Volume 6, Issue 2

RC-MAC Protocol Based On Congestion Avoidance in Wireless Sensor Networks PDF

Punitha R, Ramkumar C, Velu G, Surya Theja M B

Application for wireless sensor network is notably different in its characteristics and requirement from a standard WLAN. When a critical event triggers a surge of data generated by the sensor, congestion may occur as data packet converge toward a sink, which causes energy waste, throughput reduction, information loss, hidden terminal problem and link failure in contention based MAC protocol. Due to hidden terminal problem the RC-MAC and CSMA/CA protocol sensing is used to reduce the channel contention and radio collision. The formation of a new tree for avoiding link failure-a MAODV routing protocol was introduced in this paper, and the performance of this protocol is measured using the above parameters. The demonstration of a near optimal throughput at each sensor and to achieve congestion avoidance in presence of a multicast routing towards a multiple sink is also done.


Design of ALU using reversible logic based Low Power Vedic Multiplier PDF

Senthil Sivakumar M, Sundaram A, Gurumekala T, Banupriya M

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is a heart of microprocessor and microcontroller units that are playing main role in digital computers. By optimizing the ALU circuit in microprocessor and microcontroller highly power efficient digital system can be achieved. The use of low power and high performance sub-blocks like adder and multiplier can reduce the total power dissipation of ALU. So in this paper we are introducing new architecture for a high speed and area efficient Vedic multiplier and an adder circuit using reversible logic gates. The proposed adder and multipliers are employed in the implementation of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) to reduce the power dissipation and area and to improve the performance sufficiently. Integration of low power sub-blocks of ALU resulted that the power dissipation of proposed ALU unit is reduced when compared with the conventional unit. The proposed logic blocks are implemented using Verilog HDL programming language, simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE 9.2i software.


Design And Simulation Of Binary Floating Point Multiplier Using VHDL PDF

Miss. U. V. Chaudhari, Prof. A. P. Dhande

Most of the DSP applications need floating point numbers multiplication. The possible ways to represent real numbers in binary format floating point numbers are; the IEEE 754 standard represents two floating point formats, Binary interchange format and Decimal interchange format. To improve speed multiplication of mantissa is done using specific multiplier replacing Carry Save Multiplier. To give more precision, rounding is not implemented for mantissa multiplication. The binary floating point multiplier is plane to do implemented using VHDL and it is simulated and synthesized by using Modalism and Xilinx ISE software respectively. The result so got will be compare with the previous work done.Floating point multiplication is important in many commercial applications including financial analysis, banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance, and accounting.


A Study on Retrieval Models and Query Expansion using PRF PDF

Rekha Vaidyanathan,Sujoy Das, Namita Srivastava

This article compares the state of the art retrieval models and reports how query expansion enhances the retrieval effectiveness. Five state- of-the- art retrieval models (parametric and non-parametric), three Query expansion Techniques Bo1, Bo2 and KL are selected and presented. A comparative study of the retrieval models, namely TF_IDF, DLH, DPH, I(n)L2 and PL2 enhanced with the mentioned QE models are experimentally shown using FIRE 2011 Adhoc data. This is an initial study carried out to understand how the performance of these approaches varies on multiple languages (English and Hindi).Furthermore, we explore the optimal parameter settings for the non-parameteric models incase of Short, Normal and Long queries. Results show that I(n)L2 performed well for Hindi dataset and BM25 and PL2 gave best MAP for English dataset. We use the Terrier, the information Retrieval framework for indexing, retrieval and evaluation. The models used for comparison are Terrier’s DFR based weighting models.


REAL TIME GENDER RECOGNITION ON FPGA PDF

Aniket Ratnakar, Gaurav More

This paper is about how the gender of the person can be detected by using the facial parameters. The parameters such as eyes, jaw, hair, eye brows, and lips are used to detect the gender of the person in the image. The Mat Lab is used to detect the gender of the person in a saved image. The code generated on Mat Lab is then operated on Real-Time basis with the help of National Instrument’s myRio FPGA Kit. The Lab VIEW is used to interface the Mat Lab with FPGA Kit. Supporting devices include web cam to acquire the image, LCD to display the result and push button switch to take the image. Gender detection on FPGA has numerous applications in the area of security and surveillance, human-computer intelligent interaction, and smart environment. The proposed method can be further evaluated in the future by using different database and considering more facial parameters.


Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Configuration in Wind Turbines – Technological status review, survey and market trends. PDF

Rashmi.R, Ramanujan.V, Purushotham.M

With rapid development of wind power technologies and significant growth of wind power capacity installed worldwide, various wind turbine concepts have been developed. The wind energy conversion system is demanded to be more cost-competitive, so that comparisons of different wind generator systems are necessary. An overview of different wind generator systems and their comparisons are presented. First, the contemporary wind turbines are classified with respect to both their control features and drive train types, and their strengths and weaknesses are described. The promising permanent magnet generator types are also investigated. Then, the quantitative comparison and market penetration of different wind generator systems are presented. Finally, the developing trends of wind generator systems and appropriate comparison criteria are discussed.


THE LAW OF SEX?.. PDF

M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

This Scientific research article focus that “SEX” shall be considered as “Super natural Tree” supported with three-in-one Tape root (Base). The super natural tree consider “Produced” billions of fruits on origin. Each fruit has microbial varied genetic characteristics called “GENDER”. The fruit shall also called as “Natural fruit” (or) “Divine fruit” (J-Fruit).


Effect the Beam Section Shape for Different Materials on Buckling Load Using Finite Element Method PDF

Najah Rustum Mohsin, Younis Fakher Aoda, Raheem Abd Sayel

Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. So, this study focuses on finding the effect of the beam section shapeon buckling load using finite element software ANSYS R.15. The buckling loads for Rectangular (Rec.), U-channel (Uch.), Solid circle (Scir.) and Hollow circle (Hcir.) cross-section beams are calculated using Eigenvalue and Non-linear analysis for Carbon Steel, Titanium and Aluminum materials. A comparison made between the two methods and the different percentage is not exceeds of 0.27%. The results shows that the Buckling loads are strongly depend on the material properties and the beam shape geometry. Buckling loads are directly proportion with modulus of elasticity, thickness, outer to inner radius ratio and all beam geometry parameters except the beam length.


Characterization of Durable Resistance gene Yr18/Lr34 against Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in different Pakistani Wheat Cultivars by Using Molecular (STS) and Morphological (LTN) Markers PDF

Naimat Ullah, Tasmia Bashir, Muhammad Asif, Hussain Badshah, Abdul Samad Mumtaz

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in many countries. Its significance was seemed to be increased to many serious wheat growers at that time when more than 70% of the wheat crop got loss due to it. Hundreds of diverse methods was developed to control that very stupid and indirect enemy of human but failed because of mutation of pathogen in the universe is so quick. Durable resistance is considered the most impact giving way to slowly control the spread of disease in whole plant. In this study we tried to characterize durable rust resistance gene, Yr18, in Pakistani wheat cultivars using molecular marker, csLV34, categorize under STS and morphological marker for leaf tip necrosis (LTN). We used a hexaploid population from Pakistani selected wheat genotypes that were moderately resistant to moderately susceptible (MRMS) to stripe rust in field trials. The wheat genotypes were evaluated for stripe rust at, Pir Sabaq (Nowshera Khayber Pukhtoonkhwa, KPK), Pakistan which is considered as hotspot for stripe rust pathogen. Characterization included seedling testing, field evaluation, morphological marker studies and marker assisted selection (MAS). MAS of all cultivars revealed that varieties (C-518, Mexipak, Kohinoor-83, Faisalabad-83, Zardana-93, Shahkar-95, Moomal-2002, Wattan-94, Pasban-90, Kiran-95, Haider-2000) possessed the desirable marker. Same varieties showed susceptibility at seedling stage and moderate resistance to resistance (MRR) at adult stage under field conditions with either presence or absence of LTN as a morphological marker. The slow-rusting gene, Yr18, can be utilized in combination with other slow-rusting genes to develop high levels of durable adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust in wheat.


Defect Prediction in Agile Software Development PDF

Rahul Agarwal, Avinash Patyal, Akshay Nindrajog

Software Quality is synonymous with Defect Density. There is always a speculation as to whether the defects can be linked to the volume of development work done by Scrum teams. This paper does a scientific analysis of the quantum of work and the defects logged at various stages by multiple scrum teams to arrive upon a conclusion substantiated by data collected across six months comprising twelve sprints (each sprint being fifteen calendar days long)


Personal and Professional Development Plan PDF

Mishari Saad Alabdullatif

At this point in life as I enter a program of graduate study, it is difficult to conceive of a more meaningful activity than a self-study that addresses such questions as: Which people and events have shaped me? What motivations drive me? What are my core values? What is my self-concept or self-image? Where am I in my life right now?


DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF AN ADAPTIVE LEFT THROTTLING PEDAL FOR V-BOOT WAGON 230 FOR RIGHT LEG PARAPLEGIC PATIENT PDF

S. P. Ayodeji, A. M. Yakubu and O.J. Fasan

This work is problem- solving oriented. It is all about Design and Fabrication of an Adaptive Throttling Pedal for V-Boot Wagon 230 for Paraplegic Patient who has a problem with his right leg and still desire to drive his car with ease. Although there were various car adaptations in existence mainly customized for paraplegia that have been developed by different International Automobile industries. Nigeria is yet to have one.. The clauses behind the design of this work are the difficulties to access left adaptive throttling accessories for V-Boot Wagon 230 for Right paraplegic patient and possibility of driving the car upon reverting the car to its existing state. In order to achieve this research work, the following factors were considered; Anthropometric data of the client, Physical dimensions of available spaces for left throttle, design analysis which includes adaptive link mechanism, material selection, strength, and forces were determined, fabrication, machining of parts and assembling, Installation of the product, equipment maintenance and Performance evaluation. Ordinarily the engines speed runs 2000rpm at an idle position of the existing pedal compared to what has been adapted which runs at 1500rpm. This low speed indicates improved efficiency and minimizes fuel consumption. Also when the two pedals were activated and pressed through an arc length of 45mm, both engine speeds read 6000rpm. Although there were little deviations in the curves at displacement position 20mm and 30mm. These deviations have no significant effect on the performance of the engine.


Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity studies of nano ZnO deposited on sintered calcium phosphate (ZnO/SCaP) PDF

B.R. Saikishore kumar, S. Sumathi, P.S. Raghavan

Nano ZnO was prepared by chemical methods on a novel solid support, namely, calcium phosphate .Different loading levels of nano zinc oxide over the support were prepared and influence of temperature on the synthesis was studied. The catalysts were characterized by physico-chemical methods. The XRD and UV-DRS showed formation of ZnO and high resolution SEM image showed formation uniform nano particles. The catalyst was found to be efficient in Knoevenagel condensation when compared with unsupported analogue.


Use of the VFD to minimize the throttling effect of the Hostel water supply system by the automation of the system PDF

Sanjay N. Huse, Ravindra D. Kale, Dr. D.R.Mane, Prof. V.P.Dhote

This paper presents the case study of the water supply of the hostels buildings of the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University Aurangabad. There are about fourteen individual buildings with approximately sixty four water tanks located on the terrace of the buildings and underground tanks to collect and store the water for the individual buildings. From these underground tanks the water is pumped to the terrace tanks through electrical pumps. Each tank inlet is provided with ball cock valve to close the water supply after the tank fills up. The different valves are generally in semi closed conditions which results in the throttling of the water flow and causes overloading of the motors and also eventually causes unnecessary tripping of the motors. This also results in throttling effect and causes additional power consumption to overcome. This throttling effect can be minimized and the extra power consumption can be saved by the application of the VFD for the pump motor and the automation of the water supply system. The use of the VFD drive and the automation of the water supply system results in the significant savings in both cost and GHG emissions. Also the automation will result in the reliability of the supply with the avoiding overflow of the water which also results in the water conservation. For motors used for driving the pumps, the consumption of the electrical energy is proportional to the cube of the flow rate. Therefore relatively small reduction in the flow rate may result in significant energy savings.


Mobile Internet Subscription Trends in Kenya up to 2014 PDF

Omae M. Oteri, Ndungu E. N and Kibet P. L.

Mobile phone communication is a sector that has been credited for playing a very vital role in the economy of most countries in the world. It has helped poor people in the rural areas to be able to communicate far within a very short time with minimal costs as opposed to earlier communication methods. The telecommunications market in Kenya was liberalized in 1999 with the licensing of two mobile operators at that time Safaricom Ltd and Celtel Kenya currently Airtel Networks Kenya Ltd while mobile internet communication was introduced in 2008. Since then its subscription has been growing steadily helping the Government to generate more revenues and create job opportunities. The current mobile operators in Kenya are given as Safaricom Ltd, Airtel Networks Kenya Ltd, Essar Telecom Kenya Ltd and Telkom Kenya Ltd (Orange) through which the mobile internet service is provided.


Simulation & Modelling of Deep Drawing Process of SMA Material PDF

Chandra Pal Singh, Geeta Agnihotri

This research work presents modeling of deep drawing of square cup. The sheet forming materials considered in study is NiTi shape memory alloy. The finite element analysis has been useful tool in simulating complex industrial forming operations. A simulation program has been carried out to study, effect of main process parameters such as blank holding pressure, coefficient if friction between sheet and die, on the thickness variation of cup wall and flange and to get maximum height of cup with minimum defects. The results of the study shows that uniform thinning of cup can be obtained by selecting proper combination of various process parameters.


Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of Magneto-Rheological Brake PDF

Bhau K. Kumbhar, Pranit M. Patil, Satyajit R. Patil, Suresh M. Sawant

In this work, an effort has been made to study the reliability analysis of the system using the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) technique. FMEA is a development tool used to identify failures and effects on system, products or services. In addition to identifying failure modes and failure mode effects, FMEA provides for quantification and categorisation of failure information in order to allocate and prioritize the risk. The greatest impact of FMEA is in pre-production phases of new product or system development in order to provide failure free systems and products during implementation. FMEA is a versatile tool that has many expressions and that can be integrated with the statistical and software tools to provide for a comprehensive view of risk. Thus, the various possible causes of failure and their effects of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake along with the ways of prevention are discussed in this work.


Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Frond for the Development of Palm Oil Waste Chopper and Pressing Machine Design PDF

Ramayanty Bulan, Tineke Mandang, Wawan Hermawan, Desrial

Physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond are very important factor for the development of palm oil waste utilization technology. The objective of this research was to determine the maximum pressure to break off palm oil tissue for mulch processing. The average dimension of palm frond is also needs to be determined in order to design pressing machine as well as leaflet and frond chopper machine. The result found that the average length of palm oil frond was 675.89 cm, average leaflet length at the palm frond base was 103.89 cm and average leaflet length at palm frond tip was 23.83 cm. Based on the experiment, the maximum compression strength at the 20 years-palm frond base was 443.78 kgf and at the 5 years-palm midrib base was 287.56 kgf. This finding suggests that pressure of machine should be designed above 443.78 kgf.


Effect of Intermittent Power Supply on the German Power System PDF

Ibrahim A. Nassar

In Germany due to the continuous high expansion of the intermittent power supply capabilities of wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, the operational modes of thermal generation units will be influenced essentially until 2020 and beyond. The integration of this increasing share of intermitting generation while maintaining the present security level of supply confronts the existing power system with a big challenge. The fundamental problems are that the intermitting generation does not necessarily fit the power demand and is often located far away from the load centers. This results in physical limitations for integration of intermitting generation with regard to the existing infrastructure. Therefore it is has to be lined out that the acceleration time constant is reduced if some conventional power plant generators with masses are disconnected and replaced by the intermittent generators while the total nominal power value of the whole system remains constant. On the other hand more immediate acting acceleration power produced by the turbine-generator-systems of the conventional power plants will disappear because of shut down of these plants and related loss of inertia. With the reduction of inertia not only the frequency deviation after disturbances will increase substantially but also with more oscillation occurs and causes reduction of system stability. Therefore, different methods and tools to simulate the power plant scheduling will be presented and illustrated under different scenarios of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) to check whether the system is stable or unstable.


Mobile money usage in rural areas of Zimbabwe - case of Mudzi District PDF

More Chinakidzwa, Pinigas Mbengo and Marcelene Nyatsambo

Mobile money is increasingly becoming popular in Zimbabwe. Availability of mobile money agents in rural areas is increasingly improving. This had dramatically simplified banking to the majority of the rural poor unbanked Zimbabweans. Consumers now enjoy much convenience offered by these mobile money services. However mobile money usage is still higher in urban areas than in rural areas although significant penetration levels can be witnessed. Most people in rural areas use mobile money more to receive money than any other service. About 69% of respondents in this survey have used mobile money. This figure shows a significant growth in mobile money usage. Convenience is the major driver to mobile money usage in rural areas. This survey was done in Mudzi and used face to face interviews as well as questionnaires. Financial services providers need to open more outlets in rural areas if they wish to reduce the unbanked population.


Theoretical and Experimental Study for Hybrid Journal Bearing PDF

Lijesh K.P., Harish Hirani, Samanta P.

Journal bearings are well known for their lowest wear rate and high damping coefficients under fully developed hydrodynamic lubrication mechanism. However, metal-metal contact at start/stop and low speed condition, causing bearing wear and excessive power loss, are major disadvantages of hydrodynamic bearing. Therefore, a concept of hybrid (hydrodynamic-permanent magnetic) bearing for the radial applied load has been developed. In such bearings the static load is taken by magnetic bearing and dynamic load by hydrodynamic bearing. However, due to the unstable nature of passive magnetic bearings and larger axial thrust compared to radial thrust emphasis for the requirement of extra subassembly and proper alignment compared to conventional bearings test setup. In the present work, using 3D Coulombian model, the radial and axial forces of a passive magnetic bearing for the given dimension having different arc length of the top stator magnet have been analyzed. To reduce the unstable force, the required axial offset was estimated. After obtaining the required configuration from the theoretical results, the hybrid bearing was developed. Experiments were performed on the preliminary developed experimental setup and the challenges faced for development of setup and problems faced after performing the experiment have been reported. A detailed investigation was carried out to overcome the problems and various solutions have been provided.


Effect the Beam Section Shape for Different Materials on Buckling Load Using Finite Element Method PDF

Najah Rustum Mohsin, Younis Fakher Aoda, Raheem Abd Sayel

Buckling loads are critical loads where certain types of structures become unstable. So, this study focuses on finding the effect of the beam section shapeon buckling load using finite element software ANSYS R.15. The buckling loads for Rectangular (Rec.), U-channel (Uch.), Solid circle (Scir.) and Hollow circle (Hcir.) cross-section beams are calculated using Eigenvalue and Non-linear analysis for Carbon Steel, Titanium and Aluminum materials. A comparison made between the two methods and the different percentage is not exceeds of 0.27%. The results shows that the Buckling loads are strongly depend on the material properties and the beam shape geometry. Buckling loads are directly proportion with modulus of elasticity, thickness, outer to inner radius ratio and all beam geometry parameters except the beam length.


Absorption studies of Creatinine using Kinetic Reaction method by optical Interference wavelength filter PDF

Sreedhar MALLETI, Saradadevi MALLETI, Dr.Varaprasad PLH, Dr.Bhujangarao A

Accurate measurement of Creatinine is very essential in order to pre diagnosis the renal functioning of human body. In this paper we introduced the measurement of creatinine by means of studing its equivalent absorption with the interaction of wavelength of light using kinetic reaction method with the help of photometer.


Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Zinnia Elegans Leaves Ethanolic Extract PDF

Asmaa H. Mohamed, Fouad A. Ahmed and Osama K. Ahmed

This study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract comparing with silymarine, as standard in rats. The data revealed a highly amounts of phenolic compounds (2.6mg/g d.w of plant), which significantly reflected an antioxidant scavening activity (88%) at 250ppm.The hepatoprotection activity of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract (50, 100 and 125 mg/100g b.w) comparing with silymarine (0.2 g/kg b.w) against CCl4 toxicity when the Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract improved the AST, ALT and recovered the activity of kidney function by decreasing the urea and creatinine content on the other hand, the administration of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract significantly suppress the oxidative stress via its direct scavenging against the reactive oxygen species under CCl4 stress. The results reported a decrease in the MDA, H2O2, NO accumulation and increase of GSH content. Finally the administration of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract have been improved the lipid profiles, LDL and HDL recovered also, the administration of Zinnia elegans leaves ethanolic extract significantly suppress the CCl4 toxicity via its activation of antioxidant enzymes (GST and SOD). The results showed that The Zinnia elegans leaves play an important role in the antioxidant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 toxicity.


Relationship between Tourism Development and Sustainable Environmental preservation PDF

Emad Mubarak

In the broader sense, Tourism plays a major role in bringing the multinationals on one platform that cultivates understanding, develop good relationship and brings about love and harmony among the comity of nations. The whole world has now become a Global Village. The people’s tendency is to enlighten themselves by visiting various countries, see the peoples and their living conditions, civilization, culture and mode of living. Moreover, peoples are ambitious to refresh their minds, need change of climate, weather by visiting various countries and enjoy mixing up with the variety of the universe. Since the world has become a Global Village, the peoples have strong inclination and natural tendency to become closer. The electronic media, print media and publications of books on tourism have created in the mind of the peoples to come closer and see their behavior, colour and the way of living and their country’s weather conditions.


Robotic Configuration for Paralyzed Swing Leg with Motion Captured Stance Hip Orientation PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy, B. Kotiveerachari, P. Rami Reddy

This research work explores an alternate approach toward generating strategies for developing dynamic motion planning for walking and training the paralyzed leg with a robot attached to the pelvis. The dynamic properties considered in this work are mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia of each link and the friction at each joint. The B-spline curves were used for the dynamic motion planning. The least square method is used to identify the dynamic properties after exciting the robot and collecting the data of joint positions, velocities, accelerations and applied forces. The joint trajectories are defined by B-spline polynomials along with a time-scale factor. A robot attached to the pelvis is employed to control the stepping motion of a paralyzed person suspended on a treadmill.


Hydrogenation of styrene oxide to 2-phenyl ethanol over supported Nanonickel catalyst. PDF

Sunil K Kanojiya, Arvind Patel, Gaurav Shukla, Neerja Joshi, Prabhakar Sharma P L Gupta, M Batra, Rajendra Prasad

Hydrogenation of styrene oxide to 2-phenyl ethanol over Al2O3, Charcoal and MgO supported nanocrystalline Ni catalyst in methanol as solvent is reported. The reaction is carried out in the temperature range 50-100 oC and in the pressure range 100-300 psi. A maximum yield of % of 2-phenyl ethanol with selectivity of % to PEA is obtained. Present process can be used an alternative to the conventional method for production of PEA such as Grignard synthesis and Friedel-Craft alkylation for synthesis of 2-PEA. The process eliminates use of costly solvent diethyl ether, explosive ethylene oxide reagent and corrosive AlCl3 as catalyst. The process is free from production of side products such as ethyl benzene responsible for destroying the aroma of 2-phenyl ethanol.


Assessment of Pressures on Spillways Using Aerators and Air Vent Pipes PDF

Giridhar M.V.S.S, Madavi Madaka and Anirudh Ramaraju

The large quantity of water running in the rivers is to be harness and use it most efficiently for various purposes. The running water can be stored by creating reservoirs. In the science of hydraulics, many basic flow equations are available to predict the behavior of the flow of fluids but while deriving them many assumptions are made, making it an ideal situation, which limits their application to only for certain simple situations. The present study area is on Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the giant among the masonry dams across River Krishna in Telangana State. A hydraulic model study was conducted to evaluate the cavitation damage due to negative pressures in terms of their magnitudes and locations on the spillway of the dam due to the floods in 2009 using the model studies on it. The experiment was carried out by providing a step (Aerator) with a tread of 0.025 M and riser corresponding to glacis slope at El. +300.00ft (+91.441m). For various discharge conditions and also by providing two air vent pipes of 0.015m dia in a bay on either side to supply the air so that the niche will have two locations to supply the air along its width. The experiments were carried out for free flow and gated operations for various discharge conditions. The maximum negative pressures observed at pressure tube points in vent no 2 duly providing an aerator and air vent pipes of 0.015m dia is 0.01 at P3 for gated condition at maximum flood discharge conditions, there are no negative pressures observed at pressure tube points in vent no.1.


Effect of pH on Shear Strength Behavior of Granular Soil PDF

Md. Motiur Rahman, TahminaTasnim Nahar

In this research, the performances of pH value on shear strength behavior of granular soil have been studied. The shear strength of soil is an important term in most of the foundation engineering problems such as the bearing capacity of shallow foundation, slope stability of dam/embankment and lateral earth pressure on retaining walls. A series of direct shear test were conducted on two types of dry granular soils (taken from Rangpur and Rajshahi areas of Bangladesh) with different pH value (pH=0, pH=3.0, pH=5.0, pH=7.0 and pH=9.0). Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonia (NH4) solution were used to monitor the pH of the solution for about thirty days. In all, 15 specimens of each type of soils were considered for direct shear test with dry condition at a constant density. The specimens were prepared by static compaction with different pH values solution (0, 3, 5, 7and 9) at same void ratio. Experiment result shows that the shear strength increase with increase of pH values of soil.


Hierarchical Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network – A Survey PDF

Shamim Sardar, Angona Sarker, Ali Newaz Bahar

The area of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is one of the most emerging and fast growing fields in the scientific world. It consists of a collection of sensing devices and these sensing devices are known as sensor nodes. Each sensor nodes are deployed into the network to monitor the physical or environmental condition such as temperature, sound, vibration at different location. The data is transfer over the network and each sensor node consumes some energy in sending data and receiving data. In WSN, the lifetime of the network depend how much energy spent in each transmission. The efficient use of energy source in a sensor node is most desirable criteria for prolong the life time of wireless sensor network. So designing efficient routing protocol for reducing energy consumption is the important issue in the network. A large number of routing protocol has been proposed since few decades. Some of the most popular routing protocols are LEACH, PEGASIS, TEEN, APTEEN and HEED. This paper reviews each hierarchical routing protocol for wireless sensor networks and describe under the appropriate category. We also highlight the advantage, disadvantage and area of application of each routing technique. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various hierarchical routing protocols in wireless sensor network.


Air Stirring System for Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium onto Chitosan PDF

Mamdouh M.Nassar, Abd EL Hakim Daifullah, Joseph Y. Farah and H.Kelany

The adsorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions onto chitosan was investigated. The chitosan was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The physical properties of chitosan were also investigated. The effect of chitosan mass, initial chromium concentrations and air flow rate on the removal of chromium in batch reactor using air stirring technique have been studied The experimental kinetic data were tested using Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order, Elovich and Modified Freundlich models. Three error functions were used to identify the best fit model with the experimental data. The error analysis showed that, compared with other models, the , Pseudo-second order model resulted in the lowest values for the error function and thus fitted the data better than the other models.


A Synonymous Approach to Enhance Relevance in Search Engine PDF

Dr.V.Gomathi, E. Padma, I.Piriya Dharshni

Web pages are growing at a galloping rate. Presently there exist 300+ million web pages. When a user provides search keywords in the existing search engines, the keyword is searched for its match in the titles, headings, or special fields called meta-tags and the first few paragraphs of the web page and displayed. But, if the meta-tags are framed wrongly either intentionally or unintentionally, this word matching technique may lead to an irrelevant page. To alleviate the above mentioned problem, this project aims to provide an efficient way of searching the web contents by proposing “Synsearch” - a synonymous approach based middle-ware. The novel Synsearch gives a clear separation between web content, presentation and the meaning of the content. This is more useful to make the web pages as machine processable and thus enhances relevance in search engine. Synsearch will unburden the users from interpreting results of search engines. The proposed method alters the ranking algorithm used in existing search engines based on probability of word occurrences. Synsearch further alters the searching mechanism by introducing a synonymous approach.


Being and Becoming MSM: a Qualitative Study of Rajshahi City in Bangladesh PDF

Md. Torikul Islam and Md. Kamal Pasa

MSM (Male Sex with Male) is one of the most important components of demographic studies in our society. This study is an attempt to exploit various factors becoming MSM, causes of MSM, a resist voice of MSM in the Rajshahi city of Bangladesh. A survey was conducted and a few MSM were subjected for interview in the particular area. Social view, Genetic view and religion view were found to be more influencing on becoming MSM. The preference for more resistance voice was observed in the study. Basically they play all kind of role in their society but they lead a measurable life. For that they think that they are the helpless person of their society. For that all the people of their society and others always neglect them. Otherwise at that place if there was a normal man that man would always be honored by others. When a MSM notice it at that time all the MSM fell helpless. In Bangladesh it has been analytically discussed about MSM. Some anthropologist also mentioned on it in deeply. They discuss about their economic life, employment, social control mechanism, political affairs, kingship, religious beliefs and rituals. There is also discussion about food habits, dietary rules, diseases, illness and their communication.


Mapping of Mass Movements Susceptibility in the Zoumi Region Using Satellite Image and GIS Technology (Moroccan Rif) PDF

Meryem Elmoulat, Lahsen Ait Brahim, Mohamed Mastere and Anouar Ilham Jemmah

Landslide susceptibility assessment uses geostatistical methods for the analysis of the relationships between landslides and the spatial distributions of instability factors. In this study, a detailed landslide susceptibility map was produced using an objective bivariate analysis method (weights of evidence, WOE) with datasets developed for a geographic information system (GIS). We applied this methodology for the first time to a Moroccan region known as one of the most landslide areas in the Moroccan Rif. The Zoumi sector was selected as a suitable case because of the frequency and distribution of landslides. The site covers an area of 613 km2 with a landslide area of 81 km2. Several data were used, including multi-temporal remote sensing data, topographical maps, geological maps, and thematic maps, all with 30 X 30m pixels. Statistical relationships among several landslides and causative factors were investigated to assess landslide susceptibility. All continuous variables were converted to categorical variables according to the percentile divisions of seed cells, and the corresponding class weight values were calculated and summed allowing the creation of Zoumi susceptibility map. According to the final susceptibility map, 22.91% of the pilot site was identified as high susceptibility; however, 41.04 %, 13.32 %, and 22.73 % of the area were respectively identified as moderate, low and nil susceptibility zones. The high and moderate hazard zones are along overlapping faces of the case study, and cor-respond pretty good to the actual distribution of landslides.


Study of Properties and Use of Lipid Biofuels with Environmental Impacts for Production of low cost Fuel PDF

Harsha D N, Mahesha D C, Suresh Kumar S, Mohamed Zafar Farooq

Biodiesel is considered as a renewable substitute for diesel oil in the compression ignition engine. But the biodiesel is more prone to oxida-tion due to its chemical nature. The products of the oxidation cause the biodiesel to become acidic and to form insoluble gums and sediments that can plug fuel filters. In India, biodiesel is derived from non-edible oils sources, in particular honge and jatropha oils [1]. Oil-accumulating microalgae have the potential to enable large-scale biodieselproduction without competing for arable land or biodiverse natural landscapes. High lipidproductivity of dominant, fast-growing algae is a major prerequisite for commercialproduction of microalgal oil-derived biodiesel. However, under optimal growth conditions,large amounts of algal biomass are produced, but with relatively low lipid contents, whilespecies with high lipid contents are typically slow growing. Major advances in this areacan be made through the induction of lipid biosynthesis, e.g., by environmental stresses.Lipids, in the form of triacylglycerides typically provide a storage function in the cell thatenables microalgae to endure adverse environmental conditions. Under this review paper work detailed studies will be conducted for analyzing the properties and use of lipid biofuels.Here also discuss the enviornamental impacts of lipid biofuels


Implementation of Next generation DVB-T based OFDM in Modern Wireless Technology PDF

Rohit Kumar (M.Tech. Student), Asst. Professor Arvinder Pal Singh Kalsi

Now-a-days, life in the 24*365, in communication arenas video broadcasting is acting a key role. However, it is analyzed in terms of various wireless communication channels. Thus there is a need for development of next generation DVB-T. In OFDM the data is transmitted into parallel fashion by dividing high rate serial data into low rate sub-streams. By dividing the data into parallel streams the data rate is reduces, which results the increase of the length of symbol duration. The robustness of the channel and high data rates make OFDM as an efficient scheme for all the DVB-T applications and others applications too. So, we use one of the proposed OFDM signals of the Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) standard which is now used for the European terrestrial digital television (DTV) service. In this paper, the advanced and proposed module of DVB-T system model is mentioned, based on the analysis of some parameters, which will discuss later in this paper, on the basis of FFT via different channels, time and frequency synchronization.


WHAT DOES MEAN “SECULARISM”?... PDF

M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

This scientific research focus that in History of Human race (Anthropological science) the first “Human Ancestors” considered lived in “KACHCHA THEEVU” (3,00,000 years ago) of Ancient India even much before the “Sun” emits first rays on “Earth”. The populations of Kachcha theevu shall be considered lived as huge “JOINT FAMILY” also called as “SECULAR SOCIETY”. Further the Kachcha theevu ancestors shall be called as “DALITS”. Dalit shall mean “TRANSFORMED POPULATION” (or) “BLACK BRAHMIN” (BLACK OBAMA).


Comparative Study of Analysis and Design of R.C. and Steel Structures PDF

Prof. Prakarsh Sangave, Mr. Nikhil Madur, Mr. Sagar Waghmare, Mr. Rakesh Shete, Mr. Vinayak Mankondi, Mr. Vinayak Gundla

The use of steel structure in India as compared to other countries is less, as India is developing country. In cities like Delhi and Mumbai, horizontal expansion is restricted therefore vertical growth of building becomes predominant. . Infill walls are probably the most important non-structural element in the context of seismic design. They helps in resisting the lateral forces. Due to their significance in-plane stiffness and strength, infill walls modify the anticipated seismic performance of a building. In the present work, three dimensional models of steel & RCC structures are analyzed by using equivalent static method under the provision of IS 1893: (2002) with the help of ETABS software. Where design and cost estimation is carried out using MS-Excel programming for all structures. Comparative study of bare & infill frame of four models of (G+6) & (G+10) RC & steel structures is carried out which is situated in seismic zone five (v).Masonry infill is modeled by Equivalent Diagonal Strut method.


Performance of Ecofriendly Nano Coated Suture PDF

Dr Hireni Mankodi, Japan Trivadi

The scope of meditech embraces all textile materials used in health and hygiene applications in both consumer and medical markets. Textile products are used in medical and healthcare sector in various forms. The complexity of applications has increased with research and developments in the area of medical textiles. The Aloe-vera coating on suture material would expedite the healing; hence tissue reaction can be controlled by standardizing such process. The Aloe-vera gel coating used for suture application and performance of coating and change in properties of different Suture has been analyzed. In this project the Braided Polyester Suture is taken to standardize the process and comparative analysis has been done for coating efficiency and performance offered by different samples of PP, PET, Nylon, Viscose and Bamboo Yarns. It is also possible to use other natural finish like Neem, Turmeric etc for Surgical Suture.


Analogizing And Investigating Some Applications of Metabolic Pathway Analysis Methods PDF

Gourav Mukherjee, Aditya Dwarkani, Tanmoy Kumar Dawn, Ms. Satarupa Bagchi Biswas

Comparing metabolic network analysis approaches which include the structural and stoichiometric modeling methods under which comes Network Based Approach and Constraint Based Approach. In Constraint Based Approach we have analyzed and implemented the Flux Balance Analysis Method and under Network Based Approach we have reviewed and analyzed the Extreme Pathway Analysis Approach.


Implementation Laguerre Pseudo-Spectral Method for Obtaining the Approximate Solution of Fractional Cable Equation PDF

Kj. M. Abualnaja

This paper is devoted to present the approximate solution for the fractional Cable equation (FCE) using an efficient numerical method. The proposed method depends on implementation an approximate formula of the Caputo fractional derivative derived in [14]. This proposed formula is based on the spectral collocation method with the generalized Laguerre polynomials. The properties of these polynomials are used to reduce FCE to solve a system of ODEs which solved using finite difference method. Special attention is given to present the convergence analysis of the given formula. Numerical example is given to show the validity and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm.


HAPPY TAMIL NEW YEAR!.. PDF

M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

In Tamilnadu, based on ancient Tamil culture, some scholar observing “JANUARY 15” as New year day and some scholar observing “APRIL 14” as New year day. In CHINA, they are observing “FEBRUARY 24” as New Year day.


EFFECT OF METAL VAPOURS ON THERMODYNAMICS AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF AN ARC PLASMA PDF

A.M.A. Amry, G.A. Yahya and Thahbah G. Alzahrani

Theoretical investigation of nitrogen-iron arc transport phenomena and an arc plasma model in stationary state have studied at low temperature i.e. between 3,500K and 15,000K at atmospheric pressure. Results showed that the presence of small amounts of metal vapours, which have low ionization potential such as iron, modify the plasma parameters. The solution of Elenbaas-Heller gives us some information about the effect of metal vapours emitted from electrode on the characteristics of the arc column. We concluded that a small fraction of metal vapours in the arc column modify the electric field, current and the axial plasma temperature.


Image processing technique to differentiate between a decoy and real objects PDF

Ajay Pathania

Modern day warfare is primarily based on stealth and surprise. The surprise elements are achieved through various means, in which one of the means being Camouflage and concealment. The aim of camouflage is to hide the generic signature of a weapon system or human being in such a way that it becomes or appears to be a part of background or general terrain where we are operating.


Efficiency and Satisfaction Quality of the Health Care Delivery System PDF

Muhammad AlEnzy, Jason Harris, Rebecca Mantecon

The focus of our project revolved around staffing efficiency and prediction. Multiple case studies were reviewed, allowing us to develop a deeper understanding of how various industrial and systems engineering tools can be utilized to improve healthcare efficiency. The case studies used gradually build upon each other, showcasing how more sophisticated tools can allow a hospital to build to a point where the staffing needs can be modeled and predicted.


Comparison of Conventional & New Multilevel Inverter Topology PDF

Anjali Sudarsanan, Roopa R, Sanjana S

This paper deals with the comparison of conventional inverters to new multilevel inverter topologies. Their performance is highly superior to that of conventional two-level inverters due to reduced harmonic distortion, lower electromagnetic interference, and higher dc link voltages. By using conventional method the performance of the inverter is low. In this paper a new topology with reversing voltage component is suggested to improve the performance of multilevel inverter. This topology requires fewer components and therefore the cost and complexity is low.


Analysis of Secure Data Aggregation Mechanisms with the Impact of Collusion Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks PDF

Anita A.Gosavi, Sonali U.Nimbhorkar

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enables the collection of physical measurements over a large geographic area. Data from multiple sensors is aggregated at an aggregator node and only the aggregate values are forwarded to the base station .At present, limitations of the computing power and energy resource of sensor nodes causes data to be aggregated by extremely simple algorithms such as averaging. Aggregation using simple averaging method is highly vulnerable to node compromising attacks and through the compromised sensor nodes the attacker can send false data to the aggregator to change the aggregate values. Iterative filtering algorithms is the most effective solution for such purpose. These algorithms simultaneously aggregate data from multiple sources and provide trust estimation of these sources, usually in a form of corresponding weight factors assigned to data provided by each source. In this paper we analysed some secure data aggregation mechanisms and introduced a new complicated collusion attack with its impact on wireless sensor networks.


Improving CRO performance using stepwise approach for constrained optimisation PDF

S L Pandharipande, A K Dixit

Chemical reaction optimisation (CRO) is amongst newer methods of evolutionary algorithms that are being developed suited in searching global solutions to varied nature of optimisation problems. It is, nature inspired meta-heuristics method and chemical reaction mechanism is the source of inspiration behind its. In a chemical reaction, the reactants; the unstable substances; are converted into products; the relatively stable ones. The reactants with some initial energy interact with each other through a sequence of elementary steps. At the end, molecules with minimum energy to support their stable structure are formed. Based on the present work, the results of the numerical experimentation, it is concluded that the values obtained from the stepwise approach are way better that those obtained using CRO without stepwise search and using conventional techniques such as geometric programing.


Evaluation of Static Frequency Reuse Techniques in OFDM Cellular Networks Using SINR PDF

Jayasankar.S

The use of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMax cellular systems mitigates downlink intra-cell interference by the use of sub-carriers that are orthogonal to each other. Inter­ cell interference, however, limits the downlink performance of cellular systems. In order to mitigate inter-cell interference, various techniques have been proposed. This paper examines one group of these techniques, static frequency reuse. We present a comprehensive comparison of Reuse-I, Reuse-3, fractional frequency reuse (FFR), and soft frequency reuse (SFR), with varying input parameters, such as inner radius and power ratios. System simulation is used to evaluate the overall system performance in terms of throughput and SINR are evaluated. In addition to the overall system performance, cell-edge user performance, whose performance is severely limited by interference from neighboring cells, for each technique is also evaluated.


Online Students’ Testing System PDF

Lecturer Hana R. Esmaeel

The paper is concerned with the design of a website for Online Student’s Testing System (OSTS).the proposed system (OSTS) is designed and implemented using PHP, MySQL, and JavaScript and tested using WAMP server. It covers evaluation of candidates on web programming languages (HTML, PHP, JavaScript and Java).Before beginning the test, the candidate has to enter his name and ID number that will be entered to the database. Candidate is given a limited time (ten minutes) to answer the questions and after the time expiry, the answer paper is disabled automatically and answers are sent to the server then the mark and the correct answers will be displayed at the end of the test. The question will be randomly generated. OSTS provides the candidate with a certificate including his name, his ID number, his result and the date of taking the test. The purpose of providing the date is that each certificate has a limited time to be expired. Administrator has a privilege to access the database to add, modify and delete the test questions and answers by logging in using specific username and password. OSTS can be accessed from any client in the same local network that the server is connected to.


Consideration of indicators maintainability design PDF

Alami Ayoub, Naciri oumaima, Herrou Brahim, El Hammoumi Mohammed

Nowadays, new products on the market are increasingly complex. This complexity stems partly from the fact that the functions that the systems need to require the integration of multiple components using different technologies. The designer must incorporate into its process all phases of the life cycle of the system and its components. Must opt for solutions that are simple to produce, inexpensive, very reliable, safe, easy to maintain and with a total cost over the entire life cycle that is attractive to the consumer. So to validate a feature or product performance, you must have indicators.


Outcomes of Laboratory Experimentation in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum PDF

Dr. G.N. Rameshaiah, Y K Suneetha, Shabnam Siddiqui, Aishwarya Sriraman, Namratha Prabhu

Laboratory instruction has been a long standing component of the chemical engineering curriculum. Along with a sound theoretical foundation, firsthand experience in the field forms a wholesome educational experience since instruction in a laboratory entails a cognitive approach. For a student to develop a complete understanding, it is essential that concepts are made tangible. Experimentation improves the problem solving skills, critical thinking and investigative skills of students. Its most vital importance, however, lies in the fact that it provides the student with an in depth understanding of the subject, while making it an enjoyable learning experience.


Developing Intelligent MPPT for PV Systems Based on ANN and P&O Algorithms PDF

H. I. Abdelkader, A. Y. Hatata, M. S. Hasan

The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in photovoltaic (PV) systems varies depending on the fluctuation of the solar radiation and temperature; while the energy transfer from the PV to the load is controlled by specific algorithms. Conventional techniques for MPPT (Perturb and observe (P&O)) are easy to implement but they suffer from oscillations at MPP and speed is less due to fixed perturb step. To achieve better energy efficiency conversion in PV systems, it is required to develop maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control techniques. This paper presents an improved MPPT controller for PV systems using two techniques namely; Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and developed P&O techniques. The proposed ANN and the developed P&O algorithm are modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The proposed ANN has two inputs which are solar radiation and ambient temperature. The optimum voltage of the PV system is the output of the proposed ANN. The proposed ANN was evaluated under different irradiation conditions and temperature. The response of the proposed ANN for MPPT controllers found to be lesser oscillation at MPP and faster tracking response compared with the developed P&O algorithm.


Two-Way Cloud Computing in Research and Educational Surroundings using Virtual Cloud PDF

Mr. F. Destonius Dhiraviam, Mr. Vinoth Raj

Distributed computing is getting to be as an issue decision processing standard for the ventures. Utilization of cloud computing advances is expanding by every passing day. It has extraordinary focal points of on-interest processing, adaptability, proactive asset administration, better application throughput, and enhanced security. Because of its openness and flexibility, it can be a decent alternative for deliberate asset processing among non-benefit associations. In this paper, we introduce a model for agreeable distributed computing among examination foundations and colleges utilizing Virtual Cloud ideas. The propose model of Two-Way Cloud Computing incorporates the ideas of cloud league and volunteer registering and is focused around our Virtual Cloud building design. The agreeable distributed computing can be performed at a worldwide scale among colleges and examination focuses (establishments) found in distinctive mainlands. In this model, foundations get profited with a much higher processing force accessible through cloud league.


Diagnosis of sleep Apnea disease with ECG, SPO2 through using of support vector machine (SVM) PDF

Mohamad Amin alikhani,Behzad Ebrahimnezhad sani,Javad Haddadnia

The aim of this article is to present new method on the basis of support vector machine (SVM) in order to diagnose obstructive sleep Apnea through features of ECG SPO signals. For achieving our aim, we consider two parameters signal namely, the rate of oxygen concentration in blood and relative pressure of blood circulation. Then, we designed support vector machine (SVM) in Matlab environment and applied patients' information to network. This designed network is diagnosed on the basis of inputs and instructional data. Moreover, it will simulate the prediction of sleep Apnea with high accuracy.


Photobiochemistry of Photosynthetic Pigments of Edaphic Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp.FS76 ,Under the Combination Effect of Irradiance and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations PDF

Mahdiyeh Tamkini, Ali Akbar Abolfathi, Shadman Shokravi

The agriculture lands , specifically Rice paddies are subjected to sever restrictions seasonally, monthly and even daily, because of placing in flood situations. Habituation of soil cyanobacteria with this ecosystem provides the optimum conditions for growth in this series. The goal of this research is to study the habituation of cyanobacterium Anabaena SP.FS76 to the simultaneous changes in carbon dioxide and light by using of evaluated fotobiochemical procedures, which is done on the body of living sample and optical shocks, and so their impact is evaluated in this research for the first time. The sample is provided from Golestan state and is placed at specific medium BG.11, then it is studied according to different conditions of light (2,10,50,100 micro mole quanta per square meter per second) ,concentration of carbon dioxide (absolute and relative limitation) ,together with optical shocks at short intervals (15,10,5,0 ). This study is done by considering the examination of absorption spectrum in vivo and fluorimetry evaluation. Survivorship, growth, chlorophyll content, carotenoid, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, phycoerythrin, are examined in each of the compound treatments. The results are shown that, the photosynthetic system of cyanobacterium, Anabaena SP.FS76, has the ability for rearrangement at short intervals. Light is one of the effective factors in this field. Increasing the light will increase the photosynthetic performance and as a result the phycobiliprotein content will be enhanced. The statistical analysis indicates a significant correlation. Also it should be mentioned that, phycoerythrin pigment has a maximum growth in comparison with other pigments. On the average, phycobiliproteins production reaches to the maximum level at the conditions of relative limitation of co2, light intensity of 100 micro mole quanta per square meter per second and absolute limits of co2, light intensity of 50 micro mole quanta per square meter per second, and at the end a significant difference is shown in comparison with lower light intensities. The condensation mechanism of this sample is so potent and it performs actively in the condition of absolute limits of carbon dioxide. On the whole , by considering the high capabilities of this cyanobacteria, it should be expressed that, it is a suitable sample for practical usage as it can preserve it’s duration and contrast with difficult status .


Detection and Segmentation of Ischemic Stroke Using Textural Analysis on Brain CT Images PDF

Alyaa Hussein Ali, Shahad Imad Abdulsalam, Ihssan Subhi Nema

The detection of the brain strokes from Computed Tomography CT images needs convenient processing technique starting from image enhancement to qualify the brain image by isolation process, region growing and logical operators (OR and AND). Morphological techniques (opening and close) with the logical operator produce a good result. These results with the help of the simplest segmentation process, which is the thresholding process, are used to extract a stroke region from the CT image of the brain. The median filter is applied to remove the noise from the image. The statistical features calculated using first-order histogram were utilized in the detection of the stroke region.


Cyst Detection in Brain using Neural Network PDF

Sheena Jagga, Suneet Gupta

Cysts occur within tissue and can affect any part of the body. Cysts in brain can sometimes block the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) causing hydrocephalus which can lead to nausea, headache, vomiting and double vision. This paper proposes a strategy to detect cyst and also find the percentage of infection along with the perimeter of cyst using various image processing techniques. The methodology proposed give efficient results.


High Performance Membranes Using Lithium Additives: A Review PDF

Benny Saputra, Suprihatin, Erliza Noor

The easiest and reproducible methods to improve membrane performance is adding additives in casting solution. Different from common additives that usually used, inorganic additives like lithium seems to be very effective in the preparation of membranes with higher performance because of their small molecular weight and interaction behavior. Studies show that the use of lithium additives causes an increase in viscosity, porosity and conductivity, reduces hydrophobic, change membrane morphologies and enhanced membrane performance (permeability and rejection). Hence, lithium additives have a high potential for achieving high performance membranes, especially in membrane fabrication and application.


Reaction and functionality of sulfuric and chromic acids over low density polyethylene for medical textiles: A comparative study PDF

Mohib R. Kazimi, Mumtaz D. Naqvi, Ashraf Kamal, Feroz Alam, Zeeshan Abbas, Zeeshan Akhtar, Tanveer Abbas, Tahir Shah and Che Ku Mohammad Faizal

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) swollen in mixture of polar and non-polar solvents was subjected to sulfuric and chromic acids to promote durable hydrophilic and electrical properties. ATR-Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis of the treated LDPE depicts the reaction mechanism of both the acids over low density polyethylene in swollen condition. Both sulfuric and chromic acids promote in-depth modification of LDPE resulting in enhanced hydrophilicity and lower electrical resistivity of the polymer. FTIR spectra indicate formation of double bonds, sulfonic and carbonyl moieties. Contact angle goniometry indicates a 30áµ’ decrease in contact angle and Photo Luminescence Spectroscopy computes band gap decrease to 2.8eV. Comparative results suggest chromic acid as more influential functionalization agent for low density polyethylene at lower concentrations.


A new approach using Camshift Algorithm for multiple Vehicle Tracking PDF

Mohammed Mohsin AL- Azzi, Prof. Huang Dong Jun, Thekra Abbas

Cameras and video technology have become integral in our day to day lives. Surveillance is one area that has greatly benefited from video technologies. This in turn increases the need for automatic video surveillance algorithms that can track objects and raise alarm if needed. Tracking of people is one such area. On the other hand, CAMSHIFT is a tracking algorithm that has been widely applied in face tracking in the past. It has however not been used in vehicle tracking. This paper therefore presents a modified CAMSHIFT algorithm that can be used in tracking of vehicles in video sequence. This will be covered in two ways; detection of moving objects of interest from frame to frame then evaluate the performance of our modified CAMSHIFT algorithm on different video sequences. We'll use frame difference to achieve object tracking. The results reveal that.


Influences of Masonry Infill Wall, Tie Beam and RCC Bracing on Soft Storey Mechanism PDF

Prof. Prakarsh. Sangave, Mr. Rajkumar Waghmare, Mr. Nitin Hanamgaonswami, Mr. Zaid Ahmed Kalyani, Ms. Aishwarya Pawar, Ms. Harsha Shinde2

The presence of infill wall in the building gives better behavior under lateral loads. Engineers believe that ignoring infill effect gives conservative design. For multistoried structures, the consideration of effect of bottom storey under seismic forces would be an important parameter. As per IS 1893 (Part-I) :2002 the columns and beams of the soft storey are to be designed for 2.5 times the storey shear and moments calculated under the seismic load of a bare frame ( i.e. without considering infill effect). In this paper model is studied to investigate the magnification factor for various load combinations considering peripheral masonry infill wall only, peripheral masonry infill wall along with tie beams and RCC X bracings under seismic effect. The Equivalent diagonal strut method is used to calculate the width of infill strut by FEMA approach. The R.C.C. building model (P+7) has been prepared using ETAB software. The Seismic Coefficient Method has been performed for the analysis of various models. The results of investigations and their conclusions are discussed below.


Modeling of Check Valve Using Computational Fluid Dynamics PDF

Aly M. EL-Zahaby, Gamal I. Sultan, Abdulkader S. Bekhatro, Ibrahim Ali

The main reason of slam problem is the great hydrodynamic force acting on the valve disc near and at closing position. In order to reduce the impact force between the valve disc and its seat when closing, some modifications are applied to the valve disc geometry to reduce the drag force acting on it by the system moving back flow and consequently decrease the impact force.


On Hsu-Structure Manifold, Multirecurrent and Symmetric PDF

Lata Bisht, Sandhana Shanker

In this paper we have defined , , , Ricci -Multirecurrent and multirecurrent symmetric Hsu- Structure manifold. Furthermore theorems on above - Multirecurrent and Multirecurrent symmetric Hsu -Structure manifold involving equivalent conditions with respect to various curvature tensors have also been discussed


Why Unmanned Aircraft Systems Failed for a Century PDF

Mustafa ILLEEZ

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) will be the dominating force multiplier of the future air power. When the background of the technology and concept is researched, it can be seen historical systems complying with modern description of UAS started almost at same years with manned aircraft. UAS used in different operational functions such as intelligence reconnaissance surveillance (ISR), air to ground attack, electronic warfare, suppression of enemy air defense (SEAD) etc. in history and never followed an uninterrupted development line. UAS world today seems to be reinventing these concepts. This paper is trying to analyze the reasons of failures of many projects of the history. Determining the factors preventing the success of historical UAS, may provide a different point of view to planners, decision makers, UAS industry and scholars for current UAS development and procurement phases.


A Novel Model to Calculate Global Tilted Irradiation (GTI) from Solar Variables Using Netcdf and Rstudio PDF

M M Shourov Akter, Md. Asaduzzaman Shoeb

Currently the world power consumption is around 10TW per year and it is projected to be about 30TW by 2050. So our big challenge is to produce additional 20TW of non-CO2 energy to reduce GHG emission in the atmosphere by mid-century. The simplest and easiest way to reduce CO2 emission is the use of alternative clean energy sources. Among all the renewable energy sources, solar energy is one of the most abundant and the cleanest energy source. It can contribute a total amount of 10TW and the rest amount will be managed by hydrogen for transportation and fossil fuels for residential and industrial heating. This paper represents the European scenario of solar PV potential. A model is developed to calculate the global tilted irradiation and applied for several location of France. The result is compared with available realistic values in quest of verification.


Groundwater and Surface Water Quality As-sessment for Irrigation and Drinking Purposes of Khulna District, South-Western, Bangladesh. PDF

Md. Badrul Alam, Chowdhury Rayhan Kabir Rocky, Nadia Sultana Tarakki, Abdullah Al Aftab, Chowdhury Quamruzzaman

This research deals with the Water Quality of Khulna District, South-western Bangladesh according to WHO standard. The water analyses show that, Na+, Cl-, and HCO3- are dominant ions but as far as the water quality is concerned, except some locations, the water is not suitable for drinking purpose.The competency of groundwater for drinking varies from place to place with depth but shallow water is totally unsuitable for drinking.Most of the samples exceeds the WHO and Bangladesh standard. Approximately all the groundwater is moderate to very hard and the surface water is soft to moderately hard. Maximum water samples are mixed type of Ca-HCO3- andNa-HCO3- . Some shallow and surface water are Ca-HCO3- type and rest of deep water samples are Na-HCO3- type. The groundwater electrical conductivity (EC) of the study area shows some spatial variation and highest SEC value was found in southern part which gives indication of water quality deterioration. It also indicates the salinity of groundwater. Based on sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values it is observed that, the water is suitable for irrigation development


Design and Implementation of Wireless Sensors Network and Cloud Based Telemedicine System for Rural Clinics and Health Centers PDF

Hafez Fouad, Hesham Farouk

Telemedical centers use ICTs to overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to healthcare services. This is particularly beneficial for rural and underserved communities in developing countries – groups that traditionally suffer from lack of access to healthcare. In addition reviewing and discussing the current attempts in wireless body area network technology, a WBAN system that has been designed for healthcare applications will be presented. The wireless system in the WBAN uses medical bands to obtain physiological data from sensor nodes. The medical bands are selected to reduce the interference and thus increase the coexistence of sensor node devices with other network devices available at medical centers. The collected data is transferred to remote stations with a multi-hopping technique using the medical gateway wireless boards. In his paper we propose a complete architecture design and implementation, with real test on site for patient data collection, telemedicine system with mutli-users facilities for both sides, Doctors, patients and medical centers. The system offer the facilities of connecting to telehealth WSN and has two types of dash boards; for patients side and for doctor side with the facilities of displaying in one screen capture the case under supervision from a doctor. The core of the proposed system is based on using web interfaces hosted on cloud environment. We add a big data technology analytical tool to analyze the patient data stored on cloud database to get some information – geographically distributed for example which may help the decision maker for example. It is an effective solution for providing specialty healthcare in the form of improved access and reduced cost to the rural patients and the reduced professional isolation of the rural doctors. Telemedical centers can enable ordinary doctors to perform extra-ordinary tasks. The proposed system got real results applied on Pulse company wearable Mobile ECG device that can make a remote monitoring to the patient using cloud computing.


Measuring Of Vehicle Speed Using Radar and SCM Technology PDF

V.Prabhakaran, V.Sriramakrishna, T.Bhargav Shyam

By combining radar with a micro processor and with the help of GSM (or) GPS we can measure the speed and we give instructions to the driver immediately if he is driving in more speed. This can be achieved by using Bluetooth and SCM (Single Chip Micro Computer).Buy using Bluetooth and SCM technology we cannot measure the speed to a long distances i.e. we can measure through a small distance of meters .In place of Bluetooth we can use Zigbee technology (or) CAN Protocol. Using zigbee technology we can pass signals through a distance of one kilo meter .So it is better than we can go for CAN Protocol i.e. Controller Area Network.


A Parabola Symmetrical to y=x Line PDF

Kundan Kumar

This paper presents a parabola symmetrical to the line y=x. A standard parabola is given by the equation y2 = 4ax. It is symmetric about x-axis. Another standard equation of the parabola is x2 = 4ay. It is symmetric about y-axis. In these equations either x or y is linear and other one is quadratic in nature. In this paper, I will derive the general equation of a parabola symmetrical to the line y = x .


Sustaining Knowledge in SMEs: Integrating Workplace Learning in Enhancing Knowledge Sharing Behavior PDF

Suzilawati Ibrahim, Low Hock Heng

There are widely recognized the importance’s of knowledge for both sectors either large organization or Small Medium Enterprise (SMEs) to increase company performance. Thus, important knowledge must be retained in organizations before this knowledge could be lost through redundancy, retirement, resignation and even through promotion. Therefore, organizations whose practicing knowledge sharing could acquire knowledge for knowledge using in the future and at the same time enhance the accumulation of knowledge for employees and the organization as a whole. However, some workers are willing to share knowledge, but some of them seem uninterested to share knowledge if there is a possibility makes them become less valuable. Thus, the factors that influence knowledge sharing must be understood in order to examine the knowledge sharing behavior. Since learning could change individual behavior, it’s could promote knowledge sharing behavior among workers. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to critically review and examine workplace learning and emerge with knowledge sharing behavior. Further, the critical factors which related to the knowledge sharing behavior were analyzed to construct the integration between workplace learning mode and knowledge sharing process. Then, this paper aimed to explore a connection between workplace learning and knowledge sharing behavior in order to sustain and create a new knowledge. From the literature, this paper could enable understanding for practitioners or SMEs regards the process of workplace learning in order to promote knowledge sharing.


A review paper on Redesign of Gravity Roller Conveyor System for Weight Reduction through optimization PDF

Mr. Sanket Pandit, Dr. A.G.Thakur

This work presents an application of concept of concurrent engineering and the principles of design for manufacturing and design for assembly, several critical conveyor parts were investigated for their functionality cost and ease of assembly in the overall conveyor system. The critical parts were modified and redesigned with new shape and geometry and some with new materials. The improved design methods and the functionality of new conveyor parts were verified and tested on a new test conveyor system designed, manufactured and assembled using the new improved parts.The improved methodology for design and production of conveyor components is based on the minimization of material, parts using the rules of design for manufacture and design for assembly.The semi finished material has to be transported from one station in the assembly to another at a distance of upto 50 meters or more. The method of manual transport by fork-lift is time consuming. A mechanism for continuous and uninterrupted transport is desired. This is carried out with reference to roller conveyor system (Existing system). The existing system will be redesign and optimize for weight, resulting into material saving by modifying and analyzingthe critical conveyor parts.


REVIEW ON HIGH EFFICIENCY MPEG4 AAC AUDIO ENCODER AND DECODER PDF

Pratiksha R. Wankhade, Nitin. N. Mandaogade

In recent years, a well-known audio coding, MPEG Layer-3 (MP3), is widely used and maintains a good audio quality. However, a new audio standard, MPEG AAC audio coding [1], becomes more and more popular since it has better audio quality than MP3. AAC is the most advanced MPEG standard for digital audio compression. However, based on the characteristics of complex control and irregular data flow, AAC algorithm seems to be difficult in architecture design. AAC has been standardized by ISO and IEC, as part of the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 specifications. A part of the AAC known as High Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding (HE-AAC) which is part of MPEG-4 Audio is also adopted into digital radio standards like DAB+ and Digital Radio Mondiale, as well as mobile television standards DVB-H and ATSC-M/H. This paper focuses on the mono channel, sampling frequency of 44.1 KHz; bitrates is 128Kb/s, Low Complexity profile implementation of the coder, which represents the configuration that is best suited for consumer electronics applications.


THREE DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS RESPONSE OF PILE SUBJECTED TO OBLIQUE LOADS PDF

Dr. Hussein A. Shaia, Dr. Sarmad A. Abbas

Pile foundations are commonly used to resist vertical and lateral loads applied to structures. Usually, these kinds of loads will act together to form a combination of loads, such as oblique forces that have a component of vertical and lateral forces. Predicting the behavior of piles subjected to oblique loads still remains a challenging task to geotechnical engineers. In this paper, results of numerical simulation of behavior of piles as embedded in cohesionless soil under oblique loads are presented by using ABAQUS. For the cohesionless soil, the Mohr-Coloumb constitutive law has been used to simulate the surrounding soil while the linear elastic model is used for modeling of the pile. The interactions between the pile and the surrounding soil are modeled thoroughly using contact elements based on slave-master concept. The results are shown in terms of load/displacement curves for the components of vertical and the lateral loading portions in different inclination angles. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are given concerning the design of piles under oblique loads.


Impact of Physical Exercise and Transcendental Meditation on Physiological parameters: An ANN Modelling PDF

R. Bhardwaj, Siddhartha Agarwal, S.P Singh, M.M. Srivastavad, J.K. Arora

The present paper is specifically aimed to design an ANN model based on the data on the effect of physical exercise and meditation on some selected physiological parameters, generated from a study on 30 healthy male and female volunteers between the age group of 20-50 years. The performance of the model was evaluated considering 60 % data for training, 20 % data for testing and 20 % data for cross validation with sigmoid axon transfer function, at 1500 Epoch with 0.70000 momentums. The minimum MSE in the group of four variables was determined for training and cross validation were 2.08702E-05 and 0.545759673 respectively.


A THEORETICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEAT LOAD DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF A COLD STORAGE PDF

Dr. Nimai Mukhopadhyay, Mr. Bodhisattwa Maity

In this study a mathematical model of cold storage (with the help of computer programming ; and other mathematical tools) has been proposed which can be used for further developments in the field of refrigeration – science and technology ; the proposed model aims for the development of cold storage in the upcoming future. In this paper we have proposed a theoretical comparative study of heat load distribution model of a cold storage. Velocity of air (v) temperature difference (dt), Relative humidity (Rh) are the basic variable and three range are taken each of them in the model development.


Project Assessment of Risks in Construction Industry PDF

V.Archana, V.Antony Francis

In the construction industry the project manager’s responsibility is to monitor cost, time and quality. Because of various risks involved in construction, it is difficult to maintain time, cost, and quality as planned. The main purpose of this dissertation is not only to identify the list of risks involved in construction industry but also to find the key risks that can be significantly influence the construction and mitigation measures. Risk management (RM) comprises of risk identification, risk analysis, response planning, monitoring and action planning tasks that are carried out throughout the life cycle of a project in order to ensure that project activities are met. Although the methodological aspects of RM are well-defined , the philosophical background are rather vague .For identifying the list of risk involved in construction industry Post project appraisal method is used in this thesis. Post project appraisal determines the extent to which a project met the budget, timetable and the key deliverables. The questionnaire survey had been carried out in many companies, after the completion of the survey, the results were analyzed. By the result analysis the risks are found and the recommendations were provided.


The Determinants of Export Diversification at All Margins Case Study: South Korea PDF

Manuel C. Dioquino Jr, Embareka F.Abouellial

Export diversification is considered an effective remedy for avoiding the uncertainties in terms of international trade, achieving the stability in export earnings, and long run sustained economic growth. This study explores the macroeconomic and structural factors may affect export diversification. Thus, it tries to fill the gap in the literature through examining empirically the effect of these factors on both forms of export diversification: product diversification and geographical diversification by constructing the export diversification composite index which has been developed from the most common measurement of export diversification, Herfindahl-Hirschman index, in the case of South Korea during the period when Korea started to implement the diversification policy in its export sector, from (1970-2010) that's why the study applied Vector Error Correction model (VEC) in order to analyze the time series data of 41 years. The result reveals that Korean government has a pivotal role behind the successful implementation of export diversification strategy through its expenditure on exports, rational implementation of trade liberalization, and maintaining the stability in exchange rate as well as the export composition of technological products.


Experimental Determination of Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Okro Fruit PDF

A. S. Oyerinde, M. O.Lawal

The sorption isotherm ( desorption and adsorption ) of okro fruit was determined at three temperatures of 300C,400C and 500C within the range of 10- 90% Relative humidity (RH). Thymol solution was placed inside the desiccators to prevent microbial growth, particularly at the relative humidity above 65%. Gravimetric method was used for the sorption isotherm where the reading and recording was taken at three days interval and the equilibrium moisture content was reached after thirty (30) days. Constructed moisture sorption plots showed a tendency of executing a close loop (hysteresis loop) of which size appears to decrease as temperature increase because, the effect of temperature were significant on the isotherm which appeared sigmoidal.


Modeling of Fixed Bed Column Studies for Adsorption of Azo Dye on Chitosan Impregnated with a Cationic Surfactant PDF

Shadeera Rouf, M. Nagapadma

Removal of diazo dye Brilliant Black BN from aqueous solution was studied by conducting adsorption in fixed bed column using chitosan beads impregnated with a cationic surfactant Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide. Effect of flow rate, bed height and initial dye concentration were investigated. Maximum bed capacity, percentage dye removal and equilibrium dye uptake were determined and break through curves were plotted. Percentage dye removal increased with decrease in flow rate and increase in bed height. Maximum bed capacity of 6.80 mg was obtained at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min, bed height of 8 cm and initial dye concentration of 100 ppm. Data from column studies were fitted to three well established column models, Thomas model, Adams-Bohart model and Yoon-Nelson model. The experimental data were in good agreement with theoretical results. The study revealed the applicability of chitosan in fixed bed column for removal of azo dyes.


Impact of Biodiesel on the Corrosion of Zinc and Copper Strips PDF

O’Donnell Sylvester, Feyisayo V. Adams and Linus N. Okoro

The rates of corrosion of zinc and copper materials at room temperature, 40°C and 60°C in biodiesels obtained from olive, groundnut and soya oils were studied. The study showed that copper materials have a higher corrosion rate in the biodiesels studied compared to zinc materials. The corrosion rate of zinc materials increased with increase in temperature of the biodiesels over a period of time.


Experimental Optimization of Naphthalene Bioadsorption from Aqueous Solution onto Water Melon Peels Using Response Surface Methodology PDF

S. E. AGARRY AND O. O. OGUNLEYE

The objectives of this work were designed to study and optimize naphthalene bioadsorption from aqueous solution as well as to evaluate the effects of bioadsorption process variables such as initial naphthalene concentration, pH, temperature and contact time on the naphthalene bioadsorption potential of water melon. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered design (CCFD) was used with three levels and four factors (initial naphthalene concentration, pH, temperature, contact time) as independent variables and percentage naphthalene removal as dependent variable (response). The naphthalene bioadsorption data was well fitted to a second-order quadratic polynomial regression model with a high coefficient of determination, R (= 0.9997) using Design-Expert Statistical program (v. 6.0.8). The quadratic regression model showed that the percentage naphthalene removal was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the linear and interactive effects of initial naphthalene concentration, pH, temperature and contact time. Numerical optimization technique based on desirability function was carried out to optimize the bioadsorption process. The predicted optimum values for the four bioadsorption process variables to achieve a predicted maximum percentage naphthalene removal of 99.07 percent were found to be: Initial naphthalene concentration (270.20 mg/l), pH (5.85) , temperature (47.45oC) and contact time (128.70 min). At these predicted optimum conditions, the experimentally observed percentage naphthalene removal was found to be 98.45 percent. The statistical analyses and the closeness of the experimental results and model predictions showed the reliability of the regression model. Thus, the results demonstrated the bioadsorption potential of water melon peels in the bioadsorption of organic pollutants from waste or contaminated waters.


Numerical modeling of physically nonlinear deformation elements of construction PDF

Askhad M. Polatov, Nodira A. Nodirjanova

In paper the problem definition, decision method, algorithm and the software of process of nonlinear deformation elements of constructional materials are given. On the basis of numerical modeling process of reduction of tension due to change of form contour of a design is researched.


Solid Waste Management PDF

Subhrangsu Sekhar Dey

Increase of population with their improved lifestyle and build up industrial is increase generation of solid waste in rural as well as urban in our country. But still we used to drop our rest waste into the open land. There are absence of dustbin to all the locality and unsystematic and unscientific way of collections of municipality the solid waste affects our life. People affects by viral fever and headache etc. It also affects to aquatic animal and also increase surface air temperature cause of methane, CO2 and NO2 from organic food materials and industrial waste.


The zero divisor graph of the ring Zpqr PDF

Nazar H. Shuker, Payman A. Rashed

In this paper we construct a star zero divisor graph from the zero divisor graph of the ring Zy, y=pqr, where p, q, and r are prime number. The construction of the star zero divisor graph is results by removing some vertices from the zero divisor graph Γ(Zy), in different way, we used the simple way to get star zero divisor graph SΓ(Zy) by removing the zero divisors of the form nr, n from 1 to pq-1, except n=q. The aim of this work is to construct a star graph from the zero divisor graph of the ring Zy. Finally we proved that the zero divisor graph Γ(Zy) is three partite with girth three, while the diameter is less or equal 3.


Performance Analysis for OFDM System Using Fourier Transform and Wavelet Transform with Different Modulation Techniques PDF

Qusay jalil, S Nagakishore Bhavanam

In OFDM multiple carriers are used and it provides higher level of spectral efficiency as compared to Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM). In OFDM because of loss of orthogonality between the subcarriers there is inter carrier interference (ICI) and inter symbol interference (ISI) and to overcome this problem use of cyclic prefixing (CP) is required, which uses 20% of available bandwidth. Comparison between the conventional FFT based OFDM systems with DWT based OFDM system have been made according to some conventional and non-conventional modulation methods over AWGN. The wavelet families have been used and compared with FFT based OFDM system and found that DWT based OFDM system is better than FFT based OFDM system with regards to the bit error rate (BER) performance.


Synthesis and Reactivity of Chromium and Manganese Dibromoacetates and Their Complexes Wth Organic Bases PDF

Jugal Kishore Puri and Rajni Chhoker

Complexes of composition CrCl(Br2CHCOO)2, Cr3O(Br2CHCOO)6Cl, [Cr3O(Br2CHCOO)6(Br2CHCOOH)3Cl], Cr(Br2CHCOO)3, Cr(Br2CHCOO)3.Py, Cr(Br2CHCOO)3.Q, Cr(Br2CHCOO)3(C2H5)3N, [Cr3O(Br2CHCOO)6(NH3)3]Cl.5NH3, Mn(Br2CHCOO)2, Mn(Br2CHCOO)2.2Py, Mn(Br2CHCOO)2.2Q, Mn(Br2CHCOO)2.2(C2H5)3N and (Me4N)2Mn(Br2CHCOO)4 have been synthesized. All these compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, infra-red, reflectance and thermo-gravimetric studies. These studies indicate the hexa co-ordination of chromium and manganese in these compounds having octahedral geometry and suggest the formation of polymeric structures. Further attempts are in progress to isolate the single crystal of these complexes in order to throw more light on the structure of these complexes from single crystal x-ray studies.


Effect of welding parameters variation on the weldability of austenitic stainless steel 304L PDF

S. M. Amer, M. A. Morsi, Hussein. M. Abdelaziz, A. Atlam, E. S. Mosa

The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of the welding parameters on the weldability of austenitic stainless steel 304L using 308L consumable electrodes (microstructure, ultimate tensile strength and hardness). The parameters used are: the Welding current, the travel speed and Shielding gases. The welding currents used in this study are: 90A, 110A and 130A.The travel speed used is 50mm/min and 100mm/min .The shielding gases used are: pure Argon and mixture of 98% Argon and 2% Nitrogen. The process of Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was applied to weld the joints. The results indicated that; the shielding gases composition has a significant effect on the microstructure evolution, ultimate tensile strength and hardness. Microstructure revealed a change in the solidification structure during the transformation; from ferrite to austenite using shielding gases of 98% Argon and 2% Nitrogen also the microstructure showed an increasing of the dendrite size and inter-dendritic spacing in the weld metal when the electric current was increased. Transverse tensile test showed an increasing in the value of the average ultimate tensile strength (UTS).when used a shielding gases of 98 % argon and 2 % Nitrogen. The highest ultimate tensile strength was achieved when using current 90A, travel speed 100mm/min and shielding gas 98% argon and 2% nitrogen. When using shielding gases of 98 % argon and 2% N; the hardness values were lower than the case of using pure argon.


Structural analysis of load compressor blade of aircraft auxiliary power unit PDF

Meha Setiya, Dr. Beena D. Baloni, Dr. Salim A. Channiwala

Auxiliary power unit is small gas turbine which comprises power section, load compressor and generator system. The present work incorporates stress analysis of impeller blade of the load compressor aircraft APU 131-9A using ANSYS 15. For centrifugal compressor, impeller is main dynamic component. Structural stresses induced in impeller due to combined loading of thermal and inertia forces, affects performance of compressor in terms of efficiency, pressure ratio, service life etc. To explore the effect of this combined loading, structural analysis has been done. Structural analysis of impeller blade gives a vision about critical deformations and critical stresses and their locations. Thermal analysis has also been done to investigate thermal stresses and deformation due to temperature and pressure loads in the blade passage. Both thermal and structural analysis has been done for different materials namely SS 310, INCOLOY 909, Timetal834 and Ti 6-2-4-6. The selection of materials has been done on the basis of strength at high speeds. The results suggest that for particular application of high speed load compressor blade, induced structural stresses are within permissible range throughout the blade only in case of Ti 6-2-4-6.


Effect of Solidity on Flow Pattern in Kaplan Turbine Runner PDF

Ruchi Khare, Vishnu Prasad, Brijkishore Dandharia

The presence of stationary and rotating blades in axial flow reaction turbine i.e. Kaplan turbine makes the flow complex in the turbine space. The overall performance of turbine depends on loss and flow characteristics of different components. The conventional method to predict the turbine performance is phusical testing of turbine model which is time consuming and costly. The runner is the heart of turbine and its design has vital effects on overall performance of turbine. The design of runner includes derivation of runner blade profile and solidity. The solidity greatly affects the loss and flow characterstics of runner. In present paper, Kaplan turbine characteristics are derived for different solidities from numerical simulation results. The computed efficiencies at best operating regime are also compared with experimental values for validation and found to bear close comparison.


Flood Mitigation Strategies Adopted in Sri Lanka A Review PDF

Sivakumar SS

Floods are repeatedly in the headlines of local, national and international media. The problem of floods and their computation is one of the main and most complex problems the hydrologists are facing now. The optimal development of water resources depends to a considerable extent on flood control, design and construction of structural measures and taking proper measures for flood mitigation including non-structural measures like flood plain zoning, flood forecasting and warning, etc. All such hydrologic analysis and design problems require accurate and reliable data for flood estimation using statistical and or deterministic methods. The estimation of design flood for safety of structures has also to take into consideration cost aspects and to avoid over design. This paper discuses issues related to the occurrence and its’ management of floods based on several reviews.


Planning Strategies for Traffic Management in Central Business District (Gandhi Square in Mysore City); an Urban Design Study PDF

SETAREH ORUJI, Dr. T. M. MAHESH, EHSAN AMINI

Nowadays, number of vehicles and population has been increased rapidly in developing cities all over the world especially in metropolitan cities. In this study we have chosen Mysore as a study area which is one of the famous historical cities and third largest city in the state of Karnataka, India. Mysore is noted for its palaces, including the Mysore Palace and also some heritage buildings. Most of the Mysore city’s heritage buildings are located at the heart of the city. During the festivities that take place during the Dasara festival, the city receives a large number of tourists. Therefore during the festival of custom practices and also daily livelihood there will be huge traffic congestion at the centre part of the Mysore city. The traffic congestion is because of rapid growth of vehicles and pedestrian movements in the Central Business Development (CBD) area. Therefore there is a necessity to concentrate on planning strategies to overcome the problem of traffic congestion and ease pedestrian movements in the CBD area. In Mysore, Gandhi square is the historical urban texture, which has different types of land use since 100 years. There is a massive of traffic issue from both pedestrians and vehicles. In this paper authors tried to propose separate routes for pedestrian movement and vehicles which has been conflict in this area. Reduction of traffic volume within the CBD through the provision of pedestrian walkways and linkages will be considered.


Fabrication of a device to measure stickiness of rice for cracker production PDF

N. M. Gunaratne, T.M. Gunaratne, S. B. Navaratne

This study includes fabrication of a device named ‘stickiness meter’ to determine the stickiness of rice which is a major requirement in developing good quality rice crackers. This parameter should be measured in incoming rice prior to production of rice crackers in industrial level to avoid wastage. The device was developed using stainless steel. It consists of two discs to place cooked rice, a compressing wheel to compress the discs, and a horizontal scale to get the reading of the force required to separate the discs. The optimum cooking time of rice was measured by cooking rice and pressing in between two glass slides until the opaque core disappears. The diameter of the discs was determined by placing 5g of cooked rice on a paper and drawing the outline. The clearance between the discs and the length of horizontal scale were determined through trial and error. Local rice samples AT 306, AT 405 and Samba were tested using the ‘stickiness meter’. The results revealed that the optimum cooking time was 15 minutes. The discs needed a diameter of 8cm and a clearance of 0.2mm. The stickiness values of AT 306, AT 405 and Samba were 9kg, 10.5kg and 0.5kg respectively.


Reliability of Automobile Car Wheel Subjected to Fatigue Radial Loading by Weibull Analysis PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

While the car is running, the radial load becomes a cyclic load with the rotation of the wheel. This has become essential to test the wheel under radial fatigue load for the structural integrity. The survival of the wheel was analyzed through Weibull analysis. It was found that 50 percent of the wheels have survived at 4542041 cycles under radial fatigue loading.


Sensor Development for Corrosion Monitoring Of Reinforcement Steel PDF

Monzer.M.Krishan

In this research we have discussed the sensor development for corrosion monitoring of reinforcement steel. The presence of chloride ions is one of the main causes of corrosion of steel in concrete. We have also discussed wireless sensor networks. The preventive measures have also been discussed in the end of the paper.


Selection of best packaging method to extend the shelf life of rice crackers PDF

T. M. Gunaratne, N. M. Gunaratne and S. B. Navaratne

In this study, Sweet and Savory rice crackers with a shelf life of 6 months were packed separately under four categories as with desiccant, with oxygen absorber, with both desiccant and oxygen absorber and without any of them. These packets were stored at high temperature (47ºC) and room temperature (28ºC) with saturated conditions to conduct accelerated shelf life testing. Moisture content, pH and TBA value of these crackers were determined using Moisture analyzer, pH meter, distillation method respectively. Dried silica gel containing triple laminated pouches were stored under normal atmospheric conditions (28ºC, 70 – 75% RH) until a constant weight was gained to determine WVTR. A sensory test was done using a five point hedonic scale and was statistically analyzed using MINITAB 14. Results revealed that Moisture content, pH and TBA values increased gradually with time. WVTR was 0.2242 g m-2 day-1. There was a significant difference of sensory properties with time. The packets containing both desiccant and oxygen absorber was the best and it gained the longest shelf life of 9.2 - 11 months.


Multi-Diameter Pipeline Inspection Gauge for Lang Distance Industrial Application PDF

Ali Ahmadian Mazraeh , Firas B.Ismail Alnaimi

This paper presents an innovative approach for the design and development of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) which can inspect pipes from 15” up to 30” with a simple change of shirts using the latest technologies such as Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) sensors as well as Remote Field Eddy Current (RFEC) sensors for oil pipes inspection, through the creation of a simulation tool capable of generating simulated images from pipeline using Inertial Navigation System (INS) for highest accuracy and precision inspection to protect the environment and equipment from any unexpected accident. There are several dynamo motors utilized to regenerate green efficient power from the flow of the medium inside the pipeline to elongate the distance of investigation by the mean of reduction of the number of individual pigging processes to save time and cost for companies. The INS uses accelerometers and gyroscopes of the type “Integrated Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems” (iMEMS), to carry out the mapping corresponding to the inspected pipes. Fluid hammer effect is another factor which has been considered during designing this pig. To avoid such case to occur the design has been revised and several arms have been devised around the robot to maintain the speed and position of pig all the way through the pipeline.


The Comparative Effect of Mind Mapping and Concept Mapping on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Achievement PDF

Zahra Tarkashvand

This article focuses on how Iranian intermediate- level students can improve their vocabulary achievement by using Mapping strategies of concept maps and mind maps. It is a comparative study carried out in EFL classrooms, and it addresses the implementation of different types of mapping strategies to know which one works better. Results show that learners in the mind mapping group benefited significantly more than those in the concept mapping group in terms of improving their vocabulary achievement.


Laboratory Evaluation of Urinalysis Parameters to Predict Urinary Tract Infection PDF

Pandey S, Sharma M, Neupane GP and Madhup SK

We evaluated the performance of urinalysis dipsticks and microscopic urine sediment analysis as predictors of urinary tract infection (UTI) in patient visiting hospital. The samples were processed for macroscopic examination to observe Leukocyte esterase (LE) and Nitrite (NIT) by dipstick method, microscopic examination to observe pus cells, culture of urine sample on Blood agar and MacConkey agar to identify the potential pathogen and Colony count was evaluated. The positive predictive values was significantly greater for the NIT test alone than for either LE alone and LE and NIT in combination: 68.00% at ≥105 CFU/ml. The LE and NIT combination had a significantly higher predictive value of a negative test then either test alone at all two level of bacteriuria. Microscopic examination for White blood cells (WBCs) and bacteria, found that of the 178 cases were positive for LE, NIT or both by the dipstick method, Among them 115 cases were positive for pyuria, 45 cases were positive for bacteriuria and the rest (28 cases) negative for pyuria or bacteriuria. We concluded that though it is laborious, microscopic urinalysis is a good analytical tool. Taken together with dipsticks, we obtained a clinically-acceptable prediction of urinary-tract infection.


Effect of replacement coke breeze by charcoal on technical operation of iron ore sintering PDF

Naglaa.A.El-Hussiny, Ahmed.A. Khalifa, Ayman.A. El-Midany, Ahmed.A.Ahmed, Mohamed.E.H.Shalabi

The coke breeze is the common solid fuel for iron sintering plants. The high consumption of coke breeze leads to its depletion as the most of the fossil fuels. Several researches, nowadays, focus on finding different alternatives that can replace the coke breeze either partially or completely. In this study, the charcoal was used as a supplementary fuel in the iron ore sintering process. Coke breeze was partially replaced by charcoal in sinter charge. The results of this work shows that the replacement of coke breeze with charcoal up to30% increased the vertical velocity of sintering process, strength of produced sinter, productivity of sinter machine and productivity of machine at blast furnace yard.


Satellite Image Matching using Kalman Filter and a cross correlation technique PDF

Wafaa Rajaa DRIOUA, Nacèra BENAMRANE, Noureddine KHELOUFI

In this paper, we propose a method for evaluating the displacement and deformation fields for pair of multi temporal images, one before and one after deformation; based on a matchning technique of cross correlation. First, according to the noise present in the images and the long computation time, a denoising based on the Kalman filter and a multi-resolution analysis of effiient optimization scheme are proposed to improve the quality and speed time calculation. Second, an algorithm for matching based on the gray levels cross correlation is intoduced to improve the efficiency on matching. Our method was tested on satellite images and the results are encouraging.


Assessment of Coagulation Efficiency of Okra Seed Extract for Surface Water Treatment PDF

Yusuf Olabode RAJI, Lawal ABUBAKAR, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Abdulwahab GIWA

Conventional drinking water treatments are often inappropriate in developing countries, due to its high cost of its treatment, lack of appropriate infrastructures or chemicals as well as environmental factors. The present research deals with the evaluation of the treatment efficiency of natural coagulant obtained from okra seed (okra seed extract). The coagulation ability of the coagulant was assessed by the use of standard jar test experiment involving two water samples (obtained from River Rima and Goronyo Dam of Sokoto) with various coagulant doses. The coagulation capacity of the okra seed extract was measured on the basis of turbidity removal. It was found from the results obtained that okra seed coagulant was effective in removing the turbidity of surface water because the turbidities of the water samples considered were removed effectively at an optimum dose of 300 mg/L of the seed extract with optimum pH of about 7.0 from 745 NTU to 11 NTU for sample 1 and from 580 NTU to 5 NTU for sample 2. It was also discovered that the coagulant could be used to, effectively, remove the turbidity of the samples with initial turbidity of about 580 NTU to WHO standard limit of 5 NTU. Therefore, it has been discovered that okra seed extract is a very effective coagulant in water treatment.


EXPLORATION AND APPLICATION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY IN NIGERIA PDF

Ikechukwu ikeagwuani .O, Derick C. Agbidi, Olusola O. Bamisile

Consumption of hydroelectricity and fossil fuel have had a controlling impact on levels of investigation and improvement for geothermal energy assets in Nigeria for the past a few years. The center of improvement has been in the regions of low temperature geothermal energy including the investigation and appraisal of hot spring assets essentially for recreational applications, which could as well be used to curb electricity problem in Nigeria. Sedimentary basins in Nigeria have been investigated for hydrocarbons for a few decades, subsequently the oil organizations gathered substantial subsurface temperature information premise. Anyhow very little is thought about geothermal conditions inside Nigerian Precambrian crystalline region. On the premise of BHT information from oil wells it has been observed that geothermal angle in Niger Delta ranges from 1.5 to 4.9°c/100m and in Anambra Basin (specifically to the north) it can achieve 5.7°c/100m. Investigation for geothermal energy in northern Nigeria focused around shoal water wells (down to 600 m profound) was completed in excess of 20 years back. The other part of geothermal investigation in Nigeria is researching of the warm springs and drainages, which happen mostly inside dregs of the Middle and Upper Benue Trough. The water of the hottest springs around there: Akiri and RuwanZafi have the temperature around 56°c. There are most likely just three geothermal energy locations in Nigeria. The Ikogosi warm spring (37°c) placed in south-western piece of the nation, in Ekiti state, the Wikki warm spring (39°c) spotted in Bauchi (North-eastern) a piece of Nigeria and the RafinRewa spring (42°c) found in Plateau (North-focal) condition of Nigeria. However, this paper surveys the current status of the geothermal, exploration, exploitation and application in Nigeria.


Enhancement of Traffic Capacity at High Data using MIMO Technology PDF

Swati Kumari, Dr. Rabindranath Bera

MIMO technology plays a vital role in wireless communication which uses multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver side. As the demand of data rate is increasing day by day, there is a need of high throughput, wide coverage, capacity and improved reliability. Integration of OFDM with MIMO holds the potential to drastically increase the data rate in future wireless communication system without increasing the transmit power and bandwidth. In this paper we mainly focus on the advantage of using MIMO-OFDM system and the drawback of using SISO, SIMO, MISO systems which have been verified using simulation. Performance of the systems is measured with respect to BER, capacity and finally the data rate is determined. The simulation results are obtained using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.


Cylindrical grinding process parameters optimization of Al / SiC metal matrix composites PDF

C. Thiagarajan, S. Ranganathan and P. Shankar

The present investigation reports the effects of the grinding process parameters namely wheel velocity, work piece velocity, feed rate and depth of cut in grinding of Al/SiC composites on grinding force, surface roughness and grinding temperature. The optimum values are obtained by employing Taguchi method. Combined effects of the four process parameters i.e wheel velocity, work piece velocity, feed rate and depth of cut on the performance measures grinding force, surface roughness, grinding temperature were investigated by using an orthogonal array and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) in grinding of Al/SiC composites. Optimal process parameters for each performance measures were obtained using S/N ratio. The S/N ratio values are calculated for each factor at a given level, allow the establishment of the best levels for predicting the grinding force, surface roughness and grinding temperature.


A Survey on Face Recognition of Identical Twins PDF

Kanchan Patil, Prof. Sachin Bojewar

Recent studies have shown that face recognition performance degrades considerably for images of identical twins. Human face matching capability is often taken into consideration as a bench-mark for assessing and improving automatic face recognition algorithms. Here, this paper will show human capability to distinguish between identical twins. If humans are able to distinguish between facial images of identical twins, it would suggest that humans are capable of identifying discriminating facial traits that can potentially be useful to develop algorithms for this very challenging problem. If humans viewing a pair of facial images can perceive if the image pairs belong to the same person or to a pair of identical twins. The paper consists of experiments results, which are conducted on 186 twin subjects, making it the largest such study in the literature to date. And observation will show that humans can perform the task significantly better if they are given enough time and tend to make more mistakes when images differ in imaging conditions. The paper analysis also suggests that humans look for facial marks like moles, scars, etc. to make their decision and do worse when presented with images lacking such marks. Experiments with automatic face recognition systems show that human observers outperform automatic matchers for this task


Analogy Dissection in Variability of Aircraft-Passenger Movement in IndianAirports PDF

Roshli Aniyeri, Dr.c.Ratnam Nadar

This paper examines the movement of passengers through air transportation in India with more emphasis on the rate of arrival and departure in Indian International Airports. Although, people move for various reasons. The aim of this paper is to verify the trend of movement of passengers and flights in and out of the country for the period of (14) years, starting from 2000 to 2014.The movement of people from one geographical location to the other varies in relation to season and air transportation capacity within the country differ with respect to the number of patronage from passengers at different international airports.


Analysis and Design of Compact Planar Branched Monopole Antennas for DCS/2.4 GHz & WLAN Applications PDF

Chinmayee Singh, Tejbir Singh, Prabhakar Agarwal and Mihir Kumar Jena

A compact triple band planar antenna for a digital communication system (DCS)/2.4-GHz and 5.5 GHz WLAN-Band frequencies application is presented. The two resonant modes of the proposed antenna are associated with various arms of the monopoles, in which a rectangular resonator contributes for the 5.5 GHz WLAN resonant frequency and two various arms are responsible for DCS/2.4 GHz resonant frequency. The experimental results show that the designed antenna can provide excellent performance for DCS/2.4-GHz WLAN and 5.5 GHz WLAN-Band frequencies systems, including sufficiently wide frequency band, moderate gain, and nearly omnidirectioal radiation coverage. The outcome of the experimental results along with the design criteria are presented in this paper.


Design of a Fingerprint Reader Enabled Remote Monitoring Module with Interface to Web Applications PDF

Nathan David, Patrick Ocheja, Paschal Udeh, Olisa Okpoko

Engineering has continued to redefine the way we live and carry out processes. In the light of monitoring, control and consequently automation through to information management, technologies continue to emerge. This work presents a custom designed fingerprint monitoring module with interface to web applications for remote monitoring. Core design and implementation were realized through the use of ATmega2560 installed on an Arduino mega development board. For wireless data transmission, Zig-Bee wireless technology was used to provide connection between the module and a server which then synchronizes its data with all other connected devices. By way of testing, a lecture attendance monitoring scenario is provided in this work. This work provides a new design for future systems and possible ways of integration to existing systems.


Real Time Multiple Cross Platform Communication through Bluetooth PDF

Ms Prerna Hingle, Ms Shubhangi Giripunje

Bluetooth provides low power and low cost connections between two Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth has high level of compatibility because of the standardized Bluetooth protocol stack that is available. To establish a wireless connection between two or more devices, the platform on which the application is working opens a socket. This paper introduces a concept to establish multiple connections for real time communications through Bluetooth, independent of the platform.


A Review of Solar Powered Steam Piston Engine Technology: Its’ Application to Concentrated Solar Power Plants PDF

Derick Chiosaabuofu, Agbidi

Solar energy is an incredible resource, but one of its weak points is the affordability and affordable storage options. Almost all the power plant station in the world today uses turbine steam engine to run and turn generator to produce electricity and the most power use to generate electricity is fossil fuels, which emit carbon dioxide and other pollution. More importantly, fossil fuel will eventually run out.


Feature Analysis and Classification of BI-RADS Breast Cancer Using Genetic Algorithm PDF

Prakash Bethapudi, E Sreenivasa Reddy, T Sitamahalakshmi, Kamadi VSRP Varma

The intended work deals with Genetic Algorithm which helps in predicting benign and malignant breast cancer cases more effectively. The breast cancer mammographic mass dataset (BI-RADS) was taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository, center for machine learning and intelligent systems. A 3-fold cross validation on BI-RADS dataset was used and applied the proposed Genetic algorithm. The proposed method’s performance was superior to earlier techniques. The examined results in partitioning the benign and malignant cases using genetic algorithm is more promising with a classification accuracy of 84.4% which is more prominent then many of the existing classifier techniques which used BI-RADS dataset. In the proposed method we also analyzed the prominence of sub features of each individual features like Mass-Shape (Round, Oval, Lobular and Irregular);Mass-Margin (Circumscribed-1, Microlobulated-2, Obscured-3, illdefined-4 and Spiculated-5) and Mass-Density (High-1, ISO-2, Low-3 and Fat content-4) of BI-RADS dataset and identified the accuracy in classification and more prominent features suitable for better classification of breast cancer cases.


Apex Base Least Cost Method For Fuzzy Transportation Problem PDF

Thangaraj Beaula , M. Priyadharsini

A new approach to solve the fuzzy transportation problem using generalized trapezoidal fuzzy numbers is proposed. A new ranking method for generalized trapezoidal fuzzy number is introduced and constructed. A numerical example is solved using the proposed algorithm.


Effect of water quality on phytoplankton ecology of Upper Ganga Canal PDF

Gagan Matta

The Ganga, a glacier fed river is the most sacred and worshipped river of the Hindus. The river is now become one of the most polluted rivers of the country. The seasonal variation of physico-chemical characteristics and phytoplankton population of River Ganga at Haridwar with its two sites viz., Site 1(Bhimgoda barrage - Control Site) and Site 2 is Bahadrabad was studied for a period of one year. Maximum population density was observed in the winter season followed by summer and monsoon. Higher phytoplankton populations were encountered in Site 2 is Bahadrabad (site 2) which due to the fluctuation of existing turbidity, dissolved oxygen and better organic load. Number of group’s viz., Diatoms, Green algae and Blue green algae and species like Diatoma, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Amphora, Cymbella and Achnanthes belonging were recorded during the study period. Higher concentration of diatom species in summer season at Site 2 indicates polluted nature of river water and can be used as an indicator of organic pollution in the river. Many genera were seasonally and monthly absent at different times in the canal; however the overall diversity was found to be maximum in winter and summer. Correlation between the hydrological attributes showed good relationship and Na, NO2, NO3-, SiO3, HCO3, PO4, Ca and Mg were found to be most important variables in shaping benthic faunal assemblage.


Inhibitive Properties, Thermodynamic and Quantum Chemical Studies of Azole Derivatives on Mild Steel Corrosion in H3PO4 Solutions PDF

A.M.El-desoky, Hala.M.Hassan, Awad Al-Rashdi and Marwa R. Elsayad

The inhibition of the corrosion of mild steel in 1 M H3PO4 solutions by some azole derivatives has been investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the azole derivatives but decreased with rise in temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the metal surface. The adsorption of these compounds on mild steel surface obeys the Temkin's adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that azole derivatives act as mixed-type inhibitors. Further, theoretical calculations were carried out and relations between computed parameters and experimental inhibition efficiency were discussed.


Survey on Data Modification Attacks PDF

Ahmed Yousuf Jama and Maheyzah Md Siraj

One of the challenging areas in computer science is to keep the data and information safe and assure. Due to very tight competition and sensitive data for the owner although they spend billions of dollars annually to make sure there are no threats or vulnerabilities against their assets, but up until now there are attacks that aim to penetrate the system and take advantages from that. Modification data attacks (MDA) can be malicious and cause huge damages to a system. MDA happens when attackers interrupt, capture, modify, steal or delete important information in the system via network access or direct access using executable codes. Most of recent modification, corruption attacks and worms still using known patterns as the control-data attack which are easy to be defeated by protection systems. But, non-control-data attacks can damage a vast applications, which always work with decision-making data, user input data, configuration data and user identity data. Therefore, in this survey we summarize and discuss important vulnerabilities to non-control data attacks in following applications which are Telnet, HTTP, FTP and SSH.


The cmeDetect Computer Code for CME Analysis PDF

Ahmed A. Selman and Zeinab F. Hussein

In the present work, computer detection code is introduced to isolate CME from SOHO/LASCO C3 images utilizing a Matlab code. The detection program, cmeDetect, contained various functions with detection method based on bulk detection of CMEs. Measurements included height, speed, acceleration, area, masse, and direction. This paper is dedicated to outline the cmeDetect code with its initial results. The code has many subfunctions one of which is that used for corrections of the solar size from LASCO C3 images. The first results showed that most height results were satisfactory but their differences, which were used in speed and acceleration, were fluctuating.


Universal Sensor Interface Circuits Performance Evaluation for Multi Sensor Systems PDF

Siti Nur Syuhadah Baharudin, Asral Bahari Jambek and Rizalafande Che Ismail

This paper compares the existing implementation of universal sensor interface circuits for smart sensor systems. For this type of system, since every sensor will produce different types of output, a sensor interface that can support various types of sensors is needed. To be effective, the architecture should be low power and with a small area. Most importantly, it should be able to read various types of sensor input, especially capacitive and resistive. In this paper, five different types of sensor interface circuits are discussed and the differences inherent in each architecture are highlighted. The performance of each circuit in terms of speed, power and area also compared.


Power quality and stability improvement of HVDC transmission System using UPFC for Different uncertainty conditions PDF

Koganti Sri Lakshmi , G.Savanthi , L. Ramadevi , Koganti Harish chowdary

The requirement of delivering economic quality power supply has become a major concern in this developing technology therefore this desired power control at every point of power system is obtained by power controllers like HVDC and FACT devices. Considering the benefits of HVDC like cost, Technical Performance and reliability with full control over the power transmission it is used for long bulk power transmission and asynchronous interconnection. FACTS are power electronic based equipment used to control the power transfer in AC Networks. UPFC is FACT device which can provide power quality and also used for control of active and reactive power flow in transmission line. The main objective of this paper is to improve power transmission capacity and power quality of hvdc transmission using UPFC .The Conventional control scheme cannot control power fluctuations. Here we dealt different types of faults at different locations placing UPFC permanent at receiving end of the line so that the magnitude of fault current and variations of excitation voltage reduced and finally voltage magnitude is improved by UPFC. At the end, Fast Fourier Transformation analysis is carried out to determine total Harmonic Distortion with and without UPFC for different faults.


Opto-electronics Differential Joystick for Electronic Control of Wheelchairs and Robots PDF

ABHIJIT AJITKUMAR PATIL, MILIND S. MARATHE

This paper presents an optoelectronic joystick for driving and controlling electronic wheelchair, robot or any other electronically controlled gazette. An innovative concept has been conceived and realized using light emitting diodes, photo-detectors and a sliding optical template that converts movements of joystick into variable light output depending on the position of the joystick handle. At a time two different electrical signals are generated to drive or control two independent drives or applications. The signal produced is electrical differential signal. The system works on 15 volts dc electrical supply that can be easily modified as per users requirements. The differential electrical signal produced has voltage variation between 0.1 to 14 volts. It also produces reverse action signal when reverse movement is initiated. The system is simple, stable, and reliable. It minimal tear and wear as no contact type components are used.


Behavior of Sierpinski Gasket Fractal Antenna PDF

D.Pratap Varma, K.Phani Varma, Y.Srinivas, P.Kalayan Raju, D.Prudhvi Raju

The use of fractal geometries has significantly impacted many areas of science and Engineering one of which is antennas. Antennas using some of these geometries for various telecommunications applications are already available commercially. The use of fractal geometries has been shown to improve several antenna features to varying extents.


Simulation on Blade Geometry and Operational Condition toward Torque Requirement and Drag Force in Paddle Wheel Aerator PDF

Samsul Bahri, Radite P.A. Setiawan, Wawan Hermawan, Muhammad Zairin Junior

Power required by paddle wheel aerator is highly determined by blade geometry and operational condition. In order to predict the correlation, simulation on blade geometry and operational condition toward torque requirement and drag force in a paddle wheel aerator was carried out. The experimental design of the blade was 56 cm diameter, 20 cm width of double trapezoid (5 cm of top width and 15 cm of bottom width), 15 cm height and formed 300 angle to the rim with the curvature radius of blade was 40 cm. For simulation purpose, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software with external flow was used in this research. The fluid flew opposite to the wheel speed which set at 115, 135 and 154 rpm for every immersion depth of 4, 6 and 8 cm. Simulation showed that the lowest torque was 12.48 Nm which occurred at 1.6 cm hub diameter and blade angle of 300, 4 cm of immersion depth and wheel speed set at 115 rpm. The lowest drag force coefficient was 0.80 that occurred at 1.6 cm hub diameter, blade angle of 300 and immersion depth at 8 cm. Average torque reduction at 150 and 300 of blade angle was 6.73% and 22.27%, respectively. Average torque reduction which produced by different hub diameter from 0.8 cm to 1.2 cm was 9.06% and 0.8 cm to 1.6 cm was 12.31%.


Detection of Sybil Attacks in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Based on Road Side Unit Support PDF

Muhammad Saad Naveed, Dr. M Hasan Islam

Until recently vehicles and transportation systems were considered as the realm of mechanical engineers, but the need for the road safety and desire to be connected to the world, has broaden the industry scope. In order to do so Intelligent Transport System has been introduced and for few years, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks are getting much attention. The advance developments, wireless communication and life safety point towards to take into consideration the need of security in VANETs. In VANET, many attacks are possible and can cause serious damages to life. One such attack is Sybil attack. Sybil attacks have been regarded as a serious security threat to Ad hoc Networks and Sensor Networks. They may also damage the potential applications of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) by creating a deception of traffic congestion. Here we look on how the Sybil attack works and possible ways that an attacker can cause harm by launching these types of attacks in VANETS, along with the detection schemes that can be used to identify Sybil nodes and prevent the network from various hurtful effects. Later we propose improvements in RSU supported certificate based detection mechanism which may be helpful in solving problems with the current model.


Structural Response of High Rise Buildings For Different Soft Storey Heights and Approaching Methodology PDF

Prof. Prakarsh Sangave, Miss.Jahagirdar SayyedaZara S, Mr.Jamdar AmeerHussain SuhelAhmed, Mr.BagalkoteTariqueAziz A, Mr.DokaMd.Rizwan I, Mr.Mashalkar Imran M, Mr.Kudkyal Pramod A

Earthquakes are natural hazards under which disasters are mainly caused by damage or collapse of buildings and other man-made structures. Due to accommodation of vehicles and their movements at ground levels infill walls are generally avoided, which creates soft storey effect. It should be noted that 70 to 80 % of buildings of urban areas in India fall under the classification of soft storey. This soft storey is also called as Open ground storey or Weak storey. It is a typical feature in the modern multi-storey constructions. Such features are highly undesirable in buildings built in seismically active areas; this has been verified in numerous experiences of strong shaking during the past earthquakes. The majority of buildings that failed during the Bhuj earthquake (2001) and Gujarat earthquake were of the open ground storey type. The collapse mechanism of such type of building is predominantly due to the formation of soft-storey.


On Solving Bivariate Unconstrained Optimization Problems Using Interval Analysis PDF

R.Sophia Porchelvi, S.Sathya

In this paper, a method to find the optimal solution of bivariate unconstrained problems is proposed uing Newton’s interval analysis method. Interval Analysis method gives more accurate solution even for higher order derivatives. MATLAB programs are also developed for the procedure.


A Survey on Benchmark Defects Encountered in the Oil Pipe Industries PDF

Wissam Alobaidi, Eric Sandgren, Hussain Al-Rizzo

Oil and natural gas have been transported by pipeline for over a century, yielding a large amount of information about defects in manufacture and in service. Research has moved toward early detection of defects in the body and welds of pipe during the manufacturing process. The most common defects occur in the welds, and can be categorized into 7 basic types: porosities, slag inclusions, lack of fusion, lack of penetration, cracks, burn-through and irregular shapes. Any of these may occur in the five most common welding configurations used in manufacturing. The five common joint types are: butt-weld joint, tee-weld joint, corner-weld joint, lap-weld joint and edge-weld joint. The purpose is to aid in the elimination of problems in the manufacturing process that lead to manufacturing defects, thus enhancing product quality. The relationship between defect type and the Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods which best detect each type, are summarized in tabular form. The table also relates the location of the defect (whether surface or subsurface, or both) to the NDT techniques. Illustrations of each type of defect are presented for reference. The relationship of defect type and location to cost and labor needed to detect each type, is presented in graphic form. The surface defects are easily detected with Visual Inspection, while subsurface defects can be caught with Radiographic Testing when conducted at the recommended speed of 50mm/s, but if they are missed they can be detected with Ultrasonic Testing, which is more labor-intensive, and which must be verified with a second NDT technique, Digital X-ray Testing. To enhance production efficiency, and the series of NDT stations needed for oil and natural gas pipeline manufacturing, we must determine how to incorporate new techniques to cover the shortcomings of present methods of detecting defects. This will reduce labor time and increase throughput while maintaining the quality of the finished product.


A Comparative study of Math Anxiety between parents and their children and its impact on the children’s achievement in Mathematics PDF

Akanksha Soni , Dr. Santha Kumari

Mathematics is used as an essential tool in several fields including natural science, engineering, medicine and social sciences throughout the world. Many people experience a great deal of anxiety when dealing with numbers. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether children’s math anxiety serves as an underlying pathway between parental math anxiety and their children’s math achievement. A total of 480 students (234 females and 246 males) of the age ranging from 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grade) and one of their parents (mother/ father) participated in the study. Parents and their wards math anxiety was measured using MARS-S, MARS-E and MARS-A respectively. Mathematics achievement test was constructed for each grade level based on their current curriculum. The Mediation analysis was carried out. It was found that father’s math anxiety contributes positively to their son’s and daughter’s math anxiety and negatively to their math achievement. However, mother’s math anxiety maintained a direct effect on their daughter’s math achievement. The findings are explained in terms of the immense role of the parents in the development of mathematics skills in children.


A New Complex Floating-Point Representation Using Auto- Correlation Algorithm for DSP Processors PDF

E.Thenmozhi Ramyah, S.Pavithra, V.Prabhakaran

Complex number computation is a big deal in mathematical calculations and it is well practiced in all modern processors, as we all familiar with real and imaginary parts in complex numbers, computation against the real and imaginary parts becomes a difficult task over a specific inputs. Here a DSP processors is taken for signal manipulation and a new method is introduced which reduces the bits size for better output. In this paper, a new complex floating point representation for complex numbers is introduced and is compared with IEEE 754 standard and a common DSP fixed point. The resulting system will use fewer bits than IEEE 754, which keeps the dynamic range and precision. It is also proposed that it has good quantization noise analysis using auto-correlation algorithm. This new algorithm reduces the former IEEE 754 Single precision representation total bit by 1 bit and also retains variables with a better exponent and mantissa parts.


Technological Singularity & The Ability of Generat-ing Tangible Breakthroughs PDF

Muhammad AlEnzy

Singularity is coming within 20 years! Yes, singularity is coming because we the humans are working on that. Before reaching to agree or disagree on “singularity is coming” or not and would it solve our problems or those problems may get worse; a basic point has to stand out that we are making it. Today’s lifestyle is totally different from the 80s and even the 90s and that is due to the revolution, which has connected the humanity to one place “The Internet”. In the present, I can assure that no one can spend more than a day with out his/her smartphone that is connected to the Internet. And if someone could make it; most likely he/she could not keep up with the global changes with an appropriate pace.


The effect of Auxiliary Units on the Power Consumption of CNC Machine tools at zero load cutting PDF

Vincent A Balogun, Isuamfon F. Edem, Paul T. Mativenga

Electricity consumptions have attracted global interest in recent times. This is attributable to the increasing technological advancement and new machines and materials development hence, an urgent global call for energy efficiency and sustainable manufacture. The electricity consumption in the manufacturing sector especially at the process level stages is an increasing trend. This is partly due to the energy demand of the auxiliary units and machine features incorporated into the machine tools at the design and manufacturing stages and on the other, as a result of increased production activities (increased product demand) during the use phase. This resulted in an increased embodied product energy that affects the cost and life cycle assessment of the product. In view of this economic and environmental objectives, it is paramount to investigate the energy consuming activities during machining (i.e. tip energy and zero load cutting energy) in order to optimize electricity demand at the secondary processing stages. In this work, the electrical energy demand of the auxiliary units and machine features of three different machine tools were investigated and characterized. This is required in order to encourage symbiotic and sustainable manufacture of products for resource optimization and also to determine specific areas for energy savings. It was observed that the electrical energy demand for non-cutting activities dominate the machining processes at more than 70% and the zero load cutting energy, which is machine dependent, is also about 14%. A step change in axes motor designs for CNC machine tools could facilitate energy reduction in this direction.


Cybersquatting and its Effectual Position in India PDF

Zohaib Hasan Khan, Piyush Charan, Mohd Amir Ansari & Kashiful Hasan Khan

A trademark, a design, a slogan, a logo or an easily remembered picture is a studiously crafted personality profile of an individual, institution, corporation, product or service. With the growth of commercial activity on the internet, a domain name can be said to be used as a business identifier image. Domain name conflicts arise most frequently as a consequence of the practice of cybersquatting . Cybersquatters deliberately exploit the first-come-first-served nature of the domain name registration system and then the squatters either offer to sell the domain to the person or company who owns a trade mark contained within the name at an inflated price. In India, there is no statute law which explicitly refers to dispute resolution in connection with cyber squatting or other domain name disputes.The Trade Marks Act, 1999 used for protecting use of trademarks in domain names is not extra-territorial, therefore, it does not allow for adequate protection of domain names. The overview of cybersquatting & its effectual Position In India with the current legal framework have been highlighted out and formulated a three pronged approach which would go a long way in squatting away these squatters.


Renewable Wind Energy Design Concepts and Considerations: An Alternative Power Supply for Remote Observatories PDF

Ezechi N. E., Daniyan O. L., Aliyu N., Gayus B. I. and Okere B. I.

Observatories globally require a smooth, sustained and reliable power system for their operations, which are usually, round the clock. Observatories are usually very remote sometimes at locations that are hundreds of kilometers away from power grids. This results in huge burden of extending power grids across several distances to observatories. Power interruptions are common experiences with public grids and pose great threats with gravity that can interrupt scheduled observations. Hence, there is the need for observatories to drift from the conventional power system to renewable energy system. This paper presents the design concepts and considerations for setting up a wind turbine energy system for NASRDA Centre for Basic Space Science Observatory, as a case study of the deployment of such system for remote or non-habitable observatories.


Investigation on Achieving Optimum Surface Roughness by Optimizing Variable Machining Conditions in Turning GFRP Composite Using Taguchi Method and ANOVA PDF

Md.Shafiul Alam, Ahmed Yusuf, Abir Rahman, Inzamam-ul-haq

The accuracy of achieving required surface finish or surface roughness is of great importance in case of any mass production environment. Thus, understanding and recognizing the optimal process parameters for machining is the key to achieving the required surface roughness and gaining competitive advantage. This research is concerned with obtaining the optimal machining process parameters (cutting speed, depth of cut, feed) which will in turn effect in optimizing the surface roughness in turning glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) matrix composite using coated carbide insert. To find the optimal machining process parameters Taguchi design method has been implemented. An L-16 orthogonal array, signal to noise ratio and ANOVA have been implemented to analyze and understand various process parameters in deter-mining possible relationship with surface roughness. The optimum surface roughness value for this experiment is (3.664μm) which is obtained from Taguchi design method. The results from ANOVA conclude that feed is the most influential factor affecting the outcome having a contribution of (56.04%). And the contributions of depth of cut and cutting speed are separately in order of (17.94%) and (16.42%) respectively. This research provides optimal process parameters for any desired value of surface roughness which results in gaining a competitive edge over others in any mass production environment.


BHARAT RATNA!...A New theory on “GEM” PDF

M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

In Republic India “BHARAT RATNA” is considered as “GEM” of India and Highest Civilian award being offered to meritorious artist, politician, scientist, literature and recently to sports person also. Further ‘NAVARATNA’ is considered as nine most precious, rarely available stones used in the jewellery since ancient time as believed in the culture of Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism for prosperity of life.


Statistical Load Modelling of Residential Load: A Case Study PDF

V.Aundhekar, Dr.A.G.Thosar, Samruddhi Shaha

Electricity is one of the most important and basic needs of today's community, so the Demand Side Managment and load modelling is very important.


Malware Detection and Protection using External Devices PDF

K.S.Charumathi, Y.I.Jinesh Melvin, K.S.Suresh Babu

Virus Security Protection play a vital role while sharing files from PC to other external devices, normally to secure the file in PC some antivirus applications are used. This paper mainly focuses on to detect and protect malware from PC to other external devices using MDP (Malware Detection and Protection) method which is inbuilt in a microchip with external devices.


Potential Analysis of Grid Connected Wind Turbine System in Peninsular Malaysia PDF

Zainab Abdullah

Wind energy is alternative energy which helps to promote cleaner environment, free, and contributes to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. The carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of greenhouse gases causes global warming and climate change. Efforts have been taken on renewable sources to meet the energy demand as well as for sustainable life. This study identifies the potential of grid connected wind turbine (GCWT) system for domestic use in Kuala Besut, Peninsular Malaysia. This is done through designing and analyzing the system using HOMER software. The system configuration consists of wind turbine, grid model, load data and wind speed data. Domestic load and wind speeds as primary data are required to estimate the system designed. The simulation result shows that the GCWT system reduces the electricity bill to RM0.759/KWh instead of RM0.924/KWh by grid connected only. The lowest net present cost (NPC) of RM697,240 was found for the GCWT system compared to the grid system. It is concluded that GCWT system has a potential to be implemented in this area. Although the wind speed is low, but with proper design of wind turbine system the extraction of wind can be generated to cope with Peninsular Malaysia condition.


An Exploration of Model Based Testing PDF

Vasudha Singh , Subburaj Ramasamy

Testing consumes about 50% of the total software development costs. The purpose of testing is to check the correctness of any software created as to whether it is working according to what was expected and what it was supposed to do. Software testing is a process of executing a program or application with the purpose of finding defects. The aim of software testing is not only to find the defects but also to find out the situations that could cause negative impact on the customer. There are many techniques and ways to test the application and software but in this paper we bring out one of the efficient and effective methodologies namely; model based testing (MBT). MBT facilitates generation of effective test cases from the developed model of the software. A model describes the functionality and behavior of the system under test (SUT). This paper introduces model-based testing and gives case study of the same.


Wireless Power Transfer : The future PDF

AGUBOSHIM, Emmanuel Chukwujioke

The technology for wireless power transmission or wireless power transfer (WPT) is in the forefront of electronic development. Applications involving microwaves, solar cells, and resonance of electromagnetic waves have had the most recent success with WPT. The main function of wireless power transfer is to allow electrical devices to be continuously charged and then subsequently, lose the constraint of a power cord. The concept of resonance causes electromagnetic radiation at certain frequencies to cause an object in another location within the appropriate line-of-sight to vibrate. This vibration can allow energy to be transmitted between the two vibrating sources. Solar cells, ideally, would use a satellite in space to capture the suns energy and send the energy back to Earth. This paper will explore the future technological applications of microwaves, resonance, and solar cells in WPT and explain the basic technique of transmitting power wirelessly. It will also include problems encountered during experimentation and recent advances in the field. The paper will also include the futuristic applications of WPT and its ability to solve the energy crisis.


OVER CURRENT PROTECTION OF 1 KVA TRANSFORMER WITH PIC MICRO CONTROLLER USING NUMERICAL RELAY PDF

Louis Krishnan.S, A. Tamil Pandian, Vijayakumar.R

Transformers are the critical and expensive component of the power system. Due to the long lead time for repair and replacement of transformers, a major goal of transformer protection is limiting the damage to a faulted transformer. Numerical relay protection of transformer is an advanced method of protection. The main aim of this thesis is to protect the transformer from the over current within a short period of time. The type of protection for the transformers varies depending on the application of the transformer. When the current in a system exceeds a predetermined value, it indicates the presence of a fault. Relaying decision is based solely on the magnitude of current. The operation of the numerical relay depends upon the function of the (Peripheral Interface Controller) PIC microcontroller signal. This thesis describes the design and implementation of the PIC microcontroller based system for protecting 1KVA transformer from over current.


Security in Electronic Payment Transaction PDF

Fourcan Karim Mazumder, Israt Jahan, Utpal Kanti Das

Security is the major concern in e-commerce. Internet is an insecure and unreliable media today. E-commerce applications are in danger to various security threats. The electronic payment system need to be secure for internet transaction participants such as payment gateway server, bank sever and merchant server. The security architecture of the system is designed by using many security protocols and techniques, which reduces the fraud that occurs with stolen credit card or debit card payment information and customer information. This paper illustrates that secure communication tunnel technique is a secure electronic payment system which can protect conventional transaction data such as account numbers, amount and other information.


Impact of Object Oriented Design Patterns on Software Development PDF

R.Subburaj Professor, Gladman Jekese, Chiedza Hwata

Software design patterns are a bonanza for building large Object Oriented (OO) software systems. They provide well-tested and proven solutions to recurring problems that developers address. There are several benefits of using patterns. They can speed up the software development process. Design patterns consolidate learning with an aim to make it easier for designers to use well-known and successful designs developed from expert experience. At the same time software design patterns are too abstract and remain an art that has to be mastered over time with experience. This paper seeks to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of design patterns.


Use of Coconut Husk Fiber for Improved Compressive and Flexural Strength of Con-crete PDF

Anthony Nkem Ede and Joshua Olaoluwa Agbede

Rapid crack propagation, brittle mode of failure and increased overload are common in concrete structures due to the low tensile strength of concrete. Although conventional steel reinforced concrete is the most popular method developed to reduce such problems, it is rather becoming expensive in terms of its costs and sustainability issues. Because of the huge capital investment to run the steel industry, many manufacturers in the developing nations try to cut corners by reducing the quality of steel thereby reducing the strength. This has led to a lot of challenges including building collapse accompanied by devastating economic and human loss. For these drawbacks, the development of contemporary concrete technologies such as eco-friendly and affordable coconut fiber reinforced concrete needs more investigation. This research studies the effect of coconut fibers on the strength of concrete which includes the compressive and the flexural strength of normal concrete. The fibers were used in different percentages (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0%) of the weight of the fine aggregates. 16 short beams were used for flexural strength at 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% fiber content which were tested after curing for 7 and 28 days. Destructive and nondestructive compressive tests were conducted on 40 concrete cubes to doubly validate the test results. The correlation of the two tests results were very good. The results showed that the compressive strength of coconut fiber-reinforced concrete increased with curing age and with increasing percentage of coconut fiber up to 0.5% then gradually began to decrease from 0.75% to 1.0%. The percentage strength gained at 28 days for 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% fiber contents with respect to the control sample are 4.58%, 38.13%, 8.56% and -2.42% respectively. The results for the flexural strength of concrete showed that strength gained at 28 days for 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0% of coconut husk fiber were 28.82%, 22.15% and 0.42% respectively.


Antenna Designs for Cognitive Radio Application in the TV Band PDF

M. Y. Abou-Shahine, M. Al-Husseini, A.H. Ramadan, K. Y. Kabalan and Y. Nasser

This paper presents three antenna designs suitable for cognitive radio applications in the TV band. Two printed microstrip miniaturized monopole antennas and one Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) are proposed. The microstrip antennas are designed on a Rogers RO3203 substrate fed by a microstrip line over a small partial ground plane. The PIFA antenna consists of a patch above a ground plane with feeding and grounding strips connecting them. These antennas, designed for transmission of cognitive radios in the TV band, operate in the upper part of the UHF band (700-900 MHz) with approximately 2.5 dB transmission gains and omnidirectional patterns.


Trace Metals in water accompanied Crude Oil In Buzurgan field, Maysan Province : Iraq PDF

Asaad Kadhim Eqal

The present study aimed to analyze the trace metal constituents of water accompanied crude oils in Amara city southern Iraq . two oil fields (south Buzurgan field and north Buzurgan field) were involved for the investigation of metals Ni , Cr, V ,Na ,Ca ,Mg ,K and S in water. Samples analysed using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (PgAA500) . The results showed that the concentration of Ni ranged between ( 0.161 to 0.76 1) ppm , Cr ( 0.334 to 0.812 ) ppm, V ( 0.034 to 0.095) ppm , Na ( 0.251 to 21.43 )ppm, Ca ( 1.323 to 4.324) ppm, Mg (0.110 to 2.521 )ppm , K ( 0.354 to 2.507) ppm , sulfur ranged (199 to 298.65) ppm , other ratios like TTM , V/Ni and V/V+Ni were considered .The current study concluded that the most abundant trace metals in water accompanied crude oils samples were S, Na , Ca, Mg ,K ,Cr and Ni.


The Comparison of Bioaccumulation Factor of Lead from Leaves of Random Vegetation PDF

Mirela Alushllari, Nikolla Civici

Both natural and anthropogenic contributions are the sources of lead emissions to the environment. The accumulation of lead in agricultural soils is potentially hazardous to human, livestock and plants species. The purpose of this study was: the determination of lead in soil and in the different spontaneous plant species grown it, as well as calculation of determinate bioaccumulation factors (BAF) soil to plant. We have selected 9 sampling points. We have collected a total of 29 samples where 9 samples are surface soil and 20 samples are vegetation. All the representative samples for this study were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for their lead content, at the Institute of Applied Nuclear Physics, University of Tirana, Albania. From results obtained, concentrations of lead in representative soil samples were found in the levels: 105-856 mg/kg while in the biological samples, the levels of lead were: 0.77-2.37 mg/kg. The concentration ranges of lead in soil samples collected at different points are compared with the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) recommenced by European Union according the Directive 86/278/EEC. Also, we have calculated Hazardous Quoted (HQ) for each sampling point of soil. The concentration ranges of lead in biological samples are compared with the Maximum Contaminant Levels specified by the Directive No. 1881/2006, Brussels. Also we have calculated bio accumulation factor (BAF) soil to plant.


Virtual Firewall Security on Virtual Machines in Cloud Environment PDF

Gladman Jekese, R.Subburaj Professor, Chiedza Hwata

Virtualization is revolutionizing how information technology resources and services are used and managed and has led to an explosive growth in the cloud computing industry, illustrated by Google’s Cloud Platform and Amazon’s Elastic Cloud. It brings unique security problems such as virtual traffic, denial of service and intrusion, resulting in penetration of virtual machines, which is disastrous for the enterprise, the user and the cloud provider. Virtual traffic between virtual machines may never leave the physical host hardware; making traditional physical firewalls hopeless to monitor and secure it. This paper proposes a virtual firewall which allows managing the network security of the virtual infrastructure per-virtual machine basis, defining network traffic rules, and hardening the security of the virtual environment. A private cloud is designed using open source solutions and to manage the firewall rules, we implement a Tree-Rule firewall technique which filters packets in a tree-like way based on their attributes such as IP address and protocols. The speed of filtering and processing packets on virtual firewall is highly improved to avoid overload of the firewall in the particular case. It permits to log and analyze network traffic logs for each of the monitored virtual machines. The virtual firewall will provide the power to control the bandwidth utilization of each virtual machine in the infrastructure, preventing overutilization and denial of service to critical applications.


An evolutionary survey from Monolingual Text Reuse to Cross Lingual Text Reuse in context to English-Hindi PDF

Aarti Kumar, Sujoy Das

With enormous amount of information in multiple languages available on the Web, mono and cross-language text reuse is occurring every day with increasing frequency. Near-duplicate document detection has been a major focus of researchers. Detecting cross-language text reuse is a very challenging task in itself and the challenge magnifies manifolds when it comes to translated, obfuscated and local text reuse. These difficulties and challenges are contributing to the most serious offence of plagiarising others’ text. This paper presents an evolutionary overview of the various techniques being used to measure text reuse covering techniques for detecting reuse from mono-lingual to cross-lingual and from mono-script to cross-script with special emphasis on English-Hindi language pair.


Seismic Saftey Evaluation of Heritage Structures PDF

Er. Chandra Shekhar Singh, Prof. Kumari Anima

This paper presents necessary considerations for seismic safety evaluation of Cultural Heritage structures by investigation of existing structural characteristics; identification of significant deficiencies to cater additional lateral force arose by the revision of codes. Thorough understanding of the existing construction, research into its limiting strength and deformation characteristics and performance objectives to evaluate performance of the structure during earthquake are discussed first followed by discussions on seismic deficiencies commonly found in buildings.


Convergence of the Ishikawa Iterative Sequence to Fixed Points of Lipschitz Pseudocontrative Maps in Hilbert Spaces PDF

B. G. Akuchu

We study the weak and strong convergence of the Ishikawa iterative sequence to a xed point of a Lipschitz pseudocontrative mapping , T; in a Hilbert space. We do not require any compactness type assumptions either on T or its domain, for the strong convergence results. Neither do we require that the interior of the xed points set of T be nonempty, which is a condition used in [25]. Furthermore, we do not need to compute for closed convex subsets, Cn; of the Hilbert space.


Morphometric Analysis of Drainage Basin through GIS: A Case study of Sukhna Lake Watershed in Lower Shiwalik, India. PDF

YangchanJ, Jain A.K., Tiwari A.K, and Sood A

Land, water and soil are limited natural resources and their widely utilization with increased population is a major concern. To mitigate the increasing demand of land and water resources, it is of prime important to conserve the natural resources for sustainable development. Morphometric analysis provides a quantitative description of drainage system which is an important aspect of watershed characterization. Morphometric analysis of Sukhna Lake watershed located in Chandigarh covering Punjab and Haryana was carried by using GIS technique. Survey of India topographic sheets in 1:50,000 scales and Arc GIS 9.3 software were used for analysis. Drainage map was prepared with the help of GIS (Geographic information System tool) and the Morphometric parameters such as linear, aerial and relief aspect of the watershed have been determined based on the formula suggested by Horton, Strahler,. The analysis of linear aspects of drainage basin shows that the basin has a dendritic pattern with fifth order stream. Bifurcation ratio of basin(4.113 to 4) falls under the range (3.0 and 5.0) in which the geologic structures do not distort the drainage pattern. Drainage density, drainage texture, elongation ratio and relief ratio value of Sukhna watershed was 3.435Km/Km2 and 9.30 confirms that the study area is underlain by impermeable subsurface material of Siwaliks having sparse vegetation and hilly relief and steep slopes with very fine texture causes prone area of soil erosion risk in the Sukhna Lake watershed.


A wide awaking of Gravida for medical canvass through SMS/Voice call PDF

J.Sudha, Dr.A.Sumithra, Dr.R.Perumalraja, Dr.S.Gavaskar

A way to increase the condition of confidence in the health system among communities in rural India for accessing health advices for maternal, new-born, and child from the community volunteers have been proposed. It was addressed by the Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in their community level as a health educators and promoters for providing first contact care to people mainly for pregnant women and child care. In this proposed system, the ASHA in health center is responsible for registering patient details with necessary information including the mobile numbers of the family members and address into the database using a computer with Internet connectivity in the specified website. The patient records, Doctors details and text messages as a remainder to the patients are hosted in a cloud database. Using SMS technology the timely reminder alerts are sent to the patient on the day of scheduled follow-ups. The in-build algorithm ‘Noval Risk Filtering Algorithm’ calculates the risk of the patient through the health services and filters the record based on risk. The high risk patients report will be forwarded to the Doctor’s smart phone which contains the application to access it. This application contains the ‘Risk Prioritizing Calculator Algorithm’ to prioritize the risk level of patients and alert them by SMS/Voice call based on their risk by the Doctor. The main aim of this proposed system is to enrich the caregiver’s service to women for guidance and institutional delivery to reduce the maternal deaths, chronic ill health, neo natal deaths.


Effects of Macroeconomic Variables on Exchange Rates in Bangladesh PDF

Farhana Akhter and Nushrat Faruqui

The paper discusses about the experience of Bangladesh with different exchange rate regime, comparing the performance of previous and current exchange rate regime with selected south Asian countries and analyses and discusses how macroeconomic variables influenced exchange rate. For these analyses four major independent variables have been considered i.e. export amount, remittance, import amount and foreign currency reserve and independent variable is exchange rate. For evaluating the relationship and nature of relationship the researchers used correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that macroeconomic variables significantly influenced the exchange rate. The study concluded that after adopting the floating exchange rate regime Bangladesh experienced positive impacts on macroeconomic development of the country but to manage efficiently free floating exchange rate regime in developing countries like Bangladesh the central bank and the government may establish strict control over the foreign exchange business, to control inflation rate, to increase export, reduce trade deficit and increase foreign currency earnings.


A Investigative Rainfall Forecast Using atom throng optimization system PDF

Mohammed Inamurrahamn, Dr.Nasser Mansoor Tairan, Mohammed Burhanurrahman

Rainfall plays an important role in maintaining the water level in the earth. The predection of rainfall becomes a great challenge in day to day life for researchers due to the sudden change in climates.


A Case Study: Global Warming: Climate Change and Melting Glacier of Koh-e-Safid PDF

Zareena Ali, Dustar Ali, Talib Hussain

The Global warming means that increase in average temperature day by day. This is a global issue. After 1850, when industrialization occurred this issue increases slowly and now it became a big issue for whole world. Developed countries decrease their ground level of pollution because they are investing more in pollution control. Developing counties are suffering from both regional and global level of pollution because they do not have enough money to decrease even their ground level of pollution.


Design and Implementation System for Distribute a new admission students Into A College Has Several Departments PDF

Fahad Naim Nife, Abdul Mohsen A. Jaber, Narges Mujtaba Kamel

The proposed system trying to automate the Distribution process of new admission students In the science college departments , so it translate the traditional manual system into computer-based system.This computerized application is automate the operation of entered students information and then perform its major operation of distribution the students into the college departments. This system allow to students to enter their information details as well as try some exams ,more ever ,this system make the distribution process more efficient and flexible. The distributed process provides three choices(type of distribution ) for an administrator of the system, (The mark average degree and the student interest distribution type, The mark average degree and the student interest and the mark of the basic subject into four class distribution type, and the mark average degree and the student interest and the mark of the basic subject into four class and the mark of the competition exam distribution type). The proposed system also provide a competition exam for each new student to identity their skills and interest trend.


A COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT ON THE EFFECT OF WATERINFLUX/PRODUCTION, FORMATION AND RESIDUAL FLUIDCOMPRESSIBILITY, AND GAS SORPTION ON THE VALUE OF ORIGINAL GAS IN PLACE USING THE MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION PDF

Omoniyi,O.A.,Omera,A.

For a volumetric gas reservoir, gas expansion (the most significant source of energy) dominates depletion behavior, and the general gas MBE is a very simple yet powerful tool for interpretation. However, in cases where other source of energy are significant enough to cause deviation from the linear behavior of the P/Z plot, a more sophisticated tool is required. For this, a more advanced form of the MBE has been developed, and the standard P/Z plot is modified to maintain a linear trend with the simplicity of interpretation. Material balance has long been used in reservoir engineering practice as a simple yet powerful tool to determine the Original-Gas-In-Place (G). The conventional format of the gas material balance equation is the simple straight line plot of P/Z versus cumulative gas production (Gp) which can be extrapolated to zero P/Z to obtain G. The graphical simplicity of this method makes it very popular. The method was developed for a “volumetric” gas reservoir. It assumes a constant pore volume of gas and accounts for the energy of gas expansion, but it ignores other sources of energy such as the effects of formation compressibility, residual fluids expansion and aquifer support. It also does not include other sources of gas storage such as connected reservoirs or adsorption in coal/shale. In the past, researchers have introduced modified gas material balance equations to account for these other sources of energy. However, the simplicity of the P/Z straight line is lost in the resulting complexity of these equations. In this research project work, a new format of the gas material balance equation is presented which recaptures the simplicity of the straight line while accounting for all the drive mechanisms. It uses a P/Z** instead of P/Z. The effect of each of the mentioned drive mechanisms appears as an effective compressibility term in the new gas material balance equation. Also, the physical meaning of the effective compressibilities are explained and compared with the concept of drive indices. Furthermore, the gas material balance is used to derive a generalized rigorous total compressibility in the presence of all the above-mentioned drive mechanisms, which is very important in calculating the pseudo-time used in rate transient analysis of production data


Effect of HIV and HAART on Antioxidants Markers in HIV Positive Patients in Sokoto State, Nigeria. PDF

M.M. Abduljalil, H.M. Liman, R.A. Umar and M.G. Abubakar

The study assessed the effect of both HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on antioxidant markers in patients with HIV infection being managed with HAART. Fifty (50) HIV positive HAART naïve (12 male and 38 females), fifty (50) HIV positive on HAART for 1 to 6 months (18 male and 32 females), fifty (50) HIV positive on HAART for 7 to 12 months (14 males and 36 females) and fifty (50) HIV negative (28 males and 22 females) were enrolled into the study. Oxidative stress markers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Catalase, Vitamin A, C and E were measured using different standard methods. Significantly (p<0.05) low levels of reduced glutathione in non-treated group were observed compared to the control. The three HIV positive groups have significantly higher MDA and lower Catalase activity when compared to control. Vitamins A, C and E show a significant decrease (p<0.05) in all the HIV positive patients when compared with control. HIV infection increases oxidative stress, which decreases at the commencement of therapy (HAART). Antioxidants supplementations should be considered for incorporation in the management of HIV/AIDS patients.


Experimental Investigation of Turning Process in Wet and MQL system on EN 31 Alloy Steel PDF

S.S. Acharya, R.L. Karwande

In mass production generally turning process is sequentially first process so that it is necessary to concentrate on this process for improving surface finish within minimum time and cost. This paper present investigation of turning process parameters on hard EN 31 material, for optimization of surface roughness, material removal rate in wet and MQL system by considering five controllable input variables namely cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, nozzle distance and insert nose radius in the presence of wet & MQL system. This experiment present the chip analysis which is related with controllable variables from which its effect on insert wear, quality of product can be easily found out, because of chip formation gives indirectly effect on the insert wear. The design of experiment is carried out by using response surface methodology (RSM). It is clear from analysis that MQL system is better than wet system.


Safety of dental units: Efficacy of Chlorine dioxide in reducing bacterial loads in water and bio films of dental waterlines PDF

Meera S, Sadhana S.

OBJECTIVE: To determine efficacy of chlorine dioxide disinfectant in reducing bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines using bore well / distilled water. METHODS: Water and biofilm samples were collected from 27 dental unit water lines using bore well water and 20 units using distilled water before the use of, 1 day, 15 days and 30 days after the use of chlorine dioxide (Insta-diox –Narsipur chemicals Pune, Maharashtra). Samples were cultured using nutrient agar and the number of colony forming units was counted using manual colony counting device. Gram’s stain was used to study the type of organisms and M-endo agar for the presence of Escherichia coli. RESULTS: Before disinfection with chlorine dioxide, water and biofilms were highly contaminated. Gram negative bacilli were the most commonly isolated organisms. The number of colony forming units and also the proportion of chairs showing presence of E. coli reduced after disinfection especially 1 day and 15 days after disinfection. All dental unit waterlines met the American Dental Association standards of less than 200/ml colony forming unit until 15 days after disinfection. Bore well water was more contaminated.


Legislation stages development of imprisonment sentences in criminal law of Azerbaijan republic PDF

Habib Asadi, Javad Vahedizadeh, Seyed Ahmad Fardy, Mohammad Salmanpour Khormalou

Fight against criminals is one of the important duties of governments. Human being has never thought of anything else as important and serious as imprisonment sentences in fighting against criminals historically. By a glance at law history in countries we will be able to see traces of detention camps sentences throughout the history. In ancient times, detention camps were created in Eastern countries such as China, Babylon, Egypt, and … . At that time detention camps were not used as a place to punish but they were considered as a place to hold the accused people until the punishment time. In Russian emperorship including Azerbaijan republic, detention camps were considered as a place to watch the suspects as an absolute resolution and not as a place to administer punishments. Regarding the growth of feudal populations and class campaigns, detention camps became important to perform punishments, gradually. The present study is going to deal with legislation processes of imprisonment punishments in Azerbaijan republic.


Validated High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method, for Seperation of the Enantiomers of Sitagliptin Phosphate Monohydrate PDF

Gopal Khedekar, Sunil Mirgane and R. Powar

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for resolution of the enantimoers of sitagliptin phosphate monhydrate in the bulk drug.


Iris Image Compression Using JPEG & Its Effect on Recognition Performance PDF

Mr. Shaikh. I. J , Prof.Dr. Mukane S.M

A biometric system provides automatic identification of a person based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the person. Iris recognition is proven to be one of the most accurate of all biometric technologies used today for identifying people. Iris recognition works by recognizing individuals from their iris texture with great precision in which system captures an image of an individual’s eye, the iris in the image is then meant for the further segmentation and normalization for extracting its feature. So for storing these images the need for large databases of iris images is growing. If available storage space is not adequate for storing these images, compression will be a solution, which allows reduction in the space needed to store these iris images, although it may be at a cost of some amount of information lost in the process. In this paper compression of iris images using JPEG is implemented, in order to study their impact on recognition performance. Standard iris images are 600 times larger than the Iris Code templates, but it is administratively desired that iris data should be stored, transmitted, and embedded in media in the form of images rather than as templates. To get that goal with its implications for bandwidth and storage, a scheme is presented that combine region-of-interest isolation with JPEG compression at different quality factor. Study reveals minimal impact on recognition performance with compressed iris images.


Effect of Styrofoam Balls and Aluminium Oxide on Strength Properties of Cement Motor Cubes PDF

Peerzada Danish, Shahid ul Islam

In this study, light weight mortar cubes are prepared by Styrofoam balls and Aluminium oxide. Compressive strength and density of the mortar cubes were determined for 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. The mixture is produced by replacing Portland cement with Styrofoam balls in the ratio of 0%, 0.5% and 1% by the weight of cement and aluminium oxide in the ratio of 0%, 0.5% and 1% by the weight of cement. Rate of deterioration was higher in normal mortar cubes when compared to light weight mortar cubes. Test results clearly show that there is a decrease in density and slight decrease in compressive strength. As per the test results, the density of the mortar cubes decreases by 40%-50% when compared to the control mix and the compressive strength attained is 15 MPa.


Effect of Addition Bio Filler (|Beans Shell powder) Reinforcement By Polyester Composites PDF

Assit.prof. Raghad U.Abass, Assit.prof.Falak U.Abass, Assit.prof.dr.Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi

This work presents the production of composites with a polyester matrix reinforced with bio filler beans shell (bs).The effect of the beans shell (filler) on the mechanical properties of the composite was experimentally quantified. A preliminary study was earlier carried out the shell in terms of their chemical constituents, functional group and mechanical strength. The shell beans was ground and chemically treated to enhance good bonding and adhesion to the matrix. Composites were fabricated using a hand lay-up or contact mould method for different percentage compositions of the filler. Tests, with respect to the mechanical properties (ie. tensile, Hardness, impact) were carried out. The result obtained was compared with the in forced polyester plate at 10% filler loading, it showed a 79% improvement in tensile properties and 66% increase in impact strength. It was clearly observed that the inclusion of the filler (shell) added strength to the composite. 2. The chemical characterization was carried out by x-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XFR analysis).


Inverse Control for a Magnetic Levitation System Using the Neural Network PDF

Abd-El meged Mohamed, Gaber Elsady, Ashraf Hemeda, Asmaa Fawzy

For overcomes several shortcomings of the inverse control design to controlling nonlinear systems using the neural networks as the controller based self tuning regulator. The magnetic levitation parameters are estimated online and are used to update the weights of the RBFNN. The weight update equations are derived based on the least mean squares principle. The RBFNN virtually models the inverse of the plant and thus the output tracks the reference trajectory. The proposed algorithm is successfully verified using simulations. Then, this paper compared its result with the outcome of using proportional-plus-integral feedback (PI) self tuning regulator.


Assessment of the Coastal Area Water Quality in Noakhali, Bangladesh. PDF

Muhammed Y. Miah, F. N. Robel, S. Bhowmik, S. Bhattacharjee, S. C. Paul, M.J. Hossain, M.Z. Hossain

In this study, water quality assessment of different sources (surface water and ground water) in the coastal belt region of Noakhali was conducted. Physical parameters of the supplied samples like Color, Odor, Temperature, and Taste were identified. Beside this pH, Conductivity, Total dissolved solid (TDS), Hardness, Alkalinity, Chloride, cations, Arsenic(As), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Mercury(Hg), Chromium(Cr), Dissolved Oxygen were measured to understand the physicochemical parameters, salinity and the presence of toxic metal ions in water. pH values for surface water were 6.3- 7.49and those of ground water were 7.33-8.5; Total hardness for surface water was 70-132 ppm and ground water was 180-296 ppm as CaCO3; Electrical conductivity (EC) for surface water was 576-1040µs and that of ground water was 5210-8170 µs . Ground water (deep) source contains highest level of Chloride and TDS which is 1683ppm and 1152ppm respectively. The alkalinity of the underground water was 2115 ppm & 518ppm which was higher than the surface water which was 68.5 ppm 112.5 respectively. The DO values were 2.4ppm & 3ppm for ground water and 4.05 & 4.95ppm for surface water. All the measured concentration of toxic metal ions (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr) were below standard permissible limit.


Determination of Generator Participation in Loads and Lines using Extended Incidence Matrix method PDF

A. A. Malik, N. D. Ghawghawe

In the deregulated environment generation companies and other utilities become the user of transmission services. So, there is growing need to identify the participation of each generators and cost of transmission services. In such situation dispatchers not only concentrate on the power flow of the system but also contribution of each generator to each load and losses allocated to the generators. In this paper a mathematical method is proposed for the active power flow tracing based on the concept of extended incidence matrix. By obtaining the AC or DC load flow solution, extended incidence matrix, distribution factor matrix and load extraction matrix are derived. With the help of developed model power transfer between each generator to each load, each line and contribution of each generator to the system losses is calculated. The effectiveness of proposed method is illustrated using IEEE 4-bus and 6-bus systems.


Integrated Biostratigraphic Study of Well Etankpini 005(ET005) based on Foraminiferal and Palynological Analysis, Calabar Flank; South Eastern Nigeria. PDF

A.J Ukpong, and M.O.Ekhalialu

The Cretaceous formations penetrated by well ET005, Etankpini, Calabar Flank, consist of a sequence of dark grey fissile fossiliferous shales (the Ekenkpon Formation) at the base and greyish, fine grain ooilitic marl (the New Netim Formation) at the top. The upper greyish, fine grain oilitic marl suggests a paralic condition in a shallow marine environment. The shallow marginal marine environment is further supported by the high diversity of terrestrially derived palynomorphs such as Polyporisporites spp, Selaginella mvosurus and low values of sub-order Classopollis. A major transgression deposited the dark grey fissile fossiliferous shales during the Late Cenomanian-Early Turonian times and the rich planktonic faunal assemblages encountered at certain levels indicate continuous deposition in an open marine environment (Middle neritic and outer neritic environments). Cenomanain-Early Turonain age is assigned to the sediments penetrated by well ET005 and this is supported by the co-occurrences of Classopollis spp, Classopollis classoides, Classopollis jardinei, Triorites africaensis, Cretaceiporites mulleri, Triffosapollenites rugosa and Steevesipollenites binodosus (palynoflora) as well as the co-occurrences of Hedbergella crassa, Hedbergella planispira, Heterohelix moremani, Heterohelix reussi and Globigerinelloides caseyi(microfauna).


Performance Analysis of Biometric Image Encryption in Transformed Formats using Public Key Cryptography PDF

Dr.M.Gobi, Mrs.R.Sridevi

Due to the prompted growth of multimedia applications, the preservation of multimedia data becomes very important. The security of multimedia images can be achieved through Cryptography. This type of image encryption requires more attention towards its implementation. There are many different cryptographic techniques used for image encryption. Elliptic Curves Cryptography is believed to provide high security with smaller key sizes, which is very useful in many applications. This paper proposes the transformation of images into Base64 and Binary formats before image encryption. The transformed image is encrypted using Elliptic Curve Cryptography algorithm and encrypted image is stored in the database in a safe manner for future references. Based on the experiments done, Base64 transformation performs better than Binary transformation.


PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF INTRA DOMAIN ROUTING PROTOCOLS USING QUAGGA PDF

Ashish Kuamr Mishra, Selvaraj

Optimization and high performance of routing protocols are needed in this interconnected world. As the intra-domain routing protocols (OSPF) is widely used in ip network. In ospf implementations the processing delays impact the time needed to re-convergence after a topology change for both intra-domain and inter-domain routing. The performance index used to characterize the re-convergence capability is also referring as switching time. To measure the switching time on pc based router and open source routing software we built a test-bed. Moreover we describe a set of changes made on Quagga code in order to optimize some processes, whose algorithms were not efficient. After obtained result we show that, if the routing software is optimized, the pc-based routers perform better than commercial router in terms of switching time. The realized implementation allows the shortest path computation time to be reduced of about the 97%.


Geo-electric investigation of the groundwater Potential distribution within the Northern Basement Complex of Nigeria. PDF

E.A. Kudamnya and J.O. Osumeje

Kaduna, a town within the crystalline hydro-geological province of the Basement Complex of northern Nigeria, is faced with an increasing demand for water due to high population growth rate and growing prosperity. Hence there is dependence on groundwater in meeting the water needs of the area. It is therefore important to delineate the water potential regions of aquifer units within the study area. To achieve this, two important hydraulic properties – hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity, of the aquifer media in the area were computed. A geoelectric survey was carried out involving Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) to investigate the sub-surface depth using the Schulmberger technique. Abem Tarrameter SAS 1000 was used and twenty points were sounded in area. Data obtained were processed using the Earth Imager 1D Version 2.0.4 software to display results in a log-log graph. Values for transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were computed. The data together with the coordinate of points for each station, obtained using a Garmin global positioning system (GPS), was employed to plot 2D and 3D contour maps. This was done with the aid of Surfer 11 software. In conclusion, transmissivity values recorded is within a range of 1.31 m2/day to 20.08 m2/day, with an average value of 19.12 m2/day. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 6.5827 x 10-6 m/s to 9.7225 x 10-6 m/s with an average value of 7.5358 x 10-6 m/s. Aquifer thickness recorded a range of value between 2.00 m to 31.00 m with an average of 15.66 m. Groundwater yield in the study area is adequate to sustain water supply need of communities like Afaka and Riga Chikun. Other places like Kurumi Mashi and Makera will have just enough water for private use. There is a strong positive correlation between transmissivity and aquifer thickness, while there was no correlation between aquifer transmissivity and aquifer resistivity.


Natural Carbon sequestration by dominant mangrove species Avicennia marina var. accutissima ex Staf & Moldenke ex Moldenke found across Thane creek, Maharashtra, India PDF

Sheetal Chaudhari Pachpande, Madhuri Pejaver

Trees absorb carbon and assimilate it as a part of biomass through a process of photosynthesis. The current study focuses on carbon sequestration by dominant mangrove species across Thane creek. Thane city harbors Asia’s largest industrial complex, effluent of which are released directly or indirectly to the creek, thereby increasing pollution, affecting growth of mangroves. Mangrove forests are considered as probable and efficient sink of atmospheric carbon. Avicennia marina var. accutissimaStapf & Moldenke ex Moldenke is the dominant species found on the banks of theThane creek. Approximately more than 20 % of carbon is stored in above ground biomass of which 2% - 3 % gets incorporated in sediments. The sequestration potential of entire creek is estimated allometrically. This will help in creating awareness of the most crucial and dominant mangrove species at the creek.


Spatial Distribution Analysis and Susceptibility Mapping of Mass Movements Using GIS-Based Logistic Regression: A Case Study of a Moderately Hilly Alpine Context (NW Morocco) PDF

Mohamed MASTERE

A quantitative mass movements susceptibility zonation map at a medium scale (1:50 000) of the Zoumi area (Central Rif – Morocco) was prepared using a probabilistic approach. Because, is considered as one of the most appropriate approaches for mass movements susceptibility mapping on this scale with datasets developed for application in a geographic information system (GIS). This paper presents a four-step procedure to map mass movements susceptibility in a moderately hilly context. First, mass movements inventory carried out through high remote sensing data interpretation and field surveys studies. Second, mapping predisposing parameters (geotechnical unities, fracturing density, slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, stream network density, earthquakes isodepths and land use) controlling the spatial occurrence of slope failure. Third, the strength of the eight predictor variables association was assessed and the logistic regression model was applied. Finally the degree of model fit of the susceptibility map was evaluated by calculating the cumulative percentage of mass movements area in each susceptibility class, accompanied by expert judgment.


Comparative Study on Effect of Chloride and Water on Marble Dust Concrete PDF

Mr. Abhilash B. Gaikwad, Mr. Abhishek J. Patil Thorat, Mr. Bajirao V. Mane, Miss. Komal R. Nikam, Mr. R. P. Patil

In recent years the waste material to the environment directly can cause the environment problems. Hence the reuse of the waste material has been used. This waste is produced from manufacturing and polishing process like sawing and shaping. This research aims to study the effect of using marble powder as partially replaced of cement on the compressive strength of concrete. In this paper, we have used M30 grade concrete. The concrete cubes are casted for partially replacement of cement by marble dust with 0%,5%,10%,15% & 20%. The 0% replacement is considered controlled percentage replacement. Then the specimens having size of (150mm x 150mm x 150mm) are tested after 28 & 60 days for water and chloride water curing. We have kept 5% Nacl consistency. The result graph shows that variations in compressive strength for cement replaced by marble dust for 28 & 60 days curing in water and chloride water curing. The 5% & 10% replacement is desirable percentage of replacement of cement by marble dust.


A REVIEW OF ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MANETs PDF

Cheenu Bala, Tania Nagpal

In recent years, research has been seen going on in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). Due to limited resources in MANETs, to design reliable and an efficient routing strategy is still open challenge. To overcome this problem a number of routing protocols have been developed and still increasing day by day. It is difficult to determine which protocols may perform well under different network scenarios such as topology and network size etc. In this paper we give an overview of the existing routing protocols with a particular focus on their characteristics and functionality. Further this study will help the researchers to get an overview of the existing protocols and suggest which protocols may perform better with respect to varying network scenarios.


ASSESSMENT OF APPLICATION OF MOBILE LEARNING DEVICES AMONG BUSINESS EDUCATION STUDENTS IN SOUTH EAST UNIVERSITIES, NIGERIA. PDF

Dr. A.U. OKEKE, UCHECHUKWU O. IHEANACHO

This study assessed the application of mobile learning devices among business education students in south east universities in Nigeria. The study population comprised 1,102 students of business education in south east universities in Nigeria. Stratified sampling technique was used to draw 293 students that represented the sample frame for the study. A 5-point scale validated questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.84 was used for data collection. Mean, standard deviation and ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results revealed that the respondents apply mobile learning devices for education to a low extent. The respondents differed significantly in their mean ratings based on institution type. Based on the findings, the authors concluded that students use mobile learning devices for leisure than study and recommended among others that educators should acquire relevant competences on mobile learning and apply them using mobile devices for instructions while the curriculum planners should integrate digital literacy as a course to include mobile learning.


Distribution Of Heavy Metals And Other Physico-chemical Properties Of Soil At Automobile Mechanic villages, Imo State. PDF

Okoro , A.C, Chukwuma, G.O, Chukwuma, E. C, ugwu.I.E

Studies to ascertain the distribution of heavy metals and changes in other physiochemical properties of the soil was carried out at two automobile mechanic villages in Imo State. Soil samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory for heavy metals and other physciochemical properties in triplicates at the 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60cm depths of the soil. The overall values of heavy metals Cd-Cadmium, Cu-Copper, Pb-Lead, Cr-Chromium and Fe-Iron ranged from 8.83 to 18.68; 191.00 to 590.00; 693.33 to 2917.30; 5.42 to 26.82 and 17,533 to 140,870mg.kg-1respectively. The analyzed result showed that the distribution of heavy metal in the soil decreased with increase in depth and were not significantly different with age. The soil physiochemical properties were also modified due to the presence of excess heavy metals. The soil pH was slightly acidic and alkaline ranging from 5.24 to 7.27. For soil particle size, the distribution of sand fraction was highest followed by clay and then silt. This study showed that age did not affect heavy metals contamination of the soil.


Enhancement of the Kalman Filter Performance in Guidance Application PDF

Prof.Dr.Mohamed Zakaria, Prof.Dr.Talaat Abd-Elmonaem, Dr.Alaa El-Din Sayed Hafez, Eng.Hesham Abdin

Kalman filter algorithm is an estimator known as the workhorse of estimation. It has an important application in missile guidance, especially in lack of accurate data of the target due to noise or uncertainty. In this paper a Kalman filter is used as a tracking filter in a simulated target-interceptor scenario with noise. It estimates the position, velocity, and acceleration of the target in the presence of noise. These estimations are needed for both proportional navigation and differential geometry guidance laws. A Kalman filter has a good performance at low noise, but a large noise causes considerable errors leads to performance degradation. Therefore, a new technique is required to overcome this defect using tuning factors to tune a Kalman filter to adapt increasing of noise. The values of the tuning factors are between 0.8 and 1.2, they have a specific value for the first half of range and a different value for the second half. they are multiplied by the estimated values. These factors have its optimum values and are altered with the change of the target heading. A genetic algorithm updates these selections to increase the maximum effective range which was previously reduced by noise. The results show that the selected factors have other benefits such as decreasing the minimum effective range that was increased earlier due to noise. In addition to, the selected factors decrease the miss distance for all ranges of this direction of the target, and expand the effective range which leads to increase probability of kill.


Fraud detection and mitigation in secure e-payment transaction. PDF

Mrs.T.K.GEORGE, Dr.(Prof)Paulose Jacob

Fraudulent entries in the e-payment are quite common in most of the e-commerce transaction. In most of the E-commerce transaction, prevention and detection of fraudulent entries are given much importance as part of risk management strategies. There should be an appropriate technique or procedure to detect and respond to fraudulent entries. In order to detect fraudulent entries, the behavioral pattern of the fraudsters is to be monitored and controlled. Well-structured detective and preventive measures can mitigate the frauds in e-payment transaction and can increase the reliability of e-transaction.


Image Edge Detection by combining Fuzzy Logic PDF

Behzad Ebrahimnezhad sani,Mohamad Amin alikhani, Javad Haddadnia

Edge detection in digital images is one of the most important issues in image processing and it can be solved by different methods. Most of these methods can be combined with fuzzy systems. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed in which the input of applying wavelet transform at input image and the image obtained by applying a high-pass filter on the image are given to a first order fuzzy system. And based on fuzzy logic, it is decided about the probability of being edge of each pixel of the image. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results of well-known methods of edge vector. And these results show a better performance in images.


Investigation and Optimization of Process Parameters in Electrochemical Aid Abrasive Flow Machining PDF

Ravi Gupta, Balinder Chahal

AFM is effective advance machining process that is widely used where finishing is difficult to access, such as radius polish, removal recast layer and complex internal passage by using the semi-solid media flow into the work piece. The media consists of a type of polymeric carrier and abrasive particles that are Sic, Al2O3, diamond, etc. This process is generally labor intensive, low material removal rate process and time consuming process. But now a days, Hybrid process have been developed to improve the surface finish and material removal rate of abrasive flow machine. The hybrid process of electrochemical machining and abrasive flow machining is called ECA2FM. In ECA2FM the electrolytic salts-abrasive laden media passes through cathode rod, the work-piece anode, connected with the DC power source. In this experimental investigation, process parameters, such as voltage, molal concentration, number of cycle and rotational diameter of rod were studied at different levels for material removal. It result in more machining as compare to AFM. In the present work, the more effective parameter is intensified and effects of the parameter on the material removal is observed by using Taguchi technique.


PREDICTING OF TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS PDF

Akram S. Mahmood

In this paper, the artificial neural networks (ANNs) model in predicting the torsional strength of prestressed concrete beams is done. Experimental data of eighty two rectangular prestressed concrete beams under pure torsion from an existing available literature were used to develop ANN torsion model. The input parameters affecting the torsional strength of prestressed concrete beams were selected as dimensions of beams, steel ratio of transverse reinforcements, spacing of stirrups, steel ratio of longitudinal (main) reinforcement, prestressing force, concrete compressive strength, also flexural and splitting strengths. An algorithm of back propagation neural network (BPNN) with the log-sigmoid activation function is adopted due to its accuracy and results enhancement of predictions the torsional model. In addition to the ANN model is compared with ACI- 318 building code provisions for the design of prestressed concrete beams under pure torsion. The study illustrates that the ANN models give a very good predictions of the ultimate torsional strength of prestressed concrete beams.


Roadmap to Geothermal Energy PDF

Mahmuda Akter Monne, Kazi Saiful Alam

In the context of geothermal energy utilization, Bangladesh is still at a very early stage. Though there is one project ongoing at Thakurgain for establishing the first geothermal plant of the country, no systematic study has been done to evaluate the geothermal resources of Bangladesh. However, in a few research have stressed the potential of geothermal energy resources in Bangladesh. Geothermal energy exploration involves cash incentives in the early stages of exploration, but good planning minimizes risks and saves money. In Bangladesh many deep abandoned wells, originally drilled for oil and gas exploration, have been used to extract valuable information about the subsurface geology and temperature of areas of interest. Analysis of the temperature data of these wells indicates that the average geothermal gradient along the southeast part of the Bengal Foredeep region varies from 19.8 to 29.5°C/km and along the northwest stable shelf from 20.8 to 48.7°C/km. For assessment of the geothermal potential of Bangladesh, it is recommended that preliminary surface geological and geochemical studies be done followed by geophysical investigations (resistivity (MT), seismic, gravity, etc.) and drilling of shallow gradient wells to make a conceptual model of any geothermal systems before proceeding with the most expensive, as well as the most risky part, i.e. drilling of a deep well.


DS-AKA: Dynamic and Secure Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for UMTS Networks PDF

Mustafa A AL-Fayoumi

One of the most challenging problems introduced by mobile networking is security. Therefore, a secure and efficient authentication mechanism is especially needed for mobile communication systems. The authentication protocol incurs overheads on the transmission process. These overheads affect the mobile network performance such as delay and bandwidth. The authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) adopts the security features of Global System for Mobile (GSM) in order to interwork with GSM compatibility. Furthermore, the UMTS increases more security features than GSM to design an authentication and key agreement protocol, which is called UMTS AKA protocol. The UMTS AKA is still vulnerable to redirection and man-in-the-middle attacks, which allow an adversary to redirect user traffic form a network to another and eavesdrop or mischarge the subscribers in the system. Moreover, UMTS AKA protocol has performance problems, including bandwidth consumption between a serving network and user’s home network and space overhead of the serving network. In this paper, by using a key hash chaining authentication technique an innovative contribution introduces a dynamic and secure AKA protocol, called DS-AKA a to resolve the security issue and cope with performance problems. A security analysis and comparison with related work shows that DS-AKA protocol is more secure and the network can be operated in a more efficient way.


Transition metal complexes of novel aryl azopyarazole: Synthesis, characterization and antifungal activities PDF

Bhargav Trivedi, Niraj Shah, Sanjay Patel

Reaction between 2,4-dichloro phenyl acid hydrazide with 4-[N'-(1-Ethoxycarbonyl-2-oxo-propylidene)-hydrazino]-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid in ethanol furnishes 1-[2,4-dichloro-benzoyl]-3-methyl-4-(4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-phen-4-yl-hydrazono)-2-pyrazoline-5-ones (dClH-ASA). The transition metal complexes of Cu2+, Co2+ ,Ni2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ of dClH-ASA have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, spectral studies, magnetic moment determination, molar conductivity measurement and microbicidal activity.


Optimization of the Operating Conditions of Turbidity Removal from Synthesized Dairy Wastewater Using Pumpkin Seed as a Coagulant PDF

Blessing Mike JOE, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Maryam IBRAHIM, Yusuf Olabode RAJI, Abdulwahab GIWA

This work has been carried out to apply response surface methodology of the Design Expert to obtain the optimum conditions for using pumpkin seed coagulant to treat dairy wastewater using central composite design. The wastewater used for the research was synthesized by dissolving instant powdered milk in tap water. Also, the coagulant used for the treatment of the wastewater was prepared by processing the pumpkin seed obtained from Muda Lawal Market of Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. Before applying the Design Expert, jar test was first carried out to determine the optimum coagulant dose for the treatment of the synthesized wastewater as 4 mg/l. Thereafter, twenty experiments were designed and performed according to the central composite design of response surface methodology of the Design Expert. The results of the experiments, together with the factors used, were modelled, analysed, modified and optimized to obtain the optimum values for the wastewater treatment. The analyses of variance of the full quadratic model developed revealed that it was significant with a p-value less than 0.0001. However, the model was found to contain some insignificant factors, which made the model to undergo modification. The results obtained from the simulation of the modified quadratic model developed showed that it was very good and capable of predicting the behaviour of the process well because its R-Squared, Adj R-Squared and Pred R-Squared values were estimated to be 0.9281, 0.8861 and 0.6693, respectively. Also, the results obtained from the experiments carried out with the design of the response surface methodology showed that the minimum turbidity value given by response surface methodology was better than that of the jar test. Therefore, response surface methodology has been successfully applied to obtain the optimum conditions required for removing turbidity from dairy wastewater using pumpkin seed coagulant.


The Study Of Controlled Relaese of Indomethacin Drug From Prepared Apatite Compounds Containing The Elemantal Calcium And Strontium PDF

Roua Hussein Nasser, Abedl Amer H. Toabi, and Zeki N. Al-Sokanee

Apatite compounds has wide applications in the medical and non-medical field and are very stable compounds .Different compounds of apatite were prepared and identified such as a that of calcium hydroxyapatite, Strontium Fluorapatite compound and Strontium –Calcium hydroxyapatite compound . All these compounds were identified by Infrared spectroscopy and X-rays, which confirmed the presence of the prepared compounds.


EIA for Ramapadasagar (Polavaram) Irrigation Project using Spatial Technology - few R&R Issues PDF

Dr.Y.Sreeramulu, Dr.I.V.Muralikrishna

Development through displacement is part and parcel of the ongoing process of planned development. This Research study deals with the Spatial modeling of Environmental impact assessment for an irrigation project i.e.Ramapadasagar (Polavaram) Irrigation project, which has been carried out in parts of West Godavari, East Godavari and Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. About 14,400 Sq Kilometer area of remote sensing data have been collected and analyzed for environmental impact assessment by using emerging GIS technology. From the modeling analysis, the land use land cover environment, slope analysis are made. The model also conceptualizes sediment delivery from hydrologic unit into a reservoir as a multiplicative function of the potential soil detachment material (delivery ratio) and the area of the hydrologic entity. The Sediment yield index values are intended from the empirical model using for the sub watersheds and is varying from 1060 to 1500 and suggested Catchment area treatment. It has been pragmatic during water environment analysis, an area of about 50 sq.km is under inundation at low water level +135ft (41.15m), 200 sq.km is under inundation at +140ft (42.67m), and an area of 360 sq.km is under Inundation at +150ft (45.72m) FRL.


Identification of Medicinal Mangrove Rhizophora apiculata Blume: Morphological, Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods PDF

Gurudeeban Selvaraj, Satyavani Kaliamurthi, Ramanathan Thirungnasambamdam

"Kandal" (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) is a medicinal mangrove plant used to treat pain, inflammation and reduce blood glucose level in Southeast coast of India. Identification and revision of R. apiculata are largely based on morphological characteristics. Previously, we reported and filed a patent on anti-diabetic Glycosin from R. apiculata. Subsequently, for the quality and market authorization, comprehensible identification and authentication of plant material is needed to avoid misidentify of the species by non-taxonomist. In the light of successful DNA barcoding in many medicinal plants, this study explored the potential of DNA barcoding to complement classical methods of identification of R. apiculata. Specimens were examined by morphological, HPTLC, and DNA fingerprinting. The molecular markers rbc L and mat K regions clearly distinguished R. apiculata from Rhizophoraceae family. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis confirmed their taxonomic position within the tribe Rhizophoraceae. The study indicates that DNA barcoding provides an effective and accurate strategy for increasing the reliability of species identification. The barcode sequence also was deposited in NCBI and BOLD systems. This is the first scientific information on morphology, chemical and DNA fingerprinting of medicinal mangrove R. apiculata for pharmacophore application.


Heavy Metal Characteristics of Soils at the Damang-Abosso Mining Areas of Western Region, Ghana. PDF

Napoleon Jackson Mensah, Francis Ayiah-Mensah and Godfred Etsey Sebiawu

This study analyzed the geochemical effect of mining activities on the quality of soils of selected mining areas of Western region in Ghana. In all nine heavy metals ( Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Ni, Ag, Co and Cr concentrations were evaluated in eleven Soil samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results of the present study revealed that all the heavy metals except Cadmium in the soil samples had concentration within the recommended regulatory limits. Generally, Cd concentration in the samples was higher than the recommended limits. It is envisaged that the results of this study would form the basis for further investigations into the effects of mining activities on the environment and eventual health implications of people.


Analytic Approach in Solving Steady Laminar Flow of Fluid over a Stretching Sheet PDF

Jaionto Karmokar, Sk. Abdulla-Al-Faisul, Mst. Ayrin Aktar

We have considered the steady laminar flow over a linearly stretching sheet subjected to an order of chemical reaction. A similarity transformation is utilized to convert the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The local skin friction, rate of heat transfer and rate of mass transfer on the wall may calculate with the help of boundary conditions.


Elicitation and Characterization of Free Fatty Acids and Low Cost Biodiesel Production from the Seeds of Hevea Brasiliensis PDF

Michael Donatus S, Madonna Shalma S, Vijayalakshmi S, Ranjitha J

The present paper describes about the elicitation and characterization of fatty acids and biodiesel production from the seeds of Hevea brasiliensis. In this study, soxhlet extraction had been used to extract, the rubber seed oil which contains high percentage of fatty acids. The extracted rubber oil was characterized using GC-MS spectrophotometer. Based on the spectral data, totally five fatty acids were identified using NIST GC-MS library. Further, the crude rubber oil was converted into biodiesel using acid-catalyzed trans-esterification reaction. Finally, the produced biodiesel was analyzed for their physicochemical properties using ASTM Standard.


Sintering of the Briquette Egyptian Iron Ore with Lime and Reduction of it via Hydrogen PDF

Naglaa Ahmed El-Hussiny ,Inass Ashraf Nafeaa, Mohamed Gamal Khalifa, Sayed Thabt.Abdel-Rahim,Mohamed El-Menshawi Hussein.Shalabi

This investigation studies the effect of lime addition to iron ore raw material on the physicochemical properties of its green briquette forms and indurate forms. Also the effect of this addition on the degree of reduction was studied. The results indicated that the addition of (2-8%) lime improve the mechanical properties of the briquettes in both green and indurate forms. Also the reduction of these briquettes via hydrogen was studied and the model of reduction was putted in this paper.


A Comparative Study on Beam Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Material PDF

Tanni Alam Dola and Md. Zakaria Ahmed

In this research work, parametric study is performed to compare the influences of design parameters on flexural moment capacity of externally bonded FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) strengthened beam. Three specific design guidelines: ACI 440.2R-08, ISIS CANADA and TR-55are considered. In this purpose MS Excel is used to determine the moment capacity for variable parameters specified in the above mentioned three codes. Graphs of capacity against these parameters are plotted to make the comparison well-defined. The three influential parameters that are used in this study are FRP reinforcement, FRP modular ratio, FRP ultimate strength. Most of the parameters under this study influence the flexural moment capacity. The effects of the parameters vary depending on the analysis procedure and the assumption behind of these analyses. Also most of the cases, the effects of these influential parameters increase capacity.


Software development productivity impact from an industrial perspective PDF

Samer I. Mohamed

Software development productivity is one of the major and vital aspects that impacts software industry and time to market of many software products. Although many studies have been conducted to improve the productivity measurements within software engineering research domain, productivity is still an issue in current software development industry because not all impacting factors and their relationships are known. This paper sheds a light on some of these factors and assesses their impacts as seen by random sample of industrial software SMEs. It also elaborates the main best practices that help in improve the software productivity based on real industrial projects. The resulting list of factors and best practices can be utilized to guide further productivity analysis and taken as basis for building improved and more optimized productivity models. Paper identifies the productivity measurements challenges and recommend set of metrics that can be utilized as basis for productivity estimation models


Password Authentication System in Two Way Mobile Communication using image as a secrete Key PDF

Nupur Shah, Prof. Pankaj Pandey

During the transmission of message from sender to receiver in mobile communication needs various security protocols which pre-vents these messages from various types of attacks. Although there are various protocols implemented to check the authenticity of the sender and receiver so that the chances of attacks can be reduces. Here in this paper an efficient technique of two factor using OTPK and image based authentication is proposed to prevent from various attacks in mobile communication.


WMI Based Real Time Agentless Enterprise Monitoring PDF

Balaji Patil, Ankur Jain, Vinay Kumar Pathak

Looking towards the complex, heterogeneous and dynamic nature of the networks, failures are unavoidable. Monitoring can be used for detection and reporting of failures. This underlines the need to develop a unified strategy for implementation and management of network resources in an enterprise.


Mechanical Properties of Untreated and Alkali Treated Sida Acuta Stem Fibre PDF

Chandra Mohan H.K, Dr. G.V. Gnanendra Reddy, Dr. M. Chowde Gowda

The present study is conducted for modifying the fibre surface properties and the characterization of mechanical properties of a sida acuta stem fibre. We propose to measure mass loss, tensile strength, Young’s modulus, elongation at break and density. This paper reports the improved tensile properties of Sida acuta stem fibre. Changes occurring in stem fibres when treated with a 5% concentration sodium hydroxide solution for 4 hr’s test duration. For modifying the natural fibres requires specific chemical treatments to improve the bonding strength between fibre and matrix in a polymer matrix composite and also can reduce water absorption. In this study we chosen alkaline (NaOH) treatment of different samples at different concentrations was carried. The mechanical properties were studied of treated and untreated samples. Thus we can access to the mass loss, tensile strength, Young’s modulus and density. At finally analyse and conclude the results obtained by the mechanical properties of the chemically treated and untreated sida acuta stem fibres. Morphology analysis on fibre for before and after alkali treatment was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).


Implications of Seasonal Changes on Conception and Birth in Lagos State, Nigeria PDF

Aladeniyi, O. B., Abiodun, T.

This study investigated the influence of temperature on the seasonal birth and conception patterns; and determined monthly variations in birth deliveries in Lagos, South West Nigeria according to the different divisions. The distribution of births by months exhibits a seasonal pattern in most populations. These trends often identify a peak season and a trough season. Data on birth deliveries in Lagos State from 2008-2013 were collected from the Healthcare Planning Research and Statistics Unit of the Lagos State Ministry of Health and analyzed with the average mean temperature values.It was discovered that there is no significant relationship between the temperature and birth seasonality in Lagos. The birth record displayed strong seasonality effect at 99% confidence level, the V(N) for the various divisions in Lagos state varied from 0.029 to 0.088 while the monthly birth distribution displayed a sinusoidal pattern with peak delivery rates in March—May and October and lowest rates in August and December.


Voltage Stability Enahncement using Static VAR Compensator (FC-TCR) PDF

Romana Pradhan, Mohammed Nasir Ansari

One of the major concerns of power system stability is the voltage instability. The main reason behind the voltage instability is the deficit of the reactive power in the system. The effect of Static VAR Compensator (SVC) in static voltage stability enhancement will be studied in this paper. Improving the systems voltage by increasing the reactive power handling capacity of the system by using SVC during a large disturbance is the area of study. The IEEE-14 bus system is used as the test system for the study. The simulations are carried out by using MATLAB/PSAT software. The simulation results show the effectiveness of SVC to improve the voltages when connected to the system.


Comparative Performances of Crossover Functions in Genetic Algorithms PDF

Ezeani M I; Okonkwo O R; Onyesolu M O; Osita E G

Genetic Algorithms have been widely applied to various kinds of optimisation problems. In this work, a Genetic Algorithm is designed to solve the three classic numerical optimisation problems – Rastrigin, Schwefel and Griewank. An experiment to observe the comparative performances of five different crossover functions was conducted. Also, the possible effect of aging out some of the old individuals from the population was hinted at. A parameter set expected to give the optimal performance and a discussion on the design considerations are presented below.


Implication of an Axial flow Compressor PDF

Aishwarya Ramesh,Kosaraju Shreya

The main objective in this thesis is to give encyclopedic on the axial flow compressor .Axial flow compressor is used to get the compressed pressurized air as an input the gas turbine. This thesis includes the performance parameters of axial flows such as energy exchange between the rotor and fluid compressor and variation of flow over a axial blade of the compressor. Here we discuss about the mass flow, rotational speed, number of stages, pressure ratio and which effect the efficiency of the axial compressor .Now we are going to deal with the effect of stalling and surge on the fluid flow and also deal with the compressor map by these parameter it useful in the design of Axial flow compressor .The work presented comprises of basic flow parameters and dimensions of parts, this makes the further design process quite simple and the results will be helpful to take further changes or improvement at the time of detailed design.


Concentration, partitioning and enrichment of heavy metals in water, soil and sediments in River Kapsabet micro-watershed scale, Kenya PDF

Eliud Limo, P.K Kipkemboi, Kipkemei Abraham Serem and Kituyi Lusweti

In upstream riverine environment with considerable human activities, heavy metals may be released into the environment. In this study, we quantified the concentration and distribution of heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Zn and, Fe) in water, soils and sediments and characterized their spatial and temporal variability along a gradient of agricultural activities within Kapsabet River, Kenya. Heavy metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after digestion procedures. In water, the means and ranges in concentration were (?g/L): 0.24 (0.01-0.75) Pb, 0.07 (0.02-0.21) Cu, 2.78 (0.17-3.41) Fe and 0.32 (0.02-1.22) Zn. In the soil, means and ranges (µg/g) were: 0.39 (0.11-1.42) Pb, 0.04 (0.00-0.22) Cu, 13.11 (0.43-19.14) Fe, 0.87 (0.39-2.14) Zn while in the sediments, the means and ranges in concentration (µg/g) were: 1.05 (0.51-3.81) Pb, 0.56 (0.29-0.82) Cu, 28.11 (9.22-42.14) Fe, 1.87 (0.34-3.14) Zn. There was significant (p < 0.05) spatial distribution of metals along the river profile. In both water and sediments, site 3 and 4 contained significantly (p < 0.05) the highest concentrations of Pb, Fe and Zn associated with anthropogenic pollution. Enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indices indicate that there are moderate to high degree of anthropogenic influences in sites 3 and 4 while Cu was moderately elevated in site 1. These results suggest anthropogenic influence on the heavy metal concentrations in River Kapsabet at micro-watershed scale that have unknown toxicological and epidemiological consequences to the local community members. Thus it is recommended that a stricter policy aimed at curbing the disposal of effluents associated with heavy metals into the aquatic environment.


Development and Validation of HPLC Method for Determination of Clopidogrel in Human Plasma and Its Application to Pharmacokinetic Study. PDF

Poorna Chandar G, Surendra Babu Alla, Venkata ramana devi Ch, Sreevannela Ch.

Clopidogrel bisulfate, chemically S (+)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydrothien [3,2-C]pyridine-5 (4H)- acetic acid methyl ester sulphate is a potent antiplatelet and antithrombotic drug. Chromatography was performed with an analytical Inspire C18 column (250 mm x 4.5 mm, 5 µm), Shimadzu HPLC model with HPLC Pump (LC10AD) and UV-Detector SPD 10A, and using Acetonitrile: 0.1% Acetic acid in water (75:25 v/v) as the mobile phase. The average extraction recovery of Clopidogrel from healthy subjects plasma was greater than 92% at a concentration of -----, good linearity of 0.989 in plasma over a concentration range of 50 to 5000ng/ml. Interday and intraday variability was < 10% in plasma. This newly developed HPLC method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of Clopidogrel after oral administration in cardiac patients.


Production of Biosurfactants from Submerged Fermented Fruit Bagasse of Yellow Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PDF

Ogugua Victor N., Okpashi, Victor E.Iroha Okechukwu K., Njoku Obi U.

A methodology for producing biosurfactants from Submerged Fermented Fruit Bagasse of Yellow Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined. This involved controlling agitation, temperature, pH and salt concentration conditions. The emulsification capacity of the biosurfactant was also verified with engine oil, olive oil, kerosene, and petrol. Carbon sources were evaluated with regards to the growth and production. The stability of the rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas sp. was also evaluated for possible applications in Bioremediation, antimicrobial and emulsions. Its antimicrobial activity was checked against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas and Salmonella typhimurium. On the basis of high production of biosurfactant, it is suggested that the hydrolysate of yellow cashew bagasse is a good and cheapest source. The study concludes that Fruit Bagasse of Yellow Cashew waste are ideal substrate for biosurfactant production, which may have potential industrial applications.


Effect of Mixed Land use on Housing Livability in Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria PDF

ODUNOLA OLUTAYO OLAITAN, ODUNJO, OLURONKE OMOLOLA

Various incompatible land uses have been observed to cluster in residential areas in Sagamu without being checked. Evident in the town are: the agglomeration of commercial banks along the regional road, the haphazard location of filling stations, religious centers, schools, service industries among other land uses. Against this background of continuing mixed land use in the residential areas, this research seeks to assess the effects of mixed land use on housing livability in the town.


Mathematics Education PDF

Areej Alshareef

In education, technology is a tool for every teacher to achieve the expectation of today’s education goals. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics said, “Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances student’ learning. Teachers’ attitudes play an important role in using technology in teaching and learning mathematics” (Budinski, p.42). That means that using technology makes teaching mathematics for students very easy and salient, and teachers use technology based on their attitudes and confidence. According to Adelaide, mathematics is a way of looking at the world that provides people with tools to solve problems. So, it is commonly said, “Mathematics is a Science of all Sciences and art of all arts.”(citation) That means that mathematics is the key to all sciences, and it plays a very important role in building up all sciences. Also, mathematics is related to all subjects because it is important for building a science.


GROWTH RESPONSES OF BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L. AT DIFFERENT GRADES OF SODIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY PDF

Syed Mazhar Irfan, Dr. Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Shehnaz Akhtar, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Abdul Latif

Salinity can cause hyper-ionic and hyper osmotic effect on plant, leading to membrane disorganization and metabolic toxicity. The occurrence of salt affected soil is worldwide problem particularly in arid and semi-arid region including Pakistan. The Brassica campestris commonly known as rapeseed mustard is important group of edible oils and vegetables crops belonging to Brassicaceae family. It is the second most important oil crops in world next to soybean. The present investigation was the trail of salt affects on the vegetative growth of Brassica species. Grown Seedlings were transplanted in earthen pots at the depth of 2 cm (each pots were 8cm diameter and 8cm in height) containing 5kg loamy soil. In order to prevent salt accumulation 1cm diameter hole was made at the bottom of pots. After germination seedling were thinned and homogenized per pots. Plants grew in pots and observed it on daily basis at 9 am in the wire house of Botany Department Ghazi University Dera Ghazi Khan .After two week of plants germination; different grades of salinity treatment were started. Plants were subjected to five levels of sodium chloride solution i.e.0 (Control), 0.25, 0.50, 75 and 1 M. Data were subjected to statistical analyzed with one way analysis of variance using SPSS (version 20).The mean values were recorded at 0.05% probability level. It was concluded that the salinity was the problem for the growth and development of all the type of vegetation except halophytes.


TRANSPORTATION MODELING OF FARM PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION: A CASE STUDY OF MAIZUBE FARM, MINNA, NIGERIA PDF

James I. Galadima, J. David, Obioma R. Nwaogbe, Victor Omoke, Ikechukwu A. Diugwu

The major objective of this study is to determine an optimal way of transporting specified quantities products manufactured at Maizube Farms complex that minimizes the total transportation cost between the factory, the depots and various customer locations. While the analysis of data was done using the TORA software, the solution was based on the Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM). The result of the analysis shows that the minimized transportation cost of a unit (a carton) of the products carton is N712,800.00, compared to the current cost N849,600.00; representing a 16.10% savings (or N136,800.00). The Management of Maizube Farms Limited is advised to adopt the routes used in this study in order to reduce the overhead (distribution) cost and boost its profit.


Tumor Detection through Image Processing Using MRI PDF

Hafiza Huma Taha, Syed Sufyan Ahmed, Haroon Rasheed

Automated brain tumor segmentation and detection are immensely important in medical diagnostics because it provides information associated to anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissue necessary to delineate appropriate surgical planning. Therefore, the primary purpose of this research is to elaborate upon and find ways to take a step ahead; the research will be conducted on Automated Tumor Detection (ATD) in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images through algorithms in order to improve the current scenario. A comparison between Region Growing Technique (RGT) and Morphological Tools (MT) for the segmentation of brain tumor from the Hemangiopericytoma tumor has been observed. Segmentation of anatomical regions of the brain is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. Applying conventional techniques of tumor extraction manually is time-consuming and often unreliable and insufficiently accurate. The study of brain has been of great interest to the researchers. While studies show that it is one the most difficult task to accurately segment the tumor from the case of Hemangiopericytoma. After analytical and numerical evaluation the results achieved depicts that RGT is more effective while MT is more timely efficient technique for tumor detection.


EVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF MULTIPLE SYSTEM INNOVATIONS PDF

Atabong, T. Agendia-Abanda. and Nnadi, Hillary.

At first taught, an undergraduate student of computer science or other computer users will appreciate the working of their computer system as good if their systems specifications are within some acceptable range. Vendors and users of computer systems will want to know the processor model, processor speed, memory size and rating, hard disk size and rating and the operating system they are using, as the determining factors of their new system. The measurement and evaluation of the performance of a computer system to compare alternatives in Madonna university laboratory is carried out in this research. Thirty (30) systems were analysed for performance using Response time performance matrix. During this analysis, Systems tuning was done with 20 factors (variables) and the different levels of the respective response time was obtained with a highly sensitive stop watch aimed at ensuring that a minimum amount of effort, expense and waste is incurred in getting the exact elapsed time. Both software and hardware were considered during the tuning. The geometric, arithmetic, harmonic and combined means were calculated during the evaluation. Missing levels of factors were equally calculated in two ways; from the recorded values of the other factors of the same systems by taking the harmonic mean; and by taking the harmonic mean values of that factor when all the 30 systems are considered. A comparison of all the 30 systems was done and presented accordingly. The architecture of the software system as the highest level of abstraction where upon useful analysis of system properties is possible was discussed from the presented overall performance of the software. Our presented graph can be used to predicts the throughput and the average response time of software system under varying workloads and also identifies bottlenecks in the system, suggesting possibilities for their removal.


SCHISTOSOMIASIS-ASSOCIATED BLADDER CANCER: A SEVEN YEAR EXPERIENCE IN MAIDUGURI NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA PDF

A. G. IBRAHIM, S. ALIYU, A. B. ZARAMI

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is one of the commonest malignancies globally. In schistosomiasis endemic areas in Africa and Middle East squamous cell carcinoma predominate. This study aimed at evaluating presentation and management outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study reviewed all cases of schistosomiasis- associated bladder cancer in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) from January 2007 to December 2013. Information was extracted from the patients clinical notes and data analyzed. All bladder cancers, histologically diagnosed with co-existing schistosomiasis were included in the study. The diagnosis was based on clinical, laboratory and imaging investigations. RESULTS: A total of 82 patients were studied age ranged from 28 – 87 years with a male to female ratio of 3.56: 1, the peak age group was 40 – 49 years. The mean age at presentation was 46.8 years. Clinical features were Hematuria, Suprapubic mass, and anorexia /weight loss in 96.34%, 71.95%, and 85.37% respectively. The duration of symptoms ranged from 3 weeks to 3 years, all patients had childhood schistosomiasis. The histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 87.80% and transitional cell carcinoma in 12.20%. Muscle invasive tumours (T3, T4) were 86.59%. The procedures done were biopsy only in 25.61% and radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in 53.66%. There were 9.76% mortalities, and one year survival was 68%. CONCLUSION: Schistosomiasis associated bladder cancer is predominantly squamous cell carcinoma that is muscle invasive, with tendency to be locally advanced. Eradication of schistosomiasis will reduce the prevalence of the disease.


OPEN NEPHRECTOMY: A SEVEN- YEAR EXPERIENCE IN UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI TEACHING HOSPITAL NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA PDF

A. G. IBRAHIM, S. ALIYU

Background: Indications for nephrectomy are diverse globally with donor nephrectomy and malignancy predominating in Europe and other developed countries while in Africa and other developing countries childhood tumours, infective conditions, and stone disease or its complications are the leading causes. This study aimed at reviewing indications, presentations and outcome of open nephrectomy in a developing country. Patients and Methods: The study reviewed all patients that had open nephrectomy between January 2008 to December 2012 in the specialist hospital Damaturu and the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital North Eastern Nigeria. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory investigations. All patients had open nephrectomy under general anesthesia. Results: A total of 81 patients were analyzed age ranged from 6 months to 79 years with mean of 33.5years for benign lesions and 48.7years for malignant conditions, and peak age group of 30 – 39 years accounting for 19.75%, and a male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The main presenting features were abdominal/loin pain in 80.25% patients and anemia in 79.01%. Histology revealed renal cell carcinoma in 28.40% and gunshot injuries in 16.05%. The postoperative complications were surgical site wound infections in 8.64%, and acute renal failure in 4.94%. The mortality was 3.70%. Conclusion: In developed countries where facilities exist for early diagnosis, minimally invasive and laparoscopic nephrectomy is the gold standard as opposed to what is obtainable in developing countries where late presentations with advanced disease and complications, thus necessitating open nephrectomy.


BLADDER CANCER A TEN-YEAR EXPERIENCE IN MAIDUGURI NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA PDF

A. G. IBRAHIM, S. ALIYU

BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is one of the commonest urological malignancies worldwide with increasing incidence in regains with high exposure to carcinogens and schistosomiasis. This study reviewed all bladder cancer patients managed over a ten-year period in the UMTH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study reviewed all patients with bladder cancer managed in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) over ten-years. Emergency presentations were resuscitated using intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and blood transfusion where necessary. All patients were clinically staged using Marshall’s staging. Post operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy were done at other centres for those that can afford. RESULTS: A total of 144 patients were analyzed, age ranged between 29 – 87years with a mean of 54.9 years and peak age group of 40 – 49 accounting for 27.78%, with a male to female ratio of 2.43 : 1. The main presenting features were Haematuria in all patients, and weight loss in 63.19%. Complications at presentation were anemia in 54.86%, and impaired renal function in 39.58%. The Marshall’s clinical staging of the patients’ disease were stage 1, 9.03%, stage 2, 18.75%, stage 3 52.08%, and stage 4, 20.14%. The histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 63.89%, and transitional cell carcinoma in 30.56%. Associated schistosomiasis in 41.67%. The procedures done were ureterosigmoidostomy in 27.78%, and biopsy only due to advanced disease in 20.83%. The postoperative complications were metabolic acidosis in 27.08%, and ascending urinary tract infection in 18.75%. The mortalities were 3.47%. The follow up ranged from 3months to 4years. The mortality in the first year of follow up was 33.33%. CONCLUSION: Bladder cancer is fairly common in this environment as a result of schistosomiasis and patient usually present late with complications.


An Aspect of Water Distress Level Evaluation in Abakaliki Area and Environs Southeast Nigeria. PDF

Rock Onwe Mkpuma, Nwankwo G. I., Ahiarakwem C. A.

An improved understanding of physiographic and geologic factors influencing natural water storage and yield, as well as appreciation of the historical and current water sources, availability and use are necessary water management modeling tools for sustainable water resources development. This study aim at identifying the sources and causes of water scarcity, asses level of scarcity and the extent of its effect on the livelihood (healthcare and the environment) and finally proffer ways to either ameliorate or remove effects by integrating existing coping strategies into a standard water management implementation road-map as a panacea for arriving at an improved water supply scheme. In this study, hydrologic and hydrogeologic characteristics were evaluated from analysis of morphometric and lithologic results of both surface and groundwater sources. A questionnaire approach was also used to simulate water availability and use patterns. Empirical method was used in estimating the water distress level. Results indicate an area of high water distress level due to resource scarcity. Geologic factors, lack of abstraction and storage facilities, high cost of water resources facilities development and most pertinently poor management and use of water amongst others are the contributing factors. Analysis of responses from the questionnaire further indicates that the high water distress is associated with health problems, poverty and environmental issues.


THE IMPROVEMENT OF PARALLEL SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING BY THE APPLICATION OF COMPLEX ALGORITHM PDF

Ebole Alpha F, (b) Awodele O and (c ) Kuyoro S.O

It is now very clear that silicon based processor chips are reaching their physical limits in processing speed, as they are constrained by the speed of electricity, light, and certain thermodynamic law. A viable solution to overcome this limitation is to connect multiple processors working in coordination with each other as well as using complex Algorithm to solve grand challenge problems. Hence, high performance computing requires the use of massively parallel processing (MPP) systems containing thousands of powerful central processing unit and complex Algorithm like the Divide and conquers algorithms. It involve breaking up a problem into several smaller instances of the same problem, solve these smaller instances by assigning different processors to the smaller instance of the same problem and then combine the solutions into a solution to the original problem by a central processor. Naturally, for this approach to work, the smaller instances should be simpler than the original problem, and combining their solutions together should be easier to do than solving the original problem.


DYSLIPIDEMIA IMPACT IN PRESENTATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES OF PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND DRUG TREATMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA PDF

Nexhibe Nuhii, Doc. Dr. Sci. Med. Lutfi Zylbeari, .Dr. Driton Selmani, Dr. Ardiana Murtezani

One of the major risk factors of early atherosclerosis and the introduction of thrombolytic processes and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes mellitus in addition to known factors (arterial hypertension, MIA syndrome, smoking, sedenterity, oxidative stress, psycho-stress, cytokines, etc ...) in recent years are counted also lipid abnormalities such as dysplipidemia or rather, are diabetic dyslipidemia. In patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM type 1 and DM type 2 ) is proven and documented that there is a high positive correlation between hyperglycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and high lipid concentration values (LDL-ch and TG) and decrease in HDL-ch concentrations micro and macrovascular consequences, cardiovascular disease (CVD), retinopathy and diabetic nephropath(1) There are verifiable evidence that patients with insulin-dependent DM or treated with oral therapy are candidates with potential risk of cardiovascular diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, stroke compared with the healthy population. In the plasma of patients with DM were detected besides high concentrations of: blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also detected high concentrations of LDL-ch and triglycerides and low concentrations of HDL-ch which further help the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary atherosclerosis complications (2). Aim of the paper work was to verify and document, role and correlation of lipid dissorders (dyslipidemia) and hyperglycemia in the pace of progress and the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type.1 and the type 2 compared with healthy control individuals . The paper also aimed to influence positive effects of statins family in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. In our patients treated with statins at the dose of 40 mg per day with duration of 3 months and reached a target of reducing the LDL cholesterol by 30-38%. The research was prospective cohort (,, cross-section ") Totaly are included N 0 = 240 examiners of whom 120 were patients of diabetes mellitus (DM 75 with tip1 while 45 were with DM type 2) while 120 individuals were healthy you served as group controllers.For examination was used 5+ (5) ml of venous blood taken from the vein in the patient lying position in order to avoid possible variations and the influence of the position of patients on lipid fraction values (9- 12%) which occur if the blood of patients is taken from the horizontal position. Dyslipidemia in diabetic patients with diabetes is present at the initial stages of an outbreak of the disease so its drug treatment in the early stages should be the primary postulate of physicians with which obviously would help the prevention and reduction of presentation of CVD


EXPERIMENTAL AND SURFACE MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE INHIBITION POTENTIALS OF DIETHYL ETHER EXTRACT OF cochlospermum tinctorium FOR SUPER ACID CORROSION OF MILD STEEL PDF

KAZAURE Z. SULAY, AGBOGO U. VICTOR, ADEYEMI O. OLUFEMI

The corrosion inhibition efficiency of cochlospermum tinctorium(CTE) on mild steel in 0.5M HClO4 solution has been investigated using weight loss measurements, thermometric measurement and scanning electron microscopy studies. The weight loss measurement indicates increase corrosion inhibition efficiencies that reaches 92%. The weight loss and thermometric data established that the inhibition efficiency on mild steel increases with increase in the concentration of inhibitor, CTE. The adsorption of CTE obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters (K_ads, ?G_ads^0 ) were calculated using the adsorption isotherm. Activation parameters of the corrosion process (?E_a,??Q?_ads and ?S_ads) were also calculated from the corrosion rates obtained from temperature studies. The adsorption isotherm indicates that the adsorption of CTE inhibitor on the surface of mild steel is physisorption and the thermodynamic values obtained indicates spontaneous and exothermic corrosion processes. Furthermore, the results of thermometric studies showed that the presence of CTE decreased in the reaction number (RN) and the percentage reduction of RN in the presence of CTE increases with increasing concentration of CTE. Inhibition efficiency is concentration dependent and reaches highest value of 89 % - 90 % respectively at 500mgL-1 of CTE in both acids. Surface morphology of the mild steel specimens in the presence and absence of the inhibitor was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed that the addition of inhibitor retarded the corrosion processes, where the grain boundary attack were completely hindered by the adsorbed inhibitor molecules. The micrograph in the presence of CTE showed a near smoother surface with a pit morphology lower than in the absence of plant mextract.


PSYCHO-SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND COPING OF WOMEN WITH ALCOHOLIC SPOUSES IN RURAL MALWA AREA, DIST. LUDHIANA, PUNJAB – A PILOT STUDY PDF

Prof. Dr. Arindam Kanta Banerjee, Ms. Ramneek Kaur,Ms. Manpreet Kaur

The present study was conducted to assess the psychosocial problems and coping of women with alcoholic spouse, in village Gahour, 56 km from Raikot city in distt. Ludhiana. The objectives of this study were : 1. To assess the psychosocial problem of women with alcoholic spouse 2. To assess the coping of women with alcoholic spouse 3. To find the relationship between the psychosocial problem and coping of women with alcoholic spouse 4. To find the relationship of psychosocial problems with the selected variables. i.e. age, education, family income per month, occupation, type of family, duration of addiction of spouse, religion, duration of marriage, number of children 5. To find the relationship of coping with selected variables. i.e. age, education, family income per month, occupation, type of family, duration of addiction of spouse, religion, duration of marriage, number of children. The conceptual framework is based on Roy’s adaptation model. An exploratory approach and non experimental research design was used for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used and 60 women with alcoholic husbands were interviewed. The independent variables were age, education, family income per month, occupation, type of family, duration of addiction of spouse, religion, duration of marriage and number of children. The dependent variables were psychosocial problem and coping of women with alcoholic spouse. The study found that majority of women had physiological problems [13.13%] followed by psychological problems [12.79%] and psycho-social problems [7.40%]. While 6.6% women had financial problems, only 3.92% stated to have sexual problems. 71.1% women had adoptive and 28.3% showed mal-adoptive coping. Age, Education, Vocation, Economic status, Family type, religion, Duration of Marriage, Duration of Addiction and number of Children had No Impact on Psycho-Social problems. Among these variables, only age and duration of addiction had impacted coping strategy of women.


SURVEY ON ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION SCHEMES FOR MEMORY APPLICATIONS PDF

Kavya B S, Mrs.B.N.Shobha

Memory is responsible for digital circuit for storing as well as retrieving any digital data that are needed at particular time. Encoding and Decoding are the two basic operations that are responsible for reading and writing. Due to environmental interference and physical defects in the communication medium can cause random bit errors during data transmission from the source to a receiver. Also due to technology scaling and higher integration densities there are variations in parameters and noise levels which will lead to larger error rates at various levels of the computations. Therefore error detection techniques allow detecting such errors, while error correction enables reconstruction of the original data in many cases. This paper describes error detection/correction mechanisms that can be utilized within system to protect applications against various types of bit errors. These detection/correction mechanisms have different overhead costs in terms of energy, performance, and area, and also differ in their error coverage, complexity, and programmer effort. In order to achieve the highest efficiency in designing and running a computer system, to understand the trade-offs among the aforementioned metrics for each detection/correction mechanism and choose the most efficient option for a given running environment.To accomplish such a goal, this paper enumerate many error detection/correction techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.


BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF POPULATION PROPORTION OF A STIGMATIZED ATTRIBUTE USING A FAMILY OF ALTERNATIVE BETA PRIORS PDF

Adepetun, A.O. & Adewara, A.A.

In this study, we have developed the Bayes estimators of the population proportion of a stigmatized attribute when data were gathered through the randomized response technique (RRT) put forward by Hussain and Shabbir [9]. Using both the Kumaraswamy (KUMA) and the Generalised (GLS) beta distributions as a family of alternative beta priors, superiority of the derived Bayes estimators was established for a large interval of the values of the population proportion. We observed that for small, moderate as well as large sample sizes, the alternative Bayes estimators were better than the Bayes estimator proposed by Hussain and Shabbir [10] when a simple beta prior was used.


A Parallel System with Priority to Preventive Maintenance over Repair Subject to Maximum Operation and Repair Times PDF

R. Rathee and S.C. Malik

In this work, a stress is given on the evaluation of performance measures of a parallel system under priority with necessary conditions on operation and repair times. The units are identical in nature subject to constant failure. There is a single server who visits the system immediately to rectify the faults whenever occurred in the system. The system undergoes for preventive maintenance after a pre-specific time‘t’ up to which no failure occurs. However, repair of the unit is done at its failure. And, the unit is replaced by new one in case its repair is not possible by the server in a given maximum repair time. The maintenance and repair activities are perfect.


Determination of the Dielectric Constants of Carbonated High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) PDF

Okoye Victoria C, Okpala Uchechukwu V

In this research work we studied dielectric constant of carbonated polymers. Polymers have been with us since the formation of the earth. Some of the synthetic polymers were discovered during the nine-teen century and at late 1930s.


On Some Generalised Transmuted Distributions PDF

Kishore K. Das

In this paper a generalized form of the transmuted distributions has been de ned. Their moments and other distributional properties of this distribution has been studied. Finally deriving transmuted skew exponential distribution its di erent distributional properties has been discussed.


Application of Fuzzy Graph in Traffic PDF

R.Myna

In this paper a generalized form of the transmuted distributions has been de ned. Their moments and other distributional properties of this distribution has been studied. Finally deriving transmuted skew exponential distribution its di erent distributional properties has been discussed.In this paper, we use a fuzzy graph model to represent a traffic network of a city and discuss a method to find the different type of accidental zones in a traffic flows using Edge coloring of a fuzzy graph.