Volume 6, Issue 3

A Cash-Oriented Subsidy System, A New Proposal for Food-Subsidy Delivery PDF

Ass. Prof. Magdy E. Elhennawy

In spite of the successful implementation of the FCS in achieving its allocated objectives, there would be a need to introduce an important modification and evolution to that system. It is the ability to deliver the food subsidy as its cash equivalent. The worldwide experience says that the sudden conversion from food subsidy distribution to the cash distribution is not recommended. A combined approach should be followed, which allows the family to receive his cash equivalent as a set of products with nearly the real prices or semi-supported prices. In this paper a proposal for the cash-oriented subsidy system approach will be discussed and introduced.

Optimizing the Formula of Composite Non-Rice Carbohydrate Sources for Simulated Rice Grain Production PDF

Iyus Hendrawan, Sutrisno, Purwiyatno Hariyadi, Y.Aris Purwanto, Rokhani Hasbullah

Food diversification program is becoming more importance to reduce the dependence on rice as a staple food in Indonesia. Simulated Rice Grain (SRG) made of non-rice carbohydrate sources was expected to be a subtitute of rice. SRG was formulated based on nutritional value and physichochemical properties of local Ciherang rice flour as a standard. Goal Linier Programming (GLP) was used as optimization method to formulate SRG using various non-rice carbohydrate sources, including arrowroot starch, canna starch, sago starch, sugar palm starch, beneng taro flour, white sweet potato flour, tapioca flour, white corn flour, sorghum flour and breadfruit flour. Optimization parameter used were nutritional value (protein,fat,amylose,amylopectin,carbohydrate,ash),and physical properties (color index,bulk density and angle of repose).The result showed that optimum composite non-rice carbohydrate sources for SRG (SRG flour) consisted of arrowroot starch (30 percent), beneng taro flour (42 percent) and sorghum flour (28 percent). The optimum SRG flour had a predicted nutritional value of 11.78 percent of moisture, 1.97 percent of ash, 1.32 percent of fat, 6.22 of percent protein, 1.28 percent of food fiber, 1.74 percent of crude fiber, 1.46 percent of total sugar, 22.52 percent of amylose, 63.48 percent of amylopectin, and physical properties of 39.01 degree of angle of repose, 68.59 percent degree of color, and 446.21 kg/m3 of bulk density. Our results showed that these predicted nutritional and physical properties value of SRG flour is similar to that of analyzed values.

Navigating the Learning Labyrinth of B’laan Students: A Phenomenological Study PDF

Sharyll Mae A. Albona

The objective of this study was to delve into the experiences, situations and realizations of B’laan students as they go through their learning labyrinth.There have been previous studies affirming the essentials of learning labyrinth on the success of schooling. Within the circle of this affirmation, the present study unravelled the learning labyrinth of B’laan students employing qualitative method, phenomenology in particular, among 19 B’laan students.

A Review on E-waste Management and Recycling Challenges in India PDF

Ms. Neethu Lukose

Electronics industry is the world’s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry. But the increase in sales of electronic equipments and their rapid obsolescence such as advancement in technology, change in fashion, style and status has resulted in generation of electronic waste which is popularly known as E-waste. E-waste contains many hazardous components that may negatively impact the environment and adversely affect human health if not properly managed. E-waste problem is of global concern due to the production and disposal of waste in a globalized world. In India, e-waste management has greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India’s lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. The challenge is to develop innovative and cost- effective solutions to decontaminate polluted environments due to E-waste , to make them safe for human habitation and consumption, and to protect the functioning of the ecosystems which support life. This paper discusses the different categories of E-waste, categorization of different hazardous components present in e-waste, methods of E-waste management and an innovative bioremediation technologies which have become an eco-friendly and fruitful method to conventional clean up technologies to decontaminate e-waste from the soil-water environment, the challenges in which India is facing for the management of E-waste and suggestion for a formal method of E-waste recycling in India.

Implementation of Automated Attendance System using Face Recognition. PDF

Mathana Gopala Krishnan, Balaji, Shyam Babu

Authentication is an issue in computer based communication.Face recognition is widely used in many applications such as system security and door control system.The paper describes how to take student’s attendance using face recognition.The face recognition is implemented with the help of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm.The system will recognize the face of the student and saves the response in database automatically.The system also includes the feature of retrieving the list of students who are absent in a particular day.

Generation of UWB Waveforms with Adaptive Mitigation of Multiple Narrowband Interference in IR-UWB Systems PDF

Haydar M. AL-Tamimi and Hussein Ali Hamza

One of the main types of waveforms adopted by ultra wideband (UWB) system is Gaussian pulse in addition to other types of waveforms such as raised cosine pulse and Hermite pulse. Spectrum shaping in impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) network is a straightforward way for modifying the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the emitted signal in order to meet the limitations set by Federal Communications Commission (FCC) spectral masks for indoor and outdoor environments. Due to overlapping frequency bands, Narrowband (NB) (WiMAX, WLAN) and UWB systems. UWB signals suffer from multiple NB interferers with varying powers, which lead to a severe performance degradation. A combination waveforms consists a sum of 4th-4th, 5th-5th, and 4th-5th order derivative of Gaussian pulses with time delay interval between them for adaptive mitigation of multiple NB interference in IR-UWB systems has been presented in this work. This can be achieved by inserting frequency notches into the IR-UWB power spectrum at center frequency of narrowband signals to limit interference. The design and simulation of the pulse generators (PGs) was performed using Advanced Design System (ADS) in 0.25 µm RF CMOS process.

Synthesis of MOFs from Carboxylate Ligands and Its Industrial Application PDF

Saira Mansab and Uzaira Rafique

Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are widely employed as catalysts and semiconductors due to unique combination of crystalline and porous structure. The presence of polar and non-polar groups on organic linkers provides extra coordination sites for attachment of various metals. The topology of single and mixed organic ligands is tuned to higher surface area and increased porosity likely to serve as good adsorbents. The present study is based on synthesis of single and mixed ligand MOFs with Nickel as precursor. Oxalic and trimesic acid, representatives of di- and tri- carboxylates provides the organic framework. The characterization of synthesized MOFs by FTIR, XRD and SEM/EDX techniques reveal average crystallite size (0.2-3nm) and Ni is incorporated to mass percentage of 9-13%. Ni-O binding is exhibited at FTIR frequency of 493-500cm-1.The application of synthesized MOFs in batch experiment at varying adsorbent dose, concentration and temperature demonstrated adsorptive capacity for dyes in the sequence Congo red (80-92%) > crystal violet (52-70%) and methyl orange (18-20%). The in-situ remediation of dyes from textile waste is also significant (71% removal) under optimum operating parameters. The study recommends the Ni-MOFs as effective adsorbents and catalysts for removal of environmental pollutants in general and azo dyes in particular.

Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Tin Metal from the Egyptian Cassiterite Concentrate PDF

A. B. El Deeb, I. M. Morsi, A. A. Atlam, A. A. Omar, W. M. Fathy

This study aims to investigate the Pyrometallurgical extraction of tin metal from the Egyptian cassiterite concentrate. The carbothermic reduction of cassiterite concentrate by char coal in the Na2CO3 - NaNO3 molten salt system was studied at the temperature range 850 -1000•C. The results showed that more than 95% of tin was successfully extracted at smelting temperature 1000 •C and after 60 mint. smelting time. The kinetics of reaction was found to follow the chemical reaction model. The activation energy was calculated 106 KJ/mol. After purification process the tin produced had a purity of 99.6 %.

Evaluation of Curing Process for Carbon-Epoxy Composites by Mechanical Characterization for Re-entry Vechicle Structure PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

The curing of carbon/epoxy laminates has resulted the volume fraction of 71.35%. It has been found that at reliability 0.90 the survival tensile strength and flexural strength of carbon/epoxy laminates are 721.753 MPa and 557.380 MPa respectively. The occurrence of drop in flexural modulus was probably due to the fracture of the 0° fibers of the surface lamina. The void fraction is 5.49%. The interlaminar shear strength was very responsive to the presence of these gas inclusions. The fibre controlled fracture was observed in the high volume fraction of carbon fibers in the carbon/epoxy laminates.

Saving of Thermal Energy in Air-Gap Insulated Pistons Using Different Composite Materials for Crowns PDF

A.Chennakesava Reddy B. Kotiveerachari, P. Rami Reddy

The present work was aimed at an increase in the thermal energy using composite crown materials to the pistons. The heat loss to the coolant was minimum in the piston with crown made up of Si3N4/Al-alloy composite. The saving in thermal energy could increase the engine thermal efficiency.

Cause and Catastrophe of Strengthening Mechanisms in 6063/Al2O3 Composites Prepared by Stir Casting Process: Validation through FEA PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

The present research has been focused to study causes and misfortunes of strengthening mechanisms in 6063/Al2O3 metal matrix composites. It was found that the tensile strength and stiffness increase with increasing volume fraction of Al2O3 particulates. The tensile strength and stiffness were decreased with increased size of particulates. After heat treatment, most of the coarse intermetallic phases are dissolved to form stable Mg2Si, Al3Fe, AlFeSi and AlFeMnSi compounds. A clustering of particulates was observed in the composites having very small particles. The wettability and uniform distribution of particles have improved the strengthening mechanism. The proposed formulae by the author for the tensile strength and elastic modulus could predict them very close to the experimental values of 6063/Al2O3 composites. The FEA results validate the occurrence of particle debonding, porosity, and clustering in the composites.

Artifficial Neural Network Modeling for AC conductivity Behaviour of PVA/acid salt Polymer Electrolyte PDF

Mahmoud Y. El-Bakry, Reda Khalil

Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LM) and neural networks (NN) are combined to study the electrical properties of PVA /Acid Salt Polymer Electrolytes (PVA)(1-x)(MgBr2)x/2(H3PO4)x/2. The obtained function from NN model calculates and simulates the relation between the AC conductivity and the frequency for PVA/acid salt at different temperatures. The simulation results from NN-based model are compared with the experimental data. The obtained function of NN model has proven matching better for the experimental data. The results show that NNs are able to produce accurate results of the electrical properties for PVA/acid salt polymer electrolytes.

Molecular detection of ciprofloxacine resistance of Salmonella typhi PDF

Hazim A. N. Alhadrawi, Mahdi Hussain Al-Ammar , Hyder Lateef Farhan

The study was conducted to susceptibility to antibiotics and molecular level analysis of the cause of reduced sensitivity of Salmonella typhi isolates from patients in Babylon . Out of 50 blood cultures obtained during the study, 12 (14.0%) showed positive blood cultures were due to S. typhi and rests were mostly of S. paratyphi A. The prevalence was highest between the age group 3 - 15 year.. Among all S. typhi isolates, 41.4% were sensitive to ampicillin, cotrimoxazol and chloramphenicol, respectively. All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxon and ceftazidim; 5 isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant, others were moderate to highly sensitive; whereas, only 2.2% isolates were sensitive and almost all (97.8%) were found resistant to nalidixic acid. The E-strip test among isolates showed the MIC value nearer to the sensitive between 0.125-0.5 and rest other isolates showed from > 2.0 µg/ml to very highly resistant. VNTR pattern of all ciprofloxacine resistant S. typhi was also same. Restriction fragment analysis of gyrase-A gene indicated point mutations in different loci that bear the cause of being resistant to ciprofloxacin.

Multiuser MIMO Downlink System Capacity Analysis In Wireless Communication for Time Varying Channel PDF

Md Mustafa Kamal, Kamar Iqubal shahi

Very few technologies have shown as much impact on the trajectory of evolution of wireless communication systems as multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. MIMO systems have already been employed in the existing 802.11n and 802.16e standards resulting in a huge leap in their achievable rates. A relatively recent idea of extending the benefits of MIMO systems to multi-user scenarios seems promising in the context of achieving high data rates keeping in the mind for future cellular standards after 3G. For applications such as wireless LANs and cellular telephony, MIMO systems will likely to be deployed in environments where a single base station must communicate with many users simultaneously. As a result, the study of multi-user MIMO systems has emerged recently as an important topic for research in future. Such systems have the potential to combine the high capacity that can be achieved with MIMO processing by using space-division multiple access techniques This paper aims at giving an insight into Multiuser MIMO downlink systems—its concept, capacity, and transmission techniques related issues. In this paper several approaches including linear and non-linear channel precoding are reviewed which analyze the capacity for multiuser MIMO downlink channel. We conclude by describing future areas of research in multi-user MIMO communications.

Effect of Foundry Slag as Substitute in the Formulation and Evaluation of Physical Strength Properties of Portland Slag Cement PDF

Kayode A. Idowu and Oluwaseun S. Ogungbemi

This research deals with the formulation and evaluation of strength properties of Portland slag cement using local foundry slag. The relative substitution of about 10 to 50 % of ordinary Portland cement for slag as an alternative cement (slag cement) to the commonly available but highly expensive ordinary Portland cement in Nigeria market. The assessment of slag substitution in ordinary Portland cement – slag cement indicated that substitution could be done to about 40 % slag addition at which 0.0158 KN/mm2 (18 %) compressive strength was obtained as compared with 0.0152 KN/mm2 (17 %) compressive strength obtained from hardened pure ordinary Portland cement after 28 days curing time. This was achieved by the data obtained when varied the substitution of ordinary Portland cement for slag from 10 to 50 %. The data were presented by statistical tools and analyzed statistically. The strength properties of slag when mixed with Portland cement were observed to be higher. Therefore, slag should be used as an aggregate or further processed into slag cement.

Thermal expansivity of geophysical minerals at high temperatures PDF

Monika Panwar, S.K. Sharma, Sanjay Panwar

A new model for investigating the value of thermal expansivity is presented. It has been found that the values obtained in the present study are consistent with the experimental data. The excellent agreement between results obtained and experimental data show the validity of the present work.

JOUM: An Indexing Methodology for Improving Join in Hive Star schema PDF

Hussien SH. Abdel Azez,Mohamed H. Khafagy, Fatma A. Omara

Now a day, Big data represents an important and complex Issue for information extraction/retrieval due to required analysis computation power. Also, Database Star schema is considered one of the complicated data models due to the using of Join queries to extract information and generate requested reports. These Join queries need to scan a vast amount of data (tera, peta, zeta bytes). On the other hand, HIVE is one of the important and efficient Big data SQL querying tools built on the top of Hadoop to translate SQL queries into Map/Reduce tasks. By using indexing data for Join queries could speed up HIVE Join query (map/reduce) tasks especially in Star Schema. According to the work in this paper, JOUM (Join once Use Many) methodology has been introduced to pre-join the star schema data and build an index for Joined data. Based on JOUM, SQL queries execution time in HIVE has been improved without changing HIVE framework. TPC-H benchmark has been used to evaluate the performance of JOUM methodology. The experimental result proves that JOUM methodology outperforms traditional Join execution time. Also, JOUM performance is improved by increasing data size. Generally, JOUM can be considered one of the suitable methodologies for Big data analysis.

Productivity Improvement in Semiconductor Subcontracting Company Using Simulation Modeling PDF

Gutierrez, Ma.Teodora E.

The study aims to improve the existing production output of a semiconductor industry through simulation modeling. The study covers the front line process of back end semiconductor subcontracting firm. The focus is on the first step of the process which is the die attach. During observation, there were significant occurrences of unscheduled machine downtime which resulted in the interruption of production process. The machine downtimes were caused by man-machine interaction. The study shows that Frame Error in Input Bin and Frame Error in Output Bin in the die attach section contributes to the machine downtime. The simulation output revealed that there was an increase of throughput by 15, 600 production units per day, if the current situation of having an unscheduled machine downtime will be eliminated.

Real Time Driver’s Drowsiness Detection System Based on Eye Conditions PDF

Asad Ullah, Sameed Ahmed, Lubna Siddiqui, Nabiha Faisal

This paper presents a design of a unique solution for detecting driver drowsiness state in real time, based on eye conditions. Many ap-proaches have been used to address this issue in the past. But this paper presents a simple algorithm based solution with minimum hardware requirements. Under the controlled environment, the proposed system is successfully operated to generate results with approximately 90% accuracy. The system tends to use a web camera to capture a series of images. These captured images may further be stored as individual frames in our system. The frames so formed, are provided as input to face detection software. In terms, our required feature (eye) is extracted from the image. Individually working on each eye, the system establishes a condition and suggests a specific number of frames with the same eye condition that may be registered. The result of these images may be taken as input to obtain the level of drowsiness that a driver may encounter at any certain stage while driving a vehicle.

Heart Beat Charger PDF

Vikas Chib

A stethoscope is a medical device for listening to the sound of heart and breathing in our body. The commonly used stethoscope is an acoustic stethoscope. The disadvantage of acoustic stethoscope is that the sound level is very low and this stethoscope is not very suitable to use in noisy environment, that's why in our research we use Electronic stethoscope electronically amplifies body sounds. In this device, sound waves from body are converted from analog to electrical signals and then amplified. The primary aim of this paper is to make a device which amplifies the output of the electronic stethoscope and that amplified signal is used to charge our mobile phones. In this paper we discussed the method, to using heartbeat for mobile charging.

Development of a Modified One-Strut Design Model for Shear Strength of Masonry Infilled Frames with Opening PDF

M. E. Ephraim and T.C. Nwofor

In this paper, the results of a study on the effect of brick masonry infill panels with centrally located openings on the performance of reinforced concrete frames under lateral loading is reported. An equivalent diagonal strut was used to model the stiffening effect of the masonry panels. A strength reduction factor was developed as a function of the opening ratio in the form of an exponential function and incorporated in the one-strut model. The study was also extended to finite element micro modeling on structural specimens of infill panels with varying opening ratios of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% in order to validate the modified one-strut model. The practical agreement of the outputs of the modified one-strut model with those of the FE model confirms the adequacy of the proposed model for prediction and design of the shear strength of infilled frame under lateral loading.

Mechanical Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Based on Resin from Recycled Plastic. PDF

Ephraim M. E. and Adetiloye A.

This paper presents the mechanical performance properties of glass fibre reinforced plastic GFRP, based on resin recovered from recycled plastic waste. The glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) had a fibre content varied by weight from 35 to 50% while the thicknesses of the laminate were 10 mm, 12 mm and 16 mm. The mechanical tests, conducted at room temperature, included tests for density, tensile strength, Izod impact energy, Brinell hardness number and tensile creep behaviour. The average experimental values of density, tensile strength and elongation fell in the range 0.91-1.2g/cm3, 43-57 MPa and 0-6.2 percent respectively. Practically all the strength characteristics showed maximum values at the fibre content of 40 percent. The results obtained in this study are in close agreement with the trend of variation of these parameters in GFRP, based on virgin resins. This confirms the applicability of GFRP based on recycled resin for structural uses. The successful application of plastic wastes in construction practice will generate multiple benefits of turning waste into wealth, preservation of environment, job creation as well as opening up opportunity for designing smart materials with predetermined mechanical properties.

Frequency response analysis of a Clamped Composite Plate with a Central Circular Cutout using ANSYS PDF

Kolaventi.sasikumar, B.V.S. Raghu Vamsi, P.N.V. Balasubrahmanyam, E.Vekateswararao

Every object vibrates because of unbalanced forces arise within it, at a particular frequency called as natural frequency. When this object is subject to the external force having the same frequency, the object vibrates with larger amplitudes and is said to be under resonant condition. For the safe working of any mechanical component, this operating frequency should be large and far away from the natural frequency. In this work, a clamped rectangular composite plate with a circular cut out at its centre subjected to clamped boundary condition is considered and its vibration characteristics are studied. The effect of various parameters like aspect ratio (l/w), diameter of the hole to the width of the plate (d/w), thickness of the ply, and the orientation of the fibers in the ply on the natural frequencies is observed. The problem is analyzed used the finite element software ANSYS. It has been found that the effect of these parameters is significant on the frequency ratio. The increase in l/w ratio and d/w ratio, orientation of layers resulted in increase of frequency ratio whereas with increase in no. of layers the frequency ratio remain unchanged even thought the frequency values changed.



Karnataka being predominantly a dry farming state, Irrigation development in the state as compared to other states and the country as a whole is low. Drought is a serious problem in the state. The development of watershed area adopting integrated approach is only the key answer and is no more a secret. The Melukote sub-watershed divided into two mini and twelve micro watersheds based on the origin and flow direction of water drains / streams. Water harvesting and drainage line treatment structures were located based on the analysis of both topo-sheet and imagery of the area and taking other factors into consideration (Soil, slope and type, land use / cover, waste lands, hydro-morphology, population (labors / SC & ST population), forest cover, command area, etc.) Micro-watershed prioritization plays key role in identifying the micro-watershed, which needs immediate attention these can be taken for development with available resources, an attempt has been made for prioritization of micro-watershed based on several criteria and the total weightage of marks given was 100. Data pertaining to these criteria were generated by remote sensing and GIS and other resources. The study also proves that remote sensing and GIS when synergistically used, provide ample scope for the integration of spatial and non-spatial data which can be successfully adopted to prioritize the micro-watershed in more scientific and un biased manner.

Allometric Models for Aboveground Biomass of Benguet Pine (Pinus kesiya) PDF

Jones T. Napaldet

Several authors recommend species-specific allometric models for accurate carbon sequestration accounting but mixed-species models are prevalent in the Philippines. Thus, in the study, species-specific models were developed for above-ground biomass of Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya). Diameter at breast height (D) and total tree height (H) were primarily used as the dependent variables. Wood density, with values ranging from 0.34 to 0.59 g/cm3, was also explored as a dependent variable but it yielded low correlation and models with low r2 values. This support other studies claiming that wood density is more apt in mixed-species than in species-specific models. Best-fit models for total above ground biomass (TAGB = 0.067D2.474 and TAGB =0.0000003855 (D2H) 2 + 0.023 (D2H) + 3.496) and for the other tree compartments for a total of 16 models were developed. These models have high r2 and adjusted r2 values of 0.87 to 0.99. Moreover, these models yielded more accurate estimates of Benguet pine biomass than mixed-species models of Brown & Schroeder (1999) and Chave et al. (2005). Thus, the study highly recommends these models for accounting Benguet pine biomass and subsequently, the carbon it sequestered.

A Frequently used Hand Gesture Recognition System for Daily Information Retrieval from Internet PDF

Sushma Laxman Wakchaure, Ganesh Dnyandev Ghuge,Dnyandev Sopan Musale

People mostly get daily information from newspaper, Television and Internet such as weather condition, news and financial information. Users have to repeat same mouse and keyboard actions, inducing waste of time and inconvenience. In order to improve all these condition, we present in this paper the design of a system that can easily access daily information without mouse and keyboard actions and system making convenient. The aim of proposed system daily information accessed from internet by using hand gestures. These hand gestures captured by camera. The data recorded from camera send to pc for image processing. Hand gesture is recognized in pc and it is coupled with internet. So user can access information by using hand gestures. Gesture recognition is technology that achieves human machine interactions that do not require contact based input mechanisms like remote, mouse and keyboard.

Topological Structures on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multisets PDF

Shinoj T K, Sunil Jacob John

In this paper, we introduced the concept of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset Topology. Mapping functions are defined to connect Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multisets defined on different sets. Subspaces and Continuous functions are discussed to study the topological structures of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multisets and their various properties are discussed.

Unstructured Big Data Processing: Security Issues and Countermeasures PDF

Shivasakthi Nadar, Narendra Gawai

Every organization has big data. This big data contains structured, semi structured and unstructured data. Social networking users are increasing so the data of the social networking sites are also increasing rapidly. Mostly these data consists of images, videos, audios, conversations and e-mails. They are unstructured big data. So there is a need to process this data intelligently. This paper describes the security issues, challenges, vulnerabilities, attacks and the counter measures of Unstructured big data.

Assessing of Tonga Lake Water Quality in the coastal basin of Northeastern Algeria PDF

Benslimane Farida, Labar Sofiane, Djidel Mohamed, Hamilton C. Mei-Ling, Djemai Rachid

Tonga Lake, which situated in the north east of Algeria, is a Ramsar site and a part of the larger El Kala wetland system which is generally recognised as one of the four major wetland complexes in the Western Mediterranean. This seasonal freshwater lake is linked to the Mediterranean Sea. The principal objective of this study is to assess in a particular context, the impact of inorganic pollution induced by ammonium (NH4+), nitrates (NO3-), nitrites (NO2-), and dissolved oxygen, on the quality of Tonga lake water. The samples studied to that end are those taken in 2013 and 2014 from the superficial waters of the Tonga Lake in far north-east Algeria. Results show that the nutrient and the degree of pollution varies by zone, as well as by month to month with contents often close to recommendations made by the World Health Organization (WHO). The protection of water quality and the reduction of the risk contamination are of great importance in the region to a reliable and sustainable this precious ecosystem.

Studying the Effect of HIV/AIDS on Human Brain Using MRI PDF

Mazin M. Mohamed and Mawia A. Hassan

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to a subset of retroviruses called lentiviruses (or slow viruses), which means that there is an interval between the initial infection and the onset of symptoms. Upon entering the bloodstream, HIV infects the CD4+ T cells and begins to replicate rapidly. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of HIV infection. The brain may be affected by a variety of abnormalities in association with HIV infection. About these issues, Researchers have found significant damage in the brains of HIV-positive patients whose viral load is effectively suppressed by anti-retroviral therapy. In one of the first studies of its kind, researchers from the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center (SFVAMC) used a combination of MRI brain imaging, recording of electrical brain activity, and behavioral tests to compare the size and function of brains of HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy with those of healthy subjects.; The results of our study raise the concern of brain injury in HIV subjects who are on treatment, even among those who are virally suppressed [12],But It is unclear how HIV causes such brain injury. Understanding these mechanisms is important to develop appropriate neuro-protective interventions for those people in Sudan, Africa and all over the world. The main core of this paper is to develop an algorithm which can be used to explore the effect of HIV/AIDS on human brain based on Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) images, Compare the variations of brain cells between normal and abnormal cases and selecting the proper statistical features. This study, presented a statistical based method to study and analyze given MR brain images, statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) proves that the effectiveness of seventeen’s of statistical features derived from forty of statistical features for assessment the normal and abnormal brain tissues on digital MRI. The statistical features achieved the best results which used for implementation algorithm for brain areas changes detection for positive HIV patients in comparison to negative cases with sensitivity of 83.1%, specificity of 88.1% , positive predictive of 87.5%, negative predictive of 83.9% and the overall performance of 85.6%. In this study, a computer-aided diagnostic system based on statistical features, used to study the effects of HIV on human brain in the digital MRI studies. This study shows the effectiveness of seventeen’s features derived from forty of statistical features for assessment the normal and abnormal brain tissues on digital MRI.

Disaster due to slope failure in the Pahartoli Area of the Chittagong city, Bangladesh PDF

Md Shofiqul Islam, Mosarraf Hosain, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, A.S. Daiyan Ahmed, Farjana Hoque, Shefa Ul Karim, Md Aminul Islam

Slope failure disasters due to heavy monsoon rainfall are happening as the consequences of excessive hill cutting for urbanization and deforestation in the Chittagong city, causing fatal accident including the loss of lives and properties. In this paper, we present the main causes of landslides by determining the engineering and geological properties of the in-situ soil samples. The analyzed slopes are consisting of two types of formations where the lower part comprises of hard and compact silt/clay layer with high cohesion (2.08-2.17 KPa) and Young modulus (117-234 KPa) and the upper part consists of loose sand with relatively low cohesion (1.25-1.83 KPa) and Young modulus (12.51-25.02 KPa). At dry condition the sand layer has a higher friction angle of 45° whereas on the contrary, it has 25.9° at the wet condition. The mathematical modeling using both liquid equilibrium and finite element method shows that the analyzed slopes are relatively stable (Factor of Safety and Shear Reduction Factor is more than 1) at dry condition. However, at wet condition most of the slopes are vulnerable for landslide and need supports be stable for saving the people from accident and injury.

Privacy preseving sequential padding in web-based applications PDF

Divyabharathi.P, Sathiyavathi.R

These Encrypted traffic of many popular Web applications may actually contain disclose highly sensitive data, and lead to serious breaches of user privacy. Specifically, when searching for unique patterns exhibited in packets’ sizes and/or timing, a hacker can potentially find an application’s internal state transitions and the users’ inputs. A solution for preventing this type of side channel attack is padding packets such that each packet size will no longer map to the unique input. One extreme cases to pad all packets to the identical size, namely, maximizing. We design many heuristic algorithms for solving these PPTP problems in polynomial time with acceptable overhead.

Framework for reducing post production defects in software industry PDF

Divakar Harekal, Suma V

Since, software has laid its impact on every field of operation, development of customer satisfied software is the prime hour of the day. In view of the fact that, defect is one of the major contributing factor to retain customer satisfaction. Production of software which is defect free is all the time the main objective of any software organization. However, accomplishment of the same is only plausibility. Though several defect management strategies exist in all IT industries towards development of nearly defect free software, yet there is a wide possibility of software to contain post production defects. This work comprises of a case study carried out in one of the leading software industry in order to explore the probability of post-production defect pattern. Hence, this research focused towards introducing an integration of a novel framework which ensures reduced post-production defects. In this framework, every activity of pre-production development of software has to be integrated with novel approaches to reduce post-production defects.

Securing patient data in the cloud using Attribute Based Encryption PDF

Chiedza Hwata, R.Subburaj Professor, Gladman Jekese

Cloud computing has attracted attention worldwide in all industries, including the medical field leading to the rise of electronic healthcare systems. Although it has brought about an improvement in the provision of healthcare in terms of information management, it also poses a lot of security and privacy concerns to the patients. This is due to the fact that personal and highly sensitive data is outsourced to a third party (Cloud Service Provider) for processing and storage. This paper seeks to improve security of cloud-based patient data in healthcare organizations by employing a Ciphertext Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CP-ABE) scheme. The proposed scheme provides data confidentiality and allows the patient to control who accesses her personal health data by encrypting it under a specified access policy alongside with her key. It also provides collusion-resistance, flexible and immediate revocation of users who are no longer allowed to access a patient’s data.

Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Series of 2-(4- Hydroxynaphthylazo)-5-Substitutedphenyltellutrium Tribromides and Ditellurides Compounds PDF

Adil A. Al-Fregi, Atared F. Al-Asfoor and Susan F. Jabar

A new series of 2-(4-hydroxynaphthylazo)-5- substitutedphenyl mercuric chloride compounds (I-IV) were prepared by diazo - coupling reactions of diazonium salts of 2- aminophenyl mercuric chloride , 2- amino -5-bromophenylmercuric chloride , 2-amino -5- methylphenylmercuric chloride and 2- amino -5- nitrophenylmercury chloride with a-naphthol , respectively. Reaction of compounds (I-IV) with tellurium tetrabromide in 1:1 moles ratio in dry dioxane gave the corresponding 2-(4-hydroxynaphthylazo)-5-substitutedphenyltellurium tribromide compounds (V-VIII) in good yield. Reduction of compounds (V-VIII) by ethanolic hydrazine solution gave the corresponding ditelluride compounds (IX-XII) in moderate to good yields. All the prepared compounds (I-XII) were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements and spectroscopic data.

Non-Technical Loss Detection, Prevention and Suppression Issues for AMI in Smart Grid PDF

Tanveer Ahmad, Dr.Qadeer Ul Hasan, Saleem Zada

With the proliferation of smart grid research, Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) be the first ubiquitous and solid data platform. Energy theft is one of the main concerns related to smart grid implementation. It is estimated that power companies loses more than $ 25 billion every year due to energy theft around the world. To meet this challenge, in this article we discuss the background of AMI and identify major safety requirements AMI should meet. Especially is an attack tree based threat model first presented to illustrate energy theft behavior in AMI. So, we summarize the current AMI energy theft detection arrangements into three categories, ie compartmentalization based state estimation based and game theory-based ones, and make substantial comparisons and debate about them. To provide a deep understanding of security issues and solutions in AMI and identify the future research directions, we also investigate some open challenges and possible solutions for the energy theft detection.


R. Sophia Porchelvi and A. Anna Sheela

In this paper , a new algorithm is developed for a Linear Multi – Objective Fractional Transportation Problem ( MLFTP) starts with any initial Basic Feasible Solution and then checking its Non-Dominance character . Here, a Multi – criteria Simplex type iteration is considered for finding the Non-Dominated Basic Feasible Solution by using the Reduced cost . Numerical examples are provided to illustrate its feasibility.

Evaluation of Levinson-Durbin Recursion Method for Source-Filter Model based Artificial Bandwidth Extension Systems PDF

G.Gandhimathi, Dr. A. Hemalatha, Dr.S.P.K.Babu

Artificial Band Extension (ABE) techniques are used to generate a wideband signal from the narrowband signal. Since most of the high frequency components and the fricative consonants were absent even in the narrowband representation of the sound, it is a challenging task to create those missing components in the wideband equivalent signal. Generally, there are different techniques of autoregressive (AR) modeling to find the filter coefficients which is important in source-filter based ABE. In this paper, the performance of two of autoregressive (AR) modeling methods namely 1. Autocorrelation Method (LPC), 2.Levinson-Durbin Recursion Method, were evaluated. Generally, these estimation methods lead to approximately the same results (same coefficients) for a particular autoregressive parameters. But, the small differences in such estimations will have a great impact on the quality of reproduced sound . In this work, we implemented a source-filter model based artificial speech bandwidth extension systems with the above two AR modeling methods and validated their performance with suitable metrics.

Light Intensity Meter Calibration System using Comparison Method PDF

Saurabh Rabade, Chaitanya Adkar, Miten Dandavate, Amita Shinde

Lux meter is a precision measuring instrument used in Lux value measurement under Quality Assurance and Testing. Lux meters are used in a wide range of industrial applications. Lux meter being an electronic instrument; it undergoes wear and tear during its operation which results in inaccurate readings and increased errors in measured Lux value. This can incur losses (monetary and material) and inferior quality of product. Hence, Lux meters need to be calibrated and repaired (if necessary) periodically. In this paper, a new calibration system is proposed for the calibration of Lux meters. The proposed system uses the comparison method for calibration i.e. the industrial Lux meter (Unit Under Test) is compared against the pre-calibrated Lux meter (Master) against a regulated source simultaneously. The master which is calibrated from the National Laboratory (Apex Laboratory) has 10 times better uncertainty. This makes the proposed system part of a continuous chain of traceable standard which will deliver the quality measurements and continuity to the end customer.

Pooled Error Mapping of Probe Type Coordinate Measuring Machine PDF

VA Kulkarni, Dr. B.B. Ahuja, Dr. (Mrs.) A.V. Mulay

Ball plate made up of Zirconia-Dolerite material is developed for extracting error maping of coordinate measuring machine in the entire measuring volume. CMM is used for measuring a discrete point in 3D space. Therefore a point is most adequate artefact to the CMM, which advocates usage of Sphere.A high flextural strength of Zirconia delivers the special requirement of chipping resistance required in ball plate. Specially planned experimental setups, demonstrate geometrical error determination.

Synthesis and Characterization of Super Absorbent Polymers for Agricultural Purposes PDF

Enas M. Ahmed, Fatma S. Aggor, Samah S. Nada and S. I. Hawash

Superabsorbent hydrogels (SAH) are very unique water- absorbing and water holding materials. Superabsorbent polymers are environmentally useful as water retention agents, for purposes such as agricultural applications and combating desertification. In this paper we investigate the preparation of SAH to reach highest yield with maximum swelling. Also effect of different operating parameters was studied. Bench scale results were used for design a pilot scale batch to produce 20 kg o SAH. The future objective of this study is the application of the prepared SAH in agriculture field. The product has already been launching in the cultivation of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and the initial results were promising.

Enhanced Remote Health Monitoring System with Secure and Privacy Preserving Authentication Services PDF

Arathi G, Ashwin Kumar M

Nowadays Mobile Phones or Smartphones are mainly used for communications and updating knowledge purposes, (i.e., voice call-ing, video calling, chatting with friends, relatives, browsing for news updates and so on). Mobile Phones or Smart Phones are not only used for Communications and also useful in many ways by using applications like healthcare monitoring, location finder, chatting applications, travelling applications and so on. With the help of wireless body sensor networks (BSN), healthcare monitoring application helps to monitor the health condition of medical users regularly with the help of health care centre. With the help of smart phones, a mobile healthcare application extends the operations of healthcare provider for enhanced health monitoring for patient. A mobile healthcare emergency service plays an important role but the data communication and privacy revelation is still a problem. However, the flourish of Mobile-Healthcare is still facing many challenges. Our proposed scheme aims to address the problems in the securities and privacy issues in Mobile-Healthcare emergency. The data is collected by the mobile phone and is transferred to the health care centre database in the encrypted format and a digital signature will be created and appended along with this encrypted data for authentication, integrity, confidentiality etc. Using the hash algorithm named Hash Round Function Algorithm and the self-certified public key system, a new kind of digital signature algorithm named Hash Round Function and Self-certified public key system Digital Signature Algorithm is used. The signature is verified by the trusted authority before taking any action on data. Finally, the users analyze the H-S DSA from two aspects of security and time-complexity. And, the results show that the new designed digital signature algorithm named H-S DSA not only has better security strength, but also has lower time- complexity and the information is more secure.

A Novel and Analytical Approach to Air Pollution and the Effects of Metro in Decreasing It: A Case Study in Qazvin as Capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran PDF

Sadredin Alipour, Siavash Shamsipour Saraydashty

In recent decades, transportation problems in Qazvin are the largest crisis of the city which one of its horrible consequences is air pollution. Economic losses induced by air pollution are more than billions of Dollars. Regarding the significant contribution of vehicles in air pollution in Qazvin, developing of rail transportation system is seems to be an inevitable option as the optimum method of passenger transportation. To solve traffic problem and its consequences, rail transportation is of more effective and continuous efficiency in energy consumption than other types of transportation while its environmental impacts are less than others. In the current paper, the law of public transportation development, energy consumption management and performance of Metro Company of Qazvin were analyzed in addition to study about the resources of contamination. Further, advantages of metro was introduced and its economic consequences were quantitatively investigated and finally, the relationship between metro and air pollution was modeled with system analysis approach.

Self-Protect Computing Systems Towards Model-Based Validated Autonomic Approach PDF

Karthi M,Sakthipriya K

This project an autonomic model-based cyber security management approach for the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystems. The approach aims at realize a self-protecting system, which has the ability to together estimate, detect, and respond to cyber attacks at an early stage. Proposed model-based techniques including: 1) data analysis to recognize and categorize attacks; 2) real-time evaluation and baseline security controls to predict and eliminate potential cyber attacks; and 3) a multi criteria optimization method to select the most advantageous active response for deploying countermeasures while maintaining system functions. The model framework has been developed for configuring various platforms with a master controller virtual machine. Investigational results demonstrated the efficiency of this proposed approach in protecting a Web-based application against known and unknown attacks with little or no human interference. Here we reduce the recovery time from anonymous attacks by improving attack detection accuracy and learning1 procedures to further improve the false alarm rates.

Damage analysis of asphalt concrete mixtures modified with crumb rubber/CaCo3 Nanocomposite PDF

Farag Khodary, Y. Mohammed, A. Wazeri

Fracture mechanices is one of the most important methodology that can be use to evaluate asphalt concrete mixtures resistance to crack propagation. Semi-Circular Bending (SCB) test is a fast and accurate three-point bending test, which was originally used in rock mechanics, and Viscoelastic material. Asphalt concert material is investigated using semi cracked circular specimen (50 mm radius and 63 mm thickness. Crumb rubber was used as asphalt concrete mixtures modifiers in research with by 10% of the weight of bitumen. CaCo3 was added to the crumb rubber modified heated bitumen by modification level namely 5%, 10%, 15%,20% and 25%. The result shows that crumb rubber/CaCo3 nanocomposite can be used as asphalt modifier and improve both Penetration and softening point for all modified bitumen. from the point of mechanical properties and fracture resistance modif8ied asphalt concrete mixtures with 15% crumb rubber/CaCo3 nanocomposite have higher than unmodified mixtures by 34.2% and it is appear that modified mixtures with 15% crumb rubber/CaCo3 nanocomposite have two times higher Critical Energy Release Rate (J1C) than unmodified mixtures that means the modified mixtures is more resistance to fracture.

Improvement of Octane Number of Naphtha Cut of Taq-Taq Crude Oil and Khormala Crude Oil Wells by Using Additives. PDF

Abdulsalam R. Karim

Gas condensate from khor-Mhor field and Naphtha cuts from Taq-Taq crude oil and Khormala crude oil have been fully analyzed and evaluated using ASTM standard test methods. Two Types of additives and pyrolysis gasoline have been blended with naphtha samples in different volumetric ratios. Octane number of each blend has been measured using three different octane analyzers.


Mirishkar Sai Ganesh, G Chethana, Sanjay Panwar

A multiplier is the important hardware in most digital and high performance systems such as FIR filters, digital signal processors and microprocessors. The design of multipliers offers high speed, low power consumption, regularity of layout and it also occupies less area, even combination of them in multiplier. Generally multiplication goes in two steps. Partial product and then addition. In this paper we have tried to design different adders and compare their speed and complexity of the circuit that the area occupied. And designed Wallace tree multiplier then followed by Booth’s Wallace multiplier and compared the speed and power consumption. When the design of adder is completed we turned to multiplier. The delay amount was reduced when carry save adder were used in Wallace Tree Applications. And turned to Booth’s multiplier and analyzed the performance of all multipliers. The results of this paper helps us to make a proper choice of different adders in different digital applications according to requirements.

Re-refining of used lubricating oil. PDF

Merai Yash P.

Small amount pure lubricating oil can pollute major amounts of water eg: groundwater as well as the land on which it is spilled. Used engine oil itself contains a number of additives and is contaminated by impurities and residues resulting from the combustion process. Some of them are poisonous and carcinogenic like lead and PAH (poly-aromatic hydrocarbons). Also the oils used in transformers contains PCBs (poly-chlorinated biphenyls), which are highly carcinogenic as well. From various sources such kind of used lubricating oils are generated and are disposed improperly. The burning of used oil in kilns and incinerators produces lots of ash and carcinogens causing environmental pollution. Waste lubricating oil is a resource that cannot be disposed of randomly due to the presence of pollutants. In response to economic problems and environmental protection, there is a growing trend to regenerate and reuse waste lubricants. By proper recovery and refinement of it, a lot of valuable product can be obtained. The objective of re-refining is to remove the degraded additives and contaminants and to restore the properties of the oil identical to the standards provided by SAE (Society of Automobile Engineers).

Detect natural purification of mercury absorption in wells province of Sulaymaniyah - northern Iraq PDF

Kawa Issa Abdal-Rahman, Dr. Reyam Naji Ajmi

In this research was detected from natural technique through follow elemental mercury in water samples from different heights from the bottom of the well of the city of Sulaymaniyah in northern Iraq and study of the relationship between it and two types of common plants common in same area,Four main sites from Mount ( beerh micron ) were selected from the wells of different heights of the well. Mercury concentrations were within acceptable limits, reaching Mercury concentrations in leaf plant Ficus carica higher concentration than Juglans regia . no more than allowable limits. No significant differences concentration of mercury in Ficus carica P value >0.5 in our study .Reaching there was no contamination in the region is not detected element in the plant for not concentration in the plant leaf is high and also focus relatively little in the artesian water upon which the villagers for drinking and domestic uses and Agriculture.

Fracture Behavior of 6061 Al-Alloy Pipes under Bursting Loads with Crack Depth Variation PDF

D.U.M. Manikanta, A.Chennakesava Reddy

In this paper 3D finite element analyses were performed to obtain fracture behavior of 6061 Al-alloy pipes subjected to internal bursting pressure. It was observed that the large deformations have promoted the path dependence of the J-integral. It was noticed that the J-integral was dependent on the deformation and the crack area. The values of KII and KIII stress intensity factors along the crack-front were very small and, the, mode-I was the dominant fracture mode.

Analysis of factors influencing the performance of Cognitive Radio Networks PDF


The increased number of wireless devices has led to spectrum hungriness. OFCOM and FCC found this and paved way for a new technology named Cognitive Radio (CR). The CR is a Software Defined Radio (SDR) that is self-organizing. This CR divides the spectrum into licensed band and unlicensed bands. The licensed band constitutes the Primary User (PU) and the unlicensed band the Secondary User (SU). The CR works eventually with managing frameworks like spectrum sensing, spectrum decision, spectrum sharing, and spectrum mobility. Of this, spectrum sensing is important since wrong sensing leads to inefficient spectrum usage. Hence it becomes mandatory to analyze the parameter that helps for proper utility of radio environment. Thus a CR has to be built keeping an eye over the parameters. Thus this paper rolls down the analysis over several parameters and the uplink and downlink transmissions.

Evaluating the effect of jammers on Cognitive Radio Networks using Markov Models PDF


Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology to resolve the spectrum shortage problem faced by the wireless systems. The inherent capability of the CRs to take their decisions based on their view of the environment and to learn from the experience makes their operation susceptible to a variety of malicious attacks. Jammers can stop the communication between nodes by attacking physical, network or Medium access layer. Multiple layers can be attacked simultaneously. In a Cognitive radio network (CRN), attackers launch jamming attacks to disturb efficient spectrum utilization. The main objective of this paper is to mitigate the jamming attacks in cognitive radio networks. Existence of jammer, jammer type and location of jammer in CRN should be identified. Effect of jammer on the performance of the CRN is checked using markov theory based transmission model.

Attributes affecting energy of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage systems PDF

Engy Elshazly, Nancy Emam, Prof. /Nabil Eltayeb

Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems store energy in the magnetic field created by the flow of direct current in a superconducting coil which has been cryogenically cooled to a temperature below its superconducting critical temperature.

Development and Performance Evaluation of an Orange Juice Extractor PDF

Adanu, E.O, Usman D.D, and J. N. Maduako

The design and construction of orange Juice extraction was undertaken with the aim of achieving the extraction of pure orange Juice, free of squashed seeds and peels. The extractor consists of the cutting chamber which is made up of rotary shaft, knives attached at both ends and an inclined tray. While the squeezing chamber is made up of crankshaft, the rammer and a sieve. The machine has a shaft diameter of 12mm, torque and power transmitted as14252Nmm and 1.5kw respectively. The pulley has a linear speed of 10.74mls, the cross sectional area of the squeezing chamber (flat plate) was 12,000mm2 with a force of 5.32N on the plate due to pressure from the orange. While the net force acting on the plate was 3059N.The machine performance evaluation was carried out using tangelo and Tiv orange varieties. The actual efficiency of the machine was found to be 76.04% with a capacity of 6 l/hr (5.73kg/h). It was concluded that efficient Juice extraction would be better achieved with the use of this kind of machine than with a turning screw.

Cyber Crime a Rising Threat for Internet - Based Businesses in Western Region, Kenya PDF

Lutta V. O., Obiri J. F.

In Kenya internet technology has fastened communication, information sharing and business networking including mushrooming of cash transfer initiatives. However, the flip side of this technology has been the rise of cybercrime that include fraud, account hacking, dissemination of offensive materials, theft of identities among others. In Kenya internet-based businesses are increasingly susceptible to cyber crime which is becoming a disaster to the micro and macro-economy. This study investigated the nature of cyber crime and its effects on internet-based businesses in the Western Kenya. Data was collected via questionnaire interviews and results indicated that internet-based businesses were negatively affected by cyber crimes such as malwares, fraud, cyber bullying among others. As a remedy internet-based business resorted to piecemeal strategies such as use of anti-viruses, public awareness creation, encrypted passwords, and registering new email accounts as old accounts got hacked. These strategies are not effective as businesses remain vulnerable. The study exposed the vulnerability of internet-based industry and recommends for a policy and regulation framework on cybercrime protection for internet-based businesses. This should be coupled with enhanced law enforcement particularly cyber crime information sharing between enforcement agents.

Development and implementation of Reflective Journals as an assessment tool PDF

Belal Chowdhury, Savitri Bevinakoppa, Susan Currie, and Beverley Jones

Reflective journals can be employed to enable students to record their thoughts and to consolidate new learning experiences and deep understanding of concepts. Reflective journals also broadly indentify students’ thoughts that can be improved and maintained to further progress their learning. In this paper, we outline how we developed a suitable reflective journal template and implemented a DEEP (Describe, Explore, Evaluate, and Plan) model relating to reflective journals that support student’s deeper level of reflection and learning. Based on students’ feedback, the concept is well received.

Survey on Anomaly Extraction System Using Featured Histogram and Mining Rules PDF

Mr. Sandeep J. Kamble, Prof.Sachin Deshpande

With the Progress in anomaly extraction in backbone network, the networking demand for finding out anomaly is growing that also increases demand for finding out root-cause analysis, network forensics, attack mitigation, and anomaly modeling especially in backbone network. Also when its scope enlarges to rich traffic and very small number of false positive there will be need to maintain best method for mining. Numerous Techniques have been developed for anomaly extraction and data mining and purpose of this paper is to categorize and evaluate these methods. For finding out one that is abnormal or exception the best method will be discussed. Paper Also Summarizes several methods to ensure highly extracted data which includes Apriori algorithm, Fp growth algorithm, Enhance FP growth algorithm such a mining methods , Also with the rich traffic data and false positive rate of methods with Several scenarios will discussed.

Kinetic Approach to the mechanism of Oxidation of Hexamethylpararosaniline Chloride (Crystal Violet) by Periodate Ion in Acidic Medium PDF

Abdulsalam S., Idris S.O., Hamza S.A.

The kinetics of oxidation of hexamethylpararosaniline chloride (hereafter referred to as CV) by periodate ion have been studied in aqueous hydrochloric acid medium under pseudo-first order conditions of excess [IO4-] at 28 ± 1°C, [H+] = 5.00 x 10-2 mol dm-3, and ionic strength, I = 0.5 mol dm-3(NaCl). The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:2 mole ratio of CV to IO4- ions. The redox reaction follows first order with respect to the reductant [CV+] and zero order with respect to the oxidant [IO4-] at constant hydrogen ion concentration. The rate of reaction increased with increase in hydrogen ion concentration. The overall reaction conforms to the rate law


Mohammed Waheeduddin Hussain, Prof. P. Premchand, Dr. G. Manoj Someswar

The subject matter of Inference problem is basically the problem of users deducing unauthorized information from the legitimate information that they acquire. Our research work particularly concentrates on the inference problem which occurs in a multilevel operating environment. In such an environment, users are cleared at different security levels and they access a multilevel database where the data is classified at different sensitivity levels. A multilevel secure database management system (MLS/DBMS) manages a multilevel database where its users cannot access data to which they are not authorized. However, providing a solution to the inference problem, where users issue multiple requests and consequently infer unauthorized knowledge, is beyond the capability of currently available MLS/DBMSs.

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Alkali Modified Nigerian Sisal Fibres PDF

Hauwa Mohammed MUSTAFA & Benjamin DAUDA

The effects of chemical treatment on the surface characteristics of sisal fibres and their physical/mechanical properties have been investigated. The sisal fibre was extracted by manually beating the sisal leaves with a smooth edged stick followed by chemical modification of the fibres using alkaline treatment method with NaOH at different concentrations and time intervals and at a constant temperature of 65 oC. The surface morphology and physical and mechanical characteristics of the treated and untreated sisal fibre samples was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs revealed the rough surface topography of the sisal fibres caused by alkali modification which increased with increased concentration. Furthermore it was observed that fibre tenacity increases with increase in NaOH concentration. However, beyond 20 % NaOH concentration, decrease in tenacity is observed. Fibre breaking extension increases with increase in NaOH concentration. Moisture regain decreases with increase in NaOH concentration.

A Survey of Various Online Social Media & Applications PDF

Abhay Narayan Singh, Anurag Jain

Here in this paper a survey of all the technique that are used for the mining of Online Social Media are discussed and their applications such as Community detection and Message Wall Filtering and Student’s learning experience and their opinions. Since Online Social Media seems to be advantageous and its usage by various users over internet may create some harm to the other users. Hence a complete survey of all such technique is analyzed and hence by analyzing their various advantages and limitations a new efficient technique can be implemented in future.

A Review on Overall Analysis of Different Data Dissemination Strategies PDF

Kanak Manjari

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology has provided the availability of small and low-cost sensor nodes with capability of sensing various types of physical and environmental conditions, data processing, and wireless communication. But the sensor nodes in WSN have a limited transmission range, and their processing and storage capabilities as well as their energy resources are also limited. Thus an efficient architecture is required for overcoming these issues which strongly depends on Data Dissemination strategy used. Data Dissemination, where each node is able to send data to every other node in the mesh network and each node decides to forward the data using some protocols. So it is an important issue to design suitable Dissemination protocol according to different application scenarios. A variety of different energy efficient Data Dissemination protocols were proposed in recent years. In this paper, we present the comprehensive analysis of various Data Dissemination strategies. This paper provides useful insights for the network designer such as which Data Dissemination protocols scale well, reduce overall energy consumption or improve task completion.

Evaluation of end to end delay and packet loss probability in congestion control system PDF


In recent years there has been an extensive growth in the number of Internet users, hosts and applications. The success in coping with the fast growth of the Internet rests on the IP (Internet Protocol) architecture’s robustness, flexibility, and ability to scale the underlying end-to-end paradigm of the IP architecture.

An investigation into the enforcement and compliance of wastewater regulation in Zimbabwe PDF

Cassian Mandizvidza, Scott Ncube, Khulumani Sibanda

The aim of this research was to assess the level of compliance among the regulated polluters and also the effectiveness of enforcement by the regulating authority culminating in the identification of the factors which positively affect compliance and enforcement as well as the factors which negatively affect compliance and enforcement. The Table of the Eleven methodology was employed. Two questionnaires which were mirror images of each other and based on the Table of Eleven questions were administered to ten agents from the target group (industries) and to nine enforcement agents from the Environmental Management Agency and the local authority. Field observations were also done in which the researcher was a non-participant observer. The iT-11 version was then used to process the data and two outputs were produced which are compliance profile and compliance estimates. The compliance profile results showed the factors strongly encouraging compliance, weakly encouraging compliance, strongly encouraging violation and strongly encouraging violation. The compliance estimates showed the different categories in which the target group can be placed. The level of compliance was found to be low-40% (Target group perspective). The general lack of acceptance of the policy objectives was found to be the major factor hindering compliance. To improve the situation this research recommended the introduction of subsidies and incentives to the target group, enhancing stakeholder participation in policy formulation, making sanctions more deterrent and improving the access to technology on cleaner production.

Blackhole Prevention Algorithms for AODV in Mobile Ad Hoc Network- A Review PDF

Devottam Gaurav

A Wireless ad-hoc network is a temporary network where several mobile autonomous nodes can move freely in any direction. With the help of routing protocols source node finds a path to the destination node and forward data packets through intermediate nodes connected by symmetrical transmitted links. However, due to mobility and ad-hoc nature, security becomes an important issue in MANET because once malicious nodes are in the range of networks; they can join the network freely and degrades the performance by attacking it. The vulnerability of MANET is very high towards routing attacks such as blackhole, which drops all the packets instead of forwarding it to the destined node and results in data loss. This research paper focuses on analyzing the probable solutions pointed out by several eminent researchers to reduce the effects of blackhole attack in MANET.

Parametric Optimization of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine for Brake Thermal Efficiency Using Tyre Pyrolysis Oil and Diesel Blend PDF

Saumil C Patel, Dr. Pragnesh K Brahmbhatt

An experimental study has been carried out for Tyre pyrolysis oil blended with diesel used in a single cylinder diesel engine. Tyre Pyrolysis oil is obtained from tire waste by pyrolysis process. Blending of Tyre pyrolysis oil with diesel in maximum possible proportion helps to reduce the consumption of diesel fuel. In this study, the effects of parameters i.e. Injection Timing, Injection Pressure, Compression Ratio, and Load are taken as variable for optimization. As the experiment required simultaneously optimization of four parameters with five levels, Taguchi method of optimization is used in this experiment. The results of the Taguchi experiment identify that 240 Injection Timing, Injection Pressure 140 bar, Compression Ratio 18 and Engine Load 5 kg are optimum parameter setting for highest break thermal efficiency. Engine performance is mostly influenced by Engine load and is least influenced by Injection Pressure. Confirmation experiment was done using optimum combination showed that Brake Thermal Efficiency was found by experiment is closer to the predicated value.

Data Mining Based Social Network Analysis From Online Behaviour PDF

Hamza Ahmed

Data mining has evolved into a complex knowledge-seeking venture that provides variable perceptions of viewing data. Previously data mining was intended for extracting useful and extensive information to be used for potentially any application. Several databases allowed discovery of past information through complicated software and hardware reading to make any application understandable without excessive learning about how the system really operated. Ironically data mining has been created by the human mind yet the concepts transitioning into practice has been complicated through its evolution through the usage of data. But sometimes when data systems are subject to improvement and evolution, the concept becomes lost in translation and created a number of challenges instead. Large organizations and associations have been faced with challenges of amassing data of information into servers required to be accessible by all sorts of company personnel. The majority of challenges encountered while attempting to resolve complex data mining emerged in the form of designing high speed data streams, mining sequence, network settings, and security integrity concerns. This report is outlined to the issues of data mining through notable uses and their processes in various applications mostly for computer, business and visual data. A few details of obtaining company data is illustrated and how multiple networking systems are compromised, although not necessarily intruded by external users. The data is described through open-source and proprietor sources where commercial data is frequently shared in networking systems.

Application of Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear models to Micro Satellite Launchers (MSL) Trajectory PDF

Adetoro M.A Lanre, Fashanu T.A and M.K.O. Ayomoh

University of Lagos, Systems Engineering Department, Akoka, Yaba,Lagos, Nigeria

The Relationship Between Dividend Payout Ratio With Revenue, Liabilities And Expenses: An Empirical Study Of KSE Listed Non-Financial Firms PDF

Bibi Roheel Sarhandi, Kiran Farooq, Mariam Qamar Iqbal, Ayesha Mukhtar, Saima Amir

There had been several researches and studies developed for identifying relationships between dividend policy with many other factors. These factors are searched or sometimes tested directly. Authors have continuously been engaged in different findings related to dividend policy of specific firms and specific areas. This research aimed towards finding the impact of total sales, debts and expenses on dividend payout policy of non-financial or manufacturing firms, listed in Karachi stock exchange, using past years financial data from financial statements. This research would be helpful to conclude for investors who mostly expect that those firms who have more earning pay more dividend and same thinking they keep for liabilities and expenses. Multiple Regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationship between dividend payout and all these three variables. Study shows the relation between all these variables with dividend payout and what correlation exists between them. It’s also shown that how much impact each of the variable has on dividend policy, what correlation is and what significance level is.

A GIS Based Approach To Select Appropriate Wastewater Treatment Technology A Case Study – Shollinganallur Taluk Kanchipuram District Tamil Nadu PDF

K.Deepa, M.Krishnaveni, M.Mageshwari

Shollinganallur Taluk of Kanchipuram District has been chosen as study area for the present research work which falls in the extension part of the peri-urban area of South Chennai city. The study area was facing problems of water scarcity and wastewater management. The wastewater generated in the study area is mainly disposed into nearby surface water bodies like ponds, lakes and low lying vacant lands, which create environmental pollution. The quality of surface water and groundwater were assessed during pre monsoon and post monsoon periods and compared with BIS water quality standards. The laboratory study revealed that Shollinganallur Taluk was facing environmental pollution problem. Thus in order to reduce the problems associated with the disposal of untreated wastewater, there is a need to identify advanced wastewater treatment technologies to provide improved sanitation for the people.


M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

“THAILAND” had Ancient history in geological evolution behind the name THAI… LAND… The Author Visited Thailand to bring out the hidden scientific, cultural truth for international understanding and promoting international peace among world nations for sustainability of future human value based life system. “THAILAND” means “DIVINE LAND”!... THAILAND means MOTHER of all lands!!...

Effect of Cow Milk on the Growth and Economic Traits of Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) PDF

M.S. Hossain, M.A. Uddin, M.S. Islam and M.A. Alim

Silkworm Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is a domestic insect which produce silk through spinning. Silkworm is a monophogous insect and major portion of successful silk production as well as quality of silk cocoon depends on nutritional value of mulberry leaf. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of cow milk on increasing the growth rate and economic traits of silkworm. Silkworm became voracious in the last fifth stages and it consumed about 94% of its total fed and major portion of raw silk (fibroin & sericin) is secreted in the last stage. The mulberry leaves were dipped in milk and air dried before giving them as feed to the silk larvae. Larval weight, cocoon weight and shell weight was measured. The result showed that the larvae fed with milk treated leaves gained 208% weight from day 1 to 5, while the larvae fed with fresh leaves gained 188% weight in the same span. Cocoon weight increased by 18% and shell percentage by 11% when compared to the control. These result suggested to fed silkworm larvae with mulberry leaves dipped in cow milk at fifth instar for better larval weight and reeling performances.

Empirical Relationship of Birth Rate, Female Literacy Rate and GDP Per Capita with Child Mortality Rate in Pakistan PDF

Zareena Ali, Talib Hussain, Fawad Azam

Child mortality is considering an important indicator of quality of life and economic condition in underdeveloped countries. It is also a good indicator of female’s literacy, adult health, income and birth rate. Pakistan has rapid economic growth from past few years. Despite of economic growth Pakistan has been unable to decrease child mortality rate to the target level. There are a lot of socioeconomic factors that affect child health. Due to the lake of data and many other problem this study has not include all variables. This study consider only three major factors are GDP per capita, females literacy rate and birth rate. This study result shows that increase in GDP per capita has significant affect to decrease child mortality. This study shows that females literacy play key role in decreasing child mortality because when mother is educated the chances to become a child sick is very low as compare to an uneducated woman .This study result shows that decrease in birth rate means child mortality rate will be also low. It means in Pakistan birth rate is high it is difficult for parent and government to provide efficient health facilities children as compare to developed nations. The study’s result imply that females literacy ,GDP per capita and birth rate are key determinants of child mortality, among other significant indicators.

Transient Stability Enhancement using Coordinated DMPC for Power System PDF

S. Kulkarni

Present paper proposes a solution in the form of a Distributed Model Predictive Control (DMPC) strategy for excitation control in large scale networked applications, such as Multi-machine Power Systems (MMPS). Each MPC solves its own optimization problem using local decomposed model of the overall system, as it is more convenient to design control laws in distributed manner, based on only local measurements and reduced order dynamical model of the system. The coordination amongst these controllers is achieved through information exchange to obtain performance close to that of centralized MPC scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed DMPC is tested on a 3rd order model of 2-machine system with lossy transmission lines and loads.

Noise Analysis for low-voltage low-power CMOS RF low noise amplifier PDF

Mai M. Goda, Mohammed K. Salama, Ahmed M. Soliman

In this paper, a noise analysis to a 1V , 1.5GHz CMOS low-noise amplifier (LNA) was done. The Circuit is simulated in 90nm CMOS MOSIS. The LNA gain is 18dB , noise figure (NF) is 2dB , reverse isolation ( ) is -36dB , input return loss ( ) is -12.6dB , output return loss ( ) is -17dB , and the power consumption is 5.4mA from a single 1V power supply.

PV Fed Modified SEPIC Converter PDF

B.V.N.V.Shiv Kanth, C.V.S.Sainath, G.Sandeep

In this paper utilization of a modified Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) for control of photovoltaic power using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control mechanism is presented. The main aim of the project is, SEPIC converter is to be used along with a Maximum Power Point Tracking control mechanism. The MPPT is liable for extracting the maximum possible power from the photovoltaic and feed it to the load via the SEPIC converter which steps up the voltage to required level. Voltage multiplier technique is applied to a traditional SEPIC converter. The multiplier technique provides new operation characteristics and a high static gain. The theoretical analysis, design procedure and simulation results are shown in this paper. The results are compared with a traditional SEPIC converter.

Enhanced Image Filtering Method PDF

Saksham Sinha, Hifzur Rahman, Mahesh Thorat

We have developed a new fuzzy filter for the noise reduction in images having the additive noise. Our proposed filter works in two stages. The first stage of our filter computes the fuzzy derivatives for eight different directions. And the second stage of our filter utilizes these fuzzy derivatives to do fuzzy smoothing by taking weightage of the contributions of neighboring pixels. Both of the stages uses fuzzy rules which takes help of membership functions. This filter could be used many times iteratively to give more better results. While filtering, the membership functions are altered according to the amount of noise present in an image after every iteration. This is done by using the homogeneity in the image.

Child Labor in the Rural Setting: Voices of Toil from Indigenous Youth Learners PDF

Maricel R. Merida

This phenomenological research was conducted at DepEd, Bislig City Division for the school year 2014-2015. The participants were the 18 students of San Jose National High School who were engaged in child labor. An In-depth Interview and Focus- Group Discussion were employed in order to find out the experiences, coping mechanisms and insights of the child laborers. Responses of the participants revealed that their experiences as child laborers were the pressing need for labor, the underpayment of the services by their employers, the trivial participation in school activities since they could no longer attend regularly to their classes, they had divergent outlook in life and experiences also of the unhealthy physical condition. In order to cope with their situation, the participants generally embraced self-denial of the hardships they experienced, they did medication when ill and they also uphold their ambitions. Furthermore, their insights shared to their peers were to value the importance of work and school in order to survive the challenges of child labor.

An improved method for the determination of HLB properties of nonionic surfactants PDF

Roland Nagy, Réka Kothencz, Rubina Sallai, László Bartha

The nonionic surfactants have received an increasing attention in the industrial field. The partial solubility in water of the own-developed and own-synthesized vegetable oil-based nonionic surfactants was examined. The solubility is one of the key properties of the surfactants. The new fiber-optic spectrophotometric analytical method was found appropriate and beneficial to determine the water number and the HLB value of the nonionic surfactants. Two series of nonionic surfactants were studied by different HLB methods (conventional-, numerical- and a developed method). A new method was developed inspired by the method of Becher et al. which approximates better the theoretical HLB value.

TOC reduction in drinking water using anionic surfactant modified bentonite PDF

Farida M. S. E. El-Dars, M. Y. M. Hussien, A. H. T Kandil

The removal of Total organic carbon (TOC) from liquid solution using Na-bentonite (Na-B) and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant modified bentonite (SDS-B) was investigated. Batch studies were carried out to investigate the effect of experimental parameters including the initial solution pH, contact time, temperature, and adsorbent dose upon the adsorption process. The experimental data was well represented by a second order kinetics model for both types of bentonite. However, the process was found to involve some degree of intra-particle diffusion for SDS-B adsorption and intraparticle plus pore diffusion for Na-B. Based upon the kinetic modeling, the calculated energies of activation for the process was - 49.06 kJ/mol and -22.41 kJ/mol for Na-B and SDS-B, respectively. The data also indicated that the process of adsorption onto both materials was better fitted to the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters (?Hº, ?Sº and ?Gº) were calculated and they indicated that the process was exothermic and spontaneous and in the forward direction for SDS-bentonite and was spontaneous in the reverse direction for Na-bentonite.

Graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate on chitosan: Adsorptive removal of Cu (II) PDF

Mai Mamdouh Sheta, N.S. Yousef

Chitosan is a natural based polymer obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, exhibiting excellent bio-logical properties such as biodegradation in the human body, and immunological, antibacterial, and wound-healing activity. Chitosan has also been found to be a good candidate as a support material for gene deliv-ery, cell culture and tissue engineering. For a breakthrough in utilization, graft copolymerization onto chi-tosan will be a key point, which will introduce desired properties and enlarge the field of the potential ap-plications of chitosan by choosing various types of side chains. Methyl acrylate was grafted onto chitosan by using the ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The grafted and un-grafted samples were characterized us-ing Fourier (FTIR), and (SEM) methods. Evidence of grafting was confirmed by FTIR. The morphology of both biosorbents was evaluated by SEM. Both grafted and un-grafted chitosan were used for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH of solution, initial copper ion concentrations, dose of biosorbent and contact time on percentage removal of Cu (II) using both biosorbents were studied. Grafted chitosan has been found to have higher adsorption capacity than un-grafted one.

Analysis of wind data and assessing wind energy potentiality for selected locations in Egypt PDF

A. Y. Hatata, M. G. Mousa, Rana M. Elmahdy

The wind energy resource is available in large regions at Egypt. This paper investigates the wind energy potential at different locations at Egypt. The wind data for these regions was collected at 10m height for period of ten years. These data are used to find out the wind energy potential with help of 2-parameter Weibull distribution. The wind speed distribution is modeled by using Weibull distribution. Weibull parameters, shape and scale parameters are calculated using two different methods which are method of moments (MOM) and maximum likelihood method (MLM). The annual energy and the annual capacity factor of three different manufacturers wind turbines are calculated for the selected regions in Egypt. The highest annual mean wind speeds at 10 m height were 9 and 8.2 m/s at Gebel El Zeit and Ras Ghareb respectively. The maximum wind power density was found to be 445 W/m2 and 344 W/m2 at Gebel El Zeit and Ras Ghareb respectively. From this study, it is concluded that, Gebel El Zeit and Ras Ghareb are the most suitable for large-scale wind energy generation.

Understanding the Protective Factors among Mothers of Children with Autism PDF

Shruti Nedungadi; Aneesh Kumar P.

Innumerable studies have been conducted to understand the role that mothers play in the development and nurturance of the child. The role of mothers is further enhanced in the care of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. There is a wide amount of research has been conducted in the field of Autism. A lot of the research has focused on the stress associated with bringing up a child with Autism and the comorbidity of depression, emotional problems, poor mental health etc among parents of children with Autism. Very little, if any, research has been conducted on the positive aspects, namely the protective factors. Hence, this research aims to focus on the protective factors associated with the mothers of children with ASD and the role these protective factors play in the development and growth of the child. The study was conducted on 41 mothers (20 mothers of children with Autism and 21 mothers of typically developing children) by administering three questionnaires viz. the Sense of Coherence Scale, the Brief COPE, and the BU Resilience Scale. The results were computed using an independent sample t-test. The results of the study showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups of mothers on any of the three protective factors. This shows that in today’s day and age, mothers of special children are capable of successfully handling the challenges that come their way. Some of the other protective factors that appear to have played a role include age of the child, the socio-economic status of the parents, and social support.

Modeling and Simulation of a Distillation Column using ASPEN PLUS for separating methanol/water mixture PDF

Sohail Rasool Lone & Mushtaq Ahmad Rather

Industries are always posed with the problem of separating methanol from water. Distillation is regarded as one of the best processes by which this goal can be achieved. Present study was carried out on these lines to obtain 99.5% composition of methanol in distillate and 99.5 % of water in the bottom product by utilizing ASPEN PLUS simulation software. MESH equations, which actually represent the behaviour of the distillation column, have been solved through ASPEN PLUS in order to study the effect of different parameters. Optimum feed stage location, number of stages and reflux ratio was also established. The optimum conditions found out by our analysis to determine No. of stages (N), feed stage (Nf) and optimum reflux ratio (Rr) were 21, 16 and1.5 respectively. The paper as such best describes the modeling and simulation of a distillation column using ASPEN PLUS to obtain 99.5% composition of methanol in distillate from 1:1 methanol/water mixture. This analysis will thus prove beneficial for designers in industry who deal with separation of methanol for methanol/water mixture.

Behaviour of living and non-living extincts and Law Of All Laws PDF

Sunirmal Roy

In Roy we have discussed growth of cells and effect of physical factors upon the actions of cell. The author has also constructed a model upon the behaviour of living and non-living extincts.Since any law is an incident of living or non-living extincts under some atmosphere or under some factors,hence these give “LAW OF ALL LAWS”.



Graph enumeration is the most important work in graph theory. Author’s technique in graph enumeration is able to draw all types of graphs. All non-isomorphic structures of a compound has been possible to draw by this technique. The number of possible connected non-isomorphic graphs having a fixed number of vertices and edges was possible to count by polya’s method. This was the base of graph theory. But this method did not consider parallel edges (edges joining the same two vertices) and by this method the graphical pictures of the non-isomorphic graphs were not possible to obtain. All these limitations are removed in Roy’s graph technique . For this reason, it is possible to draw all possible connected non-isomorphic structures of all graph theoretic-problems.



Mainly nineteen cellular entities take place in mainly thirty chemical reactions in a cell. The cell is divided into two when the cellular entities are doubled at a time. In this way growth process takes place in a living body. From the solution space of this cell generation it is possible to explain mathematically why the shapes of different species are different and why the shapes in the same species are same.

Discovery Of many new compounds PDF

Sunirmal Roy

Graph enumeration is the most important work in graph theory. Author’s technique in graph enumeration is able to draw all types of graphs. All non-isomorphic structures of a compound has been possible to draw by this technique. By drawing all structures of all compounds and considering physical factors light, sound, temperature etc. on them it is possible to get the theory of evolution of matters.The number of possible connected non-isomorphic graphs having a fixed number of vertices and edges was possible to count by polya’s method. This was the base of graph theory. But this method did not consider parallel edges (edges joining the same two vertices) and by this method the graphical pictures of the non-isomorphic graphs were not possible to obtain. All these limitations are removed in Roy’s graph technique . For this reason, it is possible to draw all possible connected non-isomorphic structures of all compounds.In these way many new compounds are discovered. By drawing all structures of all compounds and considering physical factors light, sound, temperature etc. on them it is possible to get the theory of evolution of matters.

A Creative Review on Integer Additive Set-Valued Graphs PDF

N. K. Sudev, K. A. Germina, K. P. Chithra

For a non-empty ground set , finite or infinite, the set-valuation or set-labeling of a given graph is an injective function , with induced edge-function is defined by , where is the power set of and is a predefined binary operation on sets. A set-labeling of a graph is called a set-indexer if the induced function is also injective. An integer additive set-labeling is defined as an injective function such that the induced function defined by is also injective, where is the set of all non-negative integers, its power set isthe sumset of the set-labels and of the vertices and in . In this paper, we critically and creatively review the concepts and properties of integer additive set-valued graphs.

Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for Analysis: Selection of Passenger Airlines for Gulf Country PDF

Amit Yadav, Maira Anis, Mohsin Ali & Sadhana Tuladhar

Nepal is underdeveloped country with political instability and due to lack of job opportunity every year many people travel gulf country for job. In advance world, airway is the fastest medium for passenger to reach the destination. As day by day advancement of the aviation technologies, increased in speed and a lot of companies that entering to the airways sector. This leads to the conclusion that rising competition, price, services, airlines profile, comfort and other factors effect on decision making by the passengers. So we use AHP as a decision making approach to investigate if it is applicable in dealing the multiple criteria decision making problem. The criteria that care taken into consideration in this study include that food quality, risk management, airlines profile, cost, service and comfort of the four gulf country airlines. AHP helps in decision making by constructing hierarchies and each criterion can be assigned with the preference scale that is determined by the decision makers. It is further believed that the results of this work will be directly benefit to passengers travel gulf country, manpower company of Nepal and airlines in putting forward efficiency boosting suggestion by way of improvement in airlines and causes behind passengers choice.

Striving and Surviving: The Phenomenology of Orphaned Students in Public Elementary Schools PDF

Vilma Baldo-Sangian

The phenomenological study dealt on the experiences, hopes, dreams and fears of the orphaned students in public elementary schools of Division of Compostela Valley for School Year 2014-2015. There were 10 participants for the In-depth Interview and six for the Focus Group Discussion. Results revealed that the orphaned students experienced draining study endeavors, desolate life, rare happy moments, and profound coping with challenges. Their hopes include finishing a course, like becoming a teacher, engineer, doctor, electrician, policewoman, pilot, accountant and soldier. Further, they also hoped for their grandparents’ health, happiness, supports for their young brothers and sisters and to inspire other orphans. They also dreamed to be rich, to have family gathering, good job and to acquire a vast parcel of land. They feared of another calamity, influence of bad classmates, to get sick and of losing their love ones.

Joys and Pains of Non-IP Teachers Amidst Indigenous Community: A Multiple Case Study PDF

Angeline A. Dayaganon

The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to describe the experiences of the Non-Indigenous teachers who were assigned in the indigenous community. It highlighted with the complex task of teachers whose lives and profession has been offered to endure, and continue the program that aims to provide a bright future for the minorities. Through the in-depth interview, it was found out that workplace difficulties is the common problem of the teachers as they deliver their services to the indigenous community. Among the coping approaches of teachers, immersion with the community came out as their best weapon to be able to stay safely in the indigenous community. Cultivate passion for teaching is the strongest insight given by teachers as they continue their services to the indigenous students. This study has implication on how to address the problem and find ways to prevent it.

Microstructural and Electrical Properties of Mn Doped Bi4Ti3O12 Thin Film Devices PDF

Ko Ko Kyaw Soe, May Aye Khaing, Kyaw Win, Pwint Yee Thein, Than Than Win and Yin Maung Maung

Manganese (Mn) doped Bismuth Titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 ) powders (BMT) were prepared by solid state mixed oxide route and annealed 1000ºC to become polycrystalline powders. Bi4MnxTi(3-x)O12 / n-Si (x= 0.0 to 0.4) thin films were also prepared by own sol-based method, spray pyrolysis coating techniques and heat treated at 600ºC process temperature. The microstructural characteristics of the films were determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) spectroscopy. The density of state was determined from I-V characteristics and the switching behaveour has been studied by I-t characteristics. According to the results, the manganese composition (x=0.4) should be used in the ferroelectric memory applications rather than other compositions.

Application Of Physical Planning and Design Startegies to Urban Violence and Crime Prevention in Nigeria PDF

R.O. Oladosu, H.B. Bwala, I. Muhammad

The rate of crime and violence is on the increase globally. Although crime and violence have been part of the Nigerian system since her experience of the civil war, even away from the ancient history of aggression and attack leading to emergence of walled cities, but the scale and magnitude of the nation’s experience of crime and violence in recent times, is unimaginable. Series of effort are continuously being made to put this menace under control but the efforts are really not yielding noticeable results; hence, the need for an alternative measure; this the authors advocate through the application of Physical planning and design strategies. The global trend and the trend of crime and violence in Nigeria were reviewed to establish the basis for the study. The nexus between crime and violence and the environment was also justified; various underlying causes of crimes and violence in Nigeria cut across socio-cultural, economic, political and environmental factors. Some major Physical planning and design strategies, including Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), urban upgrading, and development control, which have reasonably proved successful both in certain developed and developing nations, were discussed as possible options to prevent and consequently reduce the rate of crime and violence in Nigeria urban centres.

A Better Understanding of the Antonyms PDF


This paper proposes new different ways to give opposite meanings of words, changing only one letter of a word can make antonyms, for example: hire and fire. The letter (h) is just changed into (f), and the two words are completely opposite of each other. There should be notice that adding prefixes doesn't always work, like flammable and inflammable pretty much mean the same thing rather than antonyms. Antonyms in English language have played a significant role in the advancement of the users positions. Another important role of them is to control and learn a good amount of English vocabulary. as The English language is the language that possesses the largest vocabulary in the world. The main purpose of this study is to apply the creative thinking process for opposite words instruction. Showing the differences among the opposite words in relation to their meanings is also important, when a word has more than one antonym.

Detection and Identification of a Putative Ade-nylosuccinate Synthetase Gene Responsible for Tellurium Tolerance In Streptomyces Annu-latus Isolated From an Egyptian Contaminated Site in Hellwan. PDF

Mohamed HF, El-meleigy MA, Salem MS

Tellurium-tolerant actinomycete was isolated from the soil sample collected from an Egyptian contaminated site in Hellwan City near to a cement factory. Isolate identification was done using morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization, chemical analysis of the cell wall, cultural characteristics using the recommended media of the international Streptomyces project (for actinomycetes) and with help of 16S rRNA sequencing.which revealed high identity 98 %, with Streptomyces anulatus strain MG 001 (GenBank accession number GU569951.1). The isolate showed high tellurite tolerance up to 0.6 % (w/v). Tellurite exerts a deleterious effect on a number of small molecules containing sulfur moieties that have a recognized role in cellular oxidative stress. Because cysteine is involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione and other sulfur-containing compounds, and because cysteine desulfurase (IscS), involved in cysteine metabolism, confers tellurite resistance in E. Coli, and other bacterial species, specific PCR was done to isolate this gene from the isolated tellurium resistant streptomyces annulatus. Sequencing analysis of the PCR product which should different size from that expected lead to another putative gene, adenylosuccinate synthetase also responsible for tellirium resistance in Streptomyces species. Further molecular and bioinformatic studies were done here to confirm the sequence of the gene.

Performance Simulation of an Active Solar Water Heating System under the Weather of Zaria Using TRNSYS PDF

Z.S Johnson, N.S Yohannab K.M Peter

Solar radiation and weather data of a location which are important driving function for solar system design vary randomly according to location and time of the year. This random variation implies that the performance of a solar system could vary according to the time of the year. This research predicts the long term performance of an active solar water heating system for domestic hot water application under the weather condition of Zaria Nigeria latitude 11.2 oN and longitude 7.8oN using TRNSYS 16 software. The simulated system consists of a flat plate solar collector, having a total surface area of 2.2 m2 tilted at 120 from horizontal, a thermally insulated vertical storage tank of 100L capacity, interconnecting piping and a solar pump. The monthly average hourly performance of the systems for the recommended average days for the months was numerically simulated based on Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data for the said location. TRNSYS components (TYPES) which represent each physical components of the real system are selected from the components library in the simulation studio. These components are then linked in such a manner that represents how the system works. The parameters describing each component (TYPE) of the system is then modified according the system characteristics. The result of the simulation reveals that the system is capable of meeting a daily domestic hot water load of 100 litres at a minimum temperature 61 oC at the end of the day (5; 00 pm) for most part of the year except the month of July where the tank temperature dropped to temperature below 34 0 C at the end of the day.

Optimizing Performance and Fuel Economy of Power Generation using Model Based Design PDF

Rakshith Shetty, D. V. Deshpande, K. Vasudeva Karanth

The energy supply to demand is narrowing down day by day around the world, the growing demand of power has made the power plants of scientific interest, but most of the power plants are designed by the energetic performance criteria. With introduction of electricity act 2003, power sector has been opened to private players. Many private players have added huge capacity of power generation. This has resulted in very competitive environment in the power sector. So to run the business, the cost of generation has to be less than cost of selling power. Hence In order to sustain, in this competitive environment it becomes imperative to focus on reduction in the generation cost. And ultimately fuel cost. With this background the project on Fuel cost optimization is taken. Fuel cost is governed by many variables. To optimize fuel cost, optimization of these variables is essential. For this purpose optimization model for each major factor is developed. These models are developed using Microsoft Visual Basic software. All the variables that affect the fuel cost are analysed. Seven different types of coal were taken for analysis and their suitability, costs, efficiency, Heat rate were obtained. A case study was taken keeping blending ratio as constraint and analysis of the seven types of coal was carried out and optimized result was obtained.title.

Near Field Communication Enabled Library PDF

Mr. Siddharth Jagtap, Mr. Pritam Bhange, Ms. Rutuja Gajwani, Ms. Pallavi Vishwasrao, Prof. Ramkrishna Vadali

Near Field Communication enabled library will let user issue as well as return the book in a totally new perspective. This will in turn save the time and unnecessary wastage of paper and most importantly this will digitize the library. The Mifare tag will be deployed by the Library authority by embedding unique identification number (UIN) and user details into the tag. The Mifare tag can be attached to Identity card of user as well as books. Whenever the user will visit library and will chose the book for issuing, ID has to be checked at entrance Reader and same will be sent to server for verification. The server will check user details and if successfully authenticated, user can proceed further. After issuing book(s) and returning, SMS will be sent to user which includes transaction details.

Characterization of indigenous microalgae PDF

Vivek P. Pankaj & Mamta Awasthi

Global threats of fuel shortages in the near future and climate change due to green-house gas emissions are posing serious challenges and hence it is imperative to explore means for sustainable ways of prevention the consequences. The huge need for sustainable energy has led to an increased interest in new energy resources, such as production of microalgae, for use as biofuel and its other application. There are various advantages to using microalgae, for example, land use is much less than in terrestrial biofuel production, and several algae species can double their mass in 1 day under optimized conditions. In this study, eleven microalgae sp were isolated from different location of Hamirpur (31.68°N 76.52°E) district of Himachal Pradesh state in India, and characterized by using some techniques i.e. Microscopic images, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), for differentiate all microalgae sp morphologically and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques was used for potential of microalgae biofuel.

Structure and Stratigraphy of Azad Pattan, Panjar, Karat, Chanas, Dangali, Dadyal and Malikpur areas of Districts Mirpur, Sudhnoti Azad Kashmir and district Rawalpindi, Pakistan. PDF

Omer Iqbal, Mirza Shahid Baig, Shahab Pervez, and M. Iqbal Siddiqi

As Hazara Kashmir Syntaxes is the part of Himalayan Fold and thrust belt situated in sub- Himalayan and the studied areas i.e Districts Mirpur, Sudhnoti and Rawalpindi lies between its limbs. The Himalayan molasse deposits in Kashmir basin ranging from Early Miocene to Recent. These Himalayn molasse deposits present in the studied area included Chinji, Nagri, Dhok Pathan, Soan Formations (Siwalik Group) of Middle to Late Miocene to Pliocene while Mirpur Formation of Pleistocene and Kamlial and Murree Formations (Rawalpindi Group) of Early Miocene to Middle Miocene age are exposed in the studied area. These deposits originated from higher Himalayas and transported by paleo-river from north and are cover sequence of Indian plate. The studied area is highly deformed into 41 folds and 14 faults. The folds are northwest-southeast trending or southwest-northeast trending, asymmetric, tight to gentle in nature and southwest, northeast or southeast, northwest verging. Jhelum Fault is regional Fault which is Left lateral strike slip with subordinate reverse motion that truncates the structures on its eastern and western sides. The 13 other major splays fault of Jhelum Fault are also encountered during the course of study. These deformations are the consequences of northeast-southwest or northwest-southeast Himalayan compression in studied area. The facing had been marked on the basis of certain primary sedimentary structures like cross-bedding, Load coast and ripups and these sedimentary structures noticed during the course of study.

Security & Authentication of Web Browsers using FCM PDF

Harish Singh Baghel, Dr. Bharat Mishra

Web security is an important field area where security and storage is important during the flow of data from the client to server. Although there are various techniques implemented for the security of web data especially at the client side in web browsers. Here in this paper an efficient technique for the security of web data is implemented using combinatorial method of clustering and classification. The web log data collected at the server side is used for the training and testing of classification of various attacks and anomalies in the packets send through internet. The Fuzzy C-means clustering is first applied on the web log data to divide into a number of clusters of similar groups and then these clustered data are passed to the classification algorithm to generate decision tree to get the final classification of attacks and anomalies.

Modeling of residual chlorine for water distribution network for a pilot village PDF

R. Shreedhar

Water is the most essential thing in this world for the survival of living species. The treatment of water is necessary before it is sending to consumer point. The treated water from the treatment plant travels through a water distribution network. Due to some chemical and biological factors of source water, lack of effectiveness and efficiency in treatment processes, improper way of maintenance and mixing of water from different sources within a distribution network and other hydraulic conditions in distribution, people are not getting good quality water. Especially in villages people are facing problems to get good quality drinking water and sometimes they face shortage of drinking water.Hence, the present study is taken to design the water distribution network of a pilot village in northern part of Karnataka state, India for the assessment of drinking water before it is used. For this, one of the standard software i.e., EPANET is used to analyze the water distribution network. Chlorine is injected at the tank with a constant concentration of 1.0 mg/l. Thus chlorine residual concentration values remain quite high (= 0.60 mg/l). For the considered water distribution network, the chlorine residual concentration values computed during the last two days of the simulation remain greater than the minimum admissible range of 0.3 mg/l.

In silico prediction and threading based epitope mapping of OmpA-like outer membrane Leptospiral Lipoprotein Loa22 PDF

Angela Asir Ramasamy Victor, Sunil Abraham, Jebasingh Tennyson, Nityananda Pradhan

Loa22 is OmpA-like outer membrane protein from Leptospira interrogans characterized in the C-terminus domain which play an important role in the infection and immunological responses of leptospirosis. [1,2]. Phylogenetic tree was constructed for Loa22 by comparing it with Lipoproteins (LipL 71, 45, 41, 31, 32, 21 and 48) and with outer membrane proteins (OmpL 1, 47, 54, 36, 37). The comprising lineages of Loa 22 have largely varying rates of evolution. In the present study the physicochemical properties of Loa22 were assessed. The structure of Loa22 was predicted by threading method in RaptorX server and the structure was energy minimized and validated by using SAVES server. The stereochemical quality and the protein backbone conformations were done by Ramachandran Plot analysis. Four sequential and conformational B cell epitopes of Loa22 were found in Ellipro server and mapped to find the sequential epitopes. The same B cell linear epitopes was also predicted by ABC Pred, BepiPred 1.0 server. All these epitopes were found to be in higher values. The results of the present study will help to elucidate the function of Loa22 and epitope-based vaccine development for Leptospirosis.


Joginder Singh Yadav, Amul Patwal

Activities like cracker burning during Diwali, the religious festival of India has now become the problem of noise and air pollution. The study area was taken Delhi, the capital of India and 40 monitoring station data is analysed by using of Geographical information system approach. The trends for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulphur oxides (SOx), Suspended particulate matter (SPM), Respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and Carbon monoxides (CO) on Diwali days for 2003 – 2009 are seen. The decreasing trend is seen from 2003 to 2009 on Diwali day on most of the monitoring station for each of the pollutant. One of the major reasons may be health awareness among people due to pollution. SPM and RSPM average concentration were investigated around 2.5 times and 3.5 times of permissible concentration respectively at all the monitoring stations in 2009. NOx, SOx and CO concentration was seen within the permissible limit in 2009 on Diwali day.

Performance Evaluation of Power Efficient MAC Protocol for MANETs PDF

Sohan Kumar Yadav, D. K. Lobiyal

Optimizing battery power and enhancing throughout are the key factors to design an efficient power control MAC protocol. Since, Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are powered by batteries. Therefore power management in MANET is a critical issue. In MANETs nodes are mobile therefore the size of batteries is a big issue. This paper presents performance evaluation of a protocol, namely Power Efficient MAC protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. Here, protocol PEMAC protocol uses optimum power to transmit RTS instead of maximum power level. Here the optimum power level is predefined value, and it is noted that it is sufficient to reach the receiver. The receiver transmits CTS by using maximum power level. The data and acknowledgement packets are transmitted by using lower power level respectively which is calculated according the power level of RTS transmission. This protocol conserves energy as it uses less energy in transmitting RTS packet, and it also increases the spatial reuse in the network. It has been shown by the simulation result that the PEMAC protocol is energy efficient without degrading throughput.

Stem cell therapy compared to Hyaluronic acid in experimentally induced osteoarthritic rats PDF

Mahmoud Ameer, Abdel Wahab El-Ghareeb, Sahar Darwish, Samuel Melak, Dina Sabry, Sara mohamed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease mostly occurring in the knee. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells which can provide a promising treatment in tissue regeneration. Intra-articular injection of Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been widely used for treatment of knee OA. The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and (HA). Fifty albino rats were divided into five groups; group (1) served as control, groups (2,3,4,5) served as arthritic rats and given single intra-articular injection of 1 mg of monosodium iodoacetat. Group 3 injected with single dose of 2 x 106 stem cell (intraarticularly) while group 4 treated with the same dose but Interaperteonialy and group 5 treated with therapeutic dose of (HA). Radiological, biochemical, histopathological and histochemical analysis were performed before and after treatment. Biochemically there were highly significant decrease in C-reactive protein and osteocalcin. Radiological, histopathological and histochemical results showed marked improvement in MSCs treated group, the animals injected with HA revealed less degree of improvement compared to animals treated with stem cells. MSCs are an effective option for treating OA.

Automated Diagnosis System of Cardiac Abnormalities Using XML Ontology PDF

Nithya Jennifer.N, P. Selvaraj

Electrocardiography is the recording of the electrical action of the heart. Generally this is a translation of the electrical movement of the heart over a period of time. Existing philosophy concentrates on diagnosing the 37 cardiovascular irregularities by utilizing XML cosmology and ontological mapping to distinguish the sickness obtained. This system does not tune-up the picture of the ECG before transforming as the commotion rate deceives to the determination report. In the proposed procedure, a picture acceptance of histogram check is detailed to correct the clamour procured in the info ECG Image. The accepted ECG specimen picture has been measured with its tallness and plentifulness to quantify the irregularities utilizing XML philosophy. Along these lines the proposed framework defeats the clashes confronted in the current framework, the execution as far as time and precision has been imagined graphically.

Search Engine Optimisation Trends in 2015 PDF

Sumeet Mehta

Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) as the name suggests is optimising the webpages or contents of your website such that they are easily understood by search engines and also making the pages rank higher in unpaid or natural traffic. In simpler words, SEO is the process of getting your website rank higher on search engine results using various techniques called SEO techniques. SEO involves understanding what do people look for, how search engines work, actual queries, competitors ranking for the keyword among various other factors. One of the world's popular search engine is Google with around 68.75% market share as of 2014 and there are over 284 million domains registered as per Verisign. This makes SEO an important aspect of any online marketing campaign.

Multi-channel Image Deblurring using Blind Deconvolution PDF

Gururaju, Siddaraju K

The proposed restoration involves a DCT domain zonal filtering pre-processing followed by a post-processing step of time domain deconvolution. The technique applies to situations on which the scene consists of a finite support object against a uniformly black, gray or white and color backgrounds. Preliminary simulations in noise-free and noisy cases are conducted. The results are compared with standard Median filter for image denoising and the proposed blind restoration scheme is shown to exhibit improvement in SNR.

Area efficient FPGA based LDPC decoder using Stochastic decoding scheme PDF

Aquib Abdul Quadir Quraishi, Chitra K

This paper demonstrates the FPGA implementation of area efficient LDPC decoder using stochastic decoding scheme .Error correcting codes in communication systems are of high importance to achieve stability in wireless communication system. This paper presents the overview of designing an area efficient LDPC decoding architecture using stochastic decoding scheme. The Implementation results of fully parallel LDPC decoder displays 1% of slice using Xilinx vertex-4, 4vfx12sf363-10 device. The implementation of decoder architecture using stochastic decoding algorithm has reduced the number of slices required thereby reducing reducing the number of resources used and thus increasing the area efficiency of the decoder. The decoding scheme has also reduced the interconnect complexity of decoder architecture.

Injecting Quantifiability to Promote Software Maintenance PDF

Engr. Syed Rizwan Ali, Azmat Khan, Muhammad Shahid Khan, Bilal Muhammad Iqbal

Generally, the power of quantifiability is underestimated. Life cycle costs are dependent on software system maintenance costs. Systems engineering can improve with a more structured effort, by setting proper targets instead of applying conventional customs that seem right but in actual may not be sufficient. The maintenance process becomes more efficient once the maintainability process is quantifiable. All requirements should possess capability to be quantitatively measureable, which will eventually result in better software products. Targeted aims and software metrics are essential components to quantify software systems. The degree of software product maintainability is dependent upon several software metrics described in this paper.

Simulation-Based Approaches For Evaluating Load Balancing In Cloud Computing With Most Significant Broker Policy PDF

Kush Garg, Sachi Pandey

Cloud computing is an attracting technology in the field of computer science. In today era of cloud computing the most important process is load balancing which leads to faster response to requests of cloud users. Load balancing is dividing the amount of work that a computer has to do between two or more computers so that more work gets done in the same amount of time and in general, all users get served faster. Some of the algorithm will developed by using certain newer approaches that can be used to get a measurable improvement in the system response time The optimization of load balancing policies along with the service broker strategies such as overall response time, total cost of data center is also reduced. This paper provide a better experimental scenarios where the on-peak and off-peak hours of two or more data centers coincides and the data center configurations are also different can be considered by using the broker policy relevant to the load balancing policy in cloud computing using cloud analyst simulation toolkit.

Evaluation of the performance of a regional climate model to simulate West Africa climates: Case RegCM3 model PDF

Kouakou Koffi Eugène, Kouassi Amani Michel, Kouassi Francis Williams, Goula Bi Tié Albert, and Savane Issiaka

The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the regional climate model RegCM3 to simulate the climate parameters such as temperature and rainfall in West Africa from the perspective of climate prediction . Based on physiographic and weather data ( EH5OM and EHA1B ) include several variables ( temperature, pressure, humidity , and fields of horizontal and vertical wind ) from the mainland and maritime party. The simulation was carried out in 1991-2000 in order to facilitate comparison between model outputs and parameters observed over the same period . The application of statistical methods can show that the model overestimates in most cases the climatic parameters in West Africa. Indeed, the average error due to climate model in the temperature estimate is 2.53% in the Sahel and 2.17% in the Gulf of Guinea . As for rainfall , they are simulated by the model with relatively large mean errors . Indeed , the comparison of observed precipitation ( CRU ) and those simulated by the model gives average errors ranging from 8.5% in Guinean zone and 48.9% in the Sahel. The results invite to consider more observation data in the realization of different scenarios of emissions in Africa.

Human Healthcare Monitoring Using WearableSensors and BigDataAnalytics PDF

P.Harini, R.Gayathri, M.SubbuLakshmi ,H.Shanmugapriya ,S.SatheeshKumar

A wireless sensor networks(WSN) in healthcare monitoring is used for prevention of diseases. Wearable sensor consist of sensor with low power constraints and low cost which is used to measure temperature, pressure and to monitor activities. The sensed data in wireless sensor networks is transmitted to mobile apps through the interface. The sensed data is transmitted to the database server where constrained hidden markov model(CHMM) to generate a medical report by comparing it with a precalculated value .The medical report enables the user to lead a healthy life.

Experimental Investigation of Continuous Usage Stability of Organic Polymer Electret in Micro Energy Harvesting PDF

Akin-Ponnle Ajibike E., Ponnle Akinlolu A., and Falaki Samuel O.

An electret is a stable dielectric material with a quasi-permanently embedded static electric charge or dipole polarisation. Theoretically, electrets should retain deposited charges for a long period of time. However, their charges are known to deteriorate with time due to polarising charge relaxation. There are organic and inorganic electrets. Cyclic Transparent Optical Polymer (CYTOP) is a good organic electret material with high charge density. Most studies on CYTOP charge stability has been concentrated mainly on storage, as it is believed that the same stability is exhibited in usage. We present the experimental investigation carried out, on storage stability, and continuous usage stability of CYTOP (grade A) electret. In this work, thin-film fabrication of four samples of CYTOP (CTL-809A) electret of same thickness was carried out; and corona charged with different voltages. One of them was stored and the others were used in vertical vibration based cantilever-electret micro-power generation for 52 days. Their surface charge decay (by surface potential measurement) with number of days was investigated. It was found out that the surface charges of the fabricated CYTOP electrets deteriorated faster with continuous usage than in storage.

Smart Governance: urban regeneration and integration policies in Europe. Turin and Malmö case studies PDF

Chiara Testoni, Andrea Boeri

Integration policies point out not only the objective of social cohesion but also the need to strengthen foreign community leadership, so that they can actively contribute to local socio - economic development. This implies a considerable degree of coordination between the public bodies, the communities, the social and economic operators. Local governments find it more and more difficult to manage the substantial immigration phenomena by efficient integration policies. The topic of integration of the foreign community, though part of Europe 2020 Strategy as concerns an inclusive growth, is not widely treated by smart cities, more inclined to work on smart and sustainable growth. The paper proposes some examples that can provide local authorities insights for the adoption of integration policies within an integrated development process and it illustrates the case studies of “Barriera di Milano” regeneration program in Turin (Italy) and of some neighbourhood regenerations in Malmö (Sweden). In particular, the paper discusses some tools of smart governance applied to urban regeneration interventions, such as community empowerment actions within a strategic planning process and community involvement methods through the practise of living labs and urban farming. The smart aspect of the operations consists of the adoption of integration policies functional not only to promote social cohesion but also to promote local economic development through immigrant community empowerment.

Evaluation of Teratogenic potentials of Bronchodilator drug on offsprings of Albino rats PDF

Abd El Wahab El Ghareeb, Hamida Hamdi, EL-Sayed Fahim Taha, Heba Ali

The present study aimed to evaluate the teratogenic effects of the mucolytic and broncholytic drug (mucophylline) administered daily orally to the pregnant rats and nursing rats. The pregnant animals treated during the gestational period (5th – 18th day of gestation) with doses 30.83 mg/Kg and 66.61 mg/Kg the human equivalent dose (HED). On the 19th of gestation, the animals were sacrificed and the numbers of implanation sites, resorbed and live fetuses were counted. The fetal weight, length and tail length were recorded. Results showed decreased weight gain, fetal growth retardation during gestation period was dose dependent. Hematoma and anomalies of limbs were detected morphologically in the fetuses of maternally treated groups. Fetal skeletal abnormalities included lack of bones ossification as well as unossified centers of cervical, thoracic and sacral vertebrae and dumbelled shape vertebrae and bent ribs.

Intrusion Detection System using K2 Self Learning Algorithm and Open Attacking Plateform PDF

Md Tarik, Amandeep Singh

The goal of a this IDS is to identify malicious behaviour that targets a network or a host and its resources. Intrusion detection parameters are numerous and in many cases they present uncertain and imprecise causal relationships which can affect attack types. A Bayesian Network here used is a graphical modeling tool which used to model decision problems containing uncertainty. BN and K2 learning along with open attacking system is used here to make an automatic self-learning intrusion detection system based on signature recognition. But here is the goal to detect not only signature of attack also identifying the new pattern of new attack and storing its signature to database. Also here a host based IDS attached to backside of the network based IDS to provide security not only from outside but also from insiders.

Quality of Service based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Network- A Review PDF

Spriha Johari, Charu Wahi

An ad hoc network contains a group of wireless mobile nodes which together forms a momentary network having infrastructure less or decentralized administration. It basically works on the principle of multi-hop relaying. A Quality of Service(QoS) is the set of a services which is offered by the network to the client. Provisioning of QoS aims at attaining a network behavior which is more deterministic so that information carried by the network can be delivered and network resources can be efficiently utilized. The ad hoc network has limited bandwidth, therefore an efficient use of network bandwidth is very essential. Achieving guaranteed quality of service(QoS) in MANET is an issue than in wired networks because of mobility of nodes, multihop transmission, contention for accessing the channel, and a lack of centralized coordination. This paper presents current state-of-the-art of various QoS routing protocols proposed by eminent researchers to support QoS routing in MANETs.

A Review and Study on Fingerprint Based Gender Classification using Classified Techniques PDF

Ganesh B. Dongre, Dr. S. M. Jagade

In the era of technology and science, a gender classification have immense value. Fingerprint based gender classification helps to analyze the data in easy way and help to sort out the data. Now a days finger print based gender classification is seen in civilian, industrial, commercial, and unique Id of nation as AADHAR card. As the fingerprints are unique, gender classification helps to minimize the large data. It is utilized by using simple scanner which is available in affordable prices. This review study introduces various methods of fingerprint based gender classification, its limitations and strengths. After having study of this review we can try to increase the efficiency which will help for further research work also. This paper will help to design and develop an efficient algorithm for the fingerprint based intelligent gender identification system and after testing the samples, the performance efficiency of the proposed system found to be 88% for female and 78 % for male.

Effect of Flue Supports in the Analysis of Multiflue RCC Chimney PDF

Ms.Choppalli Kalyani R, Dr. Yogesh D Patil

It has been observed that most of the existing studies have focused on the load considerations for design of tall chimneys. To make a further contribution to this study, this paper presents the load parameters considered for the design of RCC chimney and focuses on one of the structural parameters of RCC chimneys viz. the effects of number of supports to the flue. A brief review on the types of supports is presented in this paper and analysis is carried out for different kinds of supports to the flue. The comparison of results is plotted. The software STAAD Pro and MS Excel sheets have been used for design.

A High Performance Algorithm for EMG Signal Denoising With Classification Using Multilevel Dwt PDF

Mangala Gowri S .G, Dr.Cyril Prasanna Raj P

Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. An electromyography detects the electrical potential generated by muscle cells when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated. The signals can be analyzed to detect medical abnormalities, activation level, or recruitment order or to analyze the biomechanics of human or animal movement.Wavelet Transform (WT) has been applied for removing noise from the surface EMG. Gaussianity tests are conducted to understand changes in muscle contraction and to quantify the effectiveness of the noise removal process.Wavelets are functions that satisfy certain mathematical requirements and are used in representing data or other functions. In this paper we analyze the performance of different level DWT for EMG signal denoising and compare the results considering mean square error (MSE).The Denoising analysis concludes using bior multi level wavelet and the mean was optimal in nature for different global threshold.

Numerical Analysis and Simulation Implementation for SVPWM Based on a New Region Segment Configuration Method PDF

Abd Almula Gebreel, Longya Xu

This paper proposes a new method to utilize four region segments for all sectors for a neutral point clamped (NPC) diode three-level inverter by using the space vector modulation (SVM) technique. This proposed method can be extended to more than three levels with appropriate modifications by generating appropriate inverter output voltage vectors. This paper also focuses on the analysis of the region segment configurations to realize three-level inverter operation in order to guarantee off and on equalization for all 27 switching statuses. Sectors and their regions are analyzed in order to explain the Vref movement around the original point. Segments for each region in all six sectors are configured by a new method to determine three-level inverter waveforms. There are 27 switching statuses for an NPC three-level inverter that are exploited to extract region segments, and the waveforms can be drawn manually. This study aims to explain, via simple and easy algebraic expressions, the operation of the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) on the three-level voltage inverter. The theoretical study was numerically simulated using MATLAB-SIMULINK®.

Hierarchical Cluster-Based FIFO Asynchronous Data Transfer Technique for Reducing Congestion for Energy Efficient State Wireless Sensor Network-HAEEW PDF

Samuel Erskine, Khaled Ellethy, Linfeng Zhang

The applications of WSN can be quiet numerous. In applications like battlefield monitoring, grid power generation, health systems, sensors are deployed on large scale. During such deployment, energy efficiency must be proficient, which requires clustering, in the WSN architecture. Clustering architecture requires maintenance of sensor nodes due to malfunctioning of sensor which becomes depleted of energy. As some nodes leaves and some are being replaced, congestion is introduced in the network due the limited processing capability of memory, computations, and bandwidth condition.

A Study on Primitive Holes of Certain Graphs PDF

Johan Kok, N.K. Sudev

A hole of a simple connected graph ?? is a chordless cycle ?? , where ?N, =4, in the graph ??. The girth of a simple connected graph ?? is the smallest cycle in ??, if any such cycle exists. It can be observed that all such smallest cycles are necessarily chordless. We call the cycle ?? in a given graph ?? a primitive hole of that graph. We introduce the notion of the primitive hole number of a graph as the number of primitive holes present in that graph. In this paper, we determine the primitive hole number of certain standard graphs. Also, we determine the primitive hole number of the underlying graph of a Jaco graph, ?? ( ), where ???, =4 recursively in terms of the underlying Jaco graph ?? ( ), with prime Jaconian vertex ?? . The notion of primitive degree of the vertices of a graph is introduced and the primitive degree of the vertices of certain graphs is also determined in this paper.

Surface Roughness Prediction for Roller Burnishing of Al Alloy 6061 Using Response Surface Method PDF

Kiran A Patel, Dr. Pragnesh K Brahmbhatt

In recent years, industries have aggressively been deploying the method to improve the quality of surface roughness due to its effect on fabricated components. Burnishing is one of the best chip less finishing process in which a material will undergo the plastic deformation by pressing the burnishing tool against the work piece. It is possible to achieve a surface roughness up to 0.1µm by recent developments. The burnishing process provides a good surface roughness in addition of mechanical characteristic improvement by uniform stress distribution into the surface layer. This paper will show the effect of various process parameters on the surface roughness for aluminium alloy 6061. Design of experiment techniques, i.e. response surface methodology, has been applied to accomplish the objective of the experimental study. The generated mathematical model can predict the value of surface roughness for all conditional value of variables and also check the accuracy of machine as well.

General method for data indexing using clustering methods PDF

Karwan Jacksi, Sobhan Badiozamany

Indexing data plays a key role in data retrieval and search. New indexing techniques are proposed frequently to improve search performance. Some data clustering methods are previously used for data indexing in data warehouses. In this paper, we discuss general concepts of data indexing, and clustering methods that are based on representatives. Then we present a general theme for indexing using clustering methods. There are two main processing schemes in databases, Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) and Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). The proposed method is specific to stationary data like in OLAP. Having general indexing theme, different clustering methods are compared. Here we studied three representative based clustering methods; standard K-Means, Self Organizing Map (SOM) and Growing Neural Gas (GNG). Our study shows that in this context, GNG out performs K-Means and SOM.

Effect Of Stress On Male And Female Albino Rats An Experimental Study PDF


The aim of the study is to understand the affection due to stress in both male and female albino rats. 24 albino rats were used for the study .The animals were divided into two groups, control and study, study group was exposed to heat stress for 10 days and the levels of corticosterone was estimated before and after study. Osmotic fragility was estimated in both the groups. Both the genders were compared and the results tabulated statistically.

A Study on Energy Efficient Routing Techniques for Wireless Adhoc Network PDF

Mrs. Lavanya C B, Prof. Asha K N, Prof. Asha Rani K P

Conserving the battery energy of the nodes in the wireless network is the most important task as these mobile devices are battery operated. Many methods have been presented to conserve and improve the energy level of these devices. In this paper we summarize energy efficient routing based on various metrics such as power awareness, residual energy etc.

The Pedagogy of Love Among Single Lady Teacher in the Academe: An Inquiry in Hermeneutics Phenomenology PDF


This hermeneutics study attempted to bridge the gap and issues on pedagogy of love among single lady teachers in the academe. I believe that this study provides unique solutions in order to minimize the differences between things to be closer and no further distinctions among the single lady teachers. Methods of data collection used are in-depth interview and focus group discussion. These 5 single lady teachers allowed for in-depth data collection and another 5 single lady teachers for the focus group discussion with repetition of interviews, and had provided the possibility for saturation to be achieved. Hermeneutic phenomenology was utilized as research design in the study. It was noted by several authors that in hermeneutic approach, I involved myself as a researcher in the study and consider myself as one of the informants of the study to share my experiences. All of my participants are elementary teachers from Davao City. The study unveiled that the single lady teachers in the academe practiced their pedagogy of love by teaching with love and compassion through teaching their students proficiently in instilling values and life skills, and responding to the call for teaching vocation. Anent to this, they treated their learners in the classroom by setting discipline and firm hand, resourcefulness and flexibility, going extra mile, and strengthening partnership with family in the course of collaboration. In like manner, single lady teachers shared their insights out from their experiences that they have joys and rewards in teaching, lessons and realizations, call of the profession, thoughts on being single, thoughts in marriage, anxieties and fears, and needs, hopes and aspirations.

The Role of Knowledge Systems in Supporting Environmental Decision Making Systems PDF

Dr. Mohammed A. Ahmed AL-dujaili

The central and increasingly contentious roles of modern technology in companies have given rise to a plethora of scientific and practical controversies over the production processes. This research aims to harness the concept of knowledge systems as an essential element in the dissemination of an organisation's knowledge to support planning, analysis and environmental decision-making systems that could improve some types of environmental systems. This is because when the companies effectively gain leverage of knowledge systems this assists with rapid decision-making with fewer oversights or errors. This will enhance the environmental performance. A conceptual model based on the literature review and consultations with knowledge workers is developed. Also, a pilot study with collaborating organisations which are active in manufacturing in Iraq was conducted to validate the conceptual model and facilitate exploratory investigation regarding the relationships. The surveys were administered on random samples within these firms. The study however identified high correlation between knowledge systems and environmental performance. Also, a computer based relationship between environmental decision-making systems and environmental performance was developed. Accordingly, the research limitations/ implications have focused on exploring the perceptual impacts of knowledge systems in supporting environmental decision-making systems. The clarification of outcomes must be taken with cautious. Accordingly, this paper discusses the role of knowledge systems; namely, environmental systems data mining in knowledge systems for environmental applications. Therefore, the data analysis in this research shows the relationship between this research and some published work within this field. The results analysis has confirmed that knowledge systems play a fundamental role in encouraging and improving the exchange of experience. This leads to improving creativity and performance and the removing of barriers and obstacles. Where tensions exist in organisations, (e.g. between production and environment), they must be solved by top management and by push and pull processes of knowledge. Consequently, the conceptual model in this research has been applicable to the companies’ experiences. This is because the model has identified gaps and inadequacies in their KSs and processes. It has taken into account both formal and informal knowledge transfer methods. Thereby, in a manufacturing context KSs can include regular updates on the progress of the company at a company board level, as well as other intra-company reporting systems at all levels of the management hierarchy.

Web and Text Mining – Sentiment Analysis PDF

Ms. Anjana Agrawal

Social media is a blur of tweets, shares and content. Some of the interesting trend shows that 72% of all internet users are now active on social media and 71% of user’s access social media from a mobile device. Although social media as a platform is quite population in young generation (18-29 year olds have an 89% usage), this is being used by every age group. 30-49 age bracket sits at 72%, 60% of 50 to 60 year olds are active on social media and in 65 plus bracket, 43% are using social media.

Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf-Extracts from Eight Tropical Trees: Prospects for Environmentally-Friendly Dye Compounds for Smart Windows PDF

Temitope Abodunrin, Chidi Uhuegbu , Joseph Olugbuyiro

The crude extract of eight specimen leaf samples were studied by phytochemical analysis for investigating prospects of the extracts for environmentally-friendly dye compounds that could be useful for smart windows. The phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins, saponins, thus suggesting presence of compounds that could be useful as dye for smart windows in the chromophore of the plant. As a preliminary test, dye pigment grown on glass from the extracts, using the Solution Growth Technique, exhibited low absorbance and high reflectance at transmittance set at 400 nm when studied using UV/VIS spectroscopy between 190 nm and 1100 nm wavelength i.e. within the visible range of light in the electromagnetic spectrum. These indicated suitability of the leaf-extracts from the studied plants for growing environmentally-friendly dye compounds that could be used for smart windows.

Knowledge Sharing in Higher Education- KMEduSoft PDF

Prof. Ms. Ulka Toro (Gulavani), Dr. Milind J. Joshi.

A portal is a personalized collection of information, content and services. Knowledge Management is used to create, share, store and apply knowledge effectively in the organization. The aim of design of portal is to facilitate knowledge sharing among teachers , students and researchers in higher learning institutions. The objective is to improve collaboration and communication among different departments in higher learning institutions . To ensure success in higher education, there is a need to identify the knowledge that each component contributes to the system and to develop appropriate methodology for knowledge sharing purpose so that available knowledge is used by the stakeholders as per requirement. The proposed KMEduSoft system is dynamic web content knowledge portal designed to share tacit and explicit knowledge among registered users .

Performance Analysis of Anaerobic Digestion to extract Biogas from Kitchen Waste PDF

Abishek Joel J, Murali G, Ravishankar M., Sibichakravarthy M, Sundhirasekar A

In day to day life, large amount of food waste is unutilized and disposed as wastage in many places such as restaurants, hostels, food courts, cafeteria, marriage functions etc., which is used for generation of biogas. Biogas production requires anaerobic digestion for which biogas reactors are required. In this project food waste was collected from different places as feedstock for the reactor. The anaerobic digestion of food waste produces biogas, a valuable energy resource. Anaerobic digestion is a microbial process for production of biogas, which consists of Primarily methane (CH4) & carbon dioxide (CO2).


Okoronkwo Madubuezi C. and IROEGBU CHIBUISI

Apart from natural mineral resources, another important sector to the economy of Nigeria as a country is Agriculture. Nigerian Agricultural sector is one of the major backbones of the national income. Also, majority of her citizens earns their living from Agriculture. These include agronomy, horticulture, forestry, aquaculture, animal husbandry, livestock science, veterinary medicine, and food processing etc. Electronic Agriculture is an area focusing on the development of agricultural and rural improvement through enhanced information and communication methods. It plays a central role in facilitating the exposure of farmers to a variety of information. In view of the importance of agriculture to the society, it became paramount to develop different computer software packages to enhance the knowledge of the farmers and empower the rural community by fostering participatory communications.

The Impact of Structured Methodologies on Systems Development PDF

Dr Faisal H. Nesayef

The aim of this paper is to give an appreciation of System Development, investigating the traditional approach, and finally give a rationale for the development and introduction of the structured methodologies in systems development.

Analysis and Measurement of Long Term Evolution Physical Downlink Shared Channel PDF

Raman Trivedi, Rashi Bhargava

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a next generation standard by 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) consortium. In this paper, the physical layer (PHY) of LTE transceiver is analyzed in downlink transmission for Tactical LTE application. Simulations of the physical layer of LTE transceiver are obtained with the use of LTE System Libraries by AWR Visual System Simulator (VSS) ver.10.04-trial license. The LTE resource grid for transmission on air is generated using Mathworks MATLAB 2014b LTE System Toolbox- Evaluation License. Measurements of PvT, Occupied bandwidth, CCDF and BER are obtained using Texas Instruments Evaluation Modules (EVMs). These results are presented to show the performance of LTE transceivers in Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH).

Wireless Sensor Network for Machine Health Monitoring PDF

Pooja Rai, Sourav Dhar, Depanjan Bhattacharjee

Wireless Sensor Network has a growing demand worldwide. This network plays a vital role in creating reliable and scalable system making human life easier and faster. WSN is a sensitive network which is effective and efficient. In this paper we have implemented WSN for keeping regular updates on a health of a machine and its control. For wireless communication purpose Zigbee protocol is deployed. Required algorithms have been developed allowing evaluation of additional parameters using data from measurements held.

Comparison between Resilient and Standard Back Propagation Algorithms Efficiency in Pattern Recognition PDF

Hanaa M. Mushgil, Dr. Haithem A. Alani, Dr. Loay E. George

Pattern recognition systems are systems that automatically identify objects based on features derived from its properties and according this the Neural Network (NN) could be pattern recognition system, so we made this study to compare the performance of the neural network in pattern recognition using learning algorithms: basic Back propagation (BP) with momentum (in both modes pattern and batch ) and Resilient BP (Rprop), these algorithms are tested in two different classification tasks, the first one considered to be simple data set and the second one , which is noisy, considered to be difficult data set , the Rprop solves the first problem with less time and number of iterations than basic BP ,although Rprop lessens or avoids some disadvantages of standard BP; but with increasing the problem complexity standard BP (in pattern mode ) gives the best results .

Evaluation of Spatial and Temporal Changes of Soil Quality near Sorang Hydroelectric Power Project in District Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh, India PDF

Renu Lata, Madhuri S. Rishi, Dinesh Talwar and Ranjna Sharma

Soil is a natural body of mineral and organic material differentiated into horizons, which differ among themselves as well as from underlying materials in their morphology, physical make-up, chemical composition and biological characteristics. Soil quality is one of the most important factors in sustaining the global biosphere and developing sustainable agricultural practices. It has been defined in several different ways in recent years from view points of bioproductivity, sustainability, environmental protection, and human and animal health. The present study was carried out to determine the potential of soil in the study area and to identify the impacts of urbanization and construction of Sorang Hydroelectric power project on the soil quality of the study area. Soil samples collected from 20 locations were analyzed for physico- chemical characteristics. After analyzing soil samples it was found that the pH of soil at various sites lies within the normal range which is optimum for most of the crops. Soil samples of the study area were slightly enriched with Na2O, with average content of 3.20%. Sodium concentration in the soil of the study area was little higher than normal value of 1.5%, but, do not indicate any potential for soil salinization or adverse impacts on soil productivity.

A Probabilistic Analysis of Network Selection Strategy for Heterogeneous Wireless Network PDF

A.Manokar, C.Amali

Next generation wireless networks will integrate multiple radio access technologies (RAT) to provide seamless connectivity to mobile users. Unified network selection can be achieved through a vertical handover (VHO) in which connection can be handed over among different RAT. In the existing literature, different kinds of network selection algorithms have been proposed to select the optimal network in heterogeneous wireless environment. But, uncertainty associated with network selection process is not yet modeled. Usually dynamics of network selection occur due to diverse characteristics of networks and also dynamic behavior of mobile users. These dynamic factors cause the variation in the utility and price offered by the network. In this paper, the impact of variation in the utility and price on the network selection and transition probabilities is analyzed through Markov model. The network level quality of service (QoS) is evaluated using new call blocking and hand off call dropping probabilities in terms of steady state probabilities.

Two Tales of Privacy in Online Social Networking PDF

Punam P. Sawant, Ankita T. Bobhate, Sneha M. Jadhav, Mangesh K. Gosavi

Privacy being the main issue in social networking site. We all are users of such social networking sites. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, E-mail, and Blogging such site’s popularity is increasing day by day. Though, to protect the personal data of each user, these sites have their own privacy policies now it is necessity to have user level privacy policy. In this paper, we are trying to specify the problem regarding privacy and how privacy can also be achieved at user level.

A Novel Low Current Ripple Magnetically Coupled Interleaved DC-DC Buck-Boost Converter with High Efficiency and Continuous Transfer-Function for Fuel-Cell Applications PDF

V.Samavatian, F.Mardani, M.Nourmohammadpour

Efficiency, steady state analysis along with dynamic operation discussion of DC-DC converters are undoubtedly important issues in proficiency of renewable energy exploitation. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using a DC-DC magnetically coupled interleaved DC-DC buck-boost converter for fuel-cell applications. While a step-up/step-down voltage transfer ratio has been achieved, the proposed converter exhibits non-pulsating I/O currents using interleave technique making it very suitable for renewable applications. Besides thoroughly elaboration of the steady state analysis, dynamic analysis including the converter control-to-output transfer function, which is continuous between two operation modes using I/O magnetic coupling, and a small signal ac equivalent circuit model based on state space averaging (SSA) method is also presented to help the designing of closed loop controllers for this proposed converter. Furthermore the experimental results are presented to verify the theoretical expected merits of the converter including high efficiency, non-pulsating I/O currents and continuous control-to-output transfer function. These Experimental results show impressive benefits of the proposed converter.

Rendering Interactive Plugin-less 3D Models in a Web Browser PDF

Trisha Malhotra;Kunal Nayyar; Krishna Teja V; Prof. Shilpa Nimbre

With the advent of 3D technology, everything in 3D is deemed superior than in 2D. 3D graphics can be difficult, especially 3D in a web browser.3D in a browser unlocks many potential to how we use a website, from blogging to E-commerce. Instead of viewing images, users can be given the option to view the model or item in 3D, with real textures and lighting effects. This paper presents an approach to integrate 3D models created and designed in 3D modeling softwares like AutoCAD 123D and Blender, with web to view them in web browsers. Instead of using pure WebGL, we combine it with Three.js which is a JavaScript 3D library. All the heavy lifting is done with three.js without sacrificing much flexibility. It is compatible with 3D Max, Maya and Blender making it easier to model and thereby introduce in the web format.Loading the model needs compression and decompression. Depending on the model size and internet bandwidth the latency may vary. Experiments with many 3D models show promising results. Our solution leans upon rendering the 3D graphical data along with real-time interactivity as an important feature, which can revolutionize the web in a subtle yet strong way.

DBFST: Detecting Distributed Brute Force Attack on a Single Target PDF

AL-Zwuiany Muhanad M. K., Prof. Huang Dongjun

While reading this paper, a lot of servers may be coming under attack by hackers at different sites of the Internet. The actions of these hackers have different motivations and purposes and brute force attack is one of common ways of attack deployed by hackers. Secure Shell (SSH) is one of the widespread attacked servers.

Fortification of Multiple Parallel Assay Operations with Cross Contamination Avoidance in a Restricted Biochip PDF

Debasis Dhal, Arpan Chakraborty, Piyali Datta, Sudipta Roy, and Rajat Kumar Pal

Digital microfluidic biochips are modification many areas of Biochemistry, Biomedical sciences, and Microelectronics. It is also known as ‘Lab-on-a-Chip’ for its recognition as an alternative to laboratory experiments. In recent times, because of urgency and cost efficacy, several assay operations are required to be performed at the same time. So, parallelism is a must in designing biochips. Having an area of a given chip as a constraint, how efficiently we can use a restricted sized chip and how much parallelism can be built-in are the objectives of this paper. A specific application of an assay may characterize a sample where, say only one type of reagent and multiple samples have been considered, or vice versa, and determine some parameter(s) of the sample(s) under requirement in parallel. In our experimentation, we essentially do this task in parallel for five such sets of sub-regions of a given restricted sized chip in digital microfluidics using an array based partitioning pin assignment technique, where cross contamination problem has also been considered, and efficiency of proper taxonomy of a given sample has also been enriched.

Transfer of Knowledge Pod before Code Construction for Effective Defect Management PDF

Bhagavant Deshpande, Dr Suma V

The software industry is facing multiple challenges to reduce the cost of production of software and to increase the quality of production. This can be achieved by working smartly through better models of process than applying conventional practices. Since, high quality software has one of the dimensions being defect-free, it is required for all software developing organizations to ensure development of software with minimal or negligible defects. To address defects, there are several strategies which all organizations are following in their developmental process. However, there are still defects which get injected during the process and make the software to be not up to the satisfaction of the customers. Therefore, an empirical investigation is carried out in various software industries in order to study the impact of pre-production defects. Investigation results have further led towards introduction of knowledge pod as an integral part of software development process. This paper however has brought out the need for integration of knowledge pod before code construction phase of software development process. Implementation and stringent follow up of knowledge pod ensures reduced defect injection rate and hence leads towards developing high quality software resulting in total customer satisfaction.

Border Security Control via Distributed WSN Technology PDF

Mosad H Alkhathami,Dr Lubna Alazzawi

Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) combine sensing, signal processing, decision capability, and wireless networking capability in a compact, low power system. Among countries, border protection is a sensitive issue and measures are being taken to improve security at the borders. In addition to physical fencing, smart methods using technology are being employed to increase the alertness of security officials at the borders. Border control using wireless sensor network is one way to do.

Design of High Efficiency Single Input Multiple Output Converter PDF


The aim of this study is to develop a high-efficiency single-input multiple-output (SIMO) dc–dc converter. The converter proposed can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage dc and middle-voltage output terminals. The high-voltage dc can be taken as the main power for a high-voltage dc load or for the front terminal of a dc–ac inverter. Middle-voltage output terminals can supply powers for individual middle-voltage dc loads or for charging auxiliary power sources (e.g., battery modules). In this, a coupled-inductor with dc–dc converter scheme utilizes only one power switch with the properties of voltage clamping, soft switching, and the corresponding device specifications are designed. The switching pulse for the switch is provided by the PID and Fuzzy controller. As a result, the objectives of high-efficiency conversion, step- up ratio, and two output voltages with different levels can be obtained. The SIMO converter topology and its controllers are designed by using MATLAB/Simulink.

A Review on Design Development of Multi-Link 5-Dimensional Coupling for Parallel Offset & Angular Transmission PDF

Tushar B. Shinde, S.V.C.E.T,Rajuri

The Five Dimensional Couplings are designed to accommodate 5 degrees of shaft misalignment. Five Dimensional Couplings offer two parallel misalignments and three angular misalignments capabilities. The acting forces within the coupling can be precisely calculated, assuring a sound coupling design which is especially important for heavy-duty applications. If these shaft misalignments exceed the limit of the selected coupling capacity, excess side loads are introduced into the equipment which can cause vibrations, life reduction or failure of vital machine components such as bearings, motors, etc.

Low bit rate efficient video compression based on Quantized motion vector PDF

Poorva Waingankar, Prajakta Pawar

Motion compensation it is an algorithmic technique used in the encoding of video data for an efficient video compression. Motion compensation uses the realization of motion of object in order to achieve best compression. This paper introduced a modified coding technique based on the Quantized motion vector. The key tool of modified technique is the lossless coding of motion vectors. The experimental results show an efficient video compression based on Quantized motion vector by carried out comparison of bit rate, PSNR, MSE values of respective videos. The Bit rate, PSNR and MSE comparison of these videos is carried out using Block matching algorithm& Huffman coding. Huffman's algorithm derives the table for encoding a source symbol such as a character in a file and that are based on the determining probability or frequency of occurrence for each possible value of the source symbol. H.264/AVC which is block oriented motion compensation based video coding standard offers many coding tools for achieving high compression gains than other standards. Several problems are faced in order to get an efficient implementation of the coding technique & prediction of the quantized motion vectors.

Optimization of Hard turning process parameters of AISI D2 under dry cutting conditions PDF

Prof. M. G. Rathi, Uttara R. Salunke

The present paper outlines an experimental study to optimize the effects of cutting parameters on surface roughness while machining hardened AISI D2 cold work tool steel (60 HRc) with ceramic cutting tool. A combined technique using Taguchi’s orthogonal array and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to investigate characteristics. The results indicate that cutting speed is has significant role to play in producing lower surface roughness followed by feed rate.


Ms. Payal Kantute, Mrs. Jaya Ingole

Multi-Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM) is a suitable solution for implementation of high speed data transmission in ultra wideband spectrum by dividing the spectrum into available multiple bands. In MB-OFDM system the most important part is base band of transmitter. The standard aims at the high data transmission rates of110 Mb/s over 10 meters, 220 Mb/s over 4 meters and 480Mb/s over 1 meter. The structure of MB-OFDM system transmitter using HDL is introduced in this paper .The design has been validated with active HDL.The results show that all modules designed has achieved the expected purpose both in precision and resource, with simplicity and high efficiency and can meet the demand of MB-OFDM transmitter baseband base systems.

Preparation of Papers for International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research PDF

These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IJSER JOURNALS. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word 6.0 or later. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at IJSER. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column. Don’t use all caps for research paper title.

Reduction Kinetics of Egyptian Iron Ore by Non Coking Coal PDF

Nagwa Mohamed Hashem, Bahaa Ahmed Salah, Naglaa Ahmed El-hussiny, Said Anwar Sayed, Mohamed Gamal Khalifa, Mohamed El-Menshawi Hussein Shalabi

Reduction kinetics of El-Baharia iron ore by solid coal briquettes in 0.5 liter/min nitrogen flow rate were investigated at different temperatures ranging from 700°C to 950°C. It was found that the best reduction properties were found at 950°C, so the kinetic models were determined. Also the main crystalline phases of reduced briquettes at 950°C were metallic iron (syn. Fe),.

Project Charter PDF


A project charter explains what the project is all about and how the project will be approached. It also registers the names of all the shareholders. Project charter is a crucial part of the project management inception and the phases of the project planning. Additionally, company will refer to the project charter during the whole project life.

Genetic Instabilities in H. pylori infected Cardiovascular Diseases PDF

Vipin Viswanath, Sunil Rao Padmaraj, Dinesh Roy D and T Vijayakumar

The association between Helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach and ischemic heart disease has been documented by many studies. The present study is focused to evaluate the role of H. pylori infection and genetic instability of the host genome and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Four groups each with 50 subjects were included and consists of H. pylori infected patients with CVD, H. pylori infected patients without CVD and also CVD patients without H. pylori infection. The results were compared with 50 normal, healthy age and sex matched controls. Total and LDL cholesterol values, blood sugar, Aspartate aminotransferase, and high sensitive CRP were statistically higher in H. pylori subjects than the controls. The mean break per cell value was found to have significant correlation with the above parameters and was higher in H. pylori infected patients with CVD. The lipid profiles of H. pylori patients with and without CVD were statically different from that of the controls. The study suggests that impaired DNA repair also is a hallmark of H. pylori infection in-vivo. Hence it was concluded that H. pylori contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of CVD and also the DNA repair efficiency plays a predictive role in the H. pylori seropositive subjects. The treatment for H. pylori should be initiated in all patients in order to prevent the progression to CVD.

Effects of an endoscope and rotation on peristaltic flow in a tube with long wavelength PDF

G. A. Yahya and M. F. Sanaa

The objective of this project is to study examines the problem of peristaltic flow in a tube with an endoscope subjected to rotation. The effect of an endoscope and rotation of the peristaltic flow of a Jeffrey fluid through the cylindrical cavity between concentric tubes is investigated. The analytical expressions for the pressure gradient, velocity, pressure rise, friction force on the inner and outer tubes and shear stress are obtained in the physical domain. Effect of the non-dimensional wave amplitude, the rotation, the ratio of relaxation to retardation time, the radius ratio and the non-dimensional volume flow is analyzed theoretically and computed numerically. Comparison is made with the results obtained in the presence of rotation and an endoscope.

Enhancement of chromium plating by Nano ceramic particles PDF

MSc. Eng. Talib Abdulameer Jasim

Cr- Al2O3 Nano composite coatings with various contents of Al2O3 nanoparticles were prepared by electrodeposition inoptimized Cr plating bath containing different concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles. Direct current electrocodeposition technique wasused to deposit chromium layers with and without Al2O3 nanoparticles on mild carbon steel. The effects of current density, stirring rateand concentration of nanoparticles in the plating bath were investigated. Energy dispersive analysis technique was used to verify the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticles in the coated layers. Thecorrosion behaviors of coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopymethods in 0.05 mol/L HCl, 1 mol/L NaOH and 3.5% NaCl (mass fraction), respectively. Microhardness measurements and pin-on-disctribometer technique were used to investigate the wear behavior of the coatings.

Optimal Design of High-Speed Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Using Bees Algorithm PDF

Amin Ghaghishpour

Permanent magnet synchronous machines become more and more popular due to their reliable construction and very good performance in mechatronics systems. Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) are one of the most proper and efficient motors in electricity industries, which are good candidates for applications such as naval and space systems, electric vehicles and, etc. This paper presents a multiphysic modeling of an interior permanent-magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) dedicated to high speed, including magnetic, electric, thermal, and mechanical aspects. The proposed analytical models are verified using finite-element (FE) computations. The bees algorithm is used to optimal design of IPMSM for a high-speed compress or application that develops 30 kW at 20 000 r/min. The simulation results show that the proposed method has high performance.

Acid Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Content of Sawdust to Fermentable Sugars for Ethanol Production PDF

Adeeyo Opeyemi A, Ayeni Augustine O, Oladimeji Temitayo E, Oresegun Oyinlola M

This study evaluates the yield of glucose from acid hydrolysis of cellulosic content of sawdust, at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, and the effect of yeast concentration on its subsequent fermentation to ethanol. The method used involves acid hydrolysis of sawdust, with varying acid molarities of 18M, 15M, 10M, 5M and 1M. The product, consisting mainly of simple sugars, was subsequently fermented with varied concentrations of yeast of 0.5g/20ml, 1g/20ml, 3g/20ml, 5g/20ml and 7g/20ml in order to obtain ethanol. The result obtained shows that there is a gradual increase in the glucose yield with increasing acid molarity from 1M until a critical optimum point is obtained at a high acid concentration of 15M. Beyond the molarity of 15M up to the 18M limit, there exists a decline in the ethanol yield, from the optimum point. The ethanol yield from the fermentation of the resulting fermentable sugars gave the same pattern as the glucose yield irrespective of the yeast concentration used for fermentation. The evaluation of the concentration of yeast on the fermentation of hydrolsed lignocellulosic contents shows that the optimum ethanol yield is obtained at a yeast concentration of 3g/20ml for all the varying acid concentrations. A combination of acid concentration of 15M and yeast concentration of 3g/20ml therefore gives the optimum conditions, at moderate temperature and pressure, for the acid hydrolysis of sawdust’s lignocellulosic content and the fermentation of the resulting product.



Mainly nineteen cellular entities take place in mainly thirty chemical reactions in a cell. The cell is divided into two when the cellular entities are doubled at a time. In this way growth process takes place in a living body.



We knew the genetics of X-linked diseases for the population existing in reality in Roy,S. From this we have tried here to know the age of a popuation and to verify Darwin’s theory of evolution mathematically.


M.Manisha, B.Kavithra

The most important aspect that can make the experience of a tourist good or bad is the availability of relevant information about the place and the location. Right now the only source of information about various monuments and places is through human guides. The guides might not know the language of the traveller. This paper describes the development of a low cost portable device with the headphone connected, so that the tourists can carry with them when they travel. In this project a complete system will be implemented and demonstrated in giving accurate information to the users,in a language of their choice. This project will also provide the tourists with context aware information,that is relevant to the monument and the location the tourist. This described here will use a RFID technology and this can be used in many different locations like government offices and hospitals to give directions and information to users.

Conceptualization and Ergonomic Analysis of a Typical Unicycle PDF

M.V.Muthukumar, R.Rajesh, Arun Prakash R

An unicycle is a fast growing vehicle for undergoing transportation. Due to several advantages of unicycle when compared to other vehicles, an effort is made in this work to study the existing design of unicycle in the Indian market and provide the comfortable drive to the unicyclers. The existing design lacks on the prospects of stability and safety. The drawbacks identified in the existing design were concentrated as critical aspects in this work. The critical aspects include forward and backward stability, uncomfortable rider posture-handle bar -pedal relations. For maintaining the stability, continuous human attention and control is needed otherwise it may lead to the fatigue problems to the rider who rides the unicycle. The concepts were generated using freehand sketches to resolve the problems in existing design. The concept evaluation has been done using Pugh chart selection matrix. The selected concept is modelled using CAD software and ergonomic analysis is done using CATIA V5 using the Indian anthropometric data.


Omokhua G. E., Aigbe H.I and Uko I. J.

Maesobotrya barteri is a neglected indigenous fruit tree in the tropics due to poor cultivation and lack of adequate knowledge of its silviculture. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different pre-treatments on germination and early seedling growth of Maesobotrya barteri. The pre germination treatments included soaking seeds in ethanol for 5 minutes(T1), hot water at 100?C for 5 minutes(T2), cold water for 24 hours (T3), hydrogen peroxide for 5 minutes (T4) and untreated (control, T5). Three hundred seeds were used for each treatment. Seeds treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) commenced germination after 4 days and achieved 66% germination within 14 days which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from other treatments, especially the untreated seeds which had the lowest germination of 20.4%, and commenced first germination after 21 days and 22 days respectively. The results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in growth and biomass parameters between the treatments. Average survival percentages for all the treatments were 100% (H2O2), 90% (cold water), 80% (hot water and ethanol) and 60% (control). H2O2 was consistently the most effective treatment in terms of the mean value of growth and biomass production with 24.88cm (total seedling length), 2.00mm (collar diameter), 49.27 (seedling vigor index) and 0.58g (total dry weight). Results obtained in this experiment indicate that the pre-germination treatment of Maesobotrya barteri seeds by using H2O2 can enhanced germination of the seeds by breaking dormancy. Thus for the production of Maesobotrya barteri fruit, H2O2 can be used to promote germination of its seeds.

Design and Implementation of Efficient Energy Utilization and Distribution Management with Photovoltaic System PDF

Krishnapriya S, ShafiqMansoor J

Due to increased interest for solar energy harvesting systems in recent years the number of developed system types is large. In order to choose the optimal one for future system development the analysis of common architectures being used for photovoltaic systems has been done. This paper proposes a high efficient maximum utilization and energy management system needs to consider both energy distribution and generation simultaneously to minimize the energy cost by requiring fewer solar panels. The reason of better performance is that distributed PV-systems have dual axis maximum power point tracking, therefore increase the harvest of energy by keeping the photovoltaic power generation process optimal and demand side energy management for a connected household to ensure efficient household energy management. Smart scheduling of electrical appliances has been presented.

The Future of Cloud Computing for Banking Industry PDF

Meshal Alabdulwahab

Cloud computing, being a need of today has become more and more popular because of the fact that it deploys groups of remote servers and those networks which allow centralized storage and online access to computers, laptops, and other such devices.

Wireless Power Transmission “A Potential Idea for Future” PDF

Engr. Muhammad Ahsan Javaid, Dr. Kamran Liaqat Bhatti, Engr. Zeeshan Raza, Engr. Umer Ilyas, Shan ul Haq

In this paper, we have presented the idea of cable-less power transmission. It is also stated that power can also be transmitted by wireless power transmission without using any kind of electrical conductors or wires. We have presented the idea of Microwave Power Transmission (MPT), which discussed that how power can be transmitted as microwaves. In our paper, we also included the introduction, brief history and recent work and developments in the field of wireless power transmission. The merits, demerits and applications of wireless power transmission (WPT) are also included. Many research papers and concepts on wireless power transmission are available but this technology is yet to be materialized for commercial use.

Self -Esteem as Determinant of Investors’Risk Tolerance: Mediating Role of Loss Aversion and Regret PDF

Muskaan Arora, Santha Kumari

The present study investigated how self-esteem affects risk tolerance of the investors in their investment decision making through psychological biases such as loss aversion and regret. A total of 360 males (graduate and above) of the age group 25-40 years from northern part of India participated in the study. Loss aversion was measured by lottery choice task experiment and the level of regret was measured by giving regret inducing situation followed by decision regret scale. The extent of risk tolerance of the individuals was studied by eliciting information regarding their investments using a questionnaire. Conceptual framework was formulated and tested using AMOS 20. The results supported our proposed hypotheses. It was found that low self-esteem individuals showed more loss aversion and regret as compared to the higher self-esteem individuals. In addition to this, low self-esteem individuals prefer less risk as compared to the higher self-esteem individuals. It was also found that loss aversion and regret act as mediating variables between the effect of self-esteem on the risk tolerance of the investors in their investment decisions. These results have several important implications for investors, researchers, financial planners, advisors and others.

Enterprise Security and Privacy in Public Cloud Computing Environment -The African Case. PDF

Okwor Anthony Nwachukwu

Enterprise security and privacy in public cloud computing environment in Africa is a burning issue that presents the concept of cloud computing and risk factors associated with it. With the advancement in Information technology, cloud computing has made access to computing resources a lot easier, but with that convenience has come a whole new universe of threats and vulnerabilities. The security challenges that cloud computing presents, especially for public clouds whose infrastructure and computational resources are owned by an outside party that sells those services to the general public, are formidable. Hence, this article presents the technological impacts and threats associated with cloud computing in Africa. Review method was used in this work. Works of different authors and bodies were collated and analyzed to help x-ray data accessibility, information dissemination, data integrity, privacy, and data security in a public cloud computing environment. Since cloud computing helps to keep businesses growing beyond boundary in Africa, it is recommended that more security measures should be adopted to improve data security.

Soft Generalized Separation Axioms in Soft Generalized Topological Spaces PDF

Jyothis Thomas and Sunil Jacob John

In this paper, the concepts of soft generalized µ-T0, soft generalized µ-T1, soft generalized Hausdorff, soft generalized regular, soft generalized normal and soft generalized completely regular spaces in Soft Generalized Topological Spaces are defined and studied. Further some of its properties and characterizations are established.

Seasonal Variation in Heavy Metal Concentrations in Perna viridis from Batangas City, Philippines PDF

Bryan John A. Magoling

The concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were analyzed seasonally in muscle tissues of Perna viridis (tahong) sold in the Old and New Public Markets in Batangas City, Philippines. Cadmium concentrations in Perna viridis collected from the Old and New Public Markets during wet season were significantly higher than in dry season. The mean cadmium concentrations in Perna viridis taken from Old and New Public Markets during wet season were significantly lower compared with the maximum allowable level set by the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ). Based on a person’s average diet, the heavy metal concentration detected in the study are within the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) but can still impose detrimental health risksif continuous consumption is exercised.

Inheritance study of quantifiable characters in intraspecific hybrids of promising Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) lines under normal field conditions. PDF

Syed Ahtisham Masood, Zain Naseem, Zarish Khalid Awan, Humera Razzaq and Muhammad Mahran Aslam.

Regions of the world with temperate climate are more conducive to wheat production and play chief role in the agricultural planning of any wheat producing nations. Food supply is inadequate to meet the requirement of the expanding population of world. To encounter the demand of contemporary and forthcoming, there is need to develop value-added cultivar with broad genetic base and high yielding potential. Existence of genetic diversity is preconditioned to develop a promising variety with yield stability and disease resistance. The proposed research was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics under normal field conditions on Triticum aestivum. Five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes: i.e. 9459-1, 9492, 9489, 9488 and Punjab-11 were crossed in all possible combinations by following the complete diallel scheme. Twenty five crosses and their parents were sown under Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Data of morphological and physiological traits were recorded like: flag leaf area, plant height, spike length, spike density, number of grains/spike, grain weight/spike and 1000-grain weight. The recorded data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and general and combining abilities were estimates to identify potential parents and crosses. The results withdrawn from the research experiment are dynamic for creation of promising genetic combinations and outperforming genotypes can be utilized for further evaluation or could be incorporated in breeding programs to development high yielding cultivars.

Virus and Worm Control; Tips for Safer Computing PDF


The internet today spans the globe and serves billions of users, providing an environment in which a single virus can conceivably cause rapid and widespread damage to systems throughout the world. Today new viruses sweep the planet in minutes and can corrupt data, slow networks down, or harm your reputation This paper work will look at different types of virus, virus detecting programs, common modes of transmission, prevention and control of viruses and worms. An overview of the major types of viruses and worms and how they function will be discussed. As the Internet expands its reach into more and more homes and viruses inevitably spread more rapidly, computer users have an increasing responsibility to be aware of these issues and their impact on the global computer community to avoid future disaster.

Preparation Sustainable Architectre For Energy Self-Sufficiency PDF

Doha Mohamed, Engy Atef, Ehab Hanafi Mahmoud

Working our buildings into the cycle of nature will return architecture to its very roots. In recent projects for offices in the world, the specialists make efforts to explore the idea of energy self-sufficiency. This paper describes how the implementation of sustainability will revolutionize the form of buildings and how architects in order to humanize and beautify their buildings could exploit this approach.

Identity Management in Cloud Computing: Issues, Incidents and Solutions PDF

Ashanpreet Kaur, Ramandeep Singh

Cloud computing refers to computing over the internet. Here internet refers to as cluster of clouds. Cloud computing provides its customers with a virtual cloud. The World Wide Web is casted to a single virtual computer by the cloud. Cloud computing is a very vast term. It has grown in the recent past a lot. Due to the immense advantages of cloud came the limitations too. The major hurdle is the security in the cloud. To keep the customer in your grip you need to make them sure that the data stored over the cloud is absolutely in safe hands. But the user is still in shadow of doubt, is my data safe? What if it lands into the wrong hands? How about tempering of data by unauthorized person? What if the culprits find where my data is kept? God knows what all questions will be haunting the customer. Also this paper proposes the use of user identity to manage the data saved on the cloud. This will help to achieve a safe distance from security threats. This paper will help all those in traumas to narrow out different security models and ideas in thus to secure cloud computing.

Electric Vehicles - V2G Technologies PDF

Meenal Arora, Sandeep Singh

Electric vehicle technology has become the integral part of grid operation. The vehicle is not only used as means of zero emission transportation but also as source of power. Over the time this concept has emerged and it is being researched and developed continuously which has led to emergence of reliable and low price electric vehicle. Many companies have launched their Electric vehicles like Reva by Mahindra which run on Vehicle-to-grid power (V2G) technology. V2G can also provide storage for renewable energy generation such as hybrid electric vehicle. In order to effectively tap the V2G technology it is necessary to combine the complementary strengths and to merge the complementary needs of the vehicle user and grid. The charging needed by the vehicle can be done in approximately four-five hours’ time in the parking lot, street side or in a garage. The payment collection system can be either RFID based or the money can be deducted automatically from the credit card when the card will be swiped. The paper focuses on the recent software development in measuring the range of an electric vehicle that can be covered before it needs to get recharged, the requirement of systems and processes which are needed to tap energy in vehicles and better implementation of V2G technology and the efficient development of payment collection system for electric vehicles.

Feature Extraction and Recognition Using Soft Computing Tools PDF

D. Aradhana, K. Karibasappa, A. Chennakeshava Reddy

The face is the primary focus of attention in social life playing an important role in conveying identity and emotions. A number of faces can be recognized learned throughout lifespan and identify faces at a glance even after years of separation. This skill is quite robust despite of large variations in visual stimulus due to changing condition, aging and distractions such as beard, glasses or changes in hairstyle. Computers that detect and recognize faces could be applied to a wide variety of tasks including criminal identification, security system, image and film processing, identity verification, tagging purposes and human-computer interaction. Unfortunately, developing a computational model of face detection and recognition is quite difficult because faces are complex, multidimensional and meaningful visual stimuli.

Investigation of Flushing Sediments from Large Reservoir Using Numerical Methods PDF

Dr. A.R Ghumman, Engr. Israr ul Haq

Sedimentation is a phenomenon in which eroded particles travelling with the water accumulates in the reservoirs due to change in velocities. These accumulations in reservoir reduce storage capacity and affect the service life of the project. Hydropower and Irrigation projects are considered as giants in countries economy therefore loss in storage capacity of large reservoirs due to sedimentation is very sensitive issue, in our country tarbela reservoir is facing the said problem and now have become burning issue. Pakistan government and WAPDA are working of solutions for sediment flushing of tarbela reservoir. In my Research work I have selected the reservoir just underneath tarbela that is being used to regulate the flow in Ghazi Barotha Power channel that is generating about 1400 MW of electricity. The reservoir length is 7 km and depth from 6m to 14m. I have taken seven crossections of the pound and applied the boundary conditions to these sections and performed hydraulic flushing simulations using HEC RAS 10.1 also used GIS and HECGEORAS for modeling of pond. After performing these simulations w.r.t to available water results have compared to original crossections to calculate the flushing efficiency. I have also calibrated my model by plotting original section at the time of construction of reservoir and performed simulation for 7 years from 2005 to 2011 and compared the simulated profiles to observed profiles obtained from Wapda from Hydrologic surveys performed at different years. The results I got without disturbing the barrage structure with available water we can get maximum efficiency of 25.71 %

Hierarchical state diagram and the transition to synthesis of telecommunications protocol automaton PDF

Osama Ahmad Salim Safarini

This article describes the approach to the organization computing in the telecommunications machine called serialization. It provides for a hierarchical DST partially formalized based automaton telecommunication specifications. Hierarchical DST described limited set of transitions allowable species-specific telecommunication systems. Implicit transitions and states are determined at compile time for DST implementation in the target system. On the basis of this approach we created a language specification of hierarchical DST, designed for quickly and efficiently create implementations of telecommunication automaton in target systems for various purposes.

Malic Acid Butane-1, 4-Diol-Glycerol Co-Polyester as an Enteric Coating Material PDF

Md. Shahruzzaman, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Moinul Haque, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Dr. Md. Abu Bakr

A polymeric material – Malic acid butane-1, 4-diol-glycerol co-polyester (MBGC) was synthesized. The polymer was dissolved in volatile organic solvent (Ethyl acetate) to prepare coating solution. The coating solution is sprayed over the DS tablet in a small coating pan with continuous hot air flow. The coating pan is allowed to rotate until the solvent evaporated and the tablet dried. The percentage of drug release from dichlofenac sodium (DS) core and coated tablets (coated by Malic acid butane-1, 2-diol-glycerol co-polyester) in stimulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2) and in stimulated intestinal fluid (pH = 7.4) was investigated and satisfactory result was obtained.

Performance Evaluation of AODV and DSDV Routing Protocols through Clustering in MANETS PDF

Prof. A Rama Rao, M Kalyani, B Sravanthi, K Pradeep Chandra, G N Mohan

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is self configuring network that eliminates the complexity of infrastructure and allows devices to communicate wirelessly. Messages are transferred from one node to another without any involvement of base station. Each device must maintain proper information of routing and packet delivery. As number of nodes increases, the complexity of MANET increases in various ways. This can be possibly achieved through cluster generation. Clustering provides more efficient use of resources in large dynamic networks. Clustering achieve communication scalability for a large number of nodes and high mobility. Through this paper we analyze the behaviour of AODV and DSDV routing protocols through cluster generation in MANETS NS2 provides a substantial support for simulation over wireless network.

Wireless Robotic Hand Using Flex Sensors PDF

Malav Atul Doshi, Sagar Jignish Parekh, Dr.Mita Bhowmick

Recent advancements in embedded systems have opened up a vast area of research and development of haptic technology. Surgeries with minimum invasiveness and high precision are becoming vital requisite. Surgical robots such as Da Vinci, Zeus and the Cardio-arm are able to perform various complex surgeries with ease, minimum invasion and high accuracy because of their precise controlled mechanism and technology. But these robots are extremely costly because of their sophisticated software and circuitries. This makes it unaffordable for various doctors and simple surgeries. This project deals with the design and development of a robotic hand with real time control, which is precise and cost-effective. This five fingered robotic arm mimics a small degree of dexterity and could be used for other applications such as prosthesis for leprosy patients. This will allow them to get a higher degree of freedom and will help in their day to day life.

Endoscopic Stent Graft Repair in Potentially Fatal Boerhaeve's Syndrome PDF

Muhammad Nadeem Iftikhar, Mureed Hussain, Sohail Iqbal

To recognise the importance of timely intervention in saving lives from fatal Boerhave’s Syndrome.

Tuberculosis Related Sudden Death - An Unusual Case of Sudden Death PDF

Muhammad Nadeem Iftikhar, Mureed Hussain, Sohail Iqbal

To be aware of an Unusual Cause of Sudden Death on Acute Medical Unit (AMU) - Tuberculosis related sudden death

A Hybrid Method for Blocking Malicious Nodes and Optimal Path Identication In Mobile Adhoc Networks PDF

Diana P Varghese, Vinodh P Vijayan

Intermediary nodes play a great role in networking for smooth communication because they provide connectivity and work behind the scenes to ensure that data flows across the network. These nodes connect end devices to the network and can connect multiple individual networks to form an internetwork. This paper presents a hybrid mechanism which consist of Elliptical Curve Cryptography and Genetic algorithm. This method helps to improve the correctness and quality of the network. The new method aimed at improving the accuracy of misbehavior detection by identifying optimal path. Intermediary nodes in the network is analysed initially and identified the defected nodes using Elliptical curve cryptography. In the second phase optimal path for packet transmission is identified using genetic algorithm. The experiment is done using Network Simulator 2 (ns2). It indicates that this mechanism provide considerable improvements in the blocking of malicious node and optimal path identification thereby improving the performance of MANET.

Almost Contra aGS-Continuous Functions PDF

Md.Hanif PAGE

The objective of this paper is to introduce and study a new generalization of contra continuity called almost contra ags-continuous functions using ags-open sets. We discuss the relationships with some other related functions.


Sumbul Firdaus, Dr. Mohtashim Lohani, Anupam Dhasmana, Mohd. Haneef

Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention due to their unique chemical structure and potential applications. In this study fullerenes (C20 to C180) were interacted with different forms of DNA i.e. A, B and Z-forms. And no such change in the binding score was observed with the change in the sequence of DNA. In fact, binding score increases with the increase in the molecular weight of the fullerene while interacting with A & B-form of DNA but Z-form of DNA shows no regular pattern of binding. Number of interacting base pairs increases as the molecular size of fullerene increases. And the groove binding depends on the form of DNA, fullerene and fullerene family binds in major groove of A-DNA while binds in both major and minor grooves in B and Z-form of DNA. This study reveals that binding pattern of fullerene family with DNA, which can disrupt its structure and may leads to several biological errors.

Android Application Based on Image Transfer to Track Smartphones (AABITTSp) PDF

Prof. Keerti D Kharatmol, Anuja Lad, Harshit Garg, Sanjana Mishra

The introduction of Android Mobile phones has bought a new revolution in the mobile phone market and almost everyone might have experienced misplacing or losing their mobile phones. Hence it is necessary to develop an application in all smart phones to prevent the mobile phone theft. This paper describes a tracking application called AABITTSp (Android Application Based on Image Transfer to Track Smartphone) which is embedded with a lot of features such as location tracking, SIM card detection, sending the location values to the predefined email address and to the predefined number via SMS, sending the images to the predefined email address. These features are quite different from the existing tracker applications which would be helpful in tracking the lost mobile.

Synthesis, Biological Activity, Molecular Docking and Structural Studies of N-(O-Fluor phenyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-2-Pyridone-3-Nitrile PDF

Subhadramma, S, Saravanan, J, Vinaya Kumar, R and Naveen Chandra

The title compound crystallizes in space group, P21/c with unit cell parameters, a=7.926(5), b=11.156(3), c=14.261(3) Å, ß = 102.01(1)°,V = 1233.4(9) Å3 containing four asymmetric molecules. The molecules are packed in the crystal lattice with bifurcated hydrogen bonding of the type C-H---O. Oxygen atom O(1) is involved in the bifurcated hydrogen bonding with bridge distances 3.511(2) Å and 3.466(2) Å, respectively. Fluorine F(1) of the phenyl ring does not involve in either intra- or inter-hydrogen bonding. The dihedral angle between the phenyl group and pyridone ring is 87.7(1)° indicating that pyridonyl group is perpendicular to the phenyl group making the way for its maximum interaction through weak hydrogen bondings. Molecular docking study done on this compound with Phospholipase (PLA2) indicates that there are hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions at the active sites on the PLA2. The molecule is stabilized through these interactions with distances varying from 2.5 to 4 Å and hence it is a good candidate for the study of inhibition activity of the enzyme based on its experimental evidences. Also a study of in-vitro biological activity carried out indicates that the compound has antioxidant and hydrogen-peroxide-radical scavenging properties and more potent than ascorbic acid taken as standard.

Enhancement the Strength of Conventional Concrete by using Fly ash and Nylon Fiber PDF

Saxena Jaya, Saxena Anil Kumar, Arora T.R

Fiber can be defined as a small piece of reinforcing material possessing certain dimensional characteristics. The most important parameter describing a fibre is its Aspect ratio “Aspect Ratio” is the length of fibre divided by an equivalent diameter of the fibre. The properties of fibre reinforced concrete are very much affected by the type of fibre. Fibres are secondary reinforced material and acts as crack arrester. Prevention of propagation of cracks originating from internal flaws can result in improvements in static and dynamic properties of matrix.

Isolation and detection of pseudomonas aeruginosa from post-surgery operatives wound in Babylon provine hospital/ Iraq PDF

Dr Humam kasem Hussein

A study was carried out to assess isolation and detection ofPseudomonas aeruginosa from post-surgery operatives wounds in Babylon Province Hospitals (General Al-Hashemeyah hospital and Al-Shomali General Hospital). Methods: 100 specimens were taken from post operative surgery wounds. The identity of isolates was confirmed by staining method (Gram stain) , culturing (Nutrient,Macconkey,Blood and TSA agars), biochemical tests (Catalase , Oxidase, Citrate, Methyl red, Voges-Proskauer,Indole and Lactose fermentation) and Antibiogramtests. Results: from 100 samples, 24 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosawere collected. The biochemical activities were positive in Catalase , Oxidase and Citrate and negative in Methyl red, Voges-Proskauer,Indole and Lactose fermentationwere fixed as features of it. Among the variety of antibiotics tested, the highests resistance were found with Ampicillin (75%) and Oxytetracycline (70.8%) followed by Amoxicillin (66.6%) and Tetracycline (62.5%), On the other hand, both the isolates were intermediately sensitive to Gentamicin (62.5%), Kanamycin (58.3%) and Erythromycin (54.1%).while the isolates were highly sensitive to Chlo-ramphenicol (70%) and Ciprofloxacin (66.6%). Conclusion: P. aeruginosa one of the most important pathogenic bacteria that infect the post-operative wounds.and in some cases even with antibiotic therapy. All the human ages may undergo the infection with P. aeruginosa with different immunity conditions.Reccurent uses of the same antibiotics may be lead to bacterial resistance because the multi-antibiotics resistance mechanism of P. aeruginosa.Hyagenic managment include Sterilization and Disinfectant methods which established in some hospitals are not enough to prevent the infection of pathogenic bacterial as nasocomial infections.

Watermarking Using Transformation Domain Technique Using Visual Cryptography PDF

Jyoti V. Prasad, Padmashree G, Venugopala P. S

Watermarking is a technique of embedding imperceptible signal in to a digital content mainly for protecting authentication information of content owner. It adds a layer of security to the content and helps in identifying unauthorized access. fight by making use of hidden copyright information. It is also helps to protect the content from several attacks on it. In this paper we use transformation domain technique using scene change detection with visual cryptography. Here we divide the watermark image in to smaller parts and applying visual cryptographic technique on each part. and embedding each part in to DCT coefficients to prove it to be more robust and secure method.

Design and performance issues of Microstrip Antennas PDF

Vinay bankey, N. Anvesh Kumar

In recent years, microstrip antennas are playing an important role in wireless communication systems because of their many advantages like light weight, low profile, low cost, easy integration with planar structure and easy fabrication. So, it is very much essential to know all the aspects of microstrip antennas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the design and performance issues of microstrip antennas. The design issues include microstrip antenna dimensions, feeding techniques and various polarization mechanisms whereas the performance issues include gain enhancement, bandwidth issues and reconfigurable microstrip antennas. This paper is also aimed to introduce few applications of microstrip antennas like Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX, RF energy harvesting, Cognitive radio, GSM, Radar and ultra-wide band. Microstrip antennas are also having disadvantages like low gain and low efficieny.

Training Free Face Recognition and Cropping using Skin Identification Algorithm PDF

Ghanshyam Sahu, Asstt. Prof. Amrish Tiwari

Face recognition system is an automatic process of detection of faces in images captured by the cameras in the artificial intelligence systems. Various methodologies have been adopted for face detection. Face recognition techniques are working on the various devices like surveillance systems, mobile, home door locking systems and many security systems for authentication purposes. In this paper the face is recognized in the image given as input it can be captured by any camera. The image is than processed with the skin detection algorithm and the face area is cropped and extracted out. The good thing about this proposed methodology is this algorithm does not need any training kind of thing which is free from taking recognition time. Such methodology be very useful in the situations where training for fresh images not available.

Advancement of Interpreting and Mapping of terrain features using Remote Sensing and GIS Technique PDF

Sheena A D, Dr. M. Ramalingam

In this modern era of satellite technology, remote sensing pictures the earth with real 3D effects, so enabling to get the valuable assets of the earth architecture. This leads to analyze the structure of the earth, landform and its features to restore and manage potential land resources. IRS P6 LISS III precision geocoded data on 1:50,000 scale were used for the preparation of geomorphological and lineament maps for Chennai scene. Here the landforms are delineated using GEOM tool techniques. Research in GIS helps to analyze the real world and their resources. These are useful in various applications such as groundwater exploration, land use planning, disaster management, desertification, geo engineering and so on.

A Comparative Study of Image Encryption Methods Using Coupled Map and Non-Linear Chaotic Algorithm PDF

Vinayak Jadhav, Shilpa K

With the rapid development of computer network and multimedia technology, the security of digital image information has become a major concern. For image data with privacy and national security should be transmitted in a secret way, image encryption technology has drawn more and more attention. In this project two digital image encryption methods based on the chaotic systems are used for the high level security and the key space, Non-linear Chaotic Algorithm (NCA) and a novel algorithm based on mixture of chaotic maps or coupled map, NCA uses the power functions and tangent functions instead of linear function to increase the key space and high level security. In novel algorithm based on mixture of chaotic maps or coupled map, a typical coupled map was mixed with a one-dimensional chaotic map and used for high degree security image encryption while its speed is acceptable, and also it has large key space than the NCA map. By experimental results the mixture of chaotic system or coupled map is robust than the NCA map.

Male Learners’ Vocabulary Achievement through Concept mapping and Mind mapping; differences and similarities PDF

Zahra Tarkashvand

While learning English plays an essential role in today’s life, vocabulary achievement is helpful to overcome the difficulties of commanding the language. Drawing on data from three months experimental work, this article explores how two mapping strategies affect the learning vocabularies in EFL male learners. While females were studied before, this article focuses on how Iranian male students at Intermediate -level can improve their vocabulary achievement by using Mapping strategies of concept maps and mind maps. It was attempted to know whether gender plays a role or not. Therefore 62 male intermediate EFL learners were selected among a total number of 100. Based on the results, the students were randomly assigned to two experimental groups with 31 participants in each. Both groups underwent the same amount of teaching time by the researcher/teacher during 16 sessions of treatment which included concept mapping for the first group and mind mapping for the second. A posttest was administered at the end of the treatment to both groups and their mean scores on the test were compared through an independent samples t-test. The result showed that male learners same as females in the mind mapping group benefited significantly more than those in the concept mapping group in terms of improving their vocabulary achievement.


Asst. Prof. Dr. Mohammed Shaker Mahmood, Asst. Lecturer M.Sc. Zaid Nori Hashim

Most of the hydraulic geometry relationships derived under premises that there are direct or indirect relation, at least statistically, between meander geometry characteristics include width, depth, cross sectional area and some hydraulic variables as discharge and velocity. The hydraulic variables satisfy for rectangular channels the continuity equation. The authors developed four power functions for predicting the hydraulic geometry properties of Abbasia reach, in the middle of the Euphrates river, Najaf governorate. These power models with certain coefficients (a, c, k and p) and exponents (b, d, m and n). The recent work is to perform the continuity of the results on the predicted models in previous paper. The results indicate that there was an remarkable degree of consistency for both coefficients and exponents.



This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of discovery and traditional approaches on the learning of some mathematical concepts. The study tries to show the difference in achievements of two groups of SS2 students in Birnin Kebbi Local Government who were exposed to discovery and traditional pedagogy respectively in Army Day Secondary School. Four research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A pre-test post-test quasi experimental design was adopted. The population consisted of five thousand two hundred and seven (5,207) students out of which 357 students were sampled. Using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics, it was discovered that students taught using discovery strategy perform better academically.

Development and Sensory Evaluation of Industrial High Energy Fortified Biscuits before Implementation of Food Safety PDF

A. A. Siddiqui, M. A. Alim

The present study was conducted to prepare the high energy fortified biscuits as influenced by different levels of soy flour protein and wheat flour gluten content of the biscuit recipes in a food industry before food safety implementation. Packaging study was also conducted by high density polyethylene up to 90 days of storage showing moisture content just above Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institute (BSTI) requirement at 90 days for the samples S1, S2 and S3. Moisture%, Protein %, fat %, sucrose % and iron content remained acceptable considering BSTI requirements. Sample S1 containing highest soy flour protein and wheat flour gluten estimated highest protein %, fat% and iron content compared to sample S¬2 and S3. Microbial qualities of biscuits found acceptable at initial storage regardless of microbial quality of raw materials. Sensory qualities of biscuits were also evaluated which showed the sample S3 , treated with lowest amount of soy flour protein and wheat flour gluten, was the most preferred biscuit with respect to all the quality attributes. Though the high energy fortified biscuit has compact source of energy, packaging condition was not sufficient to hold moisture content as BSTI standard level during 90 days of storage. Sensory evaluation suggested optimum level of soy flour fortification.



The purpose of this study is to determine the attributes of school heads and professional commitment to their public image as perceived by the teachers in Davao Region. Non experimental qualitative research design employing descriptive-correlations was used. The subjects include 400 public elementary school teachers. There were three sets of questionnaire used during the data gathering. First set was to determine the level of attributes, second was to evaluate the extend of professional commitment and third set of the research tool was to find the level of public image of the school heads. The statistics used to find the significance of the relationships between independent and dependent variable is pearson- moment correlation, to determine the level of attributes to their public image , mean standard deviation was applied. In order to determine the influence of the attributes and professional commitment on public image , multiple regression was employed. Finding showed significant relationships were found between the independent variables and the dependent variable. It demonstrated also that 8 domains in the attributes of school heads ( creates a learning of culture, inspires and motivates, understand the leadership of change, models practical practices, manages resources, manages high standard and accountability, creates a culture of inclusion and influences and collaborates with the community) and all the indicators of professional commitment influence on the public image . This means that by having a high positive attitude of school heads, the higher is the chance in attaining the school vision, mission and educational goals .


Onyechi, P.C, Asiegbu, K.O., Igwegbe, C.A., Nwosu, M.C

The effects of particle size of periwinkle shells (PWS) on the mechanical properties of particulate reinforced polyester composite (PRPC) was investigated. Particle sizes considered were 400µm, 600µm, 766µm, 1180µm and 1760µm. Five replicated samples of each particle sizes were considered for volume fraction of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%. 100 samples were produced and 25 of these samples were subjected to each mechanical test which include; tensile, flexural, hardness, and impact test. The average test results were used for graphical analysis with Minitab 15 software (developed in 2007). The maximum tensile strength of 24.3MPa was obtained from the composite made of 400µm particle size at 30% volume content. The maximum flexural strength of 47.4MPa was also obtained from the composite made of 400µm particle size at 30% volume content. Additionally, the composite made of 400µm particle size at 50% volume content gave the maximum hardness number (BHN) of 249. The composite made up of 1760µm particle size at 50% volume content yielded the maximum impact strength of 23.2Jm-2. It is concluded that decrease in particle sizes increases the tensile strength and flexural strength, but causes a scattered diagram in hardness strength. In impact test, the strength increases with increase in particle size. For the filler content, the tensile and the flexural strength rises highest at 30% content where it then decreases sharply, but in hardness and impact test, increase in filler content increases the BHN and impact strength.

Self-Powered Sustainable Model of E-Waste Management with CSR Initiative for Manufacturers and Business Consumers for Socio-economic Upliftment in Pune (India ) PDF

Zeenat Alam, Dr Amol Goje

Organised and Unorganised sectors are rampantly growing with current market dynamics .Green Economy is new dimension opening encouraging focus on sustainable models .With convergence of technology , optimization and effectiveness have become important parameters associated with corporate assets in domains of Infrastructure , Hardware and human resources . Computer manufacturing and consumers s are looking for strategies to offset rising costs and to use technology in ways that reduce their environmental impact.

South Indian River Ranking Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process PDF


The river ranking problem is a strategic issue and has significant impact on the efficiency of a river system. On the other hand, the river ranking among many alternatives presents a multi criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. Hence fuzzy set theory can be applied. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy process (FAHP) technique is used to rank alternatives to find the efficient use of the river system. Fuzzy numbers and linguistic variables are used to inherently vague data. Four criteria and 20 sub criteria are identified, tested and applied to real data. The FAHP is used to analyze the structure of the river ranking problem. A real world application is conducted to illustrate the utilization of the model using the available data pertaining to a few south Indian rivers. The application can be interpreted as demonstrating the effectiveness and feasibility of the FAHP model.

The Effects of Students’ Housing on Academic Performance at the University of Ibadan in Nigerian PDF

Owolabi, Babatunde Oluwaseyi

The university, as we know it in the Western hemisphere has origin back to the medieval cities of Bologna, Paris and Oxford around the year 1200 (Bender, 1988). Throughout its history, university has attracted large number of students of different nationalities and backgrounds. Yet, during the early years of the university, institutionally provided student accommodation did not exist and it was common for students to rent a room from local citizens or to rent a house to share with other students (Caldenby, 1994; Adelman, 1969). In the Middle Ages in Europe, students were often a noticeable part of a town’s population, and even back then there was often a severe problem where and how to accommodate the student inhabitants. Housing is part of students’ social life at the tertiary institutions in Africa. From available information, students housing in tertiary institutions in Nigeria is severely overcrowded (Amole, 1997). For example, over the last two decades, students housing at the University of Ibadan, has reached a crisis level. The main cause of this perennial problem is the increasing number of students being admitted, without a commensurate increase in the number of bed spaces. This situation has been aggravated by the absence of affordable and safe alternative housing in the neighborhoods surrounding the university (Agbola et al, 2001).

Open Distance Pattern Coloring of Certain Classes of Graphs PDF

P T Marykutty and K A Germina

Let G be a connected graph with diameter d(G), X={1,2,…,d(G)} be a non-empty set of colors of cardinality d(G) and let ??M?V(G). Let f_M^o be an assignment of subsets of X to the vertices of G such that f_M^(o ) (u)={d(u,v);v ? M,u?v} , where d(u,v) is the distance betweenu and v. We call f_M^o an M -open distance pattern coloring of G, if no two adjacent vertices have same f_M^o and if such an M exists for a graph G, then G is called an open distance pattern colorable (odpc) graph; the minimum cardinality of such an M if it exists, is the open distance pattern coloring number of G denoted by ?_M (G) .In this paper, we study open distance pattern coloring of certain classes of graphs.

Analysis of Tribological Applications of Functionally Graded Materials in Mobility Engineering PDF

Dr.Sabah Khan

A functionally graded material (FGM) is a two component composite characterised by a compositional gradient from one component to other. In a traditional composite, which is basically a homogeneous mixture of its constituents the pure identity of each constituent is altogether lost and thus we have to make a compromise between the desirable properties of the constituent materials and our requirement. Most of the mechanical failures in the world are a result of one or the other modes of wear failure, especially in most of the mobility engineering applications. In this paper the various aspects of wear failures are discussed in the different modes of transport and a preventive is measure is suggested by applying FGMs.

On the value of David Bohm's Quantum Mechanics or Consistent Faith of a Physicist: God's Grace within Physics PDF

Dmitri Martila

Without violent forcing to accept my points, I present the glim of my consistent faith to the scientific community of orthodox believers. Because I stay within the dogmas of the Orthodox Christian Church, I suggest to read the text without criticism. It is simply the beautiful and meaningful picture of my personal world. Please enjoy it.

The Effect of time on the analysis of exergy of 300MW boiler of South-Zour power station PDF

Gamal Yassin Salman,Abdualrazzaq Abdualwhabe

The aim of the study is to identify major energy loss areas in AZZOR power station and develop a plan to reduce them using energy and exergy analysis as the tools .The energy supply to demand is reducing due to ageing of machinery . Exergy analysis in power plants is a strong tool to evaluate cycle performance qualitatively , time dependent exergy loss that occurred in the major components of a 300 MW steam turbine unit of South-Zour power station.

A Novel Text - Independent Voice based Automatic Gender Recognition System PDF

D. Shakina Deiv, Mahua Bhattacharya, G.K. Sharma

Voice based gender and age classification can be helpful in a number of Information Technology based applications with speech interfaces. The recognition has to be independent of the text of the input speech if the application is online. In this work three different feature sets were tried for text independent gender recognition. The first set is Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) C1 to C24. A feature relevance study was undertaken using F-ratio based analysis and the first feature set was transformed accordingly to get the novel second set which is the F-ratio based dimension reduced MFCC. The third set is the weighted version of the second one. All the three sets have performed well, especially the second and third show excellent recognition performance. An effort is made to reduce computational complexity by feature dimension reduction and optimizing the number of Gaussian components of the GMM based gender classifier. This work can be extended for age based speaker classification too. A review of recent works and the previous work of the authors on text – dependent gender recognition are briefly presented for context.

Benefits of Outsourcing the ICT Infrastructure PDF

Muhammad Nauman Ashraf Khan & Dr. Irfan Zafar

Over the years the Telecom Industry in the country has shown a lot of progress in terms of infrastructure development coupled with the availability of telecom services. This has however led to the cut throat completion among various operators thus leading to reduced tariffs to the customers. The profit margins have seen a reduction thus leading the operators to think of other avenues by adopting new models while keeping the quality of service intact.


M. Murugan

To evaluate the microbiological quality of treated and untreated water samples came from urban and rural communities and to examine the relationship between coliforms occurrence and average water temperature, and a comparison of the rainfall levels. A sample of 3,073 untreated and treated (chlorinated) water from taps (1,594), reservoir used to store treated water (1,033), spring water (96) and private well (350) collected for routine testing between 1996 and 1999 was analyzed by the multiple dilution tube methods used to detect the most probable number of total and fecal coliforms. These samples were obtained in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. The highest numbers water samples contaminated by TC (83 %) and FC (48 %) were found in the untreated water. TC and FC in samples taken from reservoirs used to store treated water was higher than that from taps midway along distribution lines. Among the treated water samples examined, coliform bacteria were found in 171 of the 1,033 sampling reservoirs. Insufficient treatment or regrowth is suggested by the observation that more than 17 % of these treated potable water contained coliform. TC and FC positive samples appear to be similar and seasonally influenced in treated water. Two different periods must be considered for the occurrence of both TC and FC positive samples: (i) a warm-weather period (September-March) with high percentage of contaminated samples; and (ii) cold-weather period (April-August) were they are lower. Both TC and TF positive samples declined with the decreased of water temperature.


Sheu Akeem Lawal and Alade Olusope Michael

An inverter is a device that takes a direct current input and produces a sinusoidal alternating current output. It maintains a continuous supply of electric power to connected equipments or load by supplying power from a separate source, like battery, when utility power is not available. It is inserted between the source of power and the load is protecting. In this research, the design, construction and performance evaluation of 1kVA pure sine wave power inverter is presented. The methods implemented for the design were DC-DC converter and DC-AC inverter topologies. The DC-DC converter in the design made use of a high switching frequency transformer, enabling the reduction of size of the parts and to meet the efficiency constraint, while the DC-AC inverter circuit made use of a microprocessor to digitally pulse the transistors on the inverter side of the circuit. The project was broken down into smaller components and tested individually at every different stage of the design by the oscilloscope and digital multi-meter for their unique specifications. After component tests, they were incorporated for final assembly and integration. The results of the oscilloscope and digital multi-meter tests showed that half-bridge converter produced square wave output waveforms, sinusoidal pulse width modulated controller circuit yielded modified sine wave. After filtering, the full bridge inverter gave clean sinusoidal sine wave. The inverter was successfully converted 12VDC into 120VAC at 50Hz frequency and 1000W output power for a special laboratory equipment.



Considering the importance of the environmental concerns associated with hazardous substances, specifically from a public health perspective, the potential of biological treatment was tried for a hazardous waste sludge, viz., and pharmaceutical sludge in the project work. Biological degradation for the complete treatment of pharmaceutical waste sludge and its reuse pattern has the potential for effective, practical and economical remediation from the effect of discharge of toxic and hazardous compounds to the environment. In order to understand and predict the environmental fate of toxic and hazardous compounds present in the pharmaceutical waste sludge, and to develop or improve biological treatment, a case study was conducted. This paper concentrated on the existing problem of a pharmaceutical industry with respect to disposal of secondary pharmaceutical sludge. In order to characterize the changes in the sludge properties that lead to inadequate treatment and disposal problems and to find a key solution, a comprehensive experimental study was conducted. The characterization and the effect of inoculum-substrate ratio on acclimatization of pharmaceutical secondary sludge were studied. The effect of enhanced biodegradation was assessed and evaluated for the conversion of pharmaceutical secondary sludge to biosolids. The enhanced biodegradation was found to be effective for the biosolids conversion by using the conventional inocula adopted for municipal and conventional biological treatment plants.

Analysis Of Fault Location For Transmission Lines PDF


This paper presents Fault location information is critical for operating and maintaining transmission networks. Some of the challenges in calculating accurate fault location include fault resistance, zero-sequence mutual coupling, load, system non homogeneity, and transmission lines composed of multiple sections with considerably different characteristics. The Overhead line combined with underground cable is an intricate part of power system and is depend on for reliable transmission and distribution services. Locating transmission line faults quickly and accurately is very important for economy, safety and reliability point of view. Both fault-detection and fault-location indices are derived by using two-terminal synchronized measurements incorporated with distributed line model. PMU units provides real time measurement of positive sequence voltages and currents at power system substation. Extensive simulation studies carried out using MATLAB show that the proposed scheme provides a high accuracy in fault location under various system and fault conditions.

Studies in physico -chemical properties of value added apple butter PDF

Salaheddin Bashir Elbelazi, Vijay Bahadur Rajwade and Nitin Sonkar

The present investigation entitled “ physic -chemical properties of value added apple butter " was carried out in Post-Harvest Lab, Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, (Deemed to be University) during the winter season of the year 2012-2013 and 2013- 2014. The experiment was laid out in CRD with 10 treatments and 3 replications for preparation of apple butter From the present investigation it can be concluded that treatment T6 (1.5 g spices + 3g citric acid \ kg apple pulp) proved to be the best in terms of quality whereas T4 (1.5g spices + 2g citric acid\ kg apple pulp) proved to be best in terms of sensory score and T5 (1.5g spices + 2.5g citric acid \ kg apple pulp). The microbial population (2.00 x 10-6cfu/g in T0 and 1.00 x 10-6cfu/g in T1) was not observed in any treatment except T0 and T1 in storage period of apple butter.

Design and implementation of online Conference Management System PDF

Lecturer Hana Rashied Esmaeel, Hamza Jafar Habeeb

In this paper, a design and implementation of online conference management system (OCMS) is achieved. The proposed System provides a complete functionality for conference registration, paper submission, peer review, decision making process, preparation of conference proceedings, and submission of final papers. OCMS enables interaction of all participants in various roles such as corresponding author, reviewer and Administrator. Security features has been implemented (using SHA1 function) to keep Integrity of information in the system. The architecture of the system and its internal modular structure is presented.

Effect of phosphorous application in combination with organic soil conditioner on growth of low land rice. PDF

Yasir Hamid1, Tariq Aziz, Muhammad Saleem, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Zahir Aziz, Shakeel Anjum, Muhammad Ahmed Akram, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Hafiz Tanvir Ahmad, Muhammad Usman Jamshaid and Sajid Hussain

Soils of Pakistan are deficient in available P, due to high pH, which leads to immediate fixation of added P. An experiment was conducted to check growth and yield of low land rice as affected by P application along with an organic soil conditioner (OSC). The experiment was laid-out according to Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. There were 6 treatments as, control (0 kg P acre-1), 15 kg P acre-1, 30 kg P acre-1 , OSC @ 300g acre-1 + 15 kg P, OSC @ 300g acre-1 + 30kg P and OSC @ 300g acre-1. Plants were harvested after 50 days of transplanting. The results revealed that plant height, shoot dry weight, photosynthetic rate, phosphorus concentration in roots and shoot and phosphorus uptake was increased by the combined application of OSC and phosphatic fertilizer.

Tillage and nitrogen fertilization impact on irrigated corn yields and soil chemical and physical properties under semi-arid climate PDF

Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Saleem, Muhammad Zahir Aziz, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Usman Jamshaid, Azhar Hussain, Hina Javed, Muhammad Ahmed Akram, Hafiz Tanvir ahmad, Pia Muhammad Adnan Ramzani, Rehman Gul and Omar Aziz

Management practices are important to soil productivity for sustainable crop production. A field experiment based on randomized complete design with split plot combination was conducted with three tillage treatments, i.e. deep tillage (DT), minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT) as main plots and three nitrogen levels: 0 (N0), 200 (N200) and 250 (N250) kg ha-1 as subplots. A maize variety (DK-919) was sown during the month of July. The recommended dose of PK @ 150 and 120 kg ha-1were applied, respectively. The following growth and physical parameters of plant and soil were recorded after harvesting the crop: plant height, cob length, number of grains per cob, yield, soil porosity, bulk density, soil strength, nitrate nitrogen, NPK in soil and in plants.The data obtained was analyzed statistically and differences among treatment’s means will be compared by using least significant difference test at 5% level of significance. Results showed that DT×N250 were useful to increase agronomic parameters and also increased soil porosity and decreased soil bulk density.

The Prospect of Oil and Gas on the Planet Mars PDF

Wanny Abdel Fattah Mohamed

The discovery of hydrocarbons on the Planet Mars via interpretation of the theory of the formation of petroleum, the solar system (Big Bang theory), and the life on the Planet Mars in the light of background and previous relevant results where by the composition of the planet Mars is similar to that of the Earth because of its close proximity from the Planet Earth unlike The planet Jupiter that is impossible to find a life over there.

A Class of Solution for anisotropic Stars Admitting Conformal Motions in Higher Dimensional Space Time PDF

Khadekar G.S, Saroj Kumbhare

We provide a new class of interior solutions for anisotropic stars admitting conformal motion

Modeling of Sediment Transport Upstream of Al-Shamia Barrage PDF

Prof. Dr. Saleh I. Khassaf,Mohammed jaber Abbas

In this research it was studied and modeling the sediment transport in the channel of Al-Shamia Barrage on the Euphrates river at Al-Diwaniya city in Iraq.. A mathematical model of one-dimensional simulation flow was run and performed; the amount of sediment load in this part of the river was calculated by using the program of HEC-RAS version (4.1) in which field measurement were taken by the ADCP device to calculate the discharge and areas of cross-sections. The research requires choosing twenty four cross-sections along the study reach which is (6 km).

Effect of Solar Cell Temperature on its Photovoltaic Conversion Efficiency PDF

Prof. M K. El-Adaw, Prof. S A. Shalaby , S.E.-S. Abd El-Ghany, M.A.Attallah

The solar energy conversion is investigated theoretically. The variation of the temperature of the solar cell subjected to the incident global solar radiation along the local daytime is determined.The heat balance equation is solved .The solution revealed that the cell temperature is a function of the maximum value of the daily incident global solar radiation qmax, the cooling coefficient(h), the optical parameters, physical parameters, and the geometrical parameters of the cell .The temperature dependence of the short circuit current Isc,the dark saturation current I0 , the open circuit voltage Voc, and the energy band gap characterizing a Silicon solar cell is considered in evaluating the cell efficiency .Computations of the efficiency concerning different operating conditions and different astronomical locations (Egypt and Hong Kong) as illustrative examples are given.

Groundwater characterization and impacts on health and environment in Abakliki area and environs, Southeastern Nigeria. PDF

Rock Onwe Mkpuma , Nwankwo G. I. , Ema Michael Abraham

Water quality and availability is a consequence of the natural physical, chemical and biological state as well as any other alterations that may have occurred as a result of biotic and abiotic activities. The usefulness of water for a particular purpose is determined by the status of these parameters. In view of this, an understanding of these factors influencing livelihood is pertinent. In this study, hydrologic and hydrogeological characteristics as well as chemical and biological status of both surface and groundwater were evaluated. World Health Organization (WHO) standard wAere used as the yardstick to characterize the chemical and biotic status. Further, the Piper’s Trilinear technique is employed. A questionnaire approach was also used to simulate water status impact on livelihood. Results expected to indicate water status mainly in terms of quality and impact on livelihood in the area. Analysis of responses from the questionnaire further indicates that the water situation is associated with health problems, poverty and environmental issues.

Detection and segmentation of lung disease using Law Mask with Watershed on X-ray images PDF

Marwah Abdulmajeed Azeez Alyaa Hussein Ali, Alaa Noori Mazhir, Sabah Noori Mazhir

The use of an automatic system in the analysis of the x-ray images is very important for the radiologists. Many methods have been developed for detecting lung diseases, and many imaging techniques used for this purpose like computerized tomography(CT) and chest radiography (x-ray). The chest x-ray is considered in our search to detecting the lung tumors. Our system has implemented x-ray images as a test samples. The objective of this paper is to support efficient method to detecting lung diseases and extracting the statistical features. The low mask which is a statistical texture analysis with five matrixes are used with the color segmentation method (watershed) to extracted the tumor and analyzing its texture. The proposed technique shows the methodology has high enhancement to the image contrast that gives extra aid to radiologist to detect and classify the lung tumor.



This work focuses on the design of printer connectivity via wireless LAN for the various departments of an office. A wireless Access Point mounted 10.5 meters from the entrance of a central office was used to create a network that interconnected all the printers and computers within the coverage area of 30 meters as long as they are configured for the network. The network was furnished with security features such as disabled SSID broadcast, passphrase, MAC address filtering and WPA2 encryption to prevent unauthorized users from getting access to the network. The performance of the design was verified through an extensive range of tests (i.e. printing of documents from different locations within the network coverage area of 30 meters), and this yielded accurate and expected results. This design makes it possible to avoid the problems associated with the traditional wired method of networking computers and printing of documents between the units of an office.


Chidera L. Anioke, Obinna C. Nnamani, Cosmas I. Ani

The mobility of mobile stations (MS) results in the transfer of calls from one cell to an adjacent cell. This transfer causes call drops when handovers are unsuccessful. Call drop minimizing techniques is one method of reducing the number of dropped handover calls as well as improve fairness between new and handover calls. This paper studies the effect of handover prioritization schemes and retrial queues on calls entering the network. Results show that with the call drop minimization techniques, there is a minimal drop in handover calls. In addition, the forceful termination of handover calls is minimized.


Important factors to be considered for a water source to be used for drinking purpose are its bacteriological quality and presence of certain inorganic constituents like arsenic, fluoride etc. Fluoride is a commonly occurring toxic mineral in ecosystem. Fluoride enters the aquatic system in the dissolved form through industrial discharges, from aluminum industries, phosphate industries, coal plants etc, and leads to many diseases and disorders. It is essential that the contaminated water to be treated before being consumed. Hence, In the present project work, an attempt is made to remove fluoride by adsorption using activated carbon prepared from tridax procumbens as adsorbent media.

Component Crack Analysis of high pressure die casting aluminum alloy (Alsi9cu ) PDF

Satish kumar Manocha

Crack Analysis of the high pressure die casting Alsi9cu aluminum alloy component. The study is aimed in the project or research work. Especially industry based problem is decides to study in detail Technical solution for minimizing cracks in casting parts and find out the causes of crack failure with solution of problem, is decided to work out during this project. By enhancing the Quality and reducing the rejection of casting component which in turn will be profitable for both the industry as well as the customer is planned in the proposed study.


Y. M.Usman and O. N. Maitera.

Recent quest for energy in Nigeria has made firms and organizations to look for alternative source of energy. This has necessitated the need for analysis of Maiganga coal used by Ashaka Cement Company Plc. for generation of energy. The analysis of coal sample was carried out using classical methods of analysis by A.O.A.C and the values obtained were; calorific value 5359 kcal/g and fixed carbon content 33.57%. Other parameters include; acidity with pH value of 0.36, alkalinity with pH values of 9.70, moisture content of 9.5%, Ash content of 65.6%, volatile mater with value of 47.4%.The result of analysis showed that Maiganga coal was lignite in nature and good source of energy and is comparable with any other coal in the world.

Heat transfer enhancement from rectangular fin array using staggered perforations PDF

Sreedev C L, Ramesh A. V

The efficiency of many devices greatly depends upon their ability to dissipate heat from their surfaces. Fins are extended surfaces used for dissipating heat from the hot surfaces. A number of experiments have been done in the field of enhancing heat transfer rate from hot surfaces. Present study deals with a new mechanism in which heat transfer rate in rectangular array is enhanced by means of staggered perforations.ANSYS Gambit 2.4 has been used for geometry creation and ANSYS Fluent 6.2.4 for simulation. The result shows that the fins with staggered holes possess increased heat transfer capacity

Tracking Zipper reaction using NMR technique PDF

Maged H. Muzael

In this study NMR technique was used to track the success of transfer triple bond from the middle of the molecule to the end of the molecule. The first step was coupling reaction (Sonogashira reaction) between propargyl alcohol with 1-Iodododecane using very strong base lithium wire in liquid ammonia. The second step was transfer the triple bond the end of the molecule using the same strong very strong base Lithium in liquid ammonia (Zipper reaction).

Prediction under modified Weibull distribution with applications PDF

Saieed F. Ateya, Mohamed M. Rizk

In this paper, the Bayesian prediction intervals (BPI0s) of future observations are obtained under Modi¯ed Weibull Distribution (MWD) in case of one and two-sample prediction schemes. Based on a type-II censored sample from a real data set, the BPI0s of the remaining observations are obtained.

Stock Price Prediction Using Regression Analysis PDF

Dr. P. K. Sahoo, Mr. Krishna charlapally

Stock price prediction has always attracted people interested in investing in share market and stock exchanges because of the direct financial benefits. It is also an important research topic in finance. Prediction of stock market returns is a very complex issue depends on so many factors such company financial status and national policy etc. These days stock prices are affected due to many reasons like company related news, political, social economical conditions and natural disasters.A lot of studies were performed for the prediction of stock index values as well as daily direction of change in the index. So many models were developed for predicting the future price of stocks but each one has its own short comings. Advanced intelligent techniques ranging from pure mathematical models and expert systems to neural networks have also been used by financial institutions. In this paper we investigate to predict the stock prices using auto regressive model. The auto regression model is used because of its simplicity and wide acceptability. We have also conducted a study on the effectiveness of auto regressive model. The Moore and Penrose technique is used to estimate the coefficients of the regression equation. We have also studied accuracy of the prediction by comparing the predicted values with the actual values over a period of time.