Regression and SVM PDF

S. Thulasi Prasad, Dr. S. Varadarajan

The Cardio vascular diseases (CVDs) like Arrhythmia, Myocardial Ischemia and Myocardial Infarction (MI) may lead to sudden cardiac death if they are not identified in advance. With automated detecting system it is easy and faster for the analysts and doctors to diagnose these diseases from ECG rather than manually. In this paper an efficient and novel method, Triangular method, is proposed to extract ST segments and developed a Linear Regression model to detect ischemic beats for the analysis of ST-Segment Variability (STV). In the proposed method the ECG signal is preprocessed to remove powerline interference, motion artifacts and baseline wander. Later with simple QRS detection algorithm the QRS complex of each beat is detected. Next the RR intervals and the corresponding ST segments are extracted based on Triangular Method (TM) to form feature sets. From these feature sets a linear regression model is designed using Instantaneous heart rate (IHR) and ST segment level to set a reference threshold. Using the threshold set by the regression model the SVM classifier is used to identify the ischemic beats from the test feature sets of ECG signals. The Ischemic Intensity Factor and Ischemic Activity Factors were computed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method and found to be yielding better results when compared to Wavelet Transform based method.


Comprehensive Review on C5, C6 and C9 Chemicals – Production Processes, Applications and Market Analyses PDF

Hisham A. Maddah

A comprehensive study includes the major C5, C6 and C9 chains products and their derivatives. Each chemical product is described thoroughly by showing its chemical structure, industrial manufacturing processes (technologies), applications and market data. More details regarding some process technologies are mentioned to familiarize you with the operating conditions, used catalysts and licensors of each technology. Worldwide statistics showed that china is the dominant producer and consumer for DNT chemical where china supply and demand for DNT is about the half of the total worldwide production and consumption capacities.


Museums as Cultural Tourism Attractions in Ubud Bali Indonesia PDF

Ida Bagus Kade Subhiksu,I Wayan Ardika,I Nyoman Madiun

This study explores museum management using five museums located throughout Ubud as case studies, including The Blanco Museum, Museum Puri Lukisan, Agung Rai Museum of Art (ARMA), The Rudana Museum, and Neka Art Museum. The research was conducted between January and June 2014 involving 82 foreigner museum visitors, 79 domestic museum visitors, and five museum owners as participants. Museum management, from the perspective of foreign and domestic visitors, are measured based on visitors’ perception on the architecture, collection, service quality, cleanliness, ambiance, and hospitality of the museum and the degree to which the museum meets the expectations of both foreign and domestic visitors. Museum management from the perspective of managers are based on the founders’ idealism, uniqueness, cultural preservation, and the museum’s role in supporting and sustaining tourism in Ubud, which can be described as follows: Each museum has noble idealism, although there are variance among the museums, still these variance implies noble significance which is to support the sustainability of tourism in Ubud. The role of museums in becoming the main tourism attractions for Ubud, while at the same time as an institution for cultural preservation, is well supported by the local government. The development of Ubud museums as tourism attractions is closely related to the development of other sectors, evidenced by several museum managers creating cooperative packages with several hotels in the area to promote their museums as tourism attractions.


Teamwork vs. Individual Responsibility PDF

Naif M. Algashaam

This paper shows the value of working in groups versus working individually, and talks about the sophisticated areas of having successful results.


Image Compression Using ASWDR and 3DSPIHT Algorithms for Satellite Data PDF

Dr.N.Muthumani,K.Pavithradevi

Compression is the process of representing information in a compact form so as to reduce the bitrate for transmission or storage while maintaining acceptable fidelity or image quality. Algorithms for image compression based on wavelets have been developed. These algorithms have resulted in practical advances such as lossless and lossy compression, accuracy, resolution and others. We concentrate on the following methods of coding of wavelet coefficients, in this paper. ASWDR (Adaptively Scanned Wavelet Difference Reduction) algorithm and 3D-SPIHT(Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Tree) algorithm. These algorithms which achieve some of the lowest errors and highest perceptual quality.


Study of Electromagnetic Field Effects on Human PDF

A.Balasubramanian, K.Kalpana, G.Balasubramanian

Electric and Magnetic field from the power transmission line is an important issue. The possible health effects on humans have arised. The magnetic field in turn induces the current in the human body. It is very necessary to compute the induced current and specific absorption rate to evaluate the effects associated with the electromagnetic fields. Hence in this study an attempt has been made to study the electromagnetic field effects on the human body under EHV transmission lines. Human body is modeled and the simulation is done using Finite Element Method. The human model is placed under 380kV lines the Magnetic field and induced current is found with the help of ANSOFT 2D software.


Synthesis And Characterization of New Hetero Ar-omatic Polyamide From benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d']bis(thiazole)-2,6-diamine PDF

Adesh Telvekar, Sunder Kelkar, Prakash Mahanwar

A novel hetero aromatic polyamide has been synthesized using benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d'] bis(thiazole)-2,6-diamine, a diamine monomer, copolymerized with terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) by condensation polymerization. The yield of purified polymer was found to be more than 60% and was confirmed by FTIR and NMR analysis. . It shows inherent viscosity of 0.4 dLg-1. The thermal behavior of the polymer was studied by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer was found to be 201 oC by DSC analysis. The polymer was found to be stable up to 403 oC which confirm its high temperature performance. It also shows good solubility in aprotic polar organic solvents. The high thermal performance and good solubility, make it easily processable for desired application.


Typology of online shoppers in India: An empirical study in Uttar Pradesh PDF

Ram Komal Prasad, Milind K. Gautam

This research paper aims to examine the online buying behavior among a group of online users. The present study develops a typology based upon motivations for online shopping. We have used exploratory factor analysis to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the items. We have identified five types of online shoppers those are labeled as fear shoppers, convenience shoppers, novice seekers, trusted buyers and traditional shoppers. The fear shoppers worried about their security and privacy concern. The convenience shoppers are more motivated by convenience. The novice seekers are substantially more motivated by information seeking across retail alternatives. Trusted buyers are moderately motivated by quality and variety seeking. The traditional shoppers are more motivated by physical store orientation. Confirmatory factor analyses successfully validated the items used to measure five type buyer of online shopping. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS version 16 was used for model testing and to verify the five types of online shoppers. Shoppers’ types were profiled in terms of background variables and the propensity to shop online. The managerial implications of the research outcome are also discussed for the typology of online buyers.


Implementation of Mathematical Series Functions on CUDA Platform-A preliminary result PDF

Dr. Raj.B. Kulkarni, Madhavi P. Patil

High Performance GPUs originally designed for graphics processing. But GPUs also offer small to very high calculations with CUDA, the multithreaded approach of compute unified device architecture. In this paper we evaluate efficiency of computation in many core GPU platform such Quadro FX 1800 from NVIDIA and compare the performance with multi-core CPU execution. It presents introductory concepts of parallel computing from simple examples to debugging both logical and performance.


Improved Space-Time Coding Scheme over Nakagami Fading Channels PDF

Ilesanmi Banjo Oluwafemi

In this paper, the performance of space-time coding scheme is investigated over Nakagami fading channels. In the first part, the performance of super-orthogonal space-time trellis code is presented while the performance of its concatenated version is presented in the second part. The concatenation coding scheme with iterative decoding involves convolutional code as the outer code and super-orthogonal space-time trellis code (SOSTTC) as the inner code. The pairwise error probability (PEP) for the coding schemes were derived and their performances evaluated by computer simulation. Simulation results shows that the diversity order of the coding schemes guaranteed by quasi static fading channel increases by m times in the presence of Nakagami fading with inverse fading parameter m and the coding gain varies with the general Nakagami fading channel.


MICROWAVE ASSISTED SOLVENT FREE SYNTHESIS OF FEW THIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENT ANTIFUNGAL AGENT PDF

Sonal D.Boob and P.R. Solanki

In this research work one pot synthesis of 1,3-substituted thiazolidin-4-ones,(IVa-IVh) have been carried out from carbonyl compound, amine and thiocarboxylic acid in molar proportion under microwave irradiation for 1-2 minutes, in solvent free condition. In vitro assay of newly synthesized compound were carried out to test antifungal activity by disc diffusion method against Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani.


EFFECTIVENESS OF WEB-BASED CASE NOTE OVER PAPER-BASED CASE NOTE IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY PDF

Adebimpe Omolayo Esan, Bolaji Omodunbi, John B. Oladosu

Web based case-note, provide a platform for health care givers where they can easily access patients’ case note online. It enables physicians to record patient histories, display test results, write prescriptions, enter orders, receive clinical reminders, use decision-support tools, and print patient instructions and educational materials. It has the potential to improve quality of health, streamline workflow and increase efficiency in health care delivery. The study was conducted at three hospitals in Nigeria. 100 medical doctors, 100 nurses and 100 medical health record officers who have used the web based case note were interviewed using a well structured questionnaire and oral interview. Parameters used in measuring the performance of web enhanced patients case note over paper based case note include: accuracy, accessibility, retrieval time and confidentiality. Result obtained were analysed using the spss software. Mean ±SD and t-value of Retrieval time, confidentiality, accessibility and accuracy were significantly higher in web based casenote compared to paper based casenote.


Temporal Evolution of Viscous Fingering in Hele Shaw Cell: A Fractal Approach PDF

Zakade K.R, Gulam Rabbani, Khan A.R, Yusuf H Shaikh

Viscous fingering in radial Hele Shaw cell is studied and the temporal evolution of patterns in terms of the structural complexity of shape is presented using concept of fractal and fractal geometry. HP90, a viscous servo gear oil is used as viscous medium and the low viscosity medium is air. Air is suddenly injected between the two plates of the Hele Shaw cell and fingering patterns are recorded using video camera to study time course of evolution of the fingering patterns. From the video recording Frames at suitable time interval are selected and are separated for analysis. The images so obtained are converted into gray scale and using appropriate threshold they are converted into two colour bitmaps. Box counting is implemented on the two colour bitmap images for determining fractal dimensions at various stages. It is found that the complexity of shape and structure remains more or less the same as is revealed from the associated fractal dimensions, details are presented.


Inverse Domination Number of Euler Totient Cayley Graphs PDF

A.Mallikarjuna Reddy, K.Budadoddi

G= (V, E) be a simple graph. D is a subset of V is said to be a dominating set if every vertex in V-D is adjacent to at least one vertex in D. The minimum cardinality of a dominating set is called domination number and it is denoted by ?. In this paper we investigate the inverse domination number of Euler Totient Cayley graph.


Galvanostatic Removal of Lead from Simulated Chloride Wastewaters using a Flow-by Fixed Bed Electrochemical Cell: Taguchi approach PDF

Ali Hussein Abbar, Abbas Hamid Sulaymon, Sawsan A. M. Mohammed

The Taguchi parameter design approach was used to find the optimal conditions for electrolytic Pb(II) removal using a flow-by fixed bed electrochemical cell composed of a vertical stack of stainless steel screens. The investigated process parameters were initial metal ion concentration, current, flow rate, and mesh number of screen. Removal, current efficiencies, and energy consumption were considered as responses for the optimization of metal removal. An orthogonal array L9, the signal-to-noise(S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance were used to analyze the effect of selected process parameters and their levels on the performance of Pb(II) removal.The results indicated that concentration and current have the major effect on performance of lead removal. Flow rate and screen mesh number have lower contribution on the performance of Pb(II) removal and their contributions are close in all responses. The optimum values of control factors were Pb(II) initial concentration 200ppm, current 0.58A, flow rate 7l/min ,and mesh number 40 wire/in. The highest current and removal efficiencies were 48.5% and 89.7% respectively with energy consumption (2.43kwhkg-1). The results of confirmatory runs under the optimum conditions indicated that this methodology is more efficient in optimizing the process parameters.


An Efficient Spam Filtering using Supervised learning SVM PDF

Ravi Chakravarty, Prof. Rajesh Nigam

With the growth of networking the usage of mails are also enhanced. Due to rapid growth of internet, dependency of communication is mostly based on electronics mails for both commercial and business purposes. According to today’s scenarios electronics mails are also plays vital role in marketing or production advertisement. Hence numerous marketing firms used e-mails as a tool for promoting their products and services. These types of mails are generally called spam mails. Sometimes it is quite difficult to identify important mails among such group of spam mails. Because of this identification of such types of mails are essential so that they can keep away from important mails. The methodology implemented here is an efficient technique in which k-mean clustering is applied for the classification of spam.


Treatment of ethylene spent caustic pollutant using sulfuric acid PDF

ALI FARZI, SAEID MOSLEMI BAYRAMI

Caustic soda is used in naphtha cracking units and petroleum refineries for sweetening of hydrocarbon streams. The generated caustic waste is an environmental pollutant and must be removed. Several methods are proposed for treatment of spent caustic such as wet air oxidation, biological treatment, etc. Spent caustic used in this work is prepared from Tabriz Petrochemical Company. In this work sulfuric acid was used for treatment of spent caustic which not only removes the waste, but also generates valuable product of sodium sulfate. In each experiment, 1L of spent caustic was taken and its color and phenol were removed by oxidization with H2O2. Then, 50 mL sulfuric acid was added and treatment process was performed. Different samples were taken at specified time periods to calculate percent waste conversion. The results showed that after 2.5 minutes it was about 79%, 84% and 92% at 25, 35 and 45°C, respectively.


Extraction of Agro Farm Power by Using Rice Husk Data in Bangladesh PDF

Salama Jahan Nipa, M. A. Hossain

Rice husk is an agro processed product by technologically. Husk power systems is a startup company based in Bihar, India, Indonesia, South Korea that provides power to thousands of rural peoples in the world. In developing country like Bangladesh, the demand of electrical power is very higher than the available production. Bangladesh is an agriculture based country and the production of rice is increasing in tremendous amound in the last decade. Rice husk based power plant is already installed in few countries. However, there are some locations in which rice husk based power station projects could be feasible in Bangladesh. By analyzing the previously collected data on the selected locations, this work has been carried out to predict if these resources are sufficient for rice husk power, in the hope to extract electrical power to use in agro farm machineries, agro product processing


Effects of Surcharge on the Behavior of Passive Piles in Sandy Soil PDF

Mahdi O. Karkush, Ghofran S. Jafar

The effects of adjacent embankment on the behavior of pile in sandy soil, river sand, had been investigated through manufacturing an experimental model of steel. The soil sample classified as (SP-SM) according to USCS of dry unit weight 13.5 kN/m3. The pile model was an aluminum tube of 10 mm outer diameter. An incremental surcharge was applied at distances of 2.5D, 5D and 10D from the edge of pile model, where D is the outer diameter of model pile. Also, two embedded lengths were investigated Le = 360 mm which classified as rigid pile and Le = 420 mm which classified as flexible pile. The effects of these parameters had been studied on axially loaded pile (LP) and unloaded pile (UP). The results obtained from the model piles are: the displacement at the soil surface, the rotation at the soil surface, bending moment profiles, pile deflection profiles, pile rotation profiles, and shear force profiles. Some of these results are measured experimentally an others are calculated theoretically based on measured values.Based on the results of tests, it was concluded that increasing the distance between the embankment and pile reduces the effects of embankment on the pile, also the axial loading on pile reduces the effects of embankment on the pile. While, increasing the embedded depth exhibited more effects for the embankment on the pile.


STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR ENTERPRENUERSHIP STUDIES IN INDUSTRIAL DESIGN PROGRAMMES PDF

Wuritka, Enoch Gotring

Although Industrial Design Programmes constitute some of the curricular arrangements in Nigerian Institutions of higher learning for the purpose of establishing a strong foundation for entrepreneurship studies, there are strong indications of summountable problems. According to Blake (2011) there are problems of traditionalism and conservative beliefs which have largely failed to exploit the roles of effective communication in emphasizing the importance of the curricular underpinnings. Industrial Design Programmes being interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary studies with commitments linked to entrepreneurship must embrace the sense of innovations. These factors according to Onwuka (2010) are meant to explore and capitalize on the development and advantages of appropriate resources for the purpose of rationalizing instructions on entrepreneurship education in Industrial Design. While this paper highlights the role of appropriate instructional resources in relevance to entrepreneurship studies in Industrial Design, institutional policies and realities on ground have also been reviewed.


Effect of solar cell temperature on its performance PDF

M.K. El-Adawi, S.-E.-S. Abd El-Ghany, S.A.Shalaby, M.A.Attallah

Effect of solar cell temperature on its performance is studied through the dependence of the solar cell’s parameters such as I_sc (short circuit current) and V_oc(open circuit voltage) on the cell temperature . The two –dimensional Laplace integral transform technique has been used to solve the heat diffusion equation for a solar cell subjected along the local day time to the incident global solar radiation. Mathematical expression for the temperature of the cell is obtained. As an illustrative example computations are carried out on a silicon solar cell at different operating conditions. The obtained results indicate that the increase in solar cell temperature make a degradation in its performance.


The Isolation and Bio-chemical Identification of Clostridium tetani PDF

Nazar-ul-Islam and Hajra Haneef

The Clostridium tetani is causative agent of tetanus, spastic paralysis, a vaccine preventable disease, caused by the second most poisonous substance known, the tetanus toxin (TetX). Tetanus is more remarkable and globally prevalent disease of human and vertebrate animals. The estimated worldwide deaths from tetanus were 213,000 in 2002 including 198,000 in children under 5 years of age including neonatal tetanus This study aimed for isolation of causative agent of tetanus, C.tetani its animal and biochemical testing along with the antimicrobial susceptilbility. The achievements of present study was isolation of tetanus causative agent by clinical identified tetanus patients and from deep puncture wound.


Literature review on WSN based transport management for courier PDF

Miss Devyani Mahajan, Dr. K. P. Rane

Logistics encompasses all of the information and material flows throughout an organization. It includes everything from the movement of a product or from a service that needs to be rendered, through to the management of incoming raw materials, production, the storing of finished goods, its delivery to the customer and after-sales service. The scope of logistics has changed since the emergence of new technologies and strategic alliances in order to complete on flexibility and responsiveness. The growing importance of logistics arises from companies becoming globalized to gain access to new markets, realize greater production efficiencies, and tap technological competencies beyond their own geographical borders. A reduction in trade barriers and the emergence of advanced technologies have led to a great interest in logistics in recent years.


Voltage Profile Enhancement In A Dwindling Electric Power System PDF

J. N Onah, B. O Anyaka, V.C Ukwueze, U.C Ogbuefi

N-1 secure was carried out in a 27-bus of 330kV transmission grid to investigate the low/high voltage violations using Fast Decoupled load flow (FDLF) method owing to its time per numerical iteration in MATLAB environment. It was assumed that voltages less than 0.95pu and greater than 1.05pu are cases of voltage violation scenarios. In order to improve the voltage profiles and increase the grid robustness, unified power flow controller was injected into the buses with voltage violations and the simulation results show improvements in the voltage profile of the network.


Ranked Phrase Search Using Order Preserving Encryption For Cloud Documents PDF

N.Jayashri, T.Chakravarthy

Cloud Computing has been considered as the next-generation architecture of IT Enterprise. This exclusive paradigm produces many new security issues, which have not been well recognized. This paper presents a new framework for privacy preserving multikeyword rank-ordered search and retrieval over large document collections. The proposed framework not only protects document/query privacy against an outside intruder, but also prohibits an untrusted data center from learning information related to the query and the document collection. We introduce practical methods for proper combination of relevance scoring methods and cryptographic techniques, such as order preserving encryption, to protect data collections and indices and provide efficient and accurate search capabilities to securely rank-order documents in response to a query and related document collection. The proposed methods thus form the steps to bring together advanced information retrieval and secure search capabilities for a wide range of applications including managing data in government and business operations, enabling scholarly study of sensitive data, and facilitating the document discovery process in litigation.


Pros and cons of different types of geometry PDF

Areej Alshareef

Geometry must be as longstanding and deep rooted as humans’ fight for the sake of survival. Making a good hunting bow and the different kind of arrows having different shapes surely involved some special kind of intuitive gratitude of distance, space, direction, and kinematics. In the same way, delimitating the enclosures, constructing the shelters, and accommodating the little hierarchical or classless communities must have presumed an appreciation for the ideas, concepts and designs of center, length, equidistance,area, straightness and volume.Some of the above mentioned illusorily “clear” terminologies remain vague as human beings are not very well servedand aided all the time by different kinds ofmathematical acculturation that encompasses even one of the finest available instruction in fundamental geometry. Different shapes need different kind of rules to relate them with real world and different kind of geometry types are used for this purpose.


Lossless Huffman coding for image compression and decompression based on block and code book size using K-Means algorithm in spatial and frequency domain PDF

Ali Tariq Bhatti, Dr. Jung H. Kim

Images are basic source of information for almost all scenarios that degrades its quality both in visually and quantitatively way. It is one of the best techniques to apply in spatial and frequency filtering domain. Image compression using K-Means algorithm is an area characterized by need for extensive experimental work to establish the viability of proposed solutions to a given problem which is highly used in all applications like medical imaging, satellite imaging, and in optimization problems, etc. In this research paper, read an image of equal dimensional size (width and length) from MATLAB. Initialize and extract M-dimensional vectors or blocks from that image. However, initialize and design a code-book of size N for the compression. Quantize that image by using K-Means Algorithm to design a decode with table-lookup for reconstructing compressed image of different 8 scenarios. Compute the histogram equalization, discrete fourier transform, and fourier spectrum for the original and reconstructed image. Hence, perform that image compression in spatial filtering domain to distinguish it with the frequency filtering domain. To get in more detailed and experimental purposes, how this compressed reconstructed image pass through low pass and high pass filter from different techniques (Ideal, Gaussian, and Butterworth) in frequency filtering domain. With the help of vector quantizing K-Means clustering algorithm, evaluate and analyze the performance metrics (compression ratio, bit-rate, PSNR, MSE and SNR) for reconstructed compress image with different scenarios depending on size of block and code-book. Once finally, check the execution time, how fast it computes that compressed image in one of the best scenarios. The main aim of Lossless Huffman coding using block and codebook size for image compression in spatial and frequency domain is to convert the image to a form better that is suited for analysis to human by using K-Means algorithm. In this research paper, performance metrics also notifies from scenario (figure 57(c), when M=16 and N-25, if threshold=0.1) to perform lesser entropy and higher the average length for lossless Huffman coding on image compression using K-Means Algorithm,. Finally, in this research paper that scenario 8 from figure 3, image has a higher PSNR, SNR and lesser Compression ratio shows a better quality of reconstructed image using K-Means algorithm in terms of Lossless Huffman coding in spatial and frequency domain.


Road Network Extraction Using Support Vector Machines PDF

Swati A.Ghule, T. Rajani Mangala

In this paper, a unique approach for road extraction using support vector machines (SVMs) is explained. Roads are probably the most important topographic object and it is necessary to have very short updating cycles for road networks. Hence for road network extraction satellite images are taken and from that images road network is extracted with the help of SVMs. Different types of satellite imagery like ALOS, IKONOS, QUICKBIRD, WORIDVIEW-1, SPOT-5 etc. can be used to extract particular road network. Here K means algorithm is used. Different types of ANNs and SVMs can be used for feature extraction. Here focus is on road network extraction using support vector machines.


An experimental investigation for the coolant temperature effect on the exhaust emissions for a spark ignition engine fuelled with gasoline and CNG PDF

Mina B. R. Abaskharon, Fawzy M. H. Ezzat, Ali M. Abd-El-Tawwab, Mohamed R. El-Sharkawy

In the present work a comparative assessment has been made for the exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine fuelled with gasoline and CNG. The engine under test was operated separately by gasoline or CNG using a conversion switch. The produced hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) of both fuels were measured at coolant temperature of 80°C, 90°C and 100°C.Tests have been conducted at full and half load operating conditions with a speed range from 1000:5000 rpm. The results showed that reducing the coolant temperature from 100°C to 80°C increased the produced hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide and reduced the carbon monoxide for both fuels at full and half load conditions. Furthermore, the CNG produced less HC, CO and CO2 than the gasoline at full and half load operating conditions.


Hybrid Model of Change Management Strategy: A Case study of Tapal Tea Pakistan PDF

Nadia Zubair Ahmad Khan, Qasim Ali Nisar, Adnan Tariq Alvi, Irfan Ali

Tapal Tea started its venture as a private and local company with a single product in the market that gained profit of 6 billion rupees in 2005. With the step by step change implementation process of the overall re-structuring of the organization and the deep market analysis, in 2009 it has the highest sales (volume) than any other tea product. Today Tapal has the largest market share as compared to its competitor ‘Lipton’ in Pakistan and is the only local privatized company that has grown four times of its own than any other company in Pakistan. The purpose of current study is to make contrast of the old and new change management processes and activities in the respective tea industry in terms of its competitors and to give recommendations on the bases of conducted analysis. According to the study and analysis conducted in overall change management process of Tapal tea, a ‘Hybrid change model’ is suggested which fits best on the activities and practices. As Tapal is integrated organization, their whole organization depends on every single department. Dependency on one another makes them vulnerable. Application of this model will be helpful for this organization to apply the change management process in effective manners to gain the expected fruitful outcomes.


Lerner index and Boone indicator to Albanian banking sector PDF

Arjan TUSHAJ, Albana HASHORVA

The dynamic changes of Albanian banking sector have affected the banking concentration and behaviour. The article examines the banking competition using Lerner index and Boone indicator through the panel datasets of Albanian banking sector during 2005 - 2011. Applied results on the banking competition using Lerner index and Boone indicator confirmed the competitive behaviour into market structure. The comparative statics demonstrated that banks in Albania held the higher market power compare to European countries excluding the few countries and no high market power by banks during 2005 -2011. This article highlighted the robust support linking to the assessment of banking competition through the non – structural approaches.


Vehicular Cloud Computing Exposures PDF

Pallavi B. Tembhurnikar, Prof. S.S.Barde

Vehicular systems administration has turned into a mainstream research zone in light of its particular gimmicks and applications, for example productive movement administration, road security and business perspectives. Vehicles are relied upon to convey generally more correspondence frameworks, ready for offices, stockpiling and expanded sensing force. Consequently, numerous advances have been sent to keep up and advance Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). As of late, various arrangements were proposed to address the difficulties and issues of vehicular systems. Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) is one of the arrangements. VCC is another engineering that has a recognizable effect on activity administration and road security by in a flash utilizing vehicular assets, for example, figuring, stockpiling and web for choice making. This paper shows the condition of the overview of secure communication in vehicular cloud computing. In addition, we exhibit a scientific categorization for vehicular cloud in which extraordinary consideration has been dedicated to the broad applications, cloud developments, key administration, protection and security issues. Through a far reaching survey of the writing, we outline building design for VCC, organize the properties needed in vehicular cloud that help this model. We contrast this system and typical Cloud Computing (CC) and talk about open exploration issues and future headings. By evaluating and examining writing, we found that VCC is an innovatively beneficial and monetarily reasonable innovative moving standard for joining canny vehicular systems towards self-ruling movement, vehicle control and recognition frameworks.


Impact of Working Capital on the Profitability A Case of Pakistan State Oil PDF

Zill-e-Huma, Faiza Maqbool Shah

Working capital is required for daily operations of the firm. The primary aim of the study is to assess the impact of working capital management on the PSO’s profitability. For such assessment, Pearson correlation and simple linear regression methods are applied in which the data of 10 years (2005-2014) has been taken to analyze the relationship between working capital and profitability of PSO. The results unveiled the negative relationship of debt ratio and positive relationship of current ratio with the profitability. However, cash conversion cycle has insignificant relationship with the firm’s profitability. Thus, PSO should work on the reduction of debt ratio and maintenance of the current assets to the optimal level.


A Comparative Evaluation of The Heavy Metals Content Of Some Cereals Sold In Kaduna, North West Nigeria PDF

OA Babatunde and Uche Emeka-Oha

Heavy Metals (Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn) concentrations of Cereals were investigated using the Atomic Absorption spectroscopic technique (AAS). The mean concentrations of Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn (mg/kg) obtained in Maize ranged from 0.1118 to 0.1155, 0.1846 to 0.5223, 0.1053 to 0.1715 and 0.0394 to 0.1768 respectively while in Sorghum, their concentrations ranged from 0.1110 to 0.1151, 0.1528 to 0.4921, 0.1234 to 0.1763, 0.0539 to 2510 respectively. In Millet, their concentrations however, ranged from 0.1151 to 0.1159, 0.1088 to 0.4819, 0.1026 to 0.1562 and 0.1705 to 0.2988 respectively. These values were found to be below the joint WHO/FAO (2001) safe limit for heavy metals in Cereals but the values obtained in all the samples for Fe and Zn as micro nutrients of great importance in human nutrition were found to be far below the recommended daily allowance for them. Analysis of the variation in the Heavy Metals concentrations at 95 % confidence level showed that their concentrations differed significantly at 95 % confidence level while the correlation coefficients obtained after a comparative evaluation of the heavy metals concentration of the samples showed varying levels of relationship ranging from null, through weak to moderate. Hence, the concentrations of the heavy metals in samples depend to some extent on their nutrient content but to a larger extent could depend on environmental factors.


DNA Sequencing Similarity Analysis: Graph theory Application PDF

Dr. Anjaneyulu G.S.G.N , Arush Kamboj, Somanshu Kalra

Graph theory is study of mathematical structures called graphs which are represented by nodes (or vertices) and edges. As we know, during evolutionary history, not along with DNA mutation subsequent rearrangements also occurred for individuals. This study involves the use of graph theory to construct a mathematical descriptor for similarity analysis based on various mutation phenomena. As a DNA sequence can store considerable amount of computational data, a weighted directed graph will be set up for each DNA sequence.


Comparative Analysis of Posture Controllers for Tracking Control of a Four-Wheeled Skid-Steered Mobile Robot in Case of Non-Zero Initial Position and Course Errors PDF

Maciej Trojnacki, Przemyslaw Dabek

The paper is concerned with the problem of trajectory tracking control of a four-wheeled skid-steered mobile robot in case of non-zero initial position and course (posture) errors. Object of the research, its kinematics and dynamics were described. Structure of robot motion control system containing posture controller and drive controller is shown. Six solutions of the posture controller which allow realization of tracking control as well as a methodology of controller tuning are presented. Effectiveness of particular solutions of posture controller is benchmarked in the simulation studies. Evaluation of the analyzed solutions is carried out using the introduced quality indexes.


Optimization of Chip Load for Improved Surface Finish In Milling Inconel718 PDF

Faisal .M. Ali, S.C.Borse

In this study, an attempt has been conducted to investigate the effects of cutting parameters on surface roughness during End milling of Inconel718 material By taking into account the taguchi method .The experimental results have revealed that the Chip load and cutting speed has most significant effect on surface roughness. The present approach and results will be helpful for understanding the machinability and surface characteristics of Inconel718 during End milling for the manufacturing engineers Analysis of variance is used to study the effect of process parameters and established correlation among the chip load, speed and depth of cut with respect to Ra. The result are further confirmed by experiments. Finally output parameters like surface finish can be optimized for economical production.


A Review on Theories Used for Decision Making in Project Management Studies PDF

Khairul Azizan Suda, Nazatul Shima Abdul Rani, Hamzah Abdul Rahman, Wang Chen

This paper is a review on theories used in previous studies for decision making in project management studies. A mapping of most frequent theories being used forwarded for discussion. Theories identified are resource based theory, action based theory, utility theory, contingency theory, game theory, fuzzy theory, and reliability theory. Reviews from past studies forwarded from various industry, on strategic risk management, project management and project management were highlighted, and some of the theories being used across the board. Those are the theories that might be relevant to be used for project management studies in order to ensure project success and eliminate project failures in the future.


Emerging trends in analytics PDF

Sami Alosaimi

In this paper we discuss the technology and enterprise-adoption trends in the area of business analytics. Also, you are able to see example and research results.


Adsorpitivity and corrosion inhibtion performance of 2-(alkyloxy)-N,N,N-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-oxoethanaminium chloride using DFT Approach PDF

Elshafie A. M. Gad, Jabir H. Al-Fahemi

Density function theory (DFT) study on adsorpitivity and corrosion inhibtion performance of reported molecules 2-(alkyloxy)-N,N,N-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-oxoethanaminium chloride (where R= C6, C12 and C18) on carbon steel (Type L-52) in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The relevancy of quantum chemical descriptors to the performance of these molecules as corrosion inhibitors was investigated. These descriptors were EHOMO; energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital, ELUMO; energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, ?E; the energy gap, ?; Global hardness, S; global softness, I: ionization potential, A: electron affinity, X: absolute electronegativity, ?N; the fraction of electron transferred, ?; global electrophilicity index, ?E Back-donation ; the back donation, f +, f - ; Fukui indices for local nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks and s+, s- local softness. The result of descriptors calculation pronounces that the theoretical approach comply with the reported experimental data.


Pronunciation Problems Arab Speakers Encounter While Learning English PDF

Mohammad Alfehaid

Arabic is an official spoken and written language in 23 countries. Arabic is the most important language for 1.5 billion Muslims around the world because it is the language of The Quran, which is the book of Islam and the different are ways of using the language. Pronunciation in Arab countries varies due to the distances and cultural differences. In Morocco, Arab speakers use a certain pronunciation and accent that cannot be understood by Arab speakers in the Middle East, such as people from Saudi Arabia and Egypt. (Wahba, Taha, and England. 2006. Page 3). These differences might affect learners’ speaking and pronunciation such as using the plural s and stress. “The Arabic and English phonological system are very different, not only in the range of sounds used, but in the emphasis placed on vowels and consonant in expressing meaning (& Smith, 2001, page 195-196). These variations mean Arab speakers might encounter different problems pronouncing some vocabulary, but usually they encounter similar difficulties. In Arabic there are 28 letter which are easy to comprehend and be heard as sounds.


SOIL RESISTIVITY AND SOIL pH PROFILE INVESTIGATION: A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING COMPLEX PDF

OYUBU A.O

Electrical resistivity,the ground’s potential to pass an electrical current, is utilised in designing grounding (earthing) system for buildings, substations or specialist plants, and for measuring the corrosion susceptibility of buried pipelines and other steel structures. Electrical resistivity is influenced by factors such as soil composition, moisture content, pore- water chemistry, presence of organic materials and chiefly soil pH. Therefore apart from the soil’s resistivity, a knowledge of the soil’s pH, a measure of the soil’s acidity or alkalinity also becomes necessary in earthing system design. The Wenner four point method used for this investigation which was carried out on the Engineering Faculty complex of the Delta State University, Abraka, Oleh Campus was chosen over other methods because it helps overcome some of the problems associated with the requirement for knowing the electrical centre of the earthing system being tested. It employs four probes (stakes) digital earth resistance meter (Tester) such as Kewtech, Metrel, Metrohm, Seaward and Megger earth resistance meters (Testers) among others. Megger earth résistance meter (Tester) was used for this investigation.


Role of Cultivars , Growth Regulators and Biocides on the Incidence of Mango Malformation in Egypt PDF

Azza M. K. Azmy

Isolation trials from malformed mango inflorescences frequenty yielded Fusaraium mangiferae .Seven local mango cultivars, i.e. Ewasy, Fagri klan, Hendy , Hendy Sennara , Keitt, Kent, and Saddeka of 10 years old were evaluated fot their ability to the natural infected by malformation disease during 2012 growing season. Data revealed that Saddeka cv. followed by Ewasy cv. were the most susceptible ones to the disease incidence and Keitt was the lowest affected one. The effect of three commercial growth regulators, i.e. Agrotone (NAA), Berelex (GA3), Cultar (paclobutrazol) and four biocides, i.e. AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Bio-ARC (Bacillus megaterium) , Bio-Zeid (Trichoderma album ) and Blight Stop (Trichoderma spp.), on the incidence of mango malformation was evaluated in the field under the natural infection by the disease during 2012 /2013 and 2013/ 2014 growing seasons. Results indicated that the two growth regulators ,i.e. Cultar and Agrotone and the biocide Bio-Zeid were the most effective treatments in reducing the disease and increasing the produced fruit yield than the other treatments when each of them was used alone. However, the combination treatment between the growth regulator Cultar and the biocide Bio-Zeid was the most efficient treatment in this regard.


A Filtration System for Treatment of Kitchen Waste Water for Re-Use PDF

Nwakonobi, Theresa Ukamaka, Onwuegbucha, Chidinma Nwadiuto, and Obetta Samuel Enyi

A system was developed to provide suitable media conditions through filtration and chlorination for treatment of kitchen wastewater and comparing them for suitability. Such quality parameters as Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ammonium-Nitrogen (NH4-N) and pH were measured before and after treatment of the waste water. The effects of treatment media (i.e. Filtered, Filtered-chlorinated and Control) and meal time on the tested parameters were determined. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 at 200C) average values of (10.22±1.58) mg/L, (7.99±1.12)mg/L, and (5.10 ± 0.53) mg/L obtained for the Control (CM), Filtered (FM) and Filtered-chlorinated (FCM), respectively, satisfied the FAO 1985 benchmark figures for safe discharge. The COD values of (755.11±52.62) mg/L, (634.33±61.88) mg/L, and (430.78±42.34) mg/L, recorded for the CM, FM and FCM, respectively, were outside the FAO reuse range. The mean values of NH4-N obtained; (9.09±2.50)mg/L for Control, (5.49±2.18) mg/L for Filtered, and (2.32±1.34) mg/L for Filtered-chlorinated were within the FAO 1985 reuse range. The pH values of (8.61±0.43) and (7.28±0.63) obtained for FM and FCM, respectively, agreed with the FAO 1985 and USEPA standards for irrigation water. While (10.52±0.94) obtained for the Control medium is not within the set limit. Appreciable improvement on the kitchen waste water quality was therefore achieved using this system.


Efficiency of Neuropsychological Methods in Enhancing the Comprehension of Students Suffered from Developmental Dyslexia PDF

Reza Ahmadi

The goal of the current research is determining the efficiency of HSS (Hemisphere Specific Stimulation) and HAS (Hemisphere Alluding Stimulation) neuropsychological methods in enhancing reading comprehension of students of third, fourth and fifth classes of elementary school, suffered from dyslexia. Twelve students, who identified are of reading disorder based on clinical interview, intelligence test and reading and comprehension tests, were individually received neuropsychological task in 30 sessions. Reading and comprehension tests were used in pre– and post–tests. After one month, follow up test was performed. Statistical data was analyzed using visual analysis of chart and improvement percent. The results were shown that the reading and comprehension performance of students in post–test was better than in pre–test. Applying such treatment methods was led to stability of treatment effects in these children after one month. The current results emphasize the importance of working with neuropsychological tasks and show that using HSS+HAS methods can lead to increasing the comprehension in people suffered from reading disorder.


Automated Prediction System For Various Health Conditions By Analysing Human Palms And Nails Using Image Matching Technique PDF

Nityash Bajpai, Rohit Alawadhi, Anuradha Thakare, Swati Avhad, Sneha Gandhat

In recent years, palm print identification technology has been widely carried out and used in fields such as identity recognition. At the same time, some features of palm and skin vividly reveal information about diseases and health condition of the human body. We can research the application of palm diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine with the help of digital image processing technology. In the field of medical science, practitioners observe nails and palm of patient to get assistance in diagnosis of the disease. Also human eyes have some limitations in case of minute observations. A branch of palmistry, known as medical palmistry is one branch where scientific study of human palm and skin is done to identify or predict the diseases. It has been found that today computers are used in healthcare domain for storage purpose but not for taking decision regarding diagnosis or prediction of diseases, i.e. the experts, who can predict or identify the disease by observing color of nails and palms, do not have support of computer system. To bridge this gap, the model of decision support system for healthcare based on medical palmistry using the techniques of digital image processing and analysis is designed and implemented to identify or predict the disease.


Production Optimisation in the Niger Delta Basin by Continuous Gas Lift – A Case Study of Iduo-Well-A06 PDF

Okoro, E.S, and ©Ossia, C. V

Iduo-Well-A06 with 58*106STB initial oil reserve was producing at 5,000 STB/day rate with 31/2 inches tubing in 1993. After 5 years of production the rate dropped to 1,200STB/day at 50% water-cut and 831 psig average reservoir pressure. Gross production recorded in 1998 was 2.8*106 STB, leaving about 55.2*106 STB reserve .Hence, there was need for reserve recovery. This work seeks to design a continuous gas lift technique using PROSPER® software to increase production rate. Therefore, models were constructed to determine the best-fit correlation for PVT matching. Design input parameters were: operating pressure of 1,900 psig, minimum valves spacing of 500ft, and the differential pressure across valves of 250 psig. The valve type used was casing sensitive. Results showed that Glasso and Beal et al correlations were found to be best-fit. Furthermore, the optimal production rate of 4,601,57 STB/day was achieved with 8.0MMscf/day continuous gas injection rate at 20% water cut using 41/2 inches tubing. Also, unloading and operating valves depths were 3,952.75ft and 7,577.72ft, respectively. Further injection rate increase yielded lower production rate, as 4,524.01STB/day production rate was achieved using 9 MMScf/day optimal injection at 1,865.1 Psi minimum pressures.


Magnetic properties of bilayered Fe67Co18Si1B14/Co66Fe4Ni1Si15B14 amorphous alloy core PDF

Michal Nowicki, Roman Szewczyk

In this paper, we present the investigation of magnetic characteristics of bilayered Fe-Co amorphous alloy ring-shaped core. They were measured on the specially designed measurement stand, called the hysteresisgraph. Highly nonlinear behavior, such as double hysteresis, was observed. The obtained B(H) and µ(H) characteristics are distinctly different from the typical, single-phase ferromagnetic materials.


Methodology of vibroacoustic isolation selection for utilization in checkweighting systems PDF

Pawel Nowak, Marcin Kaminski, Roman Szewczyk

Paper presents methodology of vibroisolation selection on the example checkweighter system. Analyzed system was simplified - main modules are represented by the concentrated masses, connected by universal models of bonds. In paper two ways of determination of bonds parameters are presented. First way requires physical presence of analyzed system and can be utilized for applying vibroisolation on developed system in order to minimize vibration transmission to the system. Second way can be applied during system development. Utilization of Finite Element Method analyses allows to design proper shape of bonds between modules. Presented method utilizes numerical simulations for different parameters of vibroisolation. Multiparameter optimization provides significant reduction of vibration transmission to the crucial elements of checkweighter system. Due to that mass measurement accuracy can be significantly improved.


Techniques to compensate mutual coupling effects in a Multiple Switched Beam Smart Antenna with Beam Shaping Capability PDF

Freeborn Bobor-Oyibo, Stephen J. Foti, David Smith

A smart antenna for mobile applications incorporating an array of ± 450 polarised stacked patch elements 4 columns wide excited by a multi-beamforming and beam shaping network is described. Four narrow overlapping beams, one wide “broadcast channel” beam and right and left shaped beams can be provided. The later shaped beams are to provide high capacity coverage in a specific narrow angular sector while low capacity coverage is maintained over the remainder of a 1200 sector. Results are presented for the simulation of this smart antenna using CST EM simulation software. In addition, a demonstrator array has been constructed and tested which has yielded a positive conformation of the simulation results. It will be shown that the effects of mutual coupling degrade the beam shapes, particularly for the broadcast beam producing a significant reduction in gain over the centre of the pattern. Results are included to show the effects of applying modified complex excitation weights for compensation of mutual coupling. Whilst this technique can be shown to restore beam patterns it is also shown to introduce unacceptably high return loss at the antenna input ports. An alternative technique for producing Wide Angle Impedance Matching (WAIM) is described which is shown to improve return loss but degrade beam shapes. This work describes how both techniques can be combined to maintain good beam shapes and preserve good impedance matching, with consequent good return loss, over wide scan angles and also for shaped beams.


Teradata: The global leader in Data Analytics PDF

Rushabh Shah, Prof. Neha Mendjoge Katre, Prof. Kriti Srivastava

Teradata just like Oracle is a RDBMS that is capable of processing complex queries more efficiently and smoothly handling huge databases. This paper mainly focuses on what Teradata is, what are it's applications, how Teradata evolved, different Teradata products and services launched, the features of Teradata, the functional overview and architecture of Teradata. The primary objective of this paper is to explain how essential Teradata is for a business and other needs of Teradata.


Using Energy Trace and Barrier Analysis Method for Risk Analysis of Automated Excavation Work: A Novel Approach to Huge Tunnels PDF

Jafar Jafari

Today, Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) is usually used for automated excavation, especially in huge tunnels with high operation rate. In recent years, numerous accidents have been occurred in tunneling projects, especially in excavation by TBM. Hazards should be controlled through risk management process. The current study is aimed to evaluate the risks involved in an automated excavation project using TBM. In the current descriptive case study, energy trace and barrier analysis were used for performing risk analysis. Observation, experience and judgment of personnel, checklist, related codes and standards as well as accidents and near misses recorded in safety office were used in data collecting process; identifying the resources of energy, goals, possibility and consequences of hazards were performed in numerous workgroups by experienced experts. The identified risks were prioritized and controlling measures were recommended. In the current study, 51 hazardous energy resources were identified in six energy groups. While 29.4% of the identified energy resources were related to the physical energies, 19.6%, 41% and 8% of the identified energy resources were related to chemical, mechanical, and electrical energies, respectively. However, only 2% of those resources were natural. The crane with 19.5% and the cutter-head and shield with 10% of total hazardous energy resources were the most and the least dangerous parts of tunneling process with TBM. According to the results of the current study, TBM operation involves various and numerous hazard resources. It can be possible to use energy trace and barrier analysis method ad an effective method for analyzing the risks involved in TBM operation.


ACRS: Arabic Character Recognition System Based on Multi Features Extraction Methods PDF

Mustafa S.Kadhm, Asst. Prof. Dr. Alia Karim Abdul Hassan

This paper proposed a new architecture for Arabic Character Recognition System Based on Multi Features Extraction Methods and SVM Classifier (ACRS). An Arabic handwriting dataset proposed as well for training and testing the proposed system. Although half of the dataset used for training the SVM and the second half used for testing, the system achieved high performance with less training data. Besides, the system achieved best recognition accuracy 99.64% based on several feature extraction methods and SVM classifier. Experimental results show that the linear kernel of SVM is convergent and more accurate for recognition than other SVM kernels.


Estimation of Thermoelastic Behavior of Three-phase: AA1100/Ni-Coated Boron Carbide Nanoparticle Metal Matrix Composites PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

The objective of the present work was to estimate non-linear thermoelastic behavior of three-phase AA1100/Ni-coated B4C metal matrix composites. The thermal loading was varied from subzero temperature to under recrystallization temperature. The RVE models were used to analyze thermo=elastic behavior. the load bearing capacity of AA1100/Ni-coated B4C composite was reduced with increase of temperature. The elastic and thermo-elastic strains were high in the direction of tensile loading for temperatures higher than 0oC whereas these were high in the direction normal to tensile loading for temperatures lower than or equal to 0oC. As the temperature increased ductile mode of failure was witnessed in the composites.


Feature Selection Technique Using Ant Colony Optimization on Keystroke Dynamics PDF

Shivam Sharma

The work is concerned with the use of Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for feature selection of Keystrokes Dynamics and comparison of classification accuracy of Multi-SVM and KNN classifiers. There are various approaches used for feature subset selection but, ACO algorithm gives good performance than other feature selection algorithm like Genetic Based algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization. In this, first all features are extracted from benchmark dataset, then Multi-SVM and KNN classifiers are trained using all features and their classification accuracy is compared with same training set and test set .Then, features are reduced by Ant Colony Optimization algorithm and then Multi-SVM classifier is trained using reduced features and performance is compared before and after feature selection. The study deals with the use of this technology in ID Password authentication in computer systems, Mail Service Provider and where ID Password is used.


A Compact U-slot Dual-Band Antenna for WLAN/Wi-MAX and RFID Applications PDF

Avinash Garhwal, U. S. Modani, Raj Kumar Sharma

In this paper a U slotted dual-band monopole antenna with a shorted strip fed by a coupling microstrip line for wireless communication in the wireless local-area network (WLAN) band is studied. The proposed antenna can provide two separate impedance bandwidths of 927MHz(2.071GHz-2.998GHz) and 6879MHz(5.1760GHz-5.8639GHz) respectively. Consistent omniderectional radiation patterns have been observed in both the frequency bands 2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz. The proposed antenna is simple in design and compact in size. It exhibits broadband impedance matching, consistent omnidirectional patterns and appropriate gain characteristics (>2.8 dBi) in the RFID and WLAN/Wi-MAX frequency regions.


A Framework for Prioritizing Intervention Projects in Slums PDF

Mohamed F. Ahmed, Omar H. El-Anwar, Walid A. Attia

Slums represent major national challenges in developing countries. Various intervention strategies can be adopted to upgrade and/or replace slums, but are often faced with serious challenges; including planning, construction, social, and economic challenges. Selecting the most suitable intervention strategies for each slum area and determining the priorities of these intervention startegies are important goals in the development process. This paper presents a novel and comprehensive framework that is capable of supporting planning authorities in identifying (1) the needed intervention strategies for the slums area and (2) the optimal priorities among these intervention projects. In the proposed framework, decision are made taking into consideration three main factors; namely (1) the priority package within which an intervention project can be classified; (2) the benefit to cost ratio for each project; and (3) the construction sequence within the same area. In lieu of this analysis, the proposed framework computes an urgency factor and a vector of benefits indices for each intervention project. This paper also presents an application example to demonstrate the potentials of the proposed framework.


Adsorption Treatment of Industrial Paint Effluent for the Removal of Pollutants by Local Clays PDF

Iheoma C. Chukwujike, Chinomso M. Ewulonu, Nwanonenyi, S. C, Ifeoma C. Uche

The use of local clay as an adsorbent for the removal of metal ions, such as, lead, chromium, silver, iron and copper from paint effluent, was investigated. In this work, adsorption of these metals onto the modified clays was studied through a process involving coagulation. Satisfactory results were obtained. Local clays have been considered a potential adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from industrial paint effluent. The effective application of local clays for effluent treatment is limited due to small surface area and presence of net negative surface charge leading to its low adsorption capacity. This work was focused towards modifying the physical structure and chemical properties of the clay to maximize its adsorption capacity. The problem of clean water can be solved by treating industrial and municipal waste water with modified clays. The treated effluents were analyzed for the concentration of chromium, potassium, lead, magnesium, manganese, iron, cobalt, sodium, silver, mercury and cadmium. Also some gross organic pollution indicators such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as well as pH, acidity, alkalinity, turbidity, hardness and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the effluents were determined. The study showed a percentage removal of over 50% for all the contaminants. The modified clay was at its best performance when calcined at 650oC. The results of this study showed that the modified clays were appropriate for the treatment of industrial paint effluent.


Dynamic Analysis of Soil Structure Interaction of Pile Supported Frame Structure PDF

Sharmila Belkar, Dr. Kiran Ladhane

The Soil-pile-structure interaction is a complex phenomenon and which can affect the response of structure during dynamic excitation such as earthquake. To deal with such complexities, it is necessary to use numerical methods like Finite Elements for analyzing system behavior under dynamic excitation. In this paper, a five storied (G+4) two bay frame structures supported by pile group is considered for evaluation of structural response and soil structure interaction during transient event. The pile group is embedded in sandy soil mass. To simplify the full nonlinear transient dynamic problem, load time history is applied on edge of top structure beam in a lateral direction with triangular wave to predict structure response in one cycle. A Finite element method (FEM) based approach is used to model structure in ANSYS Mechanical using full transient method. The analysis load boundary conditions are derived from United States (US) Geological Survey for the creation of global shake map. This loads are typically observed high acceleration and damage levels during earth quake in past. The entire system is studied for five different peak loads with same frequency and structural responses are compared with and without soil effect under same dynamic load.


An approach for selecting the optimum and effective combinations of machines based on specific operations using fuzzy multi-criteria decision making model PDF

Ramin Ahmed, Md. Muzahid Khan, Md. Hasibul Haque

In manufacturing systems, inputs are transformed into an output by gathering inputs in an optimal way to guide the manufacturer. Machining process plays a prominent role in industry, and thus, directly affects the efficiency of the manufacturing systems. Due to highly competitive global market, the organizations are now forced to focus more on increasing productivity while decreasing cost and time by right selection of the combination of machines. Proper selection of machines justifies labor saving, improved product quality and increased production rate with enhanced overall productivity. Evaluation and selection of a combination of machines is a complex decision-making problem involving multiple conflicting criteria. Due to different importance of the conflicting criterions, the multi-criteria decision-making methods are extremely useful in the selection process of the proper machining type. This study provides distinct systematic approaches in fuzzy environments to deal with the selection problem of proper combination of machines and proposes a decision support model for the guidance of decision makers to assess potentials of four distinct traditional machining processes, namely Lathe machine, Drill machine, Grinding machine and Milling machine, in the operational process of mild steel bar of length 6 inch and diameter 0.8mm. The required data for decision and weight matrices are obtained via a questionnaire to specialists, personal trials as well as by deep discussions with experts. . Finally, an application of the proposed model is also performed and the desired combination of machines is obtained.


Antifungal potential and Phytochemical Screening of Combretum molle leaves and stem-bark against Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. PDF

Ayuba-Abdul, M.J., Adelanwa M.A., Alao S.E.L and Anamayi, S.E

Combretum molle (Combretaceae) is reputed in folklore medicine for its anti-infective properties. In this study, the antifungal potential of Combretum molle leaves and stem bark extracts on the plant pathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina was investigated. Combretum molle powdered plant was extracted using acetone and methanol and phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Saponins, Triterpenes, glycosides, phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones. The stem bark extracts showed more bioactivity than the leaf extract. Agar diffusion and broth dilution techniques were used to determine the antifungal activity of the plant extracts against Macrophomina phaseolina. Both solvent extracts showed activity against the test organism with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 5mg/ml and 0.625mg/ml. The results justify the wide use of Combretum molle in African traditional medicine and also hold clues for plant derived compounds in the development of ecofriendly fungicides for better crop health and yield in agroforestry.


Influence of Different Recess Technology in GaN HEMTs PDF

Sunil Kumar, Vimal Kumar Agrawal

Recess Technologies in GaN HEMTs were simulated to check the influence of recess in device improvement process.In this work different recess are consider and their influence on the device characteristic is carried out. Gate recess improves device transconductance but main drawback of this is reduction in drain current. For most of the sensing and communication device applications both drain current (Id) and transconductance (gm) should be reasonably high. To achive this different recess depths combination are simulated a combination of 10nm Gate and Ohmic recess shows good balanced value of transconductance (gm) and drain current(Id) without any leakage current.


Performance Validation of the Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm Clusters Data PDF

S. Govinda Rao, Dr.A. Govardhan

In this paper, we present the Modified K-Means Clustering algorithm Analysis and performance, the clustering analysis can be used to partition the cluster data with number of choice clusters and perform each cluster if it can form properly or not and it can pertain by using the silhouette coefficient method. In this one the silhouette coefficient can apply on the group of author’s H- and G-indices with same or different features [1]. The silhouette coefficient analysis can be used to separate the distance from each resulting clusters, the silhouette value measures and shows how each point in one cluster with other points in another cluster and also visually it provides how those cluster are formed with effectively the main functionality of the clustering analysis is to identify the quality assessment of the clustering results. The silhouette index investigated and suggests that the use of the preprocessor improves the quality of clusters significantly for the h and g indices data sets. Furthermore, it is then shown that the modified K-means algorithm good quality, compact and well-separated clusters of the h and g indices data


Comparative Evaluation of Different Digital Modulation Schemes on AWGN, LOS and Non-LOS Fading Channels Based on BER Performance PDF

B.O.Omijeh and S. D. O. Agoye

In this paper, Comparative Evaluation of Different Digital Modulation Schemes on AWGN, LOS and Non-LOS Fading Channels Based on BER Performance has been achieved. Digital modulation schemes such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase shift Keying (DPSK) and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) play fundamental roles in the performance of all digital communication systems. In this paper, the evaluation of three different digital modulation schemes i.e. 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 16-DPSK are compared based on Bit Error Rate (BER) performed on Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Line of Sight (Rician) and Non Line of Sight (Rayleigh) Fading Channels to identify a suitable digital modulation scheme. The data modulation and data rate were considered to analyze the performance i.e. Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Signal Noise ratio (SNR).The entire process was modeled in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. Based on simulation results, it is observed that among the three digital modulation schemes, 16-QAM showed better performance as compared to 64-QAM and 16- DPSK.


SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OFDM BASED DIGITAL VIDEO BROADCASTING (DVB) OVER DIFFERENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION CHANNELS PDF

B.O.Omijeh and S. D. O. Agoye

Digital video broadcasting (DVB) is the television digital system. It’s however much more than a simple replacement for existing analogue television transmission, this system has many advantages such as picture quality and allows you a range of new features and services including subtitling, multiple audio tracks, interactive content and multimedia content. The main purpose of this paper is to develop and simulate a DVB system using the Matlab software – the language of Technical Computing.


Formulation and Evaluation of Matrix Membrane Moderated Transdermal Patches of Bosentan Monohydrate PDF

Revathi Mannam, Indira Muzib Yallamalli

The main aim of the study was to develop matrix membrane moderated transdermal drug delivery systems of Bosentan Monohydrate and to study the effect of different rate controlling membranes on the drug release pattern. The drug reservoir membranes were prepared by using HPMC and rate controlling membranes by HPMC K4M, HPMC K 15M, HPMC K 100M and E RL PO. The effect of rate controlling membrane on drug release pattern was studied by in-vitro and ex-vivo methods. All the formulated transdermal patches were tested for physical appearance and pharmacotechnical properties. F3 (HPMC K4M: ERL PO 1:0.4) has shown a drug release of 93.93±1.23% in 24 h with a flux of 2.101±0.021 (µg/cm2/h). In case of HPMC K15M and HPMC K100M the drug release prolonged for more than 24h. Drug release kinetics was interpreted by using different kinetic models and the drug release followed mixed order kinetics, non-fickian diffusion model. The drug release mainly depended on the swelling behavior and matrix erosion of the polymer in rate controlling membrane. Stability studies were conducted according to ICH guidelines and the formulations were found to be stable. Ex vivo studies has shown a significant decrease in drug release compared to in vitro and F3 with highest drug release was selected for further studies. Based on the above studies it can be revealed that by using rate controlling membrane desirable release patterns can be obtained and the films were found to be physically acceptable and are more durable.


Innovations in the worth of Cloud Computing PDF

Dr. Mukeh Kumar

In the last few years Information Technology reach the new heights. In which the concept of cloud computing is an innovative way that accelerate the revolution that cloud organization provide more reliable service, software and infrastructural facility anytime and anywhere to its users. Cloud computing is a different way to deliver computer resource rather than a new technology; the paper defines the value of cloud computing and conventional Grid computing and its major components. This paper also highlights the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing.


Security and Integrity of documents by using novel algorithm of Stegnography PDF

Dr. Mukeh Kumar

In Stegnography, one message is hidden inside another, without disclosing the existence of the hidden message, it apparent to an observer that this message contains a hidden message. Moreover, the information hidden by a watermarking system is always associated with the object to be protected or its owner while steganographic systems just hide information. On the other hand, cryptography can be defined as the study of secret writing (i.e. concealing (hide) the contents of a secret message by transforming the original message into a form that cannot be easily interpreted by an observer). The method considered here (diffusion and confusion) can be easily used in both applications. The hidden message can be transformed into a diffused form (i.e encrypted) and inserted into the background. The hidden information might have no relation with the text (foreground). At the same time, backgrounds are usually used with documents and so dif-fused data will not necessarily trigger the attention of an observer. Moreover, the hidden message is also encrypted which increases the security level of such documents.


Effect of Surface modified f-CNTs on the Electrical and Mechanical Properties in Polymer blend (PC/PMMA/PS) to form Polymer Nano composites (f-PCNCS) PDF

Khakemin Khan, Ijaz Ul Haq, Aftab Ahmad, Rasool Kamal, M.Sohail, Sidra Mushtaq, Fazal Wali, Inayat Ullah, Ahson Jabbar Shaikh

Nano composites PCNs and f-PCNs were prepared by a mixture of PC/PMMA/PS polymer blend, MWCNTs and functionalized f-MWCNTs by simple oxidation reaction carried in a mixture of acids HNO3, HCl, H2SO4.The functionalized f-MWCNTs were incorporated into polymer blend matrix at varying ratio of 0.1% and 0.3% at 260oC and 270oC to prepare polymer Nano composites (PNCS).The new prepared Nano composites, pure polymer and polymer blend (PC/PMMA/PS) were characterized by FTIR to check the nature of the sample. It was found that remarkable improvement in mechanical and electrical properties was observed in the case of composites made by functionalized CNTs and polymer blend.


Improving the IEEE 802.11 WLAN Handoff process to support multimedia traffic PDF

Nidhi Sanghavi, Rajesh S.Bansode

The multimedia services such as Voice over IP(VoIP), video conferencing, live telecast, video streaming can be provided to clients or users in IEEE 802.11 WLAN. Mobility management is an important problem of IEEE 802.11 WLAN. For de-ployment of fast real-time services, it needs stringent Quality of Services(QoS) requirements such as for bandwidth, throughput, delay, jitter and packet loss rate. . The provisions for improving the IEEE 802.11 handoff latency, there are area of improvements in the following three parameters transmission delay, delay variation and packet loss ratio. This proposed protocol improves the overall handoff interruption time as compared to MISH protocol and legacy handoff protocol along with delay of 77.67ms abiding the stringent requirements for seamless running multimedia services of less than 150ms delay for IEEE 802.11 WLAN users.


Irrigational quality of Vamanapuram River, Kerala, India PDF

Vinod Gopal V and Sabu Joseph

Surface water is treated as an important source for irrigation around the world. The composition and concentration of dissolved components in water determine its quality for irrigation. One of the important considerations of water quality for irrigation is the saline or alkaline nature of the water. Characteristics of irrigational water can vary with the source of the water which may directly affects the management of soils and crops, and their associations. Assessment of irrigational quality of Vamanapuram river was carried out by means of Electrical Conductivity (EC) or Salinity index, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chlorinity Index (CI), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium percentage (SSP) or Per cent Sodium (Na%), Residual Sodium Carbonates (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonates (RSBC), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR), Permeability index (PI), Kelly’s Ratio (KR), Corrosivity Ratio (CR) and Hardness. Water resources in the highland and midland parts of the study area (i.e., S1 to S16 and T1to T3) are within the range. Samples from lowland are highly influenced by salinity, Fe and chlorinity.


Prediction of surge height due to tropical storms for the coast of Bangladesh PDF

M. Mizanur Rahman

In this paper an estimate of surge height associated with tropical storms is done for the coast of Bangladesh. For this purpose, a vertically integrated model in cylindrical polar coordinate system is developed. Nested numerical schemes were exercised in this study to save computer memory space and to avoid numerical instability as is appropriate for operating forecasting purpose. Vertically integrated shallow water equations are solved using a semi-implicit finite difference technique. Offshore islands of the whole coastal belt along with coastal bending are incorporated through proper stair step representation. The developed model is applied to estimate surge height at different coastal and island locations of Bangladesh associated with the severe cyclonic storm ‘AILA’ that hit the coast of Bangladesh recently. The result obtained by the model is found to be satisfactory with observed and reported results obtained through various investigators.


Medium Optimization for PHB depolymerase production by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using Plackett Burman design & Response Surface Methodology PDF

Sonal J Wani, Sohel S Shaikh, Riyaz Z Sayyed

The present study focuses on the optimization of the media component by the statistical way for the production of PHB depolymerase enzyme (E.C. no 3.1.1.75) by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The most important process parameters which enhance the PHB depolymerase production were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Among all the media components, PHB and pH were identified as significant variables. Further, optimal levels of these significant variables found by response surface methodology were, PHB; 0.13 g/100ml and pH 7.5. More than 2 fold increase in PHB depolymerase yield (1.501 U/ml) was obtained by using a statistical optimization approach vis-à-vis enzyme production under un-optimized conditions i.e. 0.721 U/ml activity. Moreover, validation of the model in response surface methodology reflected the accuracy and precision of the model and experimental set up. The predicted values of response surface methodology shows good correlation with the experimental values. Scale up study at bioreactor level revealed maximum PHB depolymerase production and yielded as 3.137U/ml activity.


AWARENESS OF EDIBLE WINGED TERMITE (Macrotermes natalensis) AS A FOOD IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES OF IMO AND RIVERS STATES, NIGERIA PDF

Ijeomah, H. M. and Mazi, E.C

Inadequacy of information on available animal protein sources has been the major cause of increasing deficits in annual protein consumption in Sub Saharan Africa. Macrotermes natalensis is an edible insect, rich in animal protein and other vital nutrients but its level of awareness as regards edibility is unknown. This study examined people’s level of awareness of the edible insect in the study area, assessed the effect of demographic characteristics on its awareness, and investigated various methods of Harvesting, Processing and Marketing the species in the study area. Data for this study were collected through a set of questionnaires which was complimented with oral interviews and field observations. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentages, tables and charts while Chi-square was used to test for associations. Macrotermes natalensis is known by all respondents (100%) in the study area.


Sustainable Road Transportation Practices in Nigeria. PDF

Chikwendu D, U, Okoroji L.I., Ikeogu C., Ejem E.

This study focused on the Problems associated with Carbon emission level in Nigeria, the sustainable practices adopted in Nigerian Road Transport Industry to alleviate these problems, challenges it has faced and possible ways to overcome these challenges. Data was collected from secondary sources like journals, websites and Newspaper Articles. Findings revealed that despite the varying views on Global warming , the Nigerian Government have adopted practices like BRT scheme, lane and Carpooling and Organisations aspire for a future of low carbon by adopting sustainable practices in a comprehensive life cycle approach.


Detection of Alive Human body in Military Area PDF

Miss. Krashna V. Panpaliya, Prof. Gauri N. Zade

The wireless communication technology are rapidly spreading to new areas such as data acquisition , building control , monitoring system and many more. These technology are also use in military area.Most of the military organization takes the help of robot for solving many risky jobs that cannot be done by the soldiers.The propose robotic system detect alive human body in military area. These system uses a specific set of sensors and a wireless camera. There are two modes where robotic system is worki.e manually operate mode and user controllable mode. Robot works in manually operated mode in which all sensor are functional for automatic action and in user controllable mode user sends the signal to robot using RF module and control it manually.


Kinetics of Direct Reduction El-Baharia (Egypt) iron ore pellets in static bed via Hydrogen PDF

Naglaa Ahmed El-Hussiny, Atef El-Amir, MarwaMoustafaAhmed, Saied Thabet Abdel-Rahim, Mohamed El-Menshawi Hussein Shalabi

El-Baharia iron ore is a source of iron in iron and steel Co. in Egypt. This iron ore will be used for producing iron by direct reduction of iron ore pellets using hydrogen as a reducing agent. Pellets reduction was examined under different conditions of changing hydrogen flow rate, and temperature ranging from (600oC to 950oC). The results showed that increasing both flow rate and temperature affect positively on reduction rate. The reduction kinetics was studied and it proved that the reduction controlling step was diffusion through thin ash layer with activation energy of 60.55 KJ/mole.


Estimating the Impact on the Nigeria Crude Oil Export from 2002 to 2013. (An Arima-Intervention Analysis) PDF

Obinna Adubisi, E.T. Jolayemi

This research was done within the framework of intervention analysis to evaluate and estimate the impact of the financial crisis which became a global issue from January 2008, on Nigeria crude oil export. Secondary data on monthly crude oil export was obtained from the Nigeria National Petroleum Cooperation (NNPC) annual statistical bulletin from 2002 to 2013. The 72 months pre-intervention series was used to identify a seasonal ARIMA (0, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1)12 model, with differencing required at lags 1 and 12 to achieve stationarity. Based on the pre-intervention series model, the full intervention model was obtained. The parameters of the SARIMA and intervention models were found to be statistically significant, p-value < 0.05 respectively. The study revealed a significant 11.6 million barrels reduction in crude oil export and a significant long run effect of 7.6 million barrels. The overall intervention model was significant at 5% level based on the Ljung-Box test.


Phytochemical and Pharmacological Screening of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz) A.DC. (Fam. Rutaceae) PDF

Mohiuddin Chowdhury, Mrs. Irin Sultana, Msd. Zakya Tasneem, Abdullah Al bin Jubair

Glycosmispentaphylla(Retz.) A. DC. a beautifully shaped evergreen shrub from the family Rutaceae was investigated for its phytochemical & biological activities. Preliminary chemical group identification revealed the presence of alkaloids, gums, reducing sugars, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. The study was aimed to investigate the biological interest of these compounds of Glycosmispentaphylla(Retz.) A. DC. for antimicrobial & minimum inhibitory concentration, membrane stabilization, anxiolytic activity.In-vitro antimicrobial sensitivity was evaluated against 4 Gram positive and 6 Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and 7 fungi using azithromycin and fluconazole respectively as standard. In disc diffusion antimicrobial assay Glycosmispentaphylla(Retz.) A. DC. showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activities with zone of inhibition ranging from 9.26 mm to 14 mm and 10 mm to 11.33 mm for bacteria and fungi respectively where the growth of S. paratyphy and A. niger were strongly inhibited.In the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test by serial dilusion method a mild to strong MIC’s were observed for the test bacteria. Test extract 1mg/ml and 0.5mg/ml of Glycosmispentaphylla(Retz.) A. DC. produced inhibition of the heat induced haemolysis of RBCsby 55.00 % & 42.27% respectively whereas, the standard, aspirin showed 71.36 %. Which shows membrane stabilization activityGlycosmispentaphylla(Retz) A. DC.showed moderate anxiolytic activity in mice at the doses of 200 & 400mg/kg-body weight as compared to the standard anxiolytic agent diazepam. Sample provide % of open field cross inhibition respectively 26.49 % & 46.75 % compared to diazepam 84.24% and % of hole cross inhibition 42.86 % & 57.14 % compared to diazepam 87.01 %.


Performance Analysis Of Intersatellite Optical Wireless Link Using Multiple TX/RX And CO-OFDM Techniques PDF

Sona G Dev, Sunu Ann Thomas

FSO Communication is the three dimension global communication system with high bandwidth access. Intersatellite communication can be considered as one of the major robust technology of FSO communication. Investigation of various parameters related to intersatellite OWC can be virtually done by using optisystem software. The performance of the system can also be studied. This paper analyzed the performance of multiple transmitter/receiver OWC system and CO-OFDM OWC system.


Structural and Electrical Properties of Nanocrystalline CdO:In thin films Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition PDF

Ali Ahmad Yousif, Mazin H. Hasan

The paper presents a review of indium-doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films were prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on sapphire a-Al2O3 (006) and quartz substrates at different deposition condition by Nd-YAG Q-Switching second harmonic generation (SHG). The effect of doping on the structure and electrical properties of the CdO:In films have been investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The result showed that nanocrystalline and (111)-oriented CdO films were obtained.


ELECTRICAL POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS USING LCL FILTER PDF

Noah K. Serem

Due to the effects of global warming from greenhouse gas released to the atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuels, high prices of fossil fuels and their unsteady supply, researchers are becoming more concerned in the renewable energy sources. This paper presents a method that is used to improve the power quality by filtering harmonics produced by the voltage source inverter (VSI) used for conversion from DC to AC. MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used for simulation and results before and after filtering are compared and conclusions made.


A Virtualization Approach in Smart phone Using Cloud computing for machine to machine Communication PDF

Naushad Ahmad Usmani, Mohammed Waseem Ashfaque

Virtualization allows instances of multiple operating systems to run concurrently on a single machine Its means that separating hardware resource from a single operating system and Each “guest” OS is managed and looked after by a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM), also referred as hypervisor. Because the virtualization system lies between the guest and the hardware resources, it can control the guests OS and use of all hardware resources like CPU, memory, and storage, even guest OS are allowing to switch over from one machine to another. Virtualization and Smart phone or mobile have been two of the greatest trends to hit up enterprises in IT sector. Virtualization from a server perspective has been a disruptive force in the IT world, and these results into the form of VMware, one of the largest software firm in terms of market cap. And hence all over 50% of servers are now being virtualized But implementing some form of virtualization on mobile devices is not yet widely implemented in the enterprise market, and so small companies offering their solution and services, it appears that virtualization on mobile is turning the corner and will be heading towards widespread adoption.


Implementation of a Carry Look-Ahead Adder circuit using Reversible Logic PDF

Naman Sharma, Upanshu Saraswat, Rajat Sachdeva

Conventional irreversible gates have been firmly established to have a loss of energy equal to kT ln(2) joule per lost bit. This is due to the loss of information at every gate that has unequal number of inputs and outputs. Reversible logic based technologies provide a way around these losses. Reversible logic is highly useful in nanotechnology, low power design and quantum computing. This paper proposes a design for a faster adder using reversible gates.


Fuzzy Logic Control of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Inverter based Wind Generators PDF

S.Sundeep, G.MadhusudhanaRao, B.V.Sankar Ram

This research work presents the wind energy conversion system with maximum power tracking system using an expert system like fuzzy logic. The extraction of the maximum possible power available wind energy is an important area of research among the speed sensorless MPPT control of wind area. This paper presents a power point tracking (MPPT) Technique for high performance wind turbine with induction machines based on expert systems (Fuzzy logic control). The reference speed of the machine is then calculated based on the control of the Tip Speed ratio (TSR). Voltage oriented control of the machine is further integrated with an expert sensorless technique. The fuzzy logic control is proposed here to evaluate the maximum power tracking point by the simulation and the results are shown.


Experimental Study on Creep behavior of Stone Mastic Asphalt by Using of Nano Al2O3 PDF

Gholamali Shafabakhsh, Mostafa Sadeghnejad, Asadollah Chelovian

In recent years, many researches were done to improve service life of asphalt pavement quality against vehicles dynamic loads. For this purpose, researchers investigated different ways such as changing the aggregate gradation and using of additive material to modify bitumen and asphalt mixture. One of this ways is using of additive materials to improve asphalt properties against dynamic loads. Due to unique characteristics of nano materials, using of them in asphalt mixtures has been interested. Therefore, in this study the effect of Nano Al2O3 in improvement of creep behavior of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) has been investigated. To achieve this goal, mixtures with different content of bitumen and nano Al2O3 are made and the effects of nano Al2O3 on the SMA mixtures are investigated. The results show that adding of nano Al2O3 had great effects on improvement of permanent deformation of SMA mixtures.


A Study of Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks PDF

Soumyabrata Saha, Suparna DasGupta

Wireless sensor networks consist of miniaturized battery powered spatially distributed autonomous sensor nodes with constrained computational capability. Due to the limitation of the communication range, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. The routing protocol in sensor network must ensure uniform energy distribution across the network, quickly converge irrespective of the network node density, and be flexible in terms of the routing framework and route computation metric. The growing interest in sensor network and the continual emergence of new architectural techniques inspired surveying the characteristics, applications and communication protocols for such a technical area. In this survey, we have reviewed the significant topology control algorithms of hierarchical networks, to provide insights how energy efficiency has been achieved by design and present a comprehensive study of different topology control techniques for sensor networks. For this protocol family, we have provided a didactic presentation of the basic concept, a discussion on the enhancements and variants on that concept and a detailed description with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages of those latest state-of-the-art protocols. Depending on the outcomes of our literature survey, we have identified a number of open research issues for achieving energy efficiency in the development of hierarchical routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.


Elemental Analysis of Soil Samples by Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) Technique PDF

Md. Zamiur Rahman, Arif Mahmud and Md. Moshiur Rahman

Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an ion beam based analytical technique has been used to analyze the essential and toxic elements in soil at ppm levels. These samples were collected from different residential locations of Rajshahi Bangladesh. The interest, very specifically, was used to investigate whether the toxic elements etc., were present in the samples; and if it were so, to see whether the concentration of these show any significant variation with season and the sampling time. 15 soil samples were prepared and analyzed by PIXE technique. Iron content in the samples studied was found remarkably high, among all of the chemical elements in the soil samples while the mean concentration of Chlorine and Chromium were very low.


The Effect of Pitch and Fins on Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Double Pipe Helical Heat Exchanger PDF

Abdulhassan A.Karamallah, Hisham.A.Hoshi

Laminar heat transfer and flow investigated experimentally in the annulus of double pipe helical heat exchanger. Experimental study included designing and manufacturing two types of heat exchanger one with inner plain tube and the other with finned tube with three pitches coil 75mm, 50mm and 35mm. The combined effects of finned tube, pitches with different Dean Number range from 394 to 723 were studied and discussed. The combinations gives higher heat transfer enhancement with the smaller pitch in finned tube. This enhancement in finned tube up to 16 % at Dean Number 723.The correlation equation have been developed for predicting for Nusselt number and the maximum deviation between this equation and experimental results is about 10 %.


Low Cost Ferro cement Single Room House: A Revolutionary change in Construction building of Pakistan PDF

Muhammad Ali Zafar

The major earthquake of Oct. 2005 has left a thought for civil engineers to improve the design practice and quality of construction in Pakistan to endure natural disasters. Engineers are working at individual and organizational level to meet such challenges. This research work is a part of the same process. A design of simple-to-construct single room house which has the capability to meet the strength and serviceability requirements. Ferrocement, a material recommended by ACI 549R-93 is proposed for this house. This paper attempts to review the literature on ferrocement and brings out the design of Roof Panels/beam and Wall Panels for a single room using ferrocement. The salient features of construction, material properties and techniques of applying cement mortar on to the reinforcing mesh makes it easy and virtually require no expertise to practically construct these Roof panels/beams and wall panels. The tool used for this purpose is ETAB. The idea is generally based on do it yourself (DIY) concept to develop an efficient and economical method for construction of ferrocement room and practically reduce the live losses and damage to infrastructures in case of any seismic activity.


A Study: On Impact of Leadership in Corporate Culture PDF

Muhammad Ali Zafar, Farwah Ahmed, Komal Shamsher

This paper presents a study, in which the effects of decision making of leaders in an organization’s culture and performance are analyzed. The study has been focused on age, gender and experience of the leaders. This research is conducted over different firms, in order to investigate the impact of age, gender & experience on leaders within Pakistan. For this purpose, decision making questionnaire was administered to a sample of 100 participants (79 Men and 21 women) of ages between (25 -70) years, experience from (2-35) years. SPSS tool is used to signify percentages of age, gender & experience of different participants contributing to the decision making.


Load Sharing of Piled-Raft Foundations embedded in soft to medium Clay Subjected to Vertical Loads PDF

Dr. Ahmed Mustafa Ragheb, Dr. Tarek Mostafa Abdelaziz, E. Nader Aly Ayad

Many researches have been performed on pile raft foundation in order to investigate the combined nature of raft and piles that behave as a unit. The load sharing ratio of piled raft has been studied by many researchers and mathematical formulas are achieved to predict the load sharing ratio. In the present study, the closed form equation proposed by Kyujin Choi (2014 which based on tests applied from centrifuge tests on pile raft system) is applied on the case of friction piles embedded in soft/medium clay. The load sharing ratio was calculated in case of different studied parameters and the relationships between the piled raft settlement and load sharing ratio were achieved and plotted. The studied parameters included were cohesion, number of piles, piles length, piles spacing and piles diameter. The study results concluded that the load sharing ration for all studied cases is ranging from 0.73 to 0.96. In addition the load sharing ratio is directly proportional to number of piles, piles length, piles spacing and piles diameter and inversely proportional to piles spacing. Also it can be concluded that the cohesion of soil surrounding the piles has a little effect on the value of load sharing ratio.


Packet-Hiding Methods for Preventing Selective Jamming Attacks PDF

Guttula Pavani

The open nature of the wireless medium leaves it weak to intentional interference attacks, typically referred to jamming. The intentional interference with wireless transmission can be worn as a launch pad for increasing Denial-of-Service attack on wireless networks. In general, jamming has been addressed under an external threat model. However, adversary with internal knowledge of protocol condition and network secrets can start low-effort jamming attacks that are hard to detect and counter. In this work, we deal with the problem of selective jamming attacks in wireless networks. In these attacks, the adversary is vigorous only for a short period of time, selectively targeting messages of high importance. We demonstrate the advantages of selective jamming within network performance deprivation and adversary effort by presents two case studies; a selective attack on TCP and one on routing. We show that selective jamming attacks can be launch by performing real-time packet classification at the physical layer. To diminish these attacks, we develop 3 schemes that avoid real-time packet classification by combining cryptographic primitives with physical-layer attributes. We examine the security of our methods and evaluate their computational and communication overhead.


The Effectiveness of Lean Manufacturing Tools in Maintaining Quality Control (Assurance): A Case of a Door Manufacturing Company in Malaysia PDF

Zurinah Suradi, Nazatul Shima Abdul Rani, and Noor Haslina Yusof

This paper highlighted on the effectiveness of lean manufacturing tools in maintaining quality control or assurance in a door manufacturing company in Malaysia. The company has experience producing defective product at an alarming rates. Hence, Poka Yoke has been applied to reduce waste or defective door components produced in the manufacturing plant. After the application of Poka Yoke method, it has reduced from 29% to 6%. Hence, Poke Yoke method can be used to reduce defective production of a door components at the door manufacturing plant in Malaysia.


GENETIC ENGINEERING: ITS PROSPECTS, FACTS OR FICTION? PDF

ONUOHA, JUDE ADINDU, UKAH, MICHAEL, OBIALOR, DORIS CHINYERE, OSONDU, MONICA

The gigantic stride genetic engineering has made in the field of knowledge and research is no longer news. It is also a truism that it has contributed immensely to scientific research to improve the human society. The results of these researches have been called to question on how successful they have been. This study is out to give a critical appraisal on the successiveness and un-successiveness of these researches and tends to proffer solutions on the way forward. The percentage of the success recorded by the researchers is quite negligible compared to expectations. Is it worth continuing with or do we look for other solutions? “Knowledge is power”, according to Francis Bacon, falsify a theory in order to build up a stronger foundation for a new theory, according to Karl Popper. These statements of fact are a clear demonstration that researches should be ongoing and there is no end to knowledge. New ideas beget new knowledge.


Auditing Cloud Storage by Key Coverage Conflict in Cloud PDF

Abhiram Srinivasan, Bharat Mallala, Sree Varun

Maintaining data reliability in public cloud acts a vital role in cloud computing. Cloud storage auditing solves the complexity of data reliability in public cloud. In progress auditing protocols are all standard on the statement that the client’s private key for auditing is completely protected. However, such statement probably will not for all time be seized, because of the probably feeble logic of protection and/or low protection settings at the consumer. If such a secret key for auditing is uncovered, nearly every one of the existing auditing protocols would certainly develop into incapable in the direction of exertion. In this paper, we meeting point happening this new fraction of cloud storage auditing. We examine how to decrease injure of the client’s key coverage in cloud storage auditing, and provide the primary sensible solution for this original difficulty setting. We celebrate the meaning and the refuge model of auditing protocol with key- coverage flexibility and suggest such a protocol. In our plan, we utilize the preorder traversal technique and the binary tree structure to inform the private keys for the consumer. In addition to expand a novel authenticator structure to sustain the onward security and the assets of chunk less verifiability. The refuge proof and the presentation examination show that our proposed protocol is safe and proficient.


F&DT Analysis of an Aircraft Wing PDF

Tejaswini Borra, Ganesh Kumar Pamarthi

This paper focuses on estimation of fatigue life of a fastener and crack growth analysis of an aircraft wing of GARUDA - 101. There is no much literature and tools to avoid fatigue damage and failures. Life of the joints, components, and whole aircraft should be estimated to reduce the structural failures due to fatigue. Life after crack initiation should also be estimated.


Some Mathematical Models for Epidemiology PDF

Vinod Kumar and Deepak Kumar

This work is describing the role of dynamic compartmental modelling and their conceptual aspects in epidemiology. The work emphasizes an understanding of different mathematical models applied to the population dynamics of infectious diseases. Also, we are mainly discussing the future aspects of governing equations for different infectious diseases.


THERMAL ENERGY TRANSMISSION IN FREE CONVECTIVE MHD FLOW OF A ROTATING OLDROYD FLUID PAST AN INFINITE VERTICAL POROUS PLATE WITH MASS TRANSPORT, CHEMICAL REACTION AND HEAT SOURCES SUBJECTED TO CONSTANT SUCTION PDF

M. Jena

This paper deals with the study of thermal energy transmission in free convective MHD flow of a rotating Oldroyd fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate with mass transport, chemical reaction, heat sources subjected to constant suction. Effects various fluid parameters on the flow pattern have been analyzed by graphs and tables obtained from numerical computation. It is observed that increase in rotation parameter increases primary velocity, but reverse effect is marked in case of secondary velocity. Temperature shows uniform decrease with the distance from the porous plate and the concentration falls with the rise of the Schmidt number (Sc).


An infinite plate with a curvilinear hole having two poles and arbitrary shape in the presence of heat PDF

F.S Bayones & B. M. Alharbi

In this paper, we consider the boundary value problem for isotropic homogeneous perforated infinite elastic media in presence of uniform flow of heat. Then, we use the more general shape of conformal mapping to obtain the complex potential functions for the problem in the form integro-differential equation with singular kernel. Moreover, the three components of stress are calculated. Many special cases are obtained and several applications are discussed from the work. The results indicate that the effect of heat on an infinite plate with a curvilinear hole having two poles and arbitrary shape are very pronounced.


Improving Productivity in Feed Mixing Machine Manufacturing in Nigeria PDF

Engr.Rufus Ogbuka Chime, Engr,Benedict.N Ugwu, Engr.Samuel I.Ukwuaba, Prof.Abdulrahim Abdulbaqi Toyin, Anthony Igwe, Benjamin Ibe Chukwu

The idea of mixing various feed materials such as grains, feed supplements and other animal feeds to produce a homogenous mix ready for dispensing for animal consumption had being part of man’s activities since the creation of man. This has always been done using crude method such as hands, sticks etc. in this recent time, the advancement in technology has brought about the use of machines to perform the same function much faster, accurate and less energy consuming. It is for this purpose that the feed mixing machine has been designed. The scope of this project are to design a small feed fixing machine, to model and simulate the machine before production, to fabricate component of feed mixing machine based on design specifications and to test the machine after fabrication , while in designing and in material selection consideration was given to the tech-economic status of the micro scale industries who are intended users of the machine.


Design and Analysis of a Low-Voltage Double-Tail Comparator for Flash ADC at 180nm and 90nm CMOS Technology PDF

Anu, RM Singh

Low power double tail dynamic comparator architecture is presented in this paper that performs better in low supply voltage applications. The main idea of this design of CMOS comparator is to increase the latch regeneration speed by increasing the intermediate voltages. For this purpose, two control transistors in a cross-coupled manner are added to the first stage in parallel to input transistors. The results were simulated in Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment with GPDK 90nm technology and 180nm technology. The proposed structure shows significantly lower power dissipation, higher speed compared to the dynamic comparators present in the literature. The average power of proposed comparator in 90nm technology is 83.92% reduced than at 180nm technology due to the decrease in channel length of the transistors and it is 62.78% reduced as compared to the double tail dynamic comparator. The delay of proposed comparator is 28% reduced when compared to the double tail dynamic comparator in 90nm technology. Thus, the proposed transistor is energy efficient when compared to other topologies at 90nm and 180nm technologies.


Impact of the Thread Diameter on the Tribological Parameters of the Friction Lining for the Motor Vehicles Clutches PDF

Simeon Simeonov, Slavco Cvetkov, Misko Dzidrov, Zlatko Sovreski, Sasko Dimitrov

The clutch as a friction mechanism is placed between the engine and the gear box and it transfers the torque from the driving to the working part. It is expected from the clutch to have stabile working and ecological characteristics. The main reasons for the working life shortage of the clutch are the occurrence of sliding in the process of engagement/disengagement, overloading of the clutch and the number of engagements. In order to increase the working life of the clutch a big effort has been done to improve the quality of friction linings. Most of the factors which impacts on the quality of the linings is the thread diameter of the lining. That is why the aim of the research is to determine the impact of the thread diameter on the lining tribological parameters over an extensive experimental testing.


Design and Simulation of Model for Energy Harvesting from Vehicle Tires Using Piezoelectric Modules PDF

Madan Mohan Behera, Asish Mishra, Pininti Purushottam, Sarthak Rout

Piezoelectric materials hold the unique feature of development of electric potential upon application of mechanical stress and vice versa technically known as direct and indirect effect respectively. Many developments in the field of vibration-based energy harvesting in past few decades has been done and the accelerated depletion rate of conventional sources of energy in the recent years has drawn attention of science community towards sustainable energy development and researchers towards development of new energy harvesting techniques to tap the energy lost to the environment. This paper proposes a new design to harvest energy from vehicle tires by the use of PZT modules in the tire carcass utilizing the stresses developed at thetube and tire interface. The design has been modelled in MATLAB Simscape and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. The output voltage can be used to charge batteries for energy storage for future use.


Web Mashup Oriented Digital Information Extraction for Tourism Enhancement PDF

Satyen, Amonkar Nandan, Doddihal Tanvi, Gangan Chintan Pasad, Mrs. Gresha Bhatia

Travelling and exploring new locations have become a very common and most attractive hobby for a lot of people. Ranging from a long holiday to some faraway places to a weekend getaway to a comparatively nearby unique spot, every type of touristic activity is highly cherished among the avid explorers. This leads to a demand for a resource that would cater the need of this rapidly growing community. Certain previous research suggests important further development to achieve this goal. It becomes necessary to integrate the relevant researches done previously so as to create a product with better usage. This paper discusses an approach of using Web Mashup technology to extract attributes and spatial data from multiple websites and use it for data analysis thereby enhancing the touristic experience. The main objective of this paper is to provide users with filtered information which is convenient to the users for selecting a tourist spot to visit. It also aims to improve degree of satisfaction of tourists and optimize touristic routes.


The Use of Cassava Leaves as a Potential Reinforcement of Polypropylene Based Composites PDF

Balogun, O. P, Sanusi, K. O, Rominiyi, A. L, Adetunji, A. R

The use of cassava leave as potential reinforcement of polypropylene based composites is investigated. Cassava leaves particulates was obtained from the cassava leaves with a sieve size analysis of 106µm.The particulates were mixed with 5% MAPP and polypropylene which served as the matrix using a twin screw extruder and compounded into composites sheet using compression molding. The cassava leaves and the composites was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM).The mechanical properties was analysed using Instron tensile test, impact strength was obtained using the impact tester while the hardness of the composites was obtained using the Vickers hardness tester according to the ASTM standard of D638, 1S0 197 and ISO 868 respectively. The SEM results show an even distribution of the cassava leave in the matrix with increasing filler loading. The tensile properties, impact strength and hardness of the composites revealed an improvement in the mechanical properties of the composites with the increasing the filler loading. The mechanical properties obtained an optimum with the 7%wt filler loading hardness for the all the composites as compared with the unreinforced composites.


Vulnerability Assessment of Aquifers within the Oban Massif, South-Eastern Nigeria, using DRASTIC Method PDF

Azubuike S. Ekwere and Aniekan E. Edet

The vulnerability of aquifers within the crystalline basement Oban Massif of south-eastern Nigeria was evaluated using DRASTIC method. The investigation was necessitated in view of the potential risk of groundwater contamination that may result from indiscriminate waste disposal and other land use practices. The objective is to establish an aquifer protection, monitoring and management data platform for the massif. The DRASTIC method is assessed based on the influence of seven environmental parameters; depth to groundwater level, net recharge, aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of vadose zone and hydraulic conductivity. From computation, DRASTIC assigns a vulnerability index that ranged from 163 – 186 and these values were used to produce a vulnerability map. The vulnerability maps indicate sections of the total aquifer area to be; low vulnerability (˜ 30%), medium vulnerability (˜ 40%) and high vulnerability (˜ 30%). A sensitivity analysis indicates that depth to groundwater table is the key factor determining vulnerability, followed by impact of vadose zone and net recharge. Variation indices also suggest depth to water level exhibits the highest variability, followed by impact of vadose zone and net recharge.


Hybrid DE-SQP for solving dynamic economic emission dispatch with prohibited operating zones PDF

A. M .Shehata, A. M. Elaiw

This paper proposes a hybrid differential evolution and sequential quadratic programming (DE-SQP) for solving dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED) problems with prohibited operation zones and transmission line losses. The DEED is a non-convex multi-objective optimization problem where both fuel cost and emission are simultaneously minimized under a set of constraints. The DE is applied to find a near global solution and SQP is used as a local search to determine the optimal solution at the final. To illustrate the effectiveness of the DE-SQP approach, a five-unit test system is used. The results show the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method over other methods.


Effects of two food extruded on the growth performance of trout Rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their environmental impact PDF

Idrissi Chbihi Z, Benaabid M, El Harchli E.H, Idrissi.H, El Ghadraoui L

The present work concerns a comparative study of the effects of two extruded foods on the growth performances of the trout rainbow and impacts on the environment. Two diets are used: an extruded imported food "Gouessant" (47 % of gross proteins and 20 % of fats) and another extruded food premises "Happy Fish" (45 % of gross proteins and 24 % of fats). For each of both studied food, we used 900 fishes stemming from the same prize of eggs, with average initial weight of 60 g, distributed in 6 conical ponds in fiberglass, fed with fresh water, in open circuit in triplicate. The food is twice brought a day during two months. The best performances of growth and food efficiency are registered at the local extruded food with low ratio PD/ED. Besides the local food HAPPY FISH presents less negative effect on the environment in comparison with to the imported food.


The Comparison of Bondage Number and the Average Distance of an Interval Graph PDF

Dr.A.Sudhakaraiah, K.Ramakrishna, T. Venkateswarlu

Interval graphs have drawn the attention of many researchers for over 30 years. They are extensively studied and revealed their practical relevance for modeling problems arising in the real world. In an interval graph G = (V,E) the distance between two vertices u, v is defined as the smallest number of edges in a path joining u and v. The aim of this paper is to show that the comparison of bondage number and the average distance of an interval graph corresponding to an interval family I.


Analysis of ways to increase accuracy of aviation gravimeters PDF

Igor Korobiichuk

The article considers all types of aviation gravimeters and presents conclusion on the potential of using gyroscopic gravimeters which have significant advantages over others, as they are able to provide higher accuracy and speed, have small dimensions and high sensitivity.


New structural approach to reducing doubly salient variable reluctance motor’s torque undulations PDF

Abdelmajid Berdai,Abdelhamid Hmidat, Abdelaziz Belfqih, Jamal Boukherouaa, Faissal El Mariami, Valery Titjuk, Vladimir Vlasenko

The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) is widely applied for high-speed applications, because of its simple mechanical structure and development of power electronics. But a major disadvantage of SRM is the undulations of the electromagnetic torque witch constitute one of the major problems encountered in using variable reluctance machines. SRM torque undulations are caused by motor design and the way in which its phase windings are supplied. Each phase’s level of electromagnetic torque largely depends on the rotor’s angular position in relation to the phase, as well as current values of the phase, which, in its turn, is appreciably nonlinear. Research carried out in this field has had two main focuses:The first concerns finding and implementing the optimal control law by motor phase currents [1-4]. The second aims to come up with more efficient motor designs [5-8], of the magnetic system in particular, through determination of the basic magnetic relationship: number of poles, angles of stator pole and rotor teeth, shape of teeth, etc. This work focuses on finding optimal geometric relations in order to minimise electromagnetic torque undulations.


Exact Traveling Wave Solutions of Regularized Long Wave (RLW) Equation Using -expansion Method PDF

A.H.M. Rashedunnabi

In this paper, the - expansion method is used to seek exact traveling wave solutions of Regularized Long Wave (RLW) equation with the aid of symbolic computation. Some new and more general solutions, trigonometric function, hyperbolic function and rational function are constructed. The obtained results are justified the general -expansion method [20-26]. It is found that the solutions obtained by -expansion method are similar to the solutions given by general -expansion method. All constructed solutions are verified to satisfy the RLW equation by Maple software and some are found to satisfy the given equation and some are found as the modified forms of other solutions.


Algebraic models of transitions between mixed entangled states and specific eigenvalues of systems with two or three levels PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this study are examined the recent theoretical studies and applications of pure and mixed double and triple-entangled states. After getting acquainted with the basic concepts of the traditional methodologies for entanglement, are summarized the main phenomena and observations of the various approaches for multidimensional entanglement. More specifically, we explore the impact of the various parameters of these systems of the entanglement.in this research is proposed algorithmic model for transformation of mixed entangled states, a disappointing qubit can be removed by a GHZ state through the measurement of it along the spin axis perpendicular to the axis of entanglement and with the aid of the result of the measurement to be made a correction of the phase.


Simulation of quantum algorithms for classification of their complexity PDF

Nikolay Raychev

This article examines the quantum computational complexity in three fundamental aspects: quantum computations feasible in polynomial time, effective verification of the quantum proofs, as well as quantum interactive proof systems. On the basis of these concepts are defined the classes of quantum complexity, such as BQP, QMA and QIP, which contain computational issues of varying difficulty. The relationships between these classes and the classical complexity classes are presented. Since these concepts and the complexity classes are usually defined within the model of the quantum circuit, this article includes a section, which focuses on the basic properties of the quantum circuits, which are important when determining the quantum complexity. Two different, but closely related areas of study, are not discussed in this article: complexity of the quantum requests and the quantum communication complexity. These discussions are intended only to highlight the aspects of these topics, which are non-standard, require clarification, or have a relative importance for the quantum computational complexity.


IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY IN SCREW PRESS EXPELLER FOR PALM KERNEL OIL EXTRACTION MACHINE MANUFACTURING IN NIGERIA PDF

Engr . Rufus Ogbuka Chime.,Prof.Abdulrahim Abdulbaqi Toyin,Benjamin Ibe Chukwu,Engr.Samuel I.Ukwuaba,Anthony Igwe,Engr.Ukwu Nwachukwu

Product Lifecycle manufacturing (PLM) is redefining the use of information throughout the product lifecycle and specifically, as discussed here, in the manufacturing phase of the product’s lifecycle. Product manufacturers need to consider manufacturing two aspects products: physical products and the virtual product: the virtual gives the information about the physical product.


Comparative analysis of Seismic Behaviour of Multi-storey Composite Steel and Conventional Reinforced Concrete Framed Structures PDF

Ashiru Muhammad, Chhavi Gupta, Ibrahim B. Mahmoud

In high rise structures there are many members that are monolithically connected to each other and if yielding takes place in any one of them, then a redistribution of forces takes place. Therefore Seismic analysis is very necessary whenever high rise buildings are to be erected, most especially in areas that are prompt to earthquake. In this study a comparative analysis of seismic behaviour of Multi-storey Composite and Conventional RCC Frame Structures at various heights has been carried out and observed that; RCC structure has higher response as compare to the composite structure.


Crushable Finite Element Modeling of Mechanical Properties of Titanium Foam PDF

Nada S. Korim, Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Montasser Dewidar, Ayman M.M. Abdelhaleem

Titanium foam is attractive material in bio-system applications, due to its biocompatibility as well as stable fixation in human bone. Obtaining sufficient information about mechanical and failure behaviors of such material are of great intense and it needs to be will studied. Finite element model based on crushable foam model will be used to simulate the mechanical and failure behavior of titanium foam of vary densities as 59.9 %, 62.5 % and 65 % porosity. Compression test is commonly test for foam material to measure compressive strength and flow behaviors of titanium foam with pervious porosity. Whereas, stiffness properties to be measured three point bending test is getting good. The three point bending test is used to measure both flexural strength and flexural stiffness or young modulus. The numerical modeling results are validated with other available published. The results are in good agreement with the published experimental data.


Study on Enumeration, Characterization and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Coagulase positive Staphylococci Isolated from Hand Pump Water PDF

Naaz Abbas, Zainab Abbas and Iqbal Ehsan Baig

A study was conducted on bacteriological analysis of hand pump water for determining the quality and extent of contamination. A total of 100 hand pump water samples were studied for enumeration of typical staphylococci (TS) and Coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS). On m-staphylococcal agar 82% samples yielded typical staphylococcal colonies, 79% of which was in the range of 1-20 cfu/100ml, 15% in the range of 20-40 and 2% were between 100-500 staphylococci/100ml. Coagulase positive staphylococcus were found in 25 samples, of which 76% had a range of 1-20 and remaining 24% had count less than 100 cfu/100ml of hand pump water tested. Minimum value was 1 and maximum 364 for TS while for CPS minimum value was 2 and maximum was 86 cfu/100ml, with a mean value of 80.5 and 15.86 respectively. From 82 samples, 106 colonies randomly selected among 1733 golden to orange colonies of TS obtained on m-staphylococcal agar, were subjected to coagulase positive test. Thirty two coagulase positive strains from 25 positive samples were isolated and characterized. Twenty five were Mannitol fermentation positive while seven were negative. In our study 30% typical staphylococci were found pathogenic i.e. coagulase positive. A varying degree of resistance and susceptibility was found against twelve antibiotics. Ampiclox was found 100% effective for these CPS strains.


Slight Heterogeneity in Multi-core Architecture: An Experimental & Comparative Study PDF

Abdullah Al Mamun, Hilal H. Nuha, Sultan Anwar, Hassan Ali

There is a growing consensus that heterogeneous multicores are the future of CPUs. These processors would be composed of cores that are specifically adapted or tuned to particular types of applications and use cases, thereby increasing performance. The move from homogeneous to heterogeneous multicores causes the design space to explode, however. An architect of a heterogeneous processor must make design decisions per processor core rather than once for the entire processor as before. Currently, there are no methods for handling this design complexity to yield a processor that performs well for real workloads. As a step forward, we propose weak heterogeneity. A weakly heterogeneous processor is one whose cores are different, but not significantly so. The cores share an ISA and major microarchitectural features, differing only in minor details. Limiting the design space in this way allows us to explore the heterogeneous space without becoming overwhelmed by its size. We show preliminary results suggesting that a design space so constrained still has interesting trade-offs among performance, power consumption, and area.


Enhancement of Expansive Soil Properties Using Lime Silica-Fume Mixture PDF

Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu, Ahmed S. Ali and Haider Naeim Abdul-Hussein Al-Hassany

Expansive clayey soils are generally found in arid and semiarid regions where they cover vast areas around the world. Due to the presence of some clay minerals such as montmorillonite, these soils exhibit significant volume changes upon wetting or drying. They are considered potential natural hazard, which can cause extensive damage to civil engineering structures if not adequately treated especially to lightly loaded structures such as single to double storey houses, pavements, walkways, floors, canal linings etc.This study investigates the effect of adding Lime-Silica Fume Mixture (LSFM) to expansive clayey soil in order to enhance its engineering properties. LSFM has been added in different percentages 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% for lime with 0%, 8%, 13% and 18% for silica fume by soil weight and consequently (16) specimens of treated soil were obtained by mixing these percentages.


IMPACT OF WORKFORCE DIVERSITY ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR OF KARACHI PAKISTAN PDF

Hafiza Sumaiyyah Iqbal, Faiza Maqbool Shah

Diversity is gradually used and accepted as a significant organizational resource in esteems to whether the objective is to be an employer of choice, to offer outstanding customer service, or to sustain a competitive advantage. It also has verified to have controlled to an opinion of being essential for organizational performance. This ultimate faith forces managers to hold and understand the theory of workplace diversity, its benefits and barriers. The purpose of this research is to discover the impact of diversify workforce towards organizational performance which focus into the education sector. The research also emphases on workforce diversity which contains the gender, ethnic and education background of the employees which is the utmost critical variables amongst all the others. The research was done by distributing 100 questionnaires to the faculty members of 5 different universities of Karachi. The questionnaire outcomes show that there is an impact on performance when diverse workforce is working in the education sector.


EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BUILDING FRAME 2X2 PILE GROUPS EMBEDED IN COHESIONLESS SOIL PDF

B.BULLI BABU, K.NAGA SREENIVASA RAO, M.NARENDRA

This works presents experimental study of model building frame supported by 2x2 pile groups embedded in cohesionless soil (sand) through the results of static vertical load tests. The experimental investigation model plane frame supported by pile groups embedded in cohesionless soil (sand) under the static loads (central concentrated load, uniformly distributed load (UDL) and eccentric concentrated load) is necessary to establish the fact that the soil interaction greatly alters the design parameters. The effect of soil interaction on displacements and settelement and rotation at the column base and also the shears and bending moments in the building frame were investigated.Results revealed that, shear force and bending moment values which were back calculated from the experimental results,showed considerable reduction of the ssi.


Biological, cytopathological and molecular studies of Potato virus Y isolated from pepper grown under greenhouse conditions in Egypt PDF

Om Hashem M. EL Banna, Aya A. Hassan and A. H. Hamed

Potato virus Y (PVY) was isolated from naturally infected pepper leaves collected from greenhouses in Egypt. Host range and symptomology of pepper isolate of PVY mechanically inoculated into the local lesions host Chenopodium amaranticolor. The virus isolate reacted with mild mosaic symptoms and vein clearing on Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. White Burely, Dark green mosaic, curl and deformation on Capsicum annum L. cv. California Wonder, on Lycopersicum esculentum L. cv. Castle Rock. No symptoms were observed on Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diamond. Electron microscopy of the virus dip preparation showed flexuous rod shaped particles. Pinwheel and laminated inclusion bodies by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections prepared in pepper infected plants but not in those of healthy pepper plants. induced by PVY were observed and there were change in the different tissues and cells organelles under electron microscope in infected epidermal strips of pepper leaves. PVY could be effectively detected using RT-PCR. The primers used in this study amplified of full length of the viral coat protein gene (800bp). PCR positive samples were sequenced. The coat protein gene was deposited in the Gen Bank by accession no. (LC060904.1) and PVY isolate was compared with those of other PVY isolates available in the NCBI database with the program BLAST.


Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution using DiaionSA20A exchange resin PDF

F.H.G.Mesbah, T.M.Zewail, H.A.Farag

The removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by the use of ion exchange ( Diaion SA20A) resin has been investigated. Batch sorption processes were carried out to investigate various physicochemical parameters such as pH, equilibrium contact time, initial metal ion concentration, rpm, resin dosage, and temperature. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) removal was found at 4.28. The equilibrium data were tested using three isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. The present equilibrium data was found to be best described by Langmuir isotherm model with a high correlation coefficient. The maximum adsorption capacity of the resin was found to be 166.6 mg/g. The present kinetic data are well described by the pseudo second- order reaction to a great extent. The results revealed that both film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion contribute to the rate- determining steps.


An Evolutionary Testing Solution of Rational Unified Process Model to Develop ERP Software in Pakistan PDF

Sabahat Tasneem, Mr. Akmal Rehan

In Pakistan, The evaluation phase of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Development Life Cycle is facing Product Risks and Project Risks due to its infancy. All of these risks must be nipped in the bud, before they become monstrous and threat about the software. In this research paper, a systematic technique based upon Rational Unified Process (RUP) Model and hybrid testing technique based upon Acceptance Test Driven Development (ATDD), Pair Testing, State Transition Testing and Exploratory Testing Techniques, which can be adopted in Rational Unified Process (RUP) to mitigate these risks, involved in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Testing, effectively in a tight time frame, has been presented to use in Pakistani Software Houses. Quantitative and Qualitative Techniques were used to gain better results in research.


Pestalotia leaf Spot a New Disease affect Guava Trees in Egypt PDF

Moustafa M.S.H. , Hala A.M. El – Dakar and Asmaa M. A.Alkolaly

During March of 2009 uncommon leaf spot was noticed on guava trees scattered in an orchard (35 feddan) located at El-Sadat district , Menofeia governorate, Egypt. The diseased leaves showed cup shape. Eexamination of these leaves showed powdery mildew like spots on the lower surface, especially on leaf margins. Microscopic examination showed acervuli covered with spores of multi cells and spindle shape. Later the diseased spots turn into brown color and expanded, especially on the leaf margins and covered most of the leaf surface and turned into dark brown. At later stage the infected leaves become dry and defoliated .The causal fungus was isolated, purified and identified as Pestalotia psidii. Pathogenicity test and reisolation from the inoculated leaves revealed that Pestalotia psidii is the causal organism.


Oscillation Based Testing for Low Voltage Two Stage Operational Transconductance Amplifier PDF

Maninder kaur, Jasdeep Kaur

The paper describes the design for testability (DFT) of low voltage two stage operational transconductance amplifiers based on oscillation based testing (OBT). The oscillation-test strategy is a low cost and robust test method for mixed-signal integrated circuits. Being a vectorless test method, it allows one to eliminate the analog test vector generator. Circuit under test is transformed to oscillators using very simple techniques. The tolerance band of the oscillation frequency is determined by a Monte Carlo analysis taking into account the nominal tolerance of all circuit under test components. Seventeen bridging faults and nine open faults have been analyzed in proposed work. Simulation results for two stage operational transconductance amplifier using a 0.18µm CMOS technology show that the proposed oscillation-based test strategy has more than 92% fault coverage and, with a minimum number of extra components, requires a negligible area overhead.


A Preliminary Assessment of Wind Energy in Dujaili Site at Wasit Province – Iraq (Case Study) PDF

Dr. Firas A. Hadi, Dr. Mohammed A. Salih, Dr. Kamal H. Latif

The adoption of sustainable energy systems for the purpose of generating electricity at any site requires real good readings and an estimate of wind source in any site. This paper includes an assessment of wind energy source in Dujaili site using data available in the wind Geosun map. Then this data was used to guess the purpose of the potential energy of the site. It was also estimate the number of working hours by using Weibull coefficients of the site and specification of certain wind turbine, in addition to the economic feasibility study which serve the investor to determine the investment benefit extent in that region.


A Study of Testing Pitfalls in Graphical User Interface Testing and Its Elucidation PDF

Iqra Tariq, Tasleem Mustafa

The process of testing a product's interface is called graphical user interface testing conceded out to make certain that it meets its written specifications. Testing includes booming set of errands and evaluating the result with the estimated output and capability to recur equivalent set of chores several times. It includes different data inputs but same level of accuracy. GUI’s provide large interaction space to the users. During testing, it is important to “adequately cover” this interaction space. Implementing GUI testing in earlier phases of the software development life cycle improves excellence, speeds up progress process and reduces risks towards the end product. Manual selection requires a tedious code inspection and does not scale. This research will uncover factors that affect product testing, and will evaluate them with fault related factors in GUI testing. The approach is to provide elucidation for these testing pitfalls.


A survey on Personalized Query Recommendation System for Database Exploration PDF

Shiny Nair, Varghese S Chooralil

An effective information mining process necessitates an extensive exploration of the database. Analysis and study of large volume of data available in data marts are inevitable for knowledge discovery. For example, for scientific exploration, scientists need to query large databases for scientific data. However, all users may not possess the expertise in Structured Query Language that is generally required to query relevant data from the database. Considering complex relational databases, seldom will novice users have the knowledge and expertise of the underlying schema of the database and association between relations and attributes. The QueRIE system that supports users by presenting personalized query recommendations. The QueRIE framework identifies similarities with previous users’ information needs and recommends queries to the current user. This paper studies the different algorithms and systems for query recommendations with focus on a QueRIE framework instantiation that attempts to identify similar queries as recommendations to the user, based on a set of query fragments from users’ session.


A Survey on Mining User Opinion from Texts and Emoticons PDF

Nasiya Najeeb, Sangeetha Jamal

Opinion mining is a type of natural language processing for tracking the mood of the public about a particular product or topic. Lots of people write their opinions in forums, micro blogging or review websites. This data is very useful for business companies, governments, and individuals, who want to track automatically attitudes and feelings in those sites. Today Social Network Sites (SNS) allows people to express their feelings and convey their emotions via texts as well as emoticons. Information in terms of texts are extracted and clustered into emotions and then classified into positive, negative and neutral. Today the most common approach followed by users is using emoticons along with texts. An emoticon is generally more likely to affect a sentence in which it occurs since it provides a better sentiment expression of a web user. Emoticons are of two types: textual emoticons and graphical emoticons. In this paper, we have described the different approaches used for mining opinion from both texts and emoticons to assist future research in this area. We have performed a systematic literature review process to conduct this survey.


A SURVEY ON ONLINE FEATURE SELECTION AND DIFFERENT METHODS PDF

Catherine Mathew, Varghese chooralil

This survey paper talks about the online feature selection. The paper talks on online learning method working on partial and full inputs. The paper discuss on various sparsity regularization methods and how they prevent from over fitting of datasets. Truncation techniques are used to reduce the computation time of processing and discovering relevant datasets.The major advantages is that data used are data points rather than whole datasets. The data sets taken are from UCI machine learning repository. The results of various experiment depicts that the proposed algorithms are fairly effective for feature selection tasks of online applications and more efficient and scalable than some state of the art batch selection techniques


Presenting A Model For Developing A Strategic Program In Bank Meli of Mazandaran Province PDF

Dr.Mahmood Samadi Laragani, Hossein Shahbazi Dolat Abadi

The aim of this study is to provide a model to develop a strategic planning at the National Bank of Mazandaran province. The statistical population in this study comprised of all managers and experts of Bank in the year 2014-15 and 40 specialists were chosen to perform this study using purposive sampling method. The present study is a survey analytical-descriptive one. To review the research questions, researcher-made strategic planning has been used. For statistical analysis of data, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. The result shows that the model of developing strategic planning includes four main components: organization’s strategies development, developing strategic plans with regard to the great values of the organization, mission and goals of the organization and internal and external analysis which are in order of priority and preference and these dimensions interact with each other.


SKILL ACQUISITION: AN ENTREPRENEURIAL FACTOR IN JEWELRY MAKING PDF

Musa S., Wuritka E.G., Zipporah Z.E

Skill acquisition, entrepreneurial factor in jewelry making is a minimum requirement for competent jewelers in jewelry making. This paper discusses basic concepts, procedures, stages and essential indices for acquiring entrepreneurial skills in globalized jewelry enterprises. It also provides justification for acquisition of entrepreneurial skills in jewelry making and the essential techniques that can be used by jewelers. The study conclude that the role of entrepreneurial factor in jewelry making cannot be overemphasized as it clearly vindicated on how to acclimatized with modern entrepreneurship solution which promote employment in this area of endevour.


Experimental Behaviour of Beam Column Joint By Using Reactive Powder Concrete PDF

D.Karthik, C.Mathan kumar, M.Sivaraja

Now a day many inventions comes in civil engineering field like pre-fabricated technology, usage of high strength concrete, different types of composite panels,etc.One of the technologies is reactive powder concrete which contains cement, fine aggregate and sub-cementitious materials like fly ash, silica fume, quartz powder and some additional material based on quality improvement. In our project, initially we casted mortar cubes of sizes 70.6mm 70.6mm 70.6 mm to determine the strength of concrete comparatively with normal concrete for 10 trial mix ratios (cement : fine aggregate : fly ash : silica fume : quartz powder) which have simultaneous reduction amount of sand and increment of sub-cementitious materials. From the test results, we casted beam column joint for maximum grade mix with 1% of steel fiber. The result shows that increment of cementitious matter will enhance good bonding character and consequently reduce permeability and also the steel fiber addition increases the flexural, compressive strength of concrete.


Application Of Geo-Resistivity In Soil Corrosivity Rating To Aid Cathodic Protection Plan for Under-ground Oil and Gas Utilities In Elelenwo Area of Rivers State, Nigeria PDF

Etimita Osuwake Omini, Beka Francis Thomas

Geo-resistivity method was applied in soil corrosivity rating to aid cathodic protection plan for underground oil and gas utilities in Elelenwo area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Underground utilities in the study area are affected by corrosion due to variations in soil pH, resistivity, dissolved oxygen, anions, bacterial content and poor drainage condition of the environment. The soil is generally lateritic sandstones with varying amounts of sand, silt and clay. The geo-resistivity values obtained within the study area show that at less than four meters depth, the soil corrosivity increases with depth, and ranges from 1.086?m to 390.480?m, indicating extremely corrosive to essentially non-corrosive soils, respectively. The results indicate that corrosion control measures should be applied on underground utilities in the area based on utility depth of burial. The adopted cathodic protection design should aim at enhancing conditions that prevent corrosion based on the soil corrosivity rating for study area.


Level,distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban community garden soils in Baghdad City, Iraq PDF

Emad A. M. Salah, Kadhim H. Yassin, Safa Abd-Alsalaam

Fourteen composite samples were collected from the gardens soils in Baghdad City in order to determine concentrations, spatial distribution and contam-ination assessment of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn. The mean concentrations are as follows: 18.64 mg/kg for Cd, 3.65 mg/kg for Cr, 15.64 mg/kg for Cu, 9114.28 mg/kg for Fe, 30.71 mg/kg for Ni, 1.99 mg/kg for Pb and 23.71 mg/kg for Zn. The mean concentrations of heavy metals were compared with USEPA soil guideline and the world reference value. The mean concentrations of Cd and Ni exceeded the guidelines while the other metals did not exceed. Positive and negative significant correlation relationships between the metals were reported. ANOVA showed that there were sig-nificant differences (at p < 0.5) in concentrations Cd, Ni and Zn metals between the sampling sites and insignificant (at p < 0.5) in concentrations of Cr, Cu and Pb. The metal contamination in the garden soils was also evaluated by Appling enrichment factor (EF), pollution load index (PLI), integrated pollution load index (IPLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo). Based on enrichment factor (EF) , the gardens soils in Baghdad city are extremely high enrichment with Cd and moderate enrichment with Cu and Ni. Pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) indicated that Baghdad gardens soils are polluted by Cd and unpolluted by other metals. The integrated pollution load index (IPLI) values showed that the gardens soils in Baghdad are polluted with heavy metals. The sources of Cd in Baghdad gardens soils may be from traffic and industrial emissions and may be from phosphate fertilizers.


Risk factors of nosocomial infections in the Gharb region, Morocco PDF

N. Saouide el ayne, A. Boukhraz, N. Auajjar, S. hamama, A. Soulaymani, A. Echchelh

In Morocco, the published data on the epidemiology of nosocomial infection are rare. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence and the epidemiology of nosocomial bacterial infections in the services of Kenitra Regional Hospital and to identify the main risk factors associated with these infections.


Android Speech-to-speech Translation System For Sinhala PDF

Layansan R., Aravinth S. Sarmilan S, Banujan C, and G. Fernando

Collaborator (Interactive Translation Application) speech translation system is intended to allow unsophisticated users to communicate in between Sinhala and Tamil crossing language barrier, despite the error prone nature of current speech and translation technologies. System build on Google voice furthermore also support Sinhala and Tamil languages that are not supported by the default Google implementation barring it is restricted to common yet critical domain, such as traveling and shopping. In this document we will briefly present the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) using PocketSphinx, Machine Translation (MT) architecture, and Speech Synthesizer or Text to Speech Engine (TTS) describing how it is used in Collaborator. This architecture could be easy extendable and adaptable for other languages.


Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) as Alternatives for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Nigeria PDF

Zaman, E.Y., Otiwa, G., Yahaya, U., Oloyede,Y.E., Odey, B.O & .Adaaja, B

Climate change is a glaring reality the world faces as one of its latest and most serious challenges to sustainable human development. It is an outcome of both natural and anthropogenic factors, of which the most prominent is the preponderance of Green House Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, growing population and industrialization have greatly contributed to this. The forecast that in the absence of mitigation and adaptation measures, climate change could result in a loss of between 2% and 11% of Nigeria’s GDP by 2020, rising to between 6% and 30% by the year 2050 is a great cause for concern. Climate change mitigation and adaptation measures have traditionally amongst other measures, focused on the forest option targeted at only trees as means of creating and protecting forest carbon stocks. Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) as relatively fast growing components of forests are posited in this paper as veritable alternatives or complements towards a more wholistic approach to climate change mitigation and adaptation against the background of their contribution to multiple income streams, and carbon sequestration. In addition, the current global dependence of about 2.6 billion people on biomass for cooking and other domestic needs presents a robust potential for bio-fuel production and utilization.


Public Service Motivation: Incidence and Antecedents in Pakistan PDF

Prof. Dr. Syed Bashir Hussain, Ijaz Ahmad

The deteriorated performance of public service deliveries in Pakistan is a multifaceted problem. One of the possible solutions could be a reliance on the motivation of public sector employees to serve their fellow citizens. This type of motivation is called public service motivation (PSM), which is a multidimensional construct. However, the very existence and the variation of PSM are dependent upon the socio-historical conditions of a country. Keeping in view the scarcity of research about the concept of PSM in Pakistan, this study has answered two empirical questions. First is about the existence, and the second is about the antecedents of PSM in Pakistan.


Application of Very Low Frequency Method and Ground Penetration Radar in Underground Utility Investigation, Onshore Eastern Niger Delta PDF

ETIMITA OSUWAKE OMINI, BEKA FRANCIS THOMAS AND OLORY MAGNUS AKPANG

Ground penetration radar and very low frequency methods were used as novel approach to identify the presence of the increasing installation and application of underground oil and gas industry related utilities in part of the onshore eastern Niger Delta. The dominant underground utilities in the study area are pipelines and electrical cables, mostly buried at depths of less than two meters from the ground surface. It is therefore, necessary to investigate the presence, position and nature of these underground utilities for proper designing and safety of new construction and engineering projects. Failure to carryout subsurface utility checks prior to inception of new and potentially subsurface infrastructure- impacting projects may result in utility damage and serious accidents. The results of the study indicate that the applied geophysical methods prove to be accurate, effective and feasible, and are recommended for underground utility investigations in the onshore Niger Delta.


Design an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System to Enhance the Performance of Perdawd CCGS in Kurdistan of Iraq PDF

Dr. Eng. Wassan Adnan. Hashim

This paper describes a design procedure for an ANFIS based power system stabilizer (ANFIS-PSS) and investigates their robustness for a single machine infinite bus system. Speed deviation of a machine and output power active is chosen as the input signals to the ANFIS-PSS. A Perdawd CCGS that connected to Kurdistan Regional Power System of Iraq (KRPS) is used as the case study. Computer simulations for the test system subjected to transient disturbances i.e. a three phase fault, were carried out and the results showed that the proposed controller is able to prove its effectiveness and improve the system damping when compared to a conventional lead-lag based power system stabilizer controller. Finally, several fault and load disturbance simulation results are presented to stress the effectiveness of the proposed ANFIS-PSS in a station studied and show that the proposed intelligent controls improve the dynamic performance of the ANFIS-PSS and the associated power network.


Derivation of Surface Soil Water Content Using a Simplified Geometric Method in Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh India PDF

Abba Aliyu Kasim

Surface soil water content (surface moisture availability) is the principal indicator of soil physical fertility. A simplified geometric method is presented for estimating surface soil water content in Allahabad district using remotely sensed multispectral satellite data (Landsat 7ETM+). Surface radiant temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)/Fractional vegetation cover were derived from optical/thermal satellite imagery. The method utilizes the relationship between these satellite measurements to infer surface soil water content. The derived surface soil water content values were correlated with ground measured volumetric soil water content. A poor correlation coefficient was found to exist (R2 < 0.2) on all the dates under study, presumably indicating that soil surface water content has become decoupled from the soil water content at deeper layers. Surface soil water content maps were created to show spatial and temporal variability in surface soil water content in Chaka block (sub-study area). The merit of this method is that it does not require any other parameters (surface data or model output), however, it has great potential to work as any other more sophisticated approach for estimating surface soil water content.


The impact of service quality on customer satisfaction in telecom sector of Pakistan. An empirical study of Pakistan PDF

Author Sidra Ansar, co author Samreen Lodhi

Today's successful organizations serving in telecom area of Pakistan these organizations need to undertaking through service quality they attempt to fulfill customers by giving best quality services subsequently this research concentrates on finding the effect of service quality on consumer satisfaction in Telecommunication sector of Pakistan. All Telecom service provider companies; U fone, Warid, Telenor, Zong and Mobilink are taken in this research and design is to investigate the effect of service quality on consumer satisfaction of these telecom sectors. An organized questionnaire was composed and gathers the information from 200 customers. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted utilizing SPSS to analyze the data.


Assessment of the pollution impact in the Winam Gulf PDF

Ongulu Roselyn, Kituyi John, Getenga Zacharyc

The pollution of the environment increased considerably in the past century due to industrial expansion, rapid growth of human population as well as the effects of resealed toxic compounds from domestic sewage wastewater systems. In the recent decades the levels of heavy metals in the soils, water and sediments have become critically higher as a result of sewage water and sewage sludge on agricultural fields, around industrial cities and along main roads. It is therefore necessary to periodically monitor the levels of heavy metals within cities so as to take remediation measures. Water samples from eight sites in Winam Gulf were analysed for heavy metals in order to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal input into the Lake. Three samples from each sampling site were mixed to form composite, digested using HNO3 and HCl and analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Measurements of electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were done at the sampling sites. The TDS were within the WHO permissible range except for R. Kissat which had a higher value of 799.5 mg/L. The mean values of DO were, however, lowest at R. Kissat (0.7) ppm. Other sites like Tilapia beach, Yatch and Dunga had also low DO values. The electrical conductivity values in the study area were found to be in the range of 372.3 at R. Kibos to 1239 µS/cm at R. Kissat. R. Kissat had the highest level of salinity (0.6 PSU), while R. Kibos had the lowest level (0.18 PSU). The levels of trace heavy metals in most of the samples were above WHO standard. The levels of heavy metals show that the Winam Gulf is highly polluted and there is need to come up with strategies to clean up using biosorption technique.


DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI BAND RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR C BAND AND X BAND APPLICATIONS PDF

Rahul Tiwari

Nowadays, due to a continuous growth in communication users, It is required to develop the antennas offering wide bandwidth. In this paper antenna described for the broadband finite ground plane. The antenna designed with 11.4051mm× 8.388mm radiating copper patch with ground plane design with 21.0051mm x17. 988mm. The primary radiating elements are rectangular microstrip patch antenna in the upper side with probe feed and use finite ground plane are inverted U shaped printed slot for four different frequency applications which is smaller in size compared to other available multiband antennas. From the result, it is observed that, the return loss of -15.71 dB is achieved at the first resonant frequency of 6.72414 GHz, -26.33 dB at the second resonant frequency of 8.27 GHz, -20.79 dB at the fourth resonant frequency of 11.38 GHz and -14.46 dB at the fifth resonant frequency of 14.48 GHz. This slot coupled microstrip patch antenna for satellite communication having a multi band operation covering C and X band along with wide bandwidth.


GENERALIZED RELATIVE ORDER OF FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL COMPLEX VARIABLE ANALYTIC IN THE UNIT POLYDISC PDF

BALRAM PRAJAPATI AND ANUPMA RASTOGI

Through out in this paper we consider generalized relative order of a function of several complex variable analytic in the unit poly disc with respect to an entire function and prove several theorems.


Performance analysis of relay selection scheme for amplify and forward protocol in rayleigh fading environment PDF

Ahmed EL-MAHDY, Ahmed ELBAKLY, Nada TAREK

In this paper a relay selection scheme for amplify and forward relaying is proposed to select one relay from multi-relay networks. The selected relay by the proposed algorithm cooperates only if the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the source-relay-destination link is greater than the SNR of the source-destination link. A theoretical bit error rate performance of the proposed scheme is derived. Computer simulations are performed to validate the theoretical developments. The outage probability of the proposed scheme is simulated for different threshold value. Moreover, a power allocation algorithm based on bit error rate minimization is applied. The performance of the proposed relay selection scheme is compared with other existing schemes.


Li-Fi': Data Transmission through illumination PDF

Abhishek Pawar, Akash Anande, Arpit Badhiye, Indrajit Khatua

It is often frustrating when the slow speed of network leads to limited connectivity and long processing hours while using wireless internet either at home network or coffee shop or airport or competing for bandwidth at a conference. As more and more users are tapped in with their devices, the clogged airwaves make it difficult to latch on a reliable signal.


IMPACT OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN THERMAL COMFORT OF INDOORS OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN UMUAHIA URBAN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA PDF

Alozie, G.C, Odim O. O, Alozie, E.N

Achieving indoor thermal comfort in residential buildings, is very essential, because little we do take place outside. Most residences in Umuahia urban of Abia State Nigeria are cells of unhappiness because their indoors are thermally uncomfortable, thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of air temperature in thermal comfort of residential buildings in Umauhia urban. This was achieved by carrying out air temperature measurement and questionnaire survey of some randomly selected residences in the area to determine the thermal perception of inmates, also evaluate thermal performances of the same residences in response to air temperature. The experiment took place in rainy and dry seasons of 2012, 108 respondents were obtained from twenty seven (27) residences. Data loggers, digital thermometers and measuring tapes were major instruments used, while thermal comfort parameters measured were air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. The result revealed that 70.3% of the residences did not achieve acceptable indoor thermal comfort, while 69.1% of the respondents voted discomfort. Analysis of respondents also revealed that the inhabitants of the residents with unacceptable temperature, also voted discomfort, thus agreeing with the study index. It was discovered that the residences failed, due to their designs. The study recommended that all building designs originate from the architect.


IMPACT OF DISCOUNT RATES ON STOCK PRICES: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR OF KARACHI PDF

HIRA JILANI, SAMREEN LODHI

How the stock prices of the stock reacts to the changes in discount rates is an important factor to the overall risk assessment of any particular stock .Discount rate is the interest rate at which banks and other financial institutions borrow credit from the Federal Reserve bank (state bank of Pakistan) The discount rate turn out to be the base interest rate for most customer borrowing as well because banks usually discount rate is used as a benchmark for the interest charged on the loans by most of the banks. Whereas, A share price is the price of a solo share of a number of marketable stocks of a company, derivative or other financial asset. The stock price is the maximum amount somebody is eager to pay for the stock, or the lowest amount that it can be accepted for. Some empirical studies have been done on the topic in the past taken in account the relationship of discount rates with the stock prices and the stock return.


BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS FOR NABLA FRACTIONAL DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS OF ORDER LESS THAN ONE PDF

G.V.S.R.Deekshitulu and D.N.Purnima

In this paper, a fractional order (0 < < 1) nabla difference equation satisfying two point boundary conditions is considered. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are established using contraction mapping theorem and nonlinear contraction mapping theorem. The results are illustrated by some examples.


The Dielectric Properties of Rat Kidney upon Exposing To Low Static Magnetic Field Intensities PDF

Moustafa Ibrahim

The aim of the present work is intended to evaluate the effect of static magnetic field (SMF) on rat's kidney. The rats were exposed to SMF of intensities of 10, 14, 18 and 22 milliTisla (mT) for a whole week for one hour daily. The dielectric properties, permittivity (?), electrical conductivity (s), loss tangent (tand), and relaxation time (ts), were measured to the rat’s kidneys over frequency range of 1 kHz to 1 MHz, before, immediately after exposure, and after one week of exposure. The results showed that there are significant differences in the dielectric properties of samples under investigation compared to the control (no SMF irradiation). The relaxation time showed significant variants of rat's kidney upon irradiation to SMF intensities, especially the 10 mT dose.


ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DIESEL-DEGRADING BACTERIA FROM OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL IN MANSEHRA, PAKISTAN PDF

Zia-Ur-Rehman, Khakemin Khan, Shah Faisal, Rasool Kamal, Shazad Ahmad, Irfan, Mian Khizar Hayat, Safia, Inayat Ullah, Tanweer Kumar

The present work was conducted to isolate and identify bacteria from oil- contaminated soil to evaluate their role in biodegradation of commercial diesel under laboratory conditions. Diesel fuels are used by different vehicles, diesel generators and especially heavy transport vehicles. Its manufacturing, transportation, utilization and disposal have the threat to pollute the surrounding environment. Biodegradation is one of the biological processes to remediate the pollutants. This is the cheaper and easy method as compared to other methods like direct burning, land foaming and bioventing because diesel smoke has a carcinogenic effect.


FACTORS LEADING TO BRAND SWITCHING IN CELLULAR PHONES: A CASE OF PAKISTAN PDF

HIRA ASHFAQ, SAMREEN LODHI

The purpose of this study is to analyze those factors which influence brand switching in cellular phones in Karachi city. Now Pakistan has emerged as the fastest growing market in the world. Mobile phones are now becoming the necessity of life. Day-by-day competition is now becoming more complex among the well-known mobile phone companies.


A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE QUALITY OF SERVICE OF GSM NETWORK DURING CROWD UPSURGE IN UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, NIGERIA. PDF

Ukhurebor K.E, Awodu O.M, Abiodun I.C, Azi S.O

Despite the fact that GSM network have been in Nigeria for more than a decade, it is widely observed that each time there is a major event in a certain location and there is movement of people to that area, it is always very difficult to get a call through within the period by which the event is holding. The ultimate purpose of the research is to establish a baseline that correlates network quality and performance within an area with the upsurge of people during major events and characterize such areas where improvement can be achieved in terms of upgrading and optimizing the network elements preparatory to such events taking place. In addition to finding bottlenecks militating against optimal network performance, this work aims to identify the cause or the limiting factor impeding good quality of service and hence, select a management action to remove the problems and safeguard quality of service degradations.


PREVALENCE OF SUBCLINICAL THYROID DISORDERS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH AGE AND SEX, AMONGST NIGERIANS RESIDING WITHIN ABAKALIKI METROPOLIS PDF

Eteudo Albert N, Agu-Eduzor S, Azi Simon O, Uraku A. J, Igwe Chibueze C, Daniel Lawrence E

Introduction: The prevalence and incidence of thyroid disorders is influenced primarily by sex and age. Age and sex significance in the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disorders among Nigerians residing within Abakaliki metropolis was established in the study.