Volume 6, Issue 4

Effect of Pre-processing Stages on Recognition Accuracy of a Developed Isolated Word Recognition System PDF

Animasahun, I, O. and Popoola, J.J.

The major observed cause of inaccuracy of the earlier developed word recognition systems is the lack of sufficient combination of pre-processing stages adopted before extracting the speech features. In investigating this observed deficiency, two isolated word recognition systems were developed. The first was developed without pre-processing stages while the second was developed with pre-processing stages. The paper combined analog to digital conversion, end point detection and template preparation as paramount pre-processing techniques in developing the second word recognition system. The analog to digital conversion was used to obtain the digitized speech using a Gold wave software while linear pattern classifier was used as the end point detection technique to remove silence at the beginning and the ending of the digitized speech. Reliable master templates of the three speech samples words: count, stop and down were prepared using average template method. The performance evaluation carried out on the developed word recognition systems show a variation on the recognition accuracies of the three words employed with an average recognition of 23.3% and 76.7% without and with pre-processing stages respectively. The result of the study shows that pre-processing stages have significant effect on the accuracy of the word recognition system. Also, the results from the study show that differences in both ascent and pitch of the speakers have effects on the performance of the developed word recognition system.

Modeling soil profile using GIS and Geo-statistical algorithms PDF

Eng. Mohammed Abd El Fadil Ismail, Prof. Dr. Ali Abd El Fatah, Dr. Ashraf M. Hefny

This paper introduces the implementation of both GIS and Geo-statistics on Geotechnical raw data from boreholes and from CPT logs in 3D volumetric modeling of soil profile. It shows how both ArcGIS as a GIS software and Sgems as a specialized Geo-statistics software could be integrated to prepare such model in both cases. It starts by introducing Geo-statistics which is not much well known technique for the Geo-technical community and focuses of on the Sequential Indicator simulation (SIS) Algorithm as the most suitable Geo-statistical algorithm in modeling categorical data. Moreover, it discusses some of the problems that might face the modeler when dealing with data from different source in order to produce the a unified soil model on the large scale(city scale) and proposed techniques and algorithms to overcome these problems are discussed. Mainly the paper focused on two problems. First, the problems of having data from different sources or soil reports with different formats and even different naming methodology, considering the more difficulties that could be faced for such reports with Arabic naming for soil layers. It shows a technique developed for classifying this data using a simple methodology of text patterning in order to manipulate the soil borehole data to produce the categories required for Geo-statistical modeling using SIS Second, it talks about the problem faced on such city scale data in order to fulfill the main Geo-statistics assumption "autocorrelation" and introduced a practical methodology using ARCGIS for raw data grouping. Besides that, it discusses the means of integration and data exchange between ArcGIS and Sgems

Unique Shaped Structures: Modelling, Design and Verification of a Water Drop-Shaped Building PDF

Anthony Nkem Ede and Edidiong Godwin Udoh

Unique shaped structures have been of great interest to the world for the way they impact the environments. Their points of location become centres of attraction for residents and visitors alike. This has brought a lot of joy, love and benefits to the host cities. The inkling of water drop-shaped structure came as a contribution towards increasing the number of existing iconic master pieces. This work will consist of creating structural model, analysing and designing the elements in reinforced concrete and glass in accordance to the British Standards. The research will mark an advancement on previous models on bottle-shaped structures. The non-symmetric circular shaped structure is modelled floor by floor to take care of the irregular change of shape vertically and horizontally. Prevailing and the most grievous load combinations are adopted for the non-linear finite element analysis. All the elements passed the structural verification tests and the drifts were within limits for various combination of loads.

A Survey on Trusted Fault Tolerant System in MANET With Data Recovery PDF

Meenakshi Dubey, Prof. P.S. Patheja, Prof. Vijay Lokhande

Date Recovery is an important feature in Mobile ad-hoc network. Communication between the nodes in adhoc network depends the radio range, node mobility as well as intermediate nodes because they communicate with the help of intermediate nodes, that means each mobile node is treated as a route and so arises the problem of data security, different trust methods have been proposed before and have secured the data from dropping and modification as well as capture attack but in our proposed work we are trying to design reputation base trust allocation for the node and if any fault occur in any of the transaction we will try to identify the particular node using some analysis. The implementation model basically focuses on those nodes which do not actively participate in a network. We will be using Location Aided Routing (LAR) protocol for that purpose. Will try to analyze through Network Simulator-2 test based architecture and will try to identify node trust level.

Air Quality Assessment of Jirania Brick Industries Cluster: A Case Study PDF

Amarendra Jamatia, Sumanta Chakraborti

The present study is aimed to estimate the quantum of significant air pollution loads that arising out from the brick industries of a small cluster located at Jirania, Tripura, India. For assessing seasonal variations of concentration of particulate matter and other gaseous pollutants, air quality monitoring was carried out using Respirable Dust Sampler at 6 locations in Jirania Brick Industries Cluster before starting brick manufacturing and also during brick production seasons. The concentration of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in the ambient air during bricks production was compared with the baseline ambient air quality data that were generated before starting the brick production. The level of deterioration of air quality in terms of low, moderate, high and critical is evaluated by calculating an exceedence factor (EF). Excedence factor (EF) ranges 0.736 implies that the Jirania Brick Industries Cluster is moderately air polluted area. The emission induced particulate matter and other gaseous pollutants increase the ground level concentration and degrading the quality of ambient air around the brick kilns during the brick production season. Human health as well the health of other living entities, manmade heritage and vegetation around the brick kilns are the serious concerned.

Direction Based Routing in Vehicular Ad-hoc Netwoks PDF

Saikat Roychowdhury, Sauvik Bal, Prof. Kaushik Banerjee

Vehicular networks are one of the most researched topics in computer science and networks in the present time. Most vehicles are equipped with global positioning system (GPS) these days. Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) has become an active area of research and development because of the advances in communication technologies. Soon we can expect all vehicles to be fitted with small range wireless devices. The main issues in VANETS are routing related. A lot of VANET researches have focused on areas like routing, broadcasting, quality of service and security. In this paper we introduce an ad-hoc routing method based on direction of the vehicle. Each vehicle and roadside unit (RSU) can work as a router in the vehicular network. As a vehicle moves fast along one of the two lanes in a road, it would be much efficient if routing is done based on the direction of the vehicle. It can cause much less data loss and less overhead for route establishment. We use the RSUs to determine whether the sender and participating nodes along the route are heading in the same direction or not. For communication between vehicles heading in different directions, we use the backbone network and the RSUs.

Investigation on the Impact of the Design of R.C Buildings in KSA According to Different Building Codes on the Level of Safety and Cost PDF

Abo El-Wafa, W.M., Alsulami, B. T. and Mostafa, M. M.

The construction industry is a highly competitive sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the absence of obligatory local build-ing codes, the construction industry in KSA was adopting standards and codes of practice from several other countries. As a result, a variety of the constructed buildings suffered different features of failure. So, the national building code of the KSA (SBC)was issued in 2007. The present study intends to deeply investigate the impact of using the professions of different international codes used in the KSA on the level of safety and cost of RC buildings. It should be stated that every design code stipulates factors of safety adequate for the local conditions. Over-designing beyond these limits is a waste of materials and hence harming the environmental conditions. Otherwise, neglecting the differences in loads between different cities in the KSA leads to incorrect designs of buildings which may lack the required level of safety. In this study, two types of common buildings are investigated which are moment resisting frames (MRF) and shear wall - moment resisting frames (SW-MRF). The buildings are designed according to different international building codes which are SBC, Eurocode-8, UBC 97 and NBCC. The case of study buildings have different heights ranging between 3 and 17 floors. A comparative analysis between the resulted normalized total base shear and concrete quantities according to the designs relying on these codes is carried out.

Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Concrete Surface Course Mixtures Using Yellow Sulfur PDF

Nibras A. Hussain AL-Sahaf

Specific requirements are needed to control the quality of pavement's materials by means of mechanical and durability properties. Accordingly, many studies have been conducted to improve these properties. This study represents laborato-ry studies to characterize asphalt cement-yellow sulfur and the produced asphalt concrete by conducting classical test procedures. Yellow sulfur has been added as a replacement to the asphalt cement with nine contents which were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 by total weight of asphalt cement. The yellow sulfur modified mixtures were designed according to Marshall method and their engineering properties i.e. stability, flow, bulk density, percent of voids in total mix, and per-cent of voids filled with asphalt were determined. Marshal stability of the modified mixtures is higher than those of control mixture. Also, the test results show that the engineering properties of hot mixtures treated with yellow sulfur comply with SORB specifications for surface course mixtures.

Power Quality Improvements in Wind Based DG Systems using Solid State Transformer PDF

Subhadeep Paladhi and Ashok S.

Along with the random increment of power demand throughout the world, the amount of renewable energy integration into the conventional grid is also increasing day by day. Wind power is being found as one of the most rapidly increasing renewable energy resources in the present scenario. As a result of the wind power being an uncontrollable resource, various problems regarding power quality, power system stability, reactive power consumption and protection issues arise. Though the Solid State Transformer (SST) has been found to be useful in integration of different distributed energy resources in the distribution grid with multiple functionalities, research gaps are still found in SST application incase of wind power integration. In this paper, the SST based mitigation of some power quality issues like voltage sag and swell at point of common coupling (PCC), reactive power consumption, power factor improvement etc. which exist in the wind based DG systems are presented through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation using suitable case study.

Performance Analysis Of Sensing Time Parameter In Cooperative Sensing Cognitive Radio PDF

Hemlata Patil,Dr A.J.Patil,Dr S.G.Bhirud

Spectrum scarcity problem is well addressed by cognitive radio. The main role of spectrum sensing is to discover the empty band correctly .This is done with the help of energy detector. The sensing time is a very crucial parameter which regulates the detection probability. In this paper the impact of sensing time has been investigated. The rigorous simulations are done on sensing time parameter with varying snr and keeping probability of false alarm constant and vice versa. The simulations are done for cooperative sensing with AND and OR rule and it shows that AND rule outperforms in terms of detecting the band. Results also show that Sensing efficiency is declined with increasing sensing time.

Understanding the Roots of Male Student Prostitution: A Multiple Case Study PDF

Hilda D. Gales

This multiple case study was conducted at the municipality of Compostela, Compostela Valley Province. Participants were the five male student prostitutes from private and public higher education institutions of the municipality. The in-depth interview provided the lived experiences, reasons of turning to prostitutions, and the aspirations of these male student prostitutes. It was found out that lived experiences of these male student prostitutes were manifested in their hesitation as first timers in the work and encountered disgusting sexual contacts. There were shocking revelations in the confessions of the participants that needs attention. Poverty was the primary reason of becoming a prostitute. This study has implications in education on how to address the problem and find ways to prevent the blowing number of these students in the academic world.

GIS based Landfill Site selection for Faisalabad City PDF

Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Khalid Mahmood

Shortage of land for waste disposal and inappropriate landfill site is one of the biggest problems in urban areas. This problem could be solved by applying new technologies like Geographic Information Systems. Most of the landfill sites in Pakistan are selected randomly, and waste is burned in air which has impacts on nature and human lives. The main aim of this research is to determine a suitable landfill site with less impact on environment. In this research, a potential site for an appropriate landfill area for Faisalabad city was determined by using Geographic Information System (GIS) as a tool to aid the decision making process. To achieve this purpose, thematic layers, and different tabular data such as topography, land use, roads network, ground, and surface water, infrastructure, and urban areas were collected. Thematic maps were used to create the vulnerability map for the area and the results were compiled to the buffer zones around sensitive areas. Multi-criteria analysis (MDA) was used to measure the relative importance weighting for each criterion. Each map layers were formed with the aid of GIS and final suitability map was created by overlay analyses of each criterion map. According to obtained results, high and low suitable areas were determined in the study area.

Creation, Maintenance and Comparison of Multipurpose Cadastre in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia PDF

Khalid Mahmood, Sajid Rashid Ahmad

Metropolitan regions often faced huge burden to handle to managing authorities for the linkage between transportation, land-use and environmental quality and from urban perspective about handling the other effects of growth such as loss of free land portion, housing availability, humidity and sprawl growth. The models (planning) which are using by Metropolitan authorities; are not designed in the way to overcome these needs. This multipurpose cadastral database including spatial, non-spatial data, and metadata; is designed to meet these needs and is being used in more than ten metropolitan regions for various environmental, planning, engineering, cadastral documentation projects. This work illustrates the each phase from field survey up to designing and maintaining multipurpose cadastral database.

Virtual Computer Laboratory A worked Sample-APB Simulator PDF

Okoro U.R, Omotosho O.J, Egunjobi P.O, Dike A.S and Obasa B.O

The field of Virtual Reality has made Education so interesting as it introduces a balance between Explicit Knowledge (introduced by normal theory class setting) and Tacit Knowledge (knowledge gained by practical carried out in laboratories). Virtual Reality (VR) is an artificial environment created with computer hardware and software, which presents users with hands-on experience while learning technical know-hows of a particular device in the real world. Virtual Laboratories enhances accessibility to simulated equipment and reduces cost and maintenance of physical laboratories facilities. The outcome of this work is APB- 3-D virtual laboratory, which presents students and lecturers with a virtual world/World on Windows (WoW) practical class sessions on computer hardware repairs and troubleshooting. APB strikes a balance between concrete learning and virtual classroom experience with the sole aim of combating lack of laboratory experience and lack of laboratory facilities as major challenges in developing countries such as Nigeria.

Low Cost, Portable and Extendable Power Bank PDF

Abhishek Joshi

In the following paper, a new innovative design in which simple and effective components are utilized in a circuit that enhances the capabilities of the portable power banks available in the market is discussed. Components such as DC voltage regulators and USB cable have been used to create a circuit that has more utility compared to products available in the market. It offers additional advantages and simpler approach to these portable power banks.

Adaptive Control Method for Output Voltage of a Three-Phase Multilevel Inverter Considering For Fluctuation in DC Voltage PDF


In this paper, a new control approach for closed loop feedback control (CLFB) multilevel inverter of the output voltage using space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is presented. The DC sources input to the inverter circuit are directly connected without energy storage devices considering solar, wind and fuel cell cogeneration systems. The Proportional plus Integral control (PI), Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been applied, the main role of these control techniques is to make improvement in the controllability and absorption of the fluctuations of DC voltages, Using three level inverters with static and dynamic loads has been examined. This paper gives a detailed analysis and comparison of control techniques simulated by MATLAB environment.

A novel Digital watermarking technique based on STD (standard division) PDF

Aymen Mudheher Badr, Mohammed Layth Talal, Ghassan Sabeeh Mahmood

The data hiding, it's one of the most important means used by the security institutions with critical communications in all countries of the world, they provided the technology of high security, especially in the communication networks and the Internet. In this paper, we modified LSB algorithm to become more secure and robust, Cryptography and Steganography works separately from the other to ensure a secure content. We design scheme to increase the safety and reliability of the copyrights to images, videos, books …etc., that's published on the internet by providing a watermark image hiding inside the original file that we want protect it. Firstly, reading first image (binary scale) and encrypted it by XOR algorithm and using a key agreed upon by the two parties (sender and recipient), followed by the division of the cover image to be hide data where clips blocks size (8*8) and account values standard deviation (Standard Deviation (STD)) for each section are then finding less and the largest value of a standard deviation in addition to the median value, then isolate sections where the value of the standard deviation less or equal of median value to be key concealment (ie be adopted as locations to hide) and that by including all bit of message into the (LSB) for each section of the selected sections. The effective of the proposed scheme has been estimated by Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), BER. This paper also illustrates how security has been enhanced using this algorithm.

Money laundering and financial market performance in Russia PDF

Ann V. Mezent?eva, Olga V. Mezent?eva

Financial market efficiency can serve as an indicator of investment attractiveness of the country. We expected that the performance of capital flight will depend on the dynamics of the securities market, as part of the financial market and it must explain the problem of withdrawal of capital from developing countries to more efficient markets of developed countries. We examined the dependence of GDP, foreign direct investment, dynamics of the index RTSI, and the Net capital exports by the private sector. Our research has shown that the criterion of the effectiveness of regional financial market is not decisive for Russian foreign direct investment abroad. Until 2009, Russia shadow income laundered through the securities market intermediaries and brokers found themselves in the derivation of assets outside the Russian jurisdiction. In recent years, capital outflow occurs through trade deals and transactions. This suggests that in modern Russia capital flight from the country does not depend on the efficiency of financial markets and investment attractiveness of the country.

Conventional Fire Alarm System PDF

Kamalkishor mohite, Madhuri More, Mrs.V.V.Kale

Safety is the main aspect of human life. There are hazardous effects of fire in human life. The Fire Alarm system (FAS) is implemented in building to reduce hazardous causes of fire. This System continuously monitors the space covered by zones. If fire occurs, it gets detected automatically at incipient stage and gives notification. The early detection helps to prevent the spread and increases human safety.


M. C Enedoh

Four complexes obtained from 2-amino-4-thiazoleacetic acid hydrazide [keto- (ATAH) and enol- (ATA) forms), salicylaldehyde- 2-amino-4-thiazoleacetic acid hydrazone (ATASH) and acetone -2-amino-4-thiazoleacetic acid hydrazone (ATAAH) each complexed with copper(II) sulphates have been synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductance, infrared and electronic spectral studies. The ligands and complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity and the compounds were relatively inactive against the organism tested. The electronic data indicate a square planar coordination for the all the complexes synthesized. The IR spectra data are diagnostic of bidentate coordination via the carbonyl oxygen and the azomethine, the SO42- anions are in their inner coordination spheres. The conductivity analyses indicate a non-electrolytic nature for the chelates.

Ciphertext Policy - Attribute Based Encryption (CP-ABE) System Solution for Securely Sharing Images Owned by One Stakeholder with Unknown Stakeholder PDF

Miss. Pooja Tandale, Mr. Sidheshwar Khuba

One of the most challenging issues in sharing systems is the enforcement of access policies and the policies updates support. Ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic solution to this issue. Cipher text – Attribute Based Encryption scheme enables an encryptor to define the attribute set over a universe of attributes that a decryptor needs to possess in order to decrypt the ciphertext. Thus, each viewer with a different set of attributes is allowed to decrypt different pieces of data per the security policy. It is designed to use CP-ABE scheme to improve security and efficiency in attribute based image sharing. The designed image sharing system includes Key Generation Center, Image Owner, Image Viewer, Image Server system entities that helps to share image securely using CP-ABE scheme. Here, specifically focus is on sharing image in ‘.jpg/.jpeg’ format.

Production of chitosan from different species of zygomycetes and its antimicrobial activity PDF

Mohamed M. Gharieb; Sabha M. El-Sabbagh, Marwa A. Shalaby and Osama M. Darwesh

Zygomycetes fungi cell wall is a source for chitosan production. In this study, chitosan was produced by three fungal strains (Cunninghamella elegans RCMB 012002, Mucor rouxii RCMB 015002 & Rhizopus.sp) and its antimicrobial activity was investigated against deferent pathogenic microorganisms. The chitosan produced by the fungal strains was characterized by FTIR to evaluate the degree of deacetylation, and the DD was 80.30, 81.50 & 80.30 % with Mucor rouxii, Rhizopus sp. & Cunninghamella elegans, respectively. To enhance the value of fungal chitosan production, five culture conditions such as growth medium, carbon and nitrogen source, pH value and temperature were studied. The results showed higher chitosan yield with YPG medium and gave 640, 440 and 240 mg/l for Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor rouxii & Rhizopus sp., respectively. The higher yield of chitosan was obtained when used glucose as carbon source for all fungal strains. The sodium nitrate was the best nitrogen source for Cunninghamella elegans & Mucor rouxii, but urea as the best one for Rhizopus sp. The pH 5 was the best for Cunninghamella elegans & Mucor rouxii, while the pH 4.5 was the best one for Rhizopus sp. and 30?c as temperature for all fungal strains. The produced chitosan was used as antimicrobial agent against pathogenic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC- 47077), Escherichia coli (ATCC- 25922), Candida albicans (ATCC- 10231) and Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed variable antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of produced fungal chitosan was calculated and the results were ranged between 100 and 1500 ppm with all tested microbes. We produced eco-friendly fungal chitosan and applied it as antimicrobial agent which can be used in various fields.

Towards a Methodology for Performance Measurement of Service-Based Systems PDF

Marcelo Silva, Fernando Lins, Erica Sousa

Currently, the use of web services in systems engineering and execution is increasing considerably. In addition, service oriented computing (SOC) is being viewed as an interesting approach for building more complex systems based on primitive services. Based on the widely adoption and use of this approach, web services performance evaluation acquires a considerable relevance, because this performance directly impact the performance of the entire system. This work proposes a methodology for measuring the performance of Web services, in which a set of steps can be used to accomplish this task. In special, considering that two relevant communication protocols, SOAP and REST, were proposed in the last years to support web services project and execution, a case study focuses on a comparative study of these protocols in order to evaluate performance aspects in real world scenarios.

Business Intelligence PDF

Thabit Zatari

Business Intelligence is becoming more significant to firms and organizations because with business intelligence they may have good knowledge management (Boylan 2015). Business Intelligence basically is computer software that assists firms to gain more perspectives into addressing the data needs and crucial operations through reporting applications and analysis tools ((Boylan 2015).

Physicochemical Properties of Japanese Scad (Decapterus Maruadsi) Surimi Prepared using the Acid and Alkaline Solubilization Methods PDF

Nur Syamimi Fatin, Nurul Huda, Wahyudi David

The physicochemical properties of Japanese scad (Decapterus maruadsi) surimi prepared using the acid solubilization method (ACS), alkaline solubilization method (ALS), and conventional method (CON) were investigated and compared. In CON, the fish was mechanically deboned, washed, screw pressed, treated by adding cryoprotectants, and frozen. For ACS and ALS, the minced meat was homogenized, solubilized with acid pH 3 or alkaline pH 12, respectively, and centrifuged to separate insoluble materials from soluble protein. The soluble protein was collected and adjusted to the isoelectric point of proteins (5.4), and the precipitated proteins then were centrifuged to collect the protein isolate. Cryoprotectants were added and the product was frozen. ACS yielded the highest protein recovery, ALS yielded the highest lipid reduction, and CON yielded the lowest protein recovery and lipid reduction. ACS and ALS generated products with higher protein and lower fat contents compared with CON, whereas CON produced a product with higher moisture and ash contents than ACS and ALS. Quantitative descriptive analysis revealed that the surimi produced by CON had a strong fishy odor and a rancid odor. Results shows that compared to CON, ACS and ALS methods increase the protein recovery, lipid reduction and gel quality of Japanese scad surimi.

On The Behavior of Strategies in Iterated Games Between Relatives PDF

Essam EL-Seidy ,Salah El Din S.Hussien and Ali M. Almuntaser

The theory of iterated games provide a system framework to explore the players' relationship in a long-term. In this paper we consider the iterated prisoner's dilemma game (IPD) played between relatives . Two state automata are used to play infinitely iterated the two players where each action can be mis-implemented with small error probability. the payoff matrix using the perturbation approach is computed . Using a different values of the average relatedness between players and different values of the payoff variables (R; S; T; P) , the behavior of strategies for iterated prisoner's dilemma game in each situation is studied .

Performance Evaluation of Novel Energy Efficient Water Cooler PDF

Mr.Kharat Amol.S, Dr.Kore S.S, Prof. Jagdale M.R

The continuously increasing imbalance between the energy demand and supply, together with escalating cost of the conventional energy resources as well as growing environmental pollution are forcing people to invent newer methods either to reduce energy demands or to find alternative energy resources. In refrigeration and air- conditioning systems, the compressor is the largest consumer of electricity, in most of the cases consuming about 70% of total electricity. It is well known fact that water cooling is always effective than air cooling. Water cooler provides an opportunity to use water cooled condenser being always installed near water source. An in-house facility is developed by modifying the existing water cooler system to use the water as cooling medium instead of the air as cooling medium. Accordingly, a water cooled condenser system is designed and developed for existing water cooler with the facility to use of waste water from the water cooler, available relatively at low temperature in significant amount. Experiments were conducted at various operating conditions. It is observed that the COP is higher with water cooled condenser in comparison with air cooled condenser due to saving in power. However, cooling capacity is obtained low for water cooled condenser due to reduction in condenser pressure. High flow rate of cooling water in water cooled condenser system gives better performance when compared to low and medium flow rates of cooling water at condenser. High flow rate of cooling water offer better performance at the cost of water. Waste water utilization of the water cooler with low flow rate brings the system COP almost similar to medium flow which saves the water.

Securing and Authenticating Access to Encrypted Cloud Data PDF

Kunal Kashelani, Varshapriya Jyotinagar

Sensitive information, when placed in wrong hands may lead to unwanted results. One way of protecting your data is to never use a cloud based service, but it carries dis-advantages of its own. So, how could it be possible to actually trust the cloud service provider with your sensitive information, without actually giving away the key to access your information?

Constant Market Share Analysis for Exports of Pakistan: Case of Developed Market Economies PDF

Arsalan Ahmed, Dr Shahida Wizarat

This Paper investigates Pakistan`s exports to Developed Market Economies (DMEs) for the period 2003-12 using the Constant Market Share analysis. CMS decomposed the total export`s growth in to four major components. i.e. the world trade effect, the commodity composition effect, the market distribution effect and the competitiveness effect. HS 4 digits panel data on yearly basis has been used in the study which has been collected by the International Trade Centre (ITC). The study shows that Pakistan has the potential to increase its exports to the DMEs, but targeted diversification is required with respect to commodities and Pakistan’s exports are competitive in the DMEs..

Privacy Preservation of Cloud Storage Data using Classification PDF

Gurudayal Singh Bhandari, Asst. Prof. Abhishek Singh Chauhan

Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) addresses the problem of developing accurate models about aggregated data without access to precise information in individual data record. Under the single trust level assumption, a data owner generates only one perturbed copy of its data with a fixed amount of uncertainty. This assumption is limited in various applications where a data owner trusts the data miners at different levels. Multilevel Trust (MLT) poses new challenges for perturbation-based PPDM. In contrast to the single-level trust scenario where only one perturbed copy is released, now multiple differently perturbed copies of the same data are available to data miners at different trusted levels. The more trusted a data miner is the less perturbed copy it can access; it may also have access to the perturbed copies available at lower trust levels. Moreover, a data miner could access multiple perturbed copies through various other means, e.g., accidental leakage or colluding with others. Here a new and efficient technique for privacy preservation is implemented for the cloud so that various security issues in the cloud is detected and prevented.

Optimization of EDM Process by new Carbon Black Layer Technology and Comparison with Traditional Regression Analysis Method PDF

Er. Mukesh Didwania, Ato esmael Adem, Gurala Muralidhar Reddy

It is method in which the metals like has talloy, nitralloy, nimonics etc. are such that they can't be machined by conventional methods but require some special techniques. In this paper there is a optimization of characteristics of EDM like Material removal rate, tool wear ratio and surface roughness by using different input parameters like ram speed, current intensity, pulse duration and duty factor. To optimize the EDM process, the fractional factorial method developed by Taguchi, which is a traditional technique that allows a process to be optimized using relatively few experiments when there are large No. of input variables, are used. By traditional method, as result we find out the highest MRR value obtained is (1) 98 mm3/min; the TWR at these setting 0.5% and the surface roughness (Ra) is 9.4 µm. (2) The lowest TWR obtained is 0.16%, the values of MRR is 17 mm3/min and Ra is 5.8 µm. (3) The lowest Ra is 4.6 µm, the MRR and TWR values for these settings are 28 mm3/min & 3.5%. So these results confirms that there is no single set of input parameter settings which optimize all three output parameters. If it is essential to have as smooth a surface finish as possible, then a very low MRR and a very high TWR would be obtained. In new method, there is an improvement in TWR. The mean value in the improvement is (60±16%) to 95% significant. The MRR appears to increase slightly for a preprocessing depth of 0.025 mm but decreases there after so the results confirm the theory that the TWR in improved by the preprocessing method. It can been seen that there is an improvement in all cases. The mean value of the ratio is 1.39 ± 0.9 (95% confidence limit). There is, however, no significant correlation between pulse duration and TWR improvement. The MRR was largely unchanged for the 1 mm preprocessing depth, but was reduced for the 4 mm depth. So we can conclude that the improvement in TWR was due to influence of migrated carbon in new method.


Manali Pohare, Ashok Shinde and Prashant Borkar

Vision guided robotics plays a vital role in all research areas. The basic idea our project is to increase the visual system of humans. The other major aim of our project is to develop intelligent machines. AGV is one kind of transportation that follows the given respective paths and route. It is widely used industrial fields and community services as well as in dangerous working areas .Nowadays AGV are used in almost all the countries .It has many advantages in our day to day life. IT works just like a robot as it is able to sense and respond in the given environment. Considering that AGVs are used to optimize our work in almost all the fields. In this project we develop a prototype of an AGV which follows a given path on a flat surface with the help of two dc motors and one freewheel. Camera is interfaced with PC for image acquisition and processing is done with the help of Matlab. Path can be determined by the user with the help of GUI application. RF module is used for communication between PC and microcontroller .Commands can be sent from PC based on location of vehicle. Microcontroller will then move the vehicle forward, left, right and stop.

Comparative Performance Analysis of AODV, DSDV and DSR for Wireless Devices PDF

Tanvi Shanbhag, Ahmed Hussain, Dhruv Shah, Prof. Jay Borade

Routing is the task of directing data packets from a source node to a given destination. The On-demand protocol performs better than the table-driven protocol.In this project we have analyzed and compared three routing protocols i.e. AODV, DSR, DSDV implemented in ns-2. The protocols are simulated in a wireless environment with routing protocols and varying pause time in a simulation environment of 100 nodes. We investigated the performance metrics namely Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Average end-to-end delay, energy spent and throughput through NS-2 simulation. The performance of protocol is one of the interesting issue.

An Experimental Study on Compressive Strength of Various Cement Concrete Under Sea Water PDF

Swati Maniyal, Ashutosh Patil

Potable water is becoming a scarce commodity on this planet Earth with time. Hence, we need to find alternatives for potable water as billons of liters of water is used in construction industry. This research work seeks to investigate the use of sea water as mixing and curing of concrete as 97% of the water on Earth surface is sea water. For this concrete cubes were cast for a design mix of M-20, 1:1.777:2.826 by weight and 0.47 water cement ratio and M-25, 1:1.432:2.472 by weight and 0.414 water cement ratio using OPC 43 grade, OPC 53 grade and PPC cement as per guidelines for concrete mix proportioning with a slump of 75 mm to 100 mm. Half of the cubes were cast and cured with potable water and half with sea water. The cubes were cast and cured for 7, 14, 21, 28 days and was tested for compressive strength. From the results it was found that compressive strength increases during initial days of curing when cubes are cast and cured in sea water but finally characteristic strength decreases by about 5% as compared to cubes cast and cured with potable water.

Performance Investigation of Cement Concrete Under Variation of Curing Time PDF

Shreyash Shah, Ashutosh Patil

Today there is a need of speedy construction as the world is growing and developing at a fast rate. Time is as precious as money. Curing each and every element of structure for 28 days sometime becomes a problems due to shortage of time and resources. This work is concerned with finding an experimental research of variation of curing time on concrete compressive strength. For this concrete cubes were cast for a design mix of M-20, 1:1.777:2.826 by weight and 0.47 water cement ratio and M-25, 1:1.432:2.472 by weight and 0.414 water cement ratio using OPC 43 grade, OPC 53 grade and PPC cement as per guidelines for concrete mix proportioning with a slump of 75 mm to 100 mm. The concrete cubes gain about 85%, 94%, 108%, and 124% of target characteristic compressive strength for PPC if cured for first 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively.

Survey on Enhancing Infrastructure Scalability by Predicting Future Requirements PDF

Wegdan Altayeb, Ahmed Kayed

Automatic resources scalability, performance and resources management are required properties for successful services in cloud infrastructure.

Numerical Solutions of Two-Dimensional Burgers’ Equations PDF

Vildan Gülkac

Two-dimensional Burgers’ equations are reported various kinds of phenomena such as turbulence and viscous fluid. In this paper, we illustrate the LOD method for solving the two-dimensional coupled Burgers’ equations. We extend our earlier work [1] and a stability analysis by Fourier method of the LOD method is also investigated. The computational results obtained by present method are in excellent agreement with earlier results. Present method can be easily implemented for solving nonlinear problems evolving in several branches of engineering and science.

An Evaluation of the Capacity of two Roundabouts: A Case Study of Agartala, Tripura PDF

Amitabha Acharjee, Viki Das, Dr. Manish Pal

Roundabouts are one of the biggest areas in road intersection. The special form of at-grade intersection is roundabout which is laid out for the movement of traffic in one direction. In urban area, total quantity of vehicles increase very sharply. Quantities of vehicles are also increasing at the intersection of post office chowmuhani area as well as circuit house area in Agartala, Tripura. With this increasing rate of vehicles may cause congestion, delay and accident in intersection. The study shows that the Post office chowmuhani and in Circuit House chowmuhani roundabouts the total traffic capacity is 3599 PCU/hour and 2970 PCU/hour respectively. Hence, as per the study it expected that the Circuit House chowmuhani roundabout will be collapsed by the year 2022.

An Extrapolation Method for Oxygen Diffusion Problem PDF

Vildan Gülkac

We consider the oxygen diffusion equation. Oxygen diffusion in a sike cell with simultaneous absorption is an important problem. Oxygen diffusion has a wide range of medical applications. Numerical solutions of its partial differential equation are obtained by extrapolation method with the vector of values V approximating to C (diffusion) at the mesh points. And the results gave a good agreement with the previous methods [1,2,3]. And L0 stability method of analysis of the stability is also investigated.

The Manobo Tribe Then and Now:An Ethnography PDF

Abraham L. Masendo

The study delved into the cultural practices of Agusan Manobo tribe in the past as it is practiced in the present. It also sought the strategies used by the tribe to withhold their practices as well as their hopes and aspiration. The study made use of the interview to the selected ten elders of the tribe and conducted also a focused group discussion to the seven datus surrounding Sitio Kapda, Barangay Sabud, Loreto, Agusan del Sur, Philippines. It is revealed in the study that rituals, belief in the spirits, marriages, healing, settling disputes, burials and choosing new leader were the practices of the tribe. As pious people, their activities are always consulted with unseen spirits to whom they believed to have interference of every activity of human being. It is revealed that the oral tradition was the most common way of conveying their practices to the young so that it will continue to exist. The family was the first venue of such witnessing of practice. They believed in the unity and faith of the tribe in order to continue their practices. It made known from the study that the tribe longed for indigenous education for their young to use when they led the tribe in the future. They wanted also that they have their own land to live where the next generation can exercise their beliefs and practice their rituals. It went out also that they wanted their culture to be written as part of the history.

Hospital Engineering and Infection Control PDF

Dr Sameer Mehrotra, Dr R K Ranyal, Dr Punit Yadav, Dr Sunil Basukala

The hospital design has an important role in the control of hospital associated infection. The physical design of hospital is an essential component of a hospital’s infection control strategy, incorporating infection control issues to minimise the risk of infection transmission. Hospital design therefore, needs to consider the separation of dirty and clean areas, adequate ventilation, lighting and storage facilities and design of patient accommodation areas, including adequate number of wash hand basins and single bed facilities. However, there is inherent difficulty in establishing this fact because of too many confounding factors in the form of type of patients, number and type of man power available in the facility, the policies and procedures and other resources used. These factors cannot remain constant. A review of various studies and guidelines available on the subject was undertaken. It is concluded that the hospital design does matter for infection control.

Recent trends towards multi-focus image fusion techniques PDF

Harmanjot Singh, Sharanjit Singh

Image fusion finds application in an exceedingly wide selection of areas involving image processing. It is just a mechanism to improve the grade of information from a group of images. The primary objective of image fusion would be to generate a fused image that gives the complete and consistent data. The resultant image is formed by combining such magnified information from the input images right into a single image. The typical objective of the paper has gone to explore various applications of image fusion and the various methods for efficiently fusing digital images. It's been found that many the prevailing researchers have neglected many issues; i.e. no technique is accurate for different sort of circumstances. This paper eventually ends up with suitable future directions which can increase the performance of image fusion than existing techniques.

Performance and emission characteristics of diesel sunflowers-based biodiesel fuels PDF

Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

Biodiesel is one of the most desirable alternative fuels to implement. Biodiesel pertains to alternative fuels called biofuels. Bio-fuels are the fuels that derived from biological resources. Biodiesel consists of long chains of carbon molecules attached to an alcohol molecule called fatty acid alkyl esters. Biodiesel is green and clean alternative to fossil diesel fuel.

Lipid analysis of tissues from camel (Camelus dromedaries) reveals unique composition in fatty acids PDF

Boubker NASSER, M’hamed Said EL KEBBAJ, Khadija MOUSTAID, Abdallah BAGRI, Abdelkhalid ESSAMADI and Norbert LATRUFFE

Domesticated Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius, is the most important animal in arid and semiarid areas, as it represents the main source of meat, milk and fat besides its high cultural and economical values. The present work was carried out to determine the compositions of fatty acids and phospholipids in the hump, plasma and liver mitochondria were studied under various physiological and nutritional conditions of this ruminant. In plasma, palmitic (C16:00), linoleic (C18:2 n-6), stearic (C18:00) and oleic (C18:1 n-9) acids represent 70% of the fatty acids identified. In liver mitochondria, a closely similar ratio was obtained (62%) but with different proportions. In the hump, palmitic, oleic, stearic and myristic acids represent 82% of the total fatty acids. Moreover, qualitative differences were observed with myristic (C14:00) acid whereas linoleic acid was lacking. The phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are the major mitochondrial phospholipids with (62%) whereas sphingomyelin represent (14%), while phosphatidylinositol shows the weakest rate (5%). The composition of fatty acids (chain length and unsaturation) in plasma and in liver mitochondria did not depend on age, sex, mass and diet. These results shows qualitative similarity in the composition of fatty acids between plasma and liver mitochondrial membranes but not with in the hump. These results suggest that the camel developed a particular metabolic regulatory system to maintain constant the composition of fatty acids independently of physiological and the nutritional conditions.

Antihyperglycemic potential of urticol from Urtica dioica leaves using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes PDF

Charles K. Rono, Geoffrey K. Maiyoh, Clare I. Muhanj and Eliud Limo

The present study investigated the potential upregulation of glucose absorption in primary rat hepatocytes by compounds from Urtica dioica leaves (UD), isolated in our previous study. The isolates were then subjected to ex vivo assays using primary rat hepatocytes incubated under humidified 5 % CO2 incubator at 37 oC. It was found out that urticol at 100?M stimulated glucose uptake by 28.57 % and 11.45 % as compared to the untreated control and pioglitazone at 100 ?M respectively (p=0.05) while the terpenoids were found to be non-bioactive at both 50 ?M and 100 ?M. This showed that urticol is stronger than pioglitazone in stimulation of glucose uptake. Therefore, the findings show urticol as a potent antihyperglycemic agent. This work may provide a scientific proof of the folklore antidiabetic activity of UD. Further work needs to be done to fully understand the exact mechanism of action of urticol in inducing glucose uptake. It is hypothesized that urticol may work by inducing Glut-4 expression on hepatocytes but this remains to be determined.

Telematics: Tele-Operated System PDF

MSc. Karwan Kareem

With the advent of the Internet and more recently the high-speed academic networks, has created a dynamic that has allowed the academic, scientific and research worldwide for greater interaction in order to develop collaborative, relevant research and cooperatively competitive. Thus, Tele-operation stems from the need to keep people away from sources of changing radiation.

An Efficient X-ray annotation removal Algorithm and cluster based segmentation for mammogram Images PDF

Rabi Narayan Panda, Mirza Ashad Baig, Dr. Bijay Ketan Panigrahi, Dr. Manas Ranjan Patro

Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) has drawn significant attention in the area of medical science as it has brought a paradigm shift in the areas of medical Imaging and Analysis and has a demonstrated potential for increasing survival rates by early detection of intangible malignant tumors and small lesions. A Digitized Mammogram usually contains non resourceful information such as x-ray annotations, noise due to the presence of pectoral muscle in the vicinity of region of interest (ROI). This paper instigates in increasing the quality of evaluation data. This paper thus focuses on implementing clustering method for identifying suspected clusters in digitized mammograms taken from publicly available MIAS database after removal of unwanted noise , so that the proportion of true data exceeds that of false data.So CAD assistance with subjective analysis devises an effective method to eradicate human errors by providing a second opinion diagnosis and improve the accuracy and reduce false positive cases.

QoS Aware Resource Scheduling in Internet of Things-Cloud Environment PDF

Krishnapriya .S, Joby P. P

Internet of things (IoT) is a novel idea of linking objects. Establishment and functioning of IoT rely on existing networks as well new network infrastructures. Cloud environmentis an critical factor for the establishment and functioning of an IoT system. When cloud infrastructure is used for the establishment of IoT, it has to deal with heterogeneous workloads. These workloads include diverse applications with various priorities, performance and resource demands. There are tasks that are limited to the kind of machine types they demand for execution. Also, majority of the IoT applications are time bound and therefore task response time is an important QoS factor. Sub-optimal resource scheduling and sub-optimal load balancing will cause performance degradation. In this paper, we have proposed the concept of a QoS aware resource scheduling technique called Load Balanced Particle Swarm Optimization scheduling, which can reduce application response time and ensures load balancing.

Software Engineering PDF

Muhammed Makhsha

Software engineering is quite hard to define the meaning of what exactly software engineering is. It uses both engineering and science as a way to try to produce improvements with software technology. Different persons have somewhat different definitions of the term software engineering dependent upon what area they work in (Jonny, 2010).The history of software engineering will assist us to comprehend the issues that started for being obvious within the late 1960s and early seventies, as well as the solutions which may have led on the creation with the field of software engineering (Edeh, 2007). Software engineering is usually discipline when designing and implementing high performance data projects. Also software package engineers are certainly not certified or sanctioned by any standards body, by using software fitters with experience in the Intelligence community increases likelihood of success (John, 2009).

Elimination off Bootland Time of an Operating System PDF

Sohan Nipunage, Surbhi Shukla, Mayuri Patil

There has been significant improvemetn in the computing power by inclusion of various technologies that are needed to be integrated into one single operatings system for the convenience of users

Design and Simulation of Terminal Node Controller for KufaSat NanoSatellite PDF

Mohammed Chessab Mahdi, Hiba Imad Sadiq, Zahraa Razaq Hameed, Hussain kareem Mute'eb

This paper presents the design and simulation of communication subsystem of KufaSat Nano-Satellite in general and focuses on the terminal node controller as a key part of the communications subsystem. A transceiver, terminal node controller (TNC), and antenna has been selected as communications subsystem hardware. A terminal node controller consists of a micro control unit, a modem, EPROM and software that implement the AX.25 protocol.

Data Warehousing Concepts Using ETL Process for Social Media Data Extraction PDF

Rohita Yamaganti, Usha Manjari Sikharam

The importance of using social media has increased enormously and focus of the software analyst has shifted towards analyzing the data available in these social media sites. For Example if a college wants to retrieve the alumni data from the social networking sites. Yes it can be done by using power tool called ETL Tool that is available for analyzing the data. In order to analyse the data it’s important to have cleaned or preprocessed data. This preprocessed data helps us in retrieving the desired data. In this process, we need to create special type of database that is specifically built for the purpose of getting information out rather than putting data in. Data warehousing concepts using ETL process trying to build the Data warehouse. Not only alumni data can get the list of friends along with their bio-data, list of employees who are working in different industries. The data Warehouse exists to provide answers to strategic questions and assist managers of the organizations in planning for future. The beauty of creating Data Warehouse will enable the user to analyse the data. We use powerful Tool called Informatica to create this warehouse from social media.

OFDM Based Cooperative Sequential Spectrum Sensing PDF

Pooja Anand

Spectrum sensing is the most significant technique in Cognitive Radio system. So in this paper for the terrestrial television broadcasting (ISDB-T) system of integrated services digital broadcasting, i develop the algorithm based energy detector with low detection delay using sequential hypothesis testing and matched filter detector of spectrum sensing used on OFDM system which is use as a primary signal. For this i develop Cooperative sequential detection algorithms based on energy detectors and the autocorrelation property of cyclic prefix (CP) used in OFDM systems i modify the result of detectors to mitigate the effect of impairment and also compare the result of detectors. The performance of OFDM is assessed by using computer simulations performed by using MATLAB.

Anthocyanin Pigment Identification of Batu Local Rose Flower as A Natural Colorant to Replace Harmful Rhodamin B Colorant PDF

Elfi Anis Saati

This study aimed at identifying anthocyanin pigment in local rose petal from Batu. Extraction processes were conducted in four-level solvents (aquades-citric acid, aquades-lactic acid, methanol-HCl and Aquades-sulfuric acid). In order to measure the potential amount of anthocyanin pigment, isolation procedure was done with its twice further developers, concentrated HCl: H2O=3:97 and BuOH-HCl (n BuOH: HCl 2N=1:1) resulting in isolate and powdered pigment. The identification of anthocyanin was further conducted by using UV Vis spectrophotometry and FTIR analysis (by malvidin chloride standard).

Characterization of Human Affective States Using Multichannel Multiscale Entropy (MMSE) Analysis Method PDF

Kawser Ahammed

This work is based on the recently introduced multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) analysis method. In this article, MMSE analysis method is applied on a multimodal dataset provided by Sander Koelstra et al. for analyzing emotions from physiological signals in order to characterize human affective states. The multimodal dataset contains electroencephalogram (EEG) and peripheral physiological signals recorded from 32 participants while the participants were watching 40 selected music videos of one minute duration. Each participant rated their emotional response to 40 music videos along the scales of valence, arousal, dominance and liking. The MMSE analysis curve obtained using this multimodal dataset shows differences in terms of complexity among different affective states, which can be used for emotion detection and classification for machine vision applications.


Akshay Dunakhe, Shripad Kenekar, Santosh Rajgade

Cardiovascular diseases are nothing but the diseases that involve heart and blood vessels or both. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the current scenario across the world. According to World Bank the deaths due to cardiovascular diseases have been increased at a faster rate in developed as well as developing countries. One of the most useful methods for the detection and further treatment of the cardiovascular diseases is the ECG system. This paper describes the ECG telemetry system based on ZigBee protocol used for wireless transmission. This system can help the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases during emergency. In this system we have obtained ECG signal from electrodes placed on the limbs of the patient, the signal is filtered by analog filter system and then it is digitized using on-chip ADC of microcontroller. The digital output from the microcontroller is then fed to ZigBee module. The signal is then transmitted via the ZigBee transmitter receiver which can be displayed on computer and utilized by the doctor for diagnosis of patient.

Comparison study of the Effects of Bleaching and Enzyme Concentration on the Physical and Mechanical Properties for Denim wash PDF

Lamya Zahir and Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan

As vintage denim look is the attraction to the present fashionable young generation, different types of chemical finishing is done to meet this demand. For getting various faded effect, different concentration of enzyme and bleaching powder is applied and so the physical and mechanical properties of denim apparel is changed. In this research work, modification of denim apparel due to applying different concentration of bleaching powder and enzymes has been observed. For the experiment Indigo dyed cotton denim apparels were chosen and processed by enzyme with the concentration of 0.5% to 3.5%, temperature 55oC. In another work, for same fabric construction, bleaching powder is used with the concentration of 5.0g/L up to 15.0g/l (owl) with 30% pumic stone (owg) at temperature 40oC and pH 10.5 for 20min.The effect on the properties like tensile strength, elongation at break, weight loss, stiffness and shade loss were examined and compared.

Hybrid Ontological Approach for Real Time Composite User Activity Recognition and Detection PDF

Apoorva M. Kakde, Veena A. Gulhane

Human activity recognition is an important parameter in the wide range of applications. To recognize the composite activities in the real and complex environments becomes difficult as monitoring the activities of multiple users cannot be done efficiently using conventional methods. The conventional methods mainly consist of knowledge driven and data driven approaches. In this paper a model for recognition of activities is proposed to detect the abnormal activities of the user. The model works in two modes i.e. learning mode and run mode. Initially, the model works on learning mode to get the sequence of activities and the detection of abnormal activities using hybrid ontological approach is done in the run mode. The simulation of this technique is presented and corresponding results are obtained to get the recognized activities. Thus, this paper calculates temporal relations between the series of actions termed into activity and later monitors this data with the real time data in the run mode.

Hybrid Approach Based Smart Antenna System for Increasing the Accuracy of Multiple User Indoor Localization PDF

Mr.Yogesh R. Sharma, Ms. Veena Gulhane

GPS is commonly used for navigation. Location estimation in indoor environment is not possible using GPS because GPS signals cannot work in indoor environment. There is a huge impact of multipath parameters like shadowing, reflection, refraction, diffraction phenomena in indoor localization which which leads to inaccurate localization and have an impact on the position estimation. Different methods available for localization are: TDOA, TOA, AOA, Location Finger Printing, GPS and RSSI. In all these approaches that are being considered the localization depends either on distance or on angle or on time only. In this paper a hybrid approach which is combination of RSSI and AOA is used to estimate the location of user in indoor environment using smart antenna system. This system combines the results obtained for AOA and RSSI to estimate the location of users. In, this technique the mode of the RSSI value is calculated and beamscan algorithm is used to know the location of the user. The results of this technique are tested and calculated with the help of hardware in indoor environment. Thus, this paper calculates the location of multiple users and also helps them in navigating in indoor environment.

Design and Verification of Efficient Majority Logic Fault Detection and Correction for Memory Applications PDF

Harshitha B, Karthik M

Memory is important for storing data and also to retrieve data in any digital circuit but the main problem is SEUs (Single Event Upsets). SEUs are the bigger concerns for memory applications as it alters the normal working of digital circuits and gives an error. This paper presents a fault detection and correction method which reduces access time when there is no error while reading data for difference-set cyclic codes with majority logic decoding as it can be applied to correct a large number of errors.

Robotic Configuration for Paralyzed Swing Leg with Effort Minimization of Stance Hip Torques and Bounded Stance Hip Orientation PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy, B. Kotiveerachari, P. Rami Reddy

This research work was aimed at an alternate approach for walking and training the paralyzed leg with a robot attached to the pelvis. The dynamic properties considered in this work were mass, center of gravity, moments of inertia of each link and the friction at each joint. The least square method was employed to identify the dynamic properties after exciting the robot and collecting the data of joint positions, velocities, accelerations and applied forces. A robot attached to the pelvis was employed to control the stepping motion of a paralyzed person suspended on a treadmill. In this configuration the large swivel motion was eliminated. A reasonable swing motion was achieved by limiting excessive hip swivel. This robot configuration would need large amount of effort to shift the stance hip to complete a gait.

Characterization of Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of (Nylon 6 + Graphite + Teflon) Nano Particulate Composite: Application Perspective PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

At higher content of graphite the strength of composite has been found reduced because of its highly porous structure and high surface area. The flexural strength has been observed to be sensitive to flaws or defects. An increase in flexural strength on account of increasing teflon has been attributed to its dimensional stability. The introduction of graphite has increased the storage modulus of the composites. The anisotropic nature of graphite was the result of the two types of bonding actions in different crystallographic directions. The ability of graphite to form a solid film lubricant has been attributed to these two contrasting chemical bonds. Two products namely sleeve bearing and thrust washer were fabricated from the optimum values of control parameters estimated by the design of experiments using Taguchi’s technique. The properties of the nylon 6/teflon/graphite composites have been optimized by the confirmations tests.

A New Energy-Efficient Cluster Head Selection Algorithm PDF

Walid Mourad, Imane Aly Saroit, Hesham N. El mahdy, Ben Bella S. Tawfik

The use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has grown enormously in the last decade. Energy efficiency is the most important issue in research of wireless sensor networks while the routing protocol plays an import role in achieving energy efficiency in WSN. Because of the limited energy storage capability of sensor nodes, Energy consumption is one of the most challenging factors of these networks and different strategies and protocols deals with this area. To support high scalability and better data aggregation, sensor nodes are often grouped into disjoint, non overlapping subsets called clusters. Today Cluster based routing protocol are well known approach for extending Wireless Sensor Networks.

Logical sets of quantum operators PDF

Nikolay Raychev

A central component of the quantum calculations is the logical summary of the classic concept for the operators for identity and negation. The characteristic of the quantum states and operators, based on this summary, is in the basis of the logic of the formalized qubit operators. In this report is examined the general idea for the states of identity and negation. Also specific examples from these classes are discussed.

Unitary combinations of formalized classes in qubit space PDF

Nikolay Raychev

The formalization of qubit operators has two main objectives. The first one is to present all qubit operators as linear combinations of ???t?_1 and ?N??t?_1, i.e. identity and negation. Both classes are analogous to the classic operators and therefore the formalization of single qubit operators with these classes, acting as main operators, provides means for operation with primitive operators, set in the classical concepts for calculations. The second objective is to be separated the parts of the phase of the state to be separated from those of the amplitude in such a way, so as to be set out the key models at the disturbance, generated by the operators.

Parametric Importance of Warm Deep Drawing Process for 1070A Aluminium Alloy: Validation through FEA PDF

Kothapalli Chandini, A.Chennakesava Reddy

In this present work, a statistical approach based on Taguchi and Anova techniques and fininte element analysis were adopted to determine the degree of importance of sheet thickness, temperature, coefficient of friction and temperature on the formability of cups from 1070A aluminium alloy using warm deep drawing process. The ex-perimental results were validated using a finite element software namely D-FORM. The Erichsen deep drawing test was conducted to study the formation of wrinkles in the cups. The thickness of sheet, temperature and coefficient of friction would influence the effective stress. The major parameter which could influence the effective strain, the volume of the cup was the thickness of sheet. The damage in the cups was occurred at thin sheets, high coefficient of friction, high strain rate and high temperature.

Fatigue Life Prediction of Different Joint Designs for Friction Welding of 1050 Mild Steel and 1050 Aluminum PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

The purpose of this work was to assess vee-joint, square joint and plain joint, used for joining of dissimilar1050 mild steel and 1050 aluminum alloy materials by continuous drive friction welding. Three joints were evaluated for their strength, hardness, fatigue life, heat affected zone and metal flow across the weld joints. This article dealt with complete failure data (all samples were tested until they failed). The vee-joint found to be the superior alternative for the dissimilar materials in continuous drive friction welding.

Functional composition of quantum functions PDF

Nikolay Raychev

The Boolean functions are a classic way for capturing one of the most basic computations. In this dissertation they are used as a means for specifying an information which is coded in the phase space of a quantum state. This, in turn, may serve for understanding of key examples of disturbance at quantum calculations based on the chain model. Here are examined the main properties and algebraic structures of single qubit Boolean functions and their composition, the combination of primitive Boolean functions with the operator for excluding or, ? , as well as the expression of these functions and their negation as an expression, using ? and B = {0, 1}, the set of the single-byte strings.

Parametric Merit of Warm Deep Drawing Process for 1080A Aluminium Alloy: Validation through FEA PDF

Balla yamuna, A.Chennakesava Reddy

In this present work, a statistical approach based on Taguchi and Anova techniques and fininte element analysis were adopted to determine the merit of sheet thickness, temperature, coefficient of friction and temperature on the formability of cups from 1080A aluminium alloy using warm deep drawing process. The experimental results were validated using a finite element software namely D-FORM. The Erichsen deep drawing test was conducted to study the formation of wrinkles in the cups. The thickness of sheet, temperature and strain rate would influence the effective stress. The major parameter the volume of the cup was the thickness of sheet. The damage in the cups were occurred in thin sheets, high coefficient of friction, high strain rate and high temperature.

Parametric Optimization of Warm Deep Drawing Process of 1100 Aluminum Alloy: Validation through FEA PDF

Thirunagari Srinivas, A. Chennakesava Reddy

In this present work, a statistical approach based on Taguchi and Anova techniques and fininte element analysis were adopted to determine the degree of importance of each of the process parameter on the formability of cup using warm deep drawing process. The process paprameters were thickness of balnk, temperature, coefficient of friction and strain rate. The experimental results were validated using a finite lement software namely D-FORM. The Erichsen deep drawing test was conducted to study the formation of wrinkles in the cups. The thickness of sheet, temperature, coefficient of friction and strain rate would influence the effective stress. The major parameter which could influence the effective strain, the volume of the cup is the thickness of sheet. The damage in the cups was at high coefficient of friction, strainsrate and temperature. The formation of wrinkles was less with high coefficient of friction anfd with thick sheets.

Design and Computation of COP of Vortex Tube PDF


Vortex tube is a mechanical device operating as a refrigerating machine without any moving parts, by separating a compressed gas stream into a low total temperature region and a high one .A vortex tube is a device capable of production of both higher and lower temperatures simultaneous at both ends of the tube. The vortex tube's construction is such that it is made up of a hollow tube of either metallic or fibre components having a nozzle for letting in of compressed air and a diaphragm or a orifice for controlling the flow rate of air. When compressed air passes through a nozzle into the diaphragm of the vortex tube, the air forms a spiral shaped vortex, that causes the heating up of air, and when this air returns back, it cools down rapidly, producing a cooling effect. As the mass flow rates changes, the temperature gap between the atmospheric air and air through the cold end varies. In this paper, the calculations for flow rates are measured and the designs are similar to what was taken by Hilsch, Reynold and Albohrn.

Design Model of Built-up-Stiffened Column Base under Large Eccentric Load PDF

Biswajit Som, Sandip Maity, Gokul Ch. Mondal and Satchitananda Sur

Design of Column base connection is more complex than other steel to steel connection in a structural system due to its concrete interface. Till recent past, column base connection was a least studied structural connection. Analysis and design concept of steel column bases are changing rapidly in recent years. Ongoing experimental research and studies show that the column base behavior changes significantly beyond the elastic regime and its design limit state shall be derived based on actual failure state of a column base connection. Recent publication of codes and design guides in European Union, United States and Japan on column base depicts some major changes from traditional concept and practical design approach. However recent research on the column base is more concentrated on unstiffened base rather than stiffened column base connection subjected to very large moments. In practical design, for a heavily loaded moment resisting frame, large stiffened base connection is unavoidable. In this paper a brief review of new concept of column base behavior have been validated by finite element simulation. Here an attempt has been made to develop a suitable design model by flow chart and numerical example of built-up stiffened base subjected to large eccentric load with appropriate detailing for practical design purpose.


Aamir Mohammed Suhail, Anuraag Vyas, Meghana Gudivada, Prof.T.Venkat Narayana Rao

As we are aware in today’s world, we rely heavily on the internet for almost every activity we perform. Using the internet we perform many tasks such as - banking, shopping, ticket booking, etc. The Internet is the primary medium for communication which is used by number of users all over the world. Simultaneously, its commercial nature is causing increased vulnerability and enhancing cybercrimes. The data which we use should be secured from hackers. Data security is currently the pressing issue that touches areas like computing and communication. In this paper, we present a new cryptographic technique which can be used for providing high security by encrypting data while communicating across the network.

Design and Analysis of Delta Wing Rotor Configuration PDF

V.Srinath, Karrothu V R Manikanta, K.Suresh, V.Rajiv

The Wing Rotor Configuration is a fine combination of innovation and creation of a new configuration which can perform the VTOL operation at a high speed. In this, the wing configuration gets merged with the rotor configuration at its respective location, which again defined by the aerodynamic basics. The design and analysis of delta wing rotor configuration is done by using Catia v5 and Ansys workbench. It is a complex structure with two degrees of freedom; which makes the configuration more challenging. The two degrees of freedom is given to the rotor configuration in order to perform the maneuverability of the vehicle, which means that the wing configuration, itself would not perform the maneuverability for the vehicle.

Breast Cancer Image Enhancement using Median Filter and CLAHE PDF

Aziz Makandar, Bhagirathi Halalli

Breat cancer is one of the major causes of death for woman in world wide. Mammography is the basic screening technique for early detection of tomour in the breast. The major objective of mammography is to detecting the small lumps at an earliest because they may lead for cancer. But it is difficult to identify the very small tomours in the conventional mammography because they are very noisy, low contrast, blur and fuzzy kind of images, it is necessary to enhance the mammography. Enhancement is done to bring out specific features of the mammography such as mass and microcalcification and to heighlight certain characteristics for early detection and easy diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper comprises the different denoising and cintrast enhancement techniques to recognize the suitable enhancement technique for mammography. Mammograms are denoised by linear and nonlinear filtering techniques and efficiency is measured by Root Meam Square Error (RMSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and then contrast of the image is enhanced by histogram based techniques.

Network intrusion detection using feature selection and PROAFTN Classification PDF

Vipin Singh, Himanshu Arora

Classification and detection of network based intrusion is very critical task. The processing of classification and detection faced a problem of large number of attribute and mixed category of data. Day to day increases diversity of attacker and hacker generates new pattern of file for attack purpose, the process of classification and detection suffered due to this reason. The process of classification of PROAFTN is a combination of fuzzy logic and protein cell classification technique. In PROAFTN classification process all features come to the predefined classes for the classification. Now the process of improvement need some important feature selection process for increasing the classification ratio and process of classification. The particle of swarm optimization is dynamic population based searching technique. In the searching technique of particle of swarm optimization select optimal feature set for the classification process of PROAFTN classification process. The process of optimal selection of feature set increase the classification and detection ratio of modified PROAFTN classification process. For the evaluation of performance of modified PROAFTN classification technique used MATLAB 7.8.0 software. MATLAB is well known algorithm analysis software. For the analysis of PROAFTN classification process used fuzzy set tools and some standard tools of MATLAB. For the processing of input data used KDDCUP99 dataset. KDDCUP99 dataset is well known dataset for the purpose of network based intrusion detection and classification. Our classification and detection ratio in some attack case achieved 100%.

Using Energy Efficient Relative Neighborhood Graph for AODV Routing Protocol in MANETs PDF

H. Naanani, M. Bakhouya, H. Mouncef, M. Rachik, J. Gaber

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) are self-organizing networks composed of mobile nodes without any fixed infrastructure. The design and the implementation of efficient and scalable routing protocols constitute one main issue. However, routing protocols for MANETs are mainly based on computing the shortest paths and could not be energy efficient. Nodes failure based on power deficiency could affect the overall network lifetime. In our previous work, since in AODV, the processing time of packets stored in nodes queues increases as the number of packets increases, we have introduced an enhanced version, named QAODV[26], of the standard AODV (SAODV) protocol. In this enhanced version, we have included a technique to control the packet waiting time inside queues. Simulations have been conducted to compare QAODV protocol with SAODV in terms of network lifetime as well as packet delivery ratio. Simulation results showed that QAODV outperforms SAODV. In this paper, we further study the impact of using an efficient energy relative neighborhood graph (e-RNG) on the performance of QAODV in MANETs. Simulation results show that e-RNG provides better performance while decreasing the energy consump-tion.

Study the effect of different parameters on cooling range in a bench top cooling tower PDF

Sharjeel Waqas, Muhammad Usman Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz, Naeem Akram, Shoaib Zaheer

A cooling tower is a device in which combined heat and mass transfer occurs simultaneously. It is used to reduce the temperature of water by contact with ambient air. Cooling tower is the most economical and effective way of cooling and is most widely used. Natural draft and mechanical draft (forced draft and induced draft) are the types of cooling tower. Forced draft cooling tower has been used in this research to study the effect of water inlet temperature and water flow rate on cooling range in a bench top cooling tower. Water inlet temperature has been changed 30°C to 50°C and cooling range has been calculated for each value. Similarly, water flow rate has been changed from 2 to 3.5 lit/min and calculated cooling range for each value. Graph has been drawn for water inlet temperature and water flow rate vs. cooling range. Water inlet temperature and water flow rate has direct relationship with cooling range.

A review on various color filter array techniques PDF

Vikramjeet Singh Goraya, Sharanjit Singh

Most modern digital cameras acquire images using a single image sensor overlaid with a CFA, so demosaicing is part of the processing pipeline required to render these images into a viewable format. Many modern digital cameras can save images in a raw format allowing the user to demosaicing using software, rather than using the camera's built-in firmware. Thus demosaicing becomes major area of research in vision processing applications. In this paper, review of various demosacing techniques that have been proposed by various authors is discussed. It has been found that most of existing techniques suffers from various issues. Therefore the paper ends with a suitable future scope to overcome these issues.

Comparative Study of Packet Loss Concealment Methods in Transmission of Voice over IP (VoIP) PDF


The work consists of developing two MELP coders operating respectively at 1.2 kbps and 2.4 kbps. The improvements of the coder operating at 2.4 kbps by implementing packet loss concealment (masking) techniques based on the receiver which consists of interleaving information frames. These techniques are compared and mentioned on [1]. For this purpose, we extended this comparison to a method previously developed in our laboratory, called multiple descriptions coding (MDC) described on [2], which use two MELP coders operating respectively at 2.4 kbps for the first description and 1.2 kbps for the second description. We used as evaluation technique a method called PESQ (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality) standardized by ITU-T.

To Design A Biosensor For The Determination Of Cholesterol In Human Blood PDF

Ashwini Basavaraju, Ankith Rajashekar Mullangi, Sanjay Menon, Lakshmishree S S

The field of nan¬otech¬nol¬ogy is truly fas¬ci¬nat¬ing. The use of nanomaterials in the development of biosensors has paved the way for the emergence of many signal transduction technologies. Biosensors play a significant role in detection and monitoring wide range of medical applications. Cholesterol monitoring in human blood is one of the most important routine analysis performed in medical screening. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between coronary heart disease and blood cholesterol level. There is need for an effective method that is sufficiently flexible to yield good results in clinical diagnostics. Over the past 30 years large number of cholesterol biosensors have been developed. Various methods such as Fibre-optic fluorescence, Fibre-optic luminescence, Potentiometric, Spectrophotometric and Fluorometric biosensors, have been proposed to determine cholesterol enzymatically. But these methods suffer from interference from other substances found in the blood such as ascorbic acid and uric acid. Therefore amperometric biosensor was designed based on titanium oxide nano particle with Advanced RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) Machine processor to determine the cholesterol level in human blood.

Estimate Mathematical Model to Calculate the View Angle Depending on the Camera Zoom PDF

Heba Kh. Abass, Anwar Hassan M. Al-Saleh, Ali Abid D. Al-Zuky

A mathematical model to estimate the camera view angle for a certain object has been found based on camera zoom where the fitting curves for the practical data of the view angles ( ) in the image plane which decreased with increasing distance (D) for each zoom number(Z) of the used camera were achieved. Then find the mathematical modeling equation that relates view angles ( ), real distance ( ) and zoom number (Z) the comparison between theoretical estimation and practical result for the camera view angles and zoom number give a very good agreement between them where the estimated vertical and horizontal camera view angles very close to the real measurements.

Delivery of Warnings and Alerts during Emergencies PDF

Nikitha Ravinder, Maya Shelke-Bembde

India has unique geo-climatic conditions. This has made it vulnerable to various natural disasters. Earthquakes, Floods, droughts, cyclones and landslides have been a recurrent phenomenon, leading to a massive loss of human lives and a significant economic impact. In recent years, the Government of India has brought about a paradigm shift in the approach to disaster management, taking a holistic approach to address this challenge. An important aspect of this approach is disaster awareness by utilizing ICT. In this paper, we describe an Early Warning and Alert System that can be used by the Disaster Management authorities for communicating with the public. This system can be used to broadcast emergency information such as disaster alert warnings provided by local or national governments using technologies like Java, Android, and leveraging the mobile communication networks. The objective is to send timely and understandable SMS Alerts and also ensure that the message has actually been opened and read by the person receiving it.

Improved Exponential Ratio and Product Type Estimators for Finite Population Mean Under Double Sampling Scheme PDF

Ran Vijay Kumar Singh, Audu Ahmed

In this paper an improved exponential chain ratio and product type estimators have been proposed for estimating finite population mean of the study variable in double sampling when the information on another additional auxiliary character is available along with the main auxiliary character. The expression for the bias and mean square error of the proposed estimators have been derived in two different cases and compared with the MSE of other existing estimators, which utilizes the information on one or two auxiliary characteristic. The empirical studies have also been carried out to demonstrate the efficiencies of the proposed estimators.

Approximations to Standard Normal Distribution Function PDF

Ramu Yerukala and Naveen Kumar Boiroju

This paper presents three new approximations to the cumulative distribution function of standard normal distribution. The accuracy of the proposed approximations evaluated using maximum absolute error and the same is compared with the existing approximations available in the literature. The proposed approximations assure minimum of three decimal value accuracy and are simple to use and easily programmable.



A particle filter is proposed to perform joint estimiation of the carrier frequency offset (CFO) and the channel in multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) wireless communication systems. It marginalizes out the channel parameters from the sampling space in sequential importance sampling (SIS), and propagates them with the Kalman filter. Then the importance weights of the CFO particles are evaluated according to the imaginary part of the error between measurement and estimation. The varieties of particles are maintained by sequential importance resampling (SIR). Simulation results demonstrate this algorithm can estimate the CFO and the channel parameters with high accuracy. At the same time, some robustness is kept when the channel model has small variations


P. Sravan Kumar Reddy, P. Malarvezhi, R. Kumar

The interference analysis for the user equipment (UE) in Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) system with carrier aggregation (CA), in which the UE receiver is affected by the interference. Owing to the characteristics of Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals, the slight frequency offset between a wanted signal and an interferer may result in quite different downlink throughput at UE, accordingly the interference level between component carriers (CCs) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) Adjacent Channel Interferer (ACI) was addressed related to the frequency spacing between them. In addition, the filters of receivers have significant influence on the capability of UEs in dealing with ACI. Base on the frequency response model of Chebyshev filters, the relationship between interference-resistance capability of LTE/LTE-A UE and the bandwidth of the receiver filter are studied. This paper discusses the interference between CCs and the adjacent channel interferer. By varying the spacing between central frequencies of interferer and its adjacent CC, the throughput on the adjacent CC is measured, and it is expressed as the relative throughput.

Processing and Packaging of Hibiscus Sabdariffa for Preservation of Nutritional Constituents. PDF

Anthony D. Joseph and Gideon Majiyebo Adogbo

The storage of extracts of Hibiscus Sabdariffa is faced with the problem of contamination by bacteria which result to fermentation of the food drink and spoilage within a short period. To improve the processing of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces into drinks, the calyces were dry processed and packaged in tea bags under conditions that would preserve the desirable contents such as anthocyanins, vitamin C, protein and minerals. Varied weights of 0.5g, 1.0g, 1.5g and 2.0g were infused in 500ml of water at 80oC; Concentration of the extract was obtained from analysis of aliquots taken at 2 minutes interval on a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 520nm. 2.0g sample gave the optimum extraction at constant temperature. The extraction rate is more proportionally dependent on amount of calyx than temperature. The analysis of the nutritional constituents was carried out with the 1.0g of calyx infused in 400ml of water and the temperature was varied. The result showed that increase in temperature favours the yield of protein, calcium, carotene and phosphorous but does not favour increase in ascorbic acid content of the aliquot. The temperature range of 60-70oC is recommended for infusion such that the active constituents are preserved.

Zeolite -Water Adsorption Refrigeration System PDF

Ashvath Sharma, Vaibhav Kumar Banka, Ashish Kumar Garg, Royal Kumar Gautam

This paper presents the utilization of Zeolite 4A from for application in adsorption refrigeration systems. The refrigeration system prototype used in the test consists of two steel cylinders one containing Zeolite and the other containing distilled water at a pressure corresponding to the room temperature boiling point of water, three transport pipes having one valve each. The refrigerator was constructed and tested at the Mechanical Engineering Department, India. The lowest evaporator temperature attained was 9.8 deg Celsius with a C.O.P of 0.4.

Development of Online Voting System using Minutiae based Algorithm PDF

Talib A. Divan, Veena A. Gulhane

Voting is one of important task which has to conduct in a country for electing a government. But being such an important part hence it has to be manage securely and accurately. But the voting percentage decreases year by year because of inflexibility. Most of existing system studied suffers from high FRR rate. In this paper a minutiae based algorithm is used for designing a voting system which is implemented using combination of hardware and software. Minutiae based algorithm uses two fingerprint authentication which make system more secure. Proposed system aims to design a flexible low FRR rate system with high accuracy. The simulation result of proposed system is discussed in the result section. Also, the proposed is analysed comparing with the existing system considering the FAR and FRR rate

Heat Treatment Methods Applied To AISI 431 Martensitic Stainless Steels PDF


Martensitic stainless steels are widely used in industrial applications due to their ability to be heat treated to different strength levels, coupled with good corrosion and oxidation resistance. AISI 431 is one of the most potentially attractive steels in this class used extensively for parts requiring a combination of high tensile strength, good toughness and corrosion resistance. However, high alloy content of these steels causes the transformation to be so sluggish, and the hardenability to be so high, that maximum hardness is produced by air cooling. By applying suitable heat treatment procedures, the properties of martensitic stainless steels are greatly modified. This paper reviews the various heat treatment methods applied to AISI 431 martensitic stainless steels and their influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties.

Solid Waste and Waste Bin Management By Using RS & GIS: A Review PDF

Sumedh D. Kashid, Dhananjay B. Nalawade, Ajay D. Nagne, Rajesh K. Dhumal, K.V.Kale

Due to rapid increase in population and its urbanization problem of solid waste becomes a critical issue. Its direct impact on human health and environment makes it crucial one. In solid waste management proper allocation of waste bins and their collection plays an important role. Due to unavailability of bins at proximity distance waste is dumped at open spaces which create lot of environmental and health issues. These problems arise due to improper management of waste bins. This paper proposes a discussion about role of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in solid waste management and its use in waste bin allocation, waste bin allocation strategies and GIS for the optimization of waste collection and transport.

Development of wireless sensor network system for LPG gas leakage detection system PDF

T.H.Mujawar, V.D.Bachuwar, M.S. Kasbe, A.D. Shaligram and L.P. Deshmukh

Leakage of a gas in any sector may cause many health issues and hence in the work places it is to be cautioned against such disaster hap-penings by implementing a safety system that can make an early alert to the users. This paper describes the development of wireless sensor network for LPG gas leakage detection. The proposed design includes: an Arduino Nano microcontroller, gas sensor and a XBee. The sensor node will detect a minute concentration of the gas according to the voltage output of a sensor and also collects the gas leakage data thereby locating the specific area of the sensor node. XBee sends the data from gas sensor to the monitoring system that is displayed on LabVIEW GUI. A GSM module was as a communication tool between the microcontroller unit and mobile phone unit. The system could be installed at any remote place and could be controlled by any mobile phone supporting the SMS service. The reliability and productivity of the system are the key concerns and influence the design and development choices for the system in terms of the hardware and software designs.

Characterization of tidal and non-tidal variations in the Chilika lagoon on the east coast of India PDF

M.M Mahanty, P.K Mohanty, U.S Panda, S.Pradhan , R.N Samal, V.Ranga Rao

Analysis of water level data collected at two locations (Chilika inlet and INS) in the Chilika lagoon has been made to understand monsoonal variation of tidal and non-tidal characteristics based on the WTR tide gauge. Observation shows the variation of major tidal harmonic constituents (M2, S2) is caused by wind force, river discharge as well as bottom topography, whereas the variation of constituent is significantly related to seasonal climate change. The study results revealed that during the summer, the water level variation by wind force significantly occurs at INS compared to Chilika inlet, however, during monsoon the water level at both locations is controlled by river discharge. The amplitudes of tidal constituents are comparatively higher at Chilika inlet than at INS, and the tides are perfect semidiurnal at Chilika inlet, whereas tides are mixed, mainly semidiurnal at INS. Further study exhibited that the water level variation is dominated by tidal signal at Chilika inlet than at INS. The non-tidal water level varies seasonally at the both locations that caused by river discharge during monsoon and that by wind force during summer. Analysis of the water level data indicated that the variation in seasonal tidal propagation at the INS and Chilika inlet is due to the different bottom topography. Spectral analysis of water level revealed peak energy was at higher frequencies with lower amplitude during summer due to the wind effect, whereas the peak energy was at lower frequency with higher amplitude during monsoon due to river discharge.

Fluid-Structure-Interaction (FSI) Analysis of Francis Turbine for High Head Operations PDF

Professor Dr Hameed Ullah Mughal; Muhammad Awais Hamza Mughal; Muhammad Ibtsam Talha

Pakistan’s major electric production is from hydro-turbines in which Francis Hydro-turbines are situated at Warsak, Ghazi Brotha, Terbela and Mangla. In the presented work Mangla power plant’s Francis Turbine is analyzed for high head operations as head variations are usual throught the year in this reservoir. In floody conditions turbines have to operate at overload conditions sometimes non-designed conditions. These conditions are the causes of different dangerous effects effecting performance. In presented article safe mass flow rate zones are found for the maximum Head Water Level (HWL) which increased after wall raising project of Mangla reservoir from 1202 to 1240ft. Inlet pressure at Francis Turbine blade increased dut the increase in HWL the reason why Mangla power plant faces some cases of blade damage in Floody conditions after wall raising project. Analytical found flow rates for the increased head are also checked for Flow Analysis where the pressure distributions were in the normal range in comparision with the recent studies on Francis Turbine. ANSYS CFX was used for Flow Analysis with K-? turbulence model.

Adequacy Assessment of Air Quality Monitoring Stations in Delhi, India using Fuzzy Similarity and Fuzzy c-Mean Clustering PDF

Kamal Jyoti Maji, Anil Kumar Dikshit, Satish Salunkhe

Air quality monitoring network (AQMN) has been designed by the air quality monitoring authorities to analyze the present air quality in metropolitan cities. Due to various factors including population growth, increasing energy demand, industrial growth, change in the land use pattern, and increase in number of vehicles; the existing AQMN may not always provide the best characterization of air quality in fast growing city. The objective of the study is to verify the fitness of existing air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) within rapid environmental change for fast growing metropolitan city of Delhi, India. A useful formulation has been presented to identify monitoring stations in existing AQMN in Delhi, India which provide maximum air quality information including PM10, NO2, SO2 and SPM; using cluster analysis which aims at reducing network density with a minimum loss of air quality data. In this technique, the existing air quality monitoring stations have been classified or grouped using fuzzy similarity measures. Non-linear mapping method is used to take decision for number of cluster and fuzzy c-mean (FCM) clustering method provides further classification of monitoring stations. Finally decision is taken based on the results of both fuzzy similarity measure and FCM.

Sustainable Design of Wind-catcher of an Earth-to-Air Heat Exchanger in Hot Dry Areas PDF

Jamal Abed Al Wahid Jassim

The study provides a new design for passive cooling system using Wind-catcher of an earth-to-air heat exchanger (WEAHE). Increase space Wind-catcher and supply Natural lighting, Performs part of Wind-catcher into the earth. To take advantage of underground water to moisten the air movement paths in the walls, pipes and Air moves into indoor air column depending on pressure. After we found that Wind-catcher which has been used in traditional architecture for long periods has disappeared in modern housing after the emergence of mechanical ventilation and because the amount of air provided are few that do not meet the limits of thermal comfort requirements of the modern man. The studies are aimed at evaluating the performance of wind-catcher of an earth-to-air heat exchanger in improving the internal environment and reduce energy consumption in the hot dry areas, including the city of Baghdad. The study was conducted in the summer of 2014 the month of July, August, September For three days and two stages. First: To conduct field measurements housing in the city of Baghdad has a Wind-catcher optimizer deport 2.5 * 1.8 m. Second: constructing a model represents the first development of the model by adding vertical and horizontal corridors deeply 3m to move the antenna in the ground and a computer simulation using a numerical simulation program (CFD). Results showed during the summer to increase Wind-catcher clip offset by increased air flow and temperature has dropped about 18°C was outside temperature 45.3°C and improvement in the relative humidity to 23%, The coefficient of performance (COP) of WEAHE system in this paper difference 3.43-5.24 with the increase in air speed 1.5-3.5 m/s. This makes the new design WEAHE a means for self-cooling and sustainable source of Illumination day and reduces the consumption of energy in the hot dry countries such as Iraq.

Occupational Noise Management in Small and Large Scale Industries in North Cyprus PDF

Moses Farrell Luka, Ertan Akun

The purpose of this research is to determine the level of noise exposure to workers and to recommend how to manage the occupational high level of noise by the usage of engineering method of controlling noise in workplace knowing that noise can not be fully eliminated, the use of engineering control(control from the source) is always a better means of managing occupational noise, this involves identifying the source and its adequate control , it has to do with the fundamentals and its practical application on machines and equipments that constitute noise at the workplace, in recent time no research of such has been conducted in north Cyprus. A basic problem is been analyzed in this paper using a plastic scrap grinder from an industry manufacturing plastics in north Cyprus.

Effect of pollution and cleaning on photovoltaic performance based on experimental study PDF

Miqdam T Chaichan, Bashar A Mohammed, Hussein A Kazem

A practical investigation carried out at outdoor conditions in Baghdad-Iraq winter months to evaluate the effect of traffic air pollu-tion resulted from highways on the PV cells performance. I-V characteristics, cells’ power, and efficiency assessed for three cells. The results indicate that the air pollution may deteriorate the PV cell performance, even with a short period of two months of the cells’ outdoor exposure without cleaning. Also, the polluted PV cells’ power reduced to about 12% while the naturally cleaned cell lost about 8% compared to the clean cell.

Effect of pollution and cleaning on photovoltaic performance based on experimental study PDF

Miqdam T Chaichan, Bashar A Mohammed, Hussein A Kazem

A practical investigation carried out at outdoor conditions in Baghdad-Iraq winter months to evaluate the effect of traffic air pollu-tion resulted from highways on the PV cells performance. I-V characteristics, cells’ power, and efficiency assessed for three cells. The results indicate that the air pollution may deteriorate the PV cell performance, even with a short period of two months of the cells’ outdoor exposure without cleaning. Also, the polluted PV cells’ power reduced to about 12% while the naturally cleaned cell lost about 8% compared to the clean cell.

Pile Foundation for skewed bridge using slow and old machinery PDF

Azmat Hussain

Great Taj Mahal is built on well foundation. Well foundation can be constructed on the dry bed or after making sand Island. Cassions are relatively easy to construct provide sinking operations are smooth without much hindrance. Well foundation have many constructional difficulties, viz prolonged sinking period, tilting etc. These problems become worse and take more time when working season is winter. Especially in Indian Areas like Jammu & Kashmir where technology lacks. The only thing Engineers can do is to wait till working conditions become suitable. A case study is presented in this paper exploring the feasibility of pile foundation

The Stability of DNA binding with Bisintercalating Anthracyclin: A Theoretical Study PDF

Gazala Roohi Fatima, Dr Irfan Ali Khan, Dr Seema Srivastava, Rushi Ghizal

The theory of cooperative transitions has been applied to explain the stability and melting behavior of bisintercalating anthracyclin (WP762) with herring sperm DNA. For implementing present study, the experimental models of Portugal et al.(2005) have been used. The transition profiles and heat capacity curves are best explained in terms of two variable parameters, namely nucleation and propagation parameters. The sharpness of transition has been examined in terms of half width and sensitivity parameter (?H/s). The conclusion of theoretical analysis recommended that the different parameters, for example, transition profile, heat capacity curve, sharpness of the transition and half widths are in good agreement with the experimental measurements

Effect of Post weld Heat Treatment and Filler metals on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of GTAW and SMAW Weldments between P11 and P91 Steels PDF

A. Eissa Abd Elmaoula, Hussein. M. Abdelaziz, E. S. Mosa, M. A. Morsi, A. Atlam

The aim of this work is to conduct an optimized conditions of the post weld heat treatment of the GTAW(gas tungsten arc welding) and SMAW (shielded metal arc welding) weld joint between P11 (1.1 Cr) and P91 (8.5 Cr) steels; using E9018B3/ER90SB and E9015B9/ER90SB9 as filler metals. The post weld heat treatment was conducted at 750°C for holding times 0.5, 1 and 2 hours for the evolution of the microstructure, hardness and Tensile Strength ; required for high mechanical performance; at elevated temperatures. The investigated results showed that: the optimum conditions of the post weld heat treatment is 750°C for 1 hour with E9018B3/ER90SB as a filler metal and post weld heat treatment at 750°C for 0.5 hour with E9015B9/ER90SB9 as a filler metal are the proper conditions to reduce the hardness of heat affected zone (HAZ) of P91 steel and regular Hardness distribution.

Emotion Recognition from Speech: A Survey PDF

Rani P. Gadhe,Shaikh Nilofer R. A., V. B. Waghmare, P. P. Shrishrimal, R. R. Deshmukh

Emotion recognition from speech is an important area in research that represents human-computer interaction. The main purpose of this paper is to present literature review of different features and techniques used for speech emotion recognition. The survey represents the importance of choosing different cla¬ssification model and features for speech emotion recognition. Speech emotion recognition databases are also reviewed in this paper for the purpose of identifying the number of speakers, language used and emotion classification till date.

Automatic emotion recognition from speech signals: A Review PDF

Shaikh Nilofer R. A.,Rani P. Gadhe, R. R. Deshmukh, V. B. Waghmare, P. P. Shrishrimal

Automatic Speech emotion recognition has been a burning issue since last decade. Reserchers have been trying to develop a system more like human , emotion recognizing robots is an example of it. Speech has many parameters which have great weightage in recognizing emotion namely Prosodic and spectral features. Out of prosodic features namely pitch , energy and intensity are popularly used and out of spectral features formant Mel frequency cepstral coefficients are commonly used by the researchers worldwide. Further the classifiers are trained by using these features for classifying emotions accurately. This paper is an attempt to give a short review about the work on Emotion recognition from speech


G.Ananthi, Dr.T.S.Sivakumaran

This paper is proposed to control the UPQC under the sag and swell mitigation using PI (proportional and integral controller) controller. The proportional plus integral is controller device that produces an output signal consisting of two terms, one proportional to input signal and other proportional to the integral of signal. In this, the optimal Hysteresis pulse width modulation technique has been found to perform the evaluation of UPQC. The simulation result is carried out by the use of Matlab/simulink software.

Simulation of STATCOM for the Reduction of T.H.D by Using F.L.C PDF

E.Deepika, Mr.Ramesh Daravath

When non-linear load is connected to the grid, the non-linear load injects harmonics into the grid. The harmonics can be mitigated by introduction of STATCOM at the point of common coupling. The required pulses for the STATCOM can be generated by using Bang-bang controller along with fuzzy logic controller. The use of only bang-bang controller along with PI controller produces satisfactory results. Hence to get better results i.e’s reduction in the total harmonic distortion (T.H.D) we use fuzzy logic controller in place of PI controller.

An Effective Technique of Detecting & Preventing Web Vulnerabilities PDF

Swarnaprabha Patil, Nitin Agrawal

Here in this paper a new and efficient technique for the detection and prevention of security in web is implemented here. Since Web contains a number of sql injection attacks through which information can be fetched. Hence a new technique is implemented which provides successful attacks detection and prevention using IDS. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed methodology.

Lens Detection System using Optical Augmentation PDF

Manpreet Kaur, Akshat Jain

In camera detection systems, the detection of presence of camera is done but it is required to detect the position of camera where it is fixed to locate them. As these small sizes hidden cameras are used to capture images and videos, not only in trial rooms but also in defense, research laboratories, industries, etc without people’s awareness. In order to find them, optical augmentation principle is used as a powerful tool to identify the location which consequently yields lower energy prices with accuracy.

Effective Parameters Analysis of Cotton Woven Fabric by Natural Dye Lawsonia Inermis - Eco Friendly Approach PDF

Md. Nahid Pervez, Md. Anisur Rahman

The present study influences on natural dyestuff which is not kick in environmental pollution and undertaken to explore prognosticate than synthetic dyes. Natural dyes use are augmenting day by day causes of dyes has effective impact on fabric by different properties. The present study investigated that cotton woven fabric dyed with natural dye which is extracted from Lawsonia Inermis. The natural dyes henna influence on color strength properties with room low temperature. The result implies that this dye would not cause any retrogression effect on fabric strength. We got excellent color fastness properties by using this dye. We use one mordant coppers sulfate which much effect on fastness properties. With regards to current economic and environmental apprehension of natural dyes may be the unique way to get energy, water saving dyeing area of textile industry. Textile industry is committed to produce eco-friendly textiles in order to face the global competition. As a result, the concern for the environment has created a clamor for natural dyes compared to synthetic dyes in the textile industry.

Factors Effecting Performance of Projects: A Conceptual Framework PDF

Eng. Faisal Alqahtani, Dr. Ezekiel Chinyio, Prof. Sabah Mushatat, Dr. David Oloke

A conceptual framework is developed to reflect key factors which affect the performance and outputs of projects. It is based on extensive reviews of literature, especially journals and books. The things which influence performance and outcomes were teased out in this process. Literature suggests that there are three main factors that affect project performance and outcome, namely organizational culture, project management culture, and the project manager. Some elements of organizational culture are values, norms, artifacts, and leadership. Some elements of project management culture are strategic emphasis, top management support, PM methodology, stakeholder’s commitment, communication system, and project review and learning. Some influencing aspects of the project manager identified are competencies and skills, capability, self-sufficiency, and leadership style. In order to highlight and show the connection between these three factors as well as prepare ground for a future investigation of how these factors affect project output, it was important to develop a conceptual framework that brings together these three factors in a logical manner. This paper focuses on the development of the conceptual framework and proposes lines of inquiry which can be researched further. The conceptual framework is particularly recommended to Abu-Dhabi Police to help improve the performance and outcomes of their projects.

Spiral Hashed Information Vessel PDF

Suraj Kumar

In this paper, it has been tried to provide an insight into the information system of Universe as a whole comparing it with the information system in our local reference frame of observables. With the conservation of information been carried out by the SU (1) gauge symmetry group of Universe, it explains how the same information is decoded in two different ways by respective information system mentioned above. It also provide with an introduction of different information processing methodology of the Universe and how their is loss of information by different dynamical changes in Universe including red shift.

Big Data Uses PDF

Hafedh Ibrahim Alfouzan

Big Data has been new, newer thing, which would see few organizations leapfrog rest to be best in the class. Data have now been woven in each and every sector along with function within world economy, as well as has been important factors of production like hard assets and also human capital; much about nowadays economic activity simply might not take place without them.

Corrosion Inhibition of Monel in 0.2N HCl Solution by Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane PDF

Assistant Prof. Dr. Rana A. Majed Anaee

This study deals with the inhibition of monel in 0.2N HCl solution by Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane by five concentrations 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm using electrochemical measurements using Potentiostat. Generally, the results of corrosion test showed that Tris acted as cathodic inhibitor because it was shifted corrosion potentials to more active values. Good efficiencies have been obtained especially in the presence of 600 ppm of Tris. Langmuir adsorption model was achieved, and gave good fitting. Cyclic polarization test indicated the decreasing in hysteresis loop of monel in the presence of Tris especially in the presence of 600 ppm. The small values of equilibrium constant of adsorption process and Gibbs free energy showed the physically adsorption of Tris.

Compensator for Optimum Hard Disk Drive Read/Write Head Positioning and Control. PDF

Christian C. Mbaocha, Alfred E. Onuora, Chimezirim O. Aliworom

Most modern day digital computers possess high speed data storage and retrieval capabilities due to fast processing speed of the microprocessors. Internal and external data storage devices in such present time computers are expected to have a corresponding speed of operation to ensure optimum performance of the computer. One of the most important internal storage devices nowadays is the Hard Disk Drive. A Hard Disk Drive requires fast and accurate data reading and writing in order to meet the data storage requirements of a digital computer. This cannot be achieved without an accurate and suitable automatic control of the hard disk drive read/write head positioning system. This paper investigates the data storage precision and efficiency of a hard disk drive read/write head positioning system. An attempt has been made to design a suitable feedback control system for optimal performance. Moreover, an appropriate compensator that ensures an optimum control of the movements of a hard disk drive read/write head with 0.1 percent overshoot, 0.2 second settling time and a rise time less than 5 seconds to a unit step input has been achieved.

Accurate Registration for Low Resolution Images using Wavelet Neural Networks: A Novel Approach PDF

Liyakathunisa, C.N. Ravi Kumar

Accurate registration of multiple low resolution images is of central importance in many advanced image processing applications, since capturing of multiple low-resolution images taken of the same scene results in a distortion between each image. Image super-resolution is a typical application where the quality of the super-resolved image is degraded as registration errors increase. In this paper, we have proposed a Wavelet Neural Network (WNN) based image registration, where we are estimating the relative rotation, translation and shift between the observed images and the reference image. We are able to obtain an accurate registration which is very much essential for super resolution image reconstruction. Experimental results shows that the proposed approach is superior when compared to Fourier based registration. Fourier based registration works only for clean images, i.e. images without any degradation, where as our proposed WNN based registration works for severally, degraded images viz. blur and noise.


Leo samson rebello.R, Keerthiga.M, Mahendran.C, Kathirvel.D

The rate of car robbery are being increased rapidly now a days and to avoid car theft a model is fabricated in car with the use of car braking system. When the owner from the vehicle locks the car the brakes are also locked by using additional key by which the brakes are applied on all 4 wheels and the movement of the car is fully arrested. When anyone car tries to break into car, the car does not move as its motion is fully locked and it cannot be tow also.In regular car braking system, there will be a tandem cylinder from which brake oil is applied in all four wheels through brake lines. In theft proofing braking system, T-joint is introduced on all four brake lines and by passed the brake oil to another tandem cylinder. So from that brake can be operated. The piston of another cylinder is pushed by using rack and pinion mechanism which is operated by electronic circuit.

Design and Optimization of Next Generation Automated Electronic Medical Expert Systems PDF

Hariprasad, Anirudh.A, Harish.S

The necessity of human needs expands exponentially with every second taht engrosses. The ease of using human-like intelligent and expert systesm in day-to-day activities is on the verge of becoming a must.

An Approach to Convert Non-Grammatical Words to Grammatical Words to Extract Sentiments using Lexicon Analysis PDF

Harmeet kaur, Abhishek Tyagi

We use a lexicon based approach for discovering sentiments. Our lexicon is built from tokenization taxonomy consists of positive, negative, neutral phrases. A typical tweet contains word variations, emoticons, hash tags etc. We use preprocessing steps such as stemming, emoticon detection and normalization, exaggerated word shortening and hash tag detection.

Comparative Study of Some Virulence Factors Between Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated From Different Clinical Specimens in Najaf hospitals /Iraq PDF

Hani Hassan Jubair

Forty two of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium obtained from various clinical specimens were identification by using vitek-2 compact system. The presence and compared of virulence factors as gelatinase, biofilm, capsule and other factor among different clinical isolates was also study. The results showed E. faecalis the high percentage (68%) in comparison with E. faecium ( 21%) and other Enterococcus species (11%) from total clinical samples. E. faecalis strains produce 81.3, 59.3 and 25% of biofilm, protease and gelatinase, respectively, as compared to 50, 10 and 10% produce by the E. faecium strains, respectively.

Impact of breaker failure on stability electricity power transmission system PDF

Jitendra Singh Rajput

This paper presents the impact of substation breaker failure operation on system transient stability and the ways to enhance post-fault transient characteristics. Power System Analysis Simulation Package (PSASP) software is used to stimulate the circuit breaker failure operation in 220KV or 500KV substations. By stimulating all the possible line faults and their corresponding breaker failure conditions in Liaoning electric power grid, breakers that are most likely to cause system transient unstable are researched. Reasons of transient problems are speculated and implied, using equal area criterion. Different transient characteristics led by various fault types are compared. Also, measures that could help improve system transient stability are introduced and compared. Furthermore, a new method which is integrating Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) to the grid weak points is stimulated and verified. Results show that it could reduce generator angle fluctuation significantly.

Review Paper On Human Emotion Detection By Hybrid And Active Appearance Techniques PDF

Vidit Desai, Rahul Jain, Anshul Sethi, Supriya Agrawal

In modern human computer interaction systems, human emotion recognition is becoming an important feature. In various papers they propose a new and different method for automatic recognition of facial expressions related to categories of basic emotions from image data. The techniques that are presented involves the creation of an active appearance model (AAM) which is trained on face images from a publicly available database to represent shape and texture variation key to expression recognition. The results of the study demonstrates the effectiveness and use of AAMs in capturing the important facial structure for expression identification and also help suggest a framework for future development. The other techniques these papers presents is a novel approach for the detection of emotions using the cascading of Mutation Bacteria Foraging optimization and Adaptive Median Filter in highly corrupted noisy environment. The proposed method uses cascading of MBFO & AMF for the removal of noise and Neural Networks by which emotions are classified.

A Neighbor Discovery Approach for Cognitive Radio Network Using intersect Sequence Based Channel Rendezvous PDF

Tahmina Akter, Md. Delwar Hossain, Md. Rafiqul Islam

In wireless networking, The cognitive is efficient manner to bandwidth utilization. But rendezvous is the most important issue for two or more users on a common channel to establish data communication. Neighbor discovery is a critical task in cognitive radio ad hoc networks, since the secondary users operate on available channels which are dynamically changing according to the primary users activities. It can possible to communicate by using three well known mechanisms. First of all common control channel, second channel hopping procedure and broadcasting. All of these introduce few particular problems. But channel hopping procedure is able to reduce various kind of problem such as hidden terminal problem. In this paper, we propose Channel hoping but that would be efficient by this manner. These devices want to communicate each other they must have at least one common channel by which they can communicate. To find the common channel the cognitive users comparing their available channel in ascending order. So it is possible to find the intersect users between them. Then that would be essay and simple way to find the common channel to rendezvous (TTR).


Akanksha Jain

In this pepper we are working to improve the Improvement of voltage stability and power system security by facts devices throw by last two decades, power demand has increased substantially while the expansion of power generation and transmission has been severely limited due to limited resources and environmental restrictions. As a consequence, some transmission lines are heavily loaded and the system stability becomes a power transfer-limiting factor. Flexible AC transmission systems controllers have been mainly used for solving various power system steady state control problems. Flexible AC transmission systems or FACTS are devices which allow the flexible and dynamic control of power systems. Enhancement of system stability using FACTS controllers has been investigated. This paper is aimed towards the benefits of utilizing FACTS devices with the purpose of improving the operation of an electrical power system. Performance comparison of different FACTS controllers has been discussed. In addition, some of the utility experience and semiconductor technology development have been reviewed and summarized. Applications of FACTS to power system studies have also been discussed.

Cloud Computing: Attacks and Defenses PDF

Omaji Samuel, Munan Ali Shah, Amir Hayat

Cloud computing is described and considered to be a fast improving information technology which brought a new change and opportunity to the information technology world and in the field of human endeavor by providing environment for information and resources sharing that are delivered as a service to the final consumer over the World Wide Web on request. This could enable consumers to access and utilize their data at any point in time and also have beneficial online storage services. As a result of its numerous advantages, cloud computing is face with serious security risks. This paper reviews the research carried out in 2010-2014 and presents the classes of vulnerabilities of attacks in the cloud deployment models, their preventive measures and the performance evaluation on the types of deployment models.We also discovered a new attack surfaces on selected two deployment models describes in the section 6.3, which we recommended for future research work.



The study on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced high strength concrete(FRHSC) and comparing them with normal high strength concrete(HSC) gives us the result of increasing strength by adding different percentage(%) of fibers in M70 grade concrete mix. The reason for less use of FRHSC is its high cost of fibers and it also employs higher cement content which results in increasing water absorption capasity of the concrete mix. In this study , material properties of an FRHSC containing sisal, nylon, polypropylene fibers are determined which include compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. this fibers are relatively cheaper and mostly used fibers in concrete which are recently investigated by a few researchers. In this experimental work, there is no replacement of any material. In this study, influence of addition of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% fibers in different volume fraction in M70 grade HSC is investigated. Experimental results showed that the addition of fibers up to 1.5% together with mineral admixtures improved the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. The improvement in the strain corresponding to maximum compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength results was observed at all fibers and comparing them with normal conventional concrete results.

Denoising Of Impulse Noise Using Decision Tree Method And Contrasting Images PDF

Saratha Preethi.J

In Digital Image Processing, noise filtering and image enhancement plays a vital role. Image and video signals are often corrupted by Impulse noise in the process of signal acquisition and transmission. To avoid the damage on noise-free pixels, an efficient Denoising algorithm is used which consist of impulse detection and noise filtering. The proposed algorithm employs a decision-tree based impulse noise detector to detect the noisy pixels. After noise detection, image will be then given to filtering algorithm which reconstructs the noise pixel by considering the possible edges existing in the mask. The image will be contrasted to improve the quality of image.

Geomagnetic storm effects on the ionosphere over an equatorial station at low solar activity PDF

George A. ÀLÀGBÉ, Jacob O. ADENIYI

Ionospheric response to five geomagnetic storms at an equatorial station was studied. Ionograms recorded by the ionospheric prediction sounder (IPS 42) situated at Ouagadougou (12.40N, 1.50W, dip 5.90N), Burkina Faso, were used for this work. Ionograms for a year of low solar activity, 1995 (Rz = 18), were analysed. The peak electron density (NmF2), its height of occurrence (hmF2) and the slab thickness (TF2) are the ionospheric parameters considered. The percentage enhancement in NmF2 due to storm was generally above 50%. The magnitude of the increase in NmF2 does not appear to depend on storm strength. The increases in NmF2 were usually accompanied by decreases in the thickness of the F2 layer.

Novel Hardware Unit For Edge Detection With Comparative Analysis Of Different Edge Detection Approaches PDF

Shinde S.G, Kalpana N.Hajgude

An edge in an image is a contour across which the brightness of the image changes abruptly. In image processing, an edge is often interpreted as one class of singularities. Edge detection is an important task in image processing. It is a main tool in pattern recognition, image segmentation, and scene analysis. An edge detector is basically a high pass filter that can be applied to extract the edge points in an image. This topic has attracted many researchers and many achievements have been made.. Many researchers provided different approaches based on mathematical calculations which some of them are either robust or cost effective. A new algorithm will be proposed to detect the edges of image with increased robustness and throughput. Using this algorithm we will reduce the time complexity problem which is faced by previous algorithm. We will also propose hardware unit for proposed algorithm which will reduce the area, power and speed problem. We will compare our proposed algorithm with previous approach. For image quality measurement we will use some scientific parameters those are PSNR, SSIM, FSIM. Implementation of proposed algorithm will be done by Matlab and hardware implementation will be done by using of Verilog on Xilinx 14.1 simulator. Verification will be done on Model sim.

The Communication System of a Tele-Operated Smart Mobile Robot PDF

Nathan David,Cornelius C Agbo, Mellitus O Ezeme

In this work, we present the design of the communication system of economical Smart Mobile Robot (SMR). The control of the SMR is achieved using a personal computer interfaced through the parallel port to a wireless communication module whose communication channel is radio frequency. An embedded micro-controller provides the processing capability needed for the control of the Mobile Robot. The robot is controlled remotely from a Personal Computer (PC) interface that was developed using the Visual Basic.net programming language. The design was implemented to achieve forward, backward and differential drives with provision for speed control, as well as the rotation of the SMR's camera. The image captured by the camera is to be transmitted through a wireless channel and displayed on the PC. In addition, we include some level of Artificial Intelligence (AI), in the design through the incorporation of a Proximity Sensor for obstacle detection and avoidance. The detailed implementation of the communication aspects of this project is presented in this paper.

Rate Adjustment Based Congestion Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks PDF

Shelly Garg, Bhisham Sharma & Dr. Trilok C. Aseri

Wireless sensor networks are mainly used for event detection having huge number of sensor nodes distributed geographically with one or more base stations. Event detection results into the congestion among sensors due to limited memory, limited processing power and shared transfer medium. Congestion leads to packet drop, power consumption and reduces reliability; hence congestion control is a necessity in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, firstly a description of the various aspects of congestion control in wireless sensor networks is presented. Then various existing congestion control transport layer protocols based on rate adjustment technique in wireless sensor networks are presented. Finally a comparative analysis of these protocols based on various parameters like congestion detection, congestion notification, rate adjustment, hop-by-hop/end-to-end, loss recovery, application type, traffic direction, evaluation parameters, bandwidth allocation, evaluation type, topology, packet size, number of sensors, buffer size, coverage area, simulation time, traffic load and simulation environment is presented.

Image Denoising by Modified Overcomplete Wavelet Representation Utilizing Adaptive Thresholding Algorithm PDF

Jitha C R

For images corrupted with Gaussian noise, the wavelet thresholding proves to be an effective approach to remove as much noise while retaining important signal features, but the performance decreases under heavy noise because the amount of noise is not considerd while denoising. This paper aims at implementing an efficient image denoising method adaptive to the noise and is achieved by using an adaptive wavelet packet thresholding function based on a modified form of overcomplete wavelet representation. The adaptive algorithm is called OLI – Shrink and certain changes have been applied to the original form of overcomplete representation so that it become perfectly compatible for the application of OLI-Shrink. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by computing the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new performance measure called the Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) and is found to outperform various existing wavelet based denoising algorithms.

DEL-CMAC Protocol together with Cross-Layer Cooperative Diversity Approach to Improve the Network Lifetime of MANET PDF

Priyanka Das, Veena A. Gulhane

A wireless communication network is rich in interference and noise which makes the communication in the network unreliable. There has been many active research on cooperative communication which helps in improving the reliability of wireless network. To enhance the spectral and power efficiency, lifetime of the network, and reduce outage probability, cooperative communications with relaying nodes are very effective. Relaying induce complicated medium access interactions, to handle these interactions and to capitalize the benefits of cooperation an efficient Cooperative MAC protocol is required . This paper proposes, Distributed Energy-adaptive Location-based CMAC protocol, namely DEL-CMAC along with effective cross layer cooperative diversity approach for MANET. Cross layer handles the interaction between higher layer and cooperative diversity is used for diversity gain in the network where relay nodes are used. The use of cooperative diversity in the network leads to increase in reliability in the network. The design objective of proposed work is to improve the network lifetime of MANET by reducing the power consumption and improving the throughput.

Next Era of Information Security: A Review PDF

Madhavi Dhingra

Now a day’s Information Security breaches are occurring on a wider scale. The incidents are not only covering commercial activities, but are also affecting the networks of several countries of the world. Web is enhancing the efficacy of everyone whether work is for local personal level or professional global level. Web has now become the information warehouse as well as medium of transferring the information. Hence web security assumes great importance in order to ensure its accuracy and authenticity. These years, several kinds of attacks are occurring on the network from smaller to big ones. In view of these attacks which are being launched every other day, the information on the web needs to be secured. The need of the hour is to understand the gravity of recent attacks and come up with requisite security solutions. This paper attempts to highlight the impact and security areas that will be concern of IT professionals in the coming years.

Mass Trasfer Study for The Adsorption of Hexavalent Chromium Using Gas Stirring PDF

M. M.Nassar, A.A. Daifullah, H.Kelany and Joseph.Y. Farah

The rate of mass transfer of adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto activated carbon (AC) in a bubble column using gas stirring as a mixing system was studied. Process parameters including the air flow rate, AC mass, initial chromium concentration and solution tempreature were examined. The external and internal mass transfer were analysed based on external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion models. The calculated external mass transfer coefficient, Ks increased with the increase in air flow rate and tempreature while decreased with the increase in initial chromium concentration and mass of AC. The external mass transfer coefficient as function of the studied parametrs can be given by equation Ks = X (variable)Y. The intraparticle diffusion coefficient, KI was found to increase by the increase in air flow rate, initial chromium concentration and tempreature and decreasd with increase mass of AC. For the intraparticle diffusion the studied variables can be correlated by the equation KI = X (variable)Y. The results revealed that air flow rate has more influence on increasing the rate of adsorption than effect of initial chromium concentration and mass of adsorbent or tempreature .

Modelling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - A Review PDF

Shruti yadav, Mukund Kumar singh and K. Sudhakar

This paper focuses on the study of fuel cells as a renewable source of energy which is environment friendly and much more consistent in performance as compared to solar and wind energy because it is not site dependent and has higher efficiency. In this paper we compared the different type of modeling methodologies. This paper mainly focuses on detailed analysis of dynamic modeling. Dynamic modeling deals with the study of dynamic model of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) based on transfer function. The dynamic model gives detailed analysis of effect of temperature variation and effect of activation, Ohmic and concentration losses on the dynamic performances of SOFC.

Numerical Simulation of Flow in a Configuration of Combined Sudden Expansion and Contraction with Rectangular Tab PDF

Bishnu Pada Biswas, Somnath Chakrabarti

In this paper, the computational investigations have been performed to study the flow characteristics of an incompressible fluid flowing through a configuration of combined sudden expansion and contraction with rectangular tab at throat. The two-dimensional steady differential equations for conservation of mass and momentum have been solved for the Reynolds number (Re) ranging from 50 to 300, the tab restriction (TR) ranging from 0% to 40%, the tab length (Lt*) ranging from 0 to 1, the expansion length (Lexp*) of 9, aspect ratio (AR) of 2 and fully developed velocity profile at inlet. The effect of each variable on average static pressure distribution, average stagnation pressure drop and streamline contour has been studied in detail and compared with the configurations of plain sudden expansion and contraction (i.e. without tab), and sudden expansion and contraction with fence for few cases. From the study, it is revealed that the maximum magnitude of average static pressure rise for sudden expansion and contraction with rectangular tab configuration is more compared to the considered two configurations of plain sudden expansion and contraction, and sudden expansion and contraction with fence. The average stagnation pressure drop across a section and the size of the corner recirculating bubble are always more for rectangular tab configuration compared to other two considered configurations.

Electrolyte Derangement in Infantile Seizures PDF

Gireesh Kumar K.M, Snehaj Srinivas, George Abraham

A study was conducted to evaluate the electrolyte imbalances in infantile seizures. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six infants admitted at the Malabar Institute of Medical sciences Calicut formed the test group. The values are compared with that of 20 apparently healthy infants admitted for other illness. Serum ionized calcium and total calcium, sodium, potassium, Magnesium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphates were estimated in all the cases. Serum ionized calcium and magnesium were found to be altered in all the subjects even with a normal serum calcium level. Alkaline phosphatase is also found to be elevated in all test subjects. From the study it is recommend that electrolyte estimation should be carried out in all infantile seizures which will help in the early diagnosis and better treatment of infants thereby preventing further brain damage.

A Novel Artifact reducing approach based on sparse representation on jpeg compressed fingerprint images PDF

Nisha Elsa Varghese, Gopakumar G, Tinu Elizabeth Thomas

Among the biometric recognition technology, fingerprint recognition is very popular for personal identification due to the uniqueness, universality, collectability and invariance. Large volumes of fingerprint are collected and stored every day in a wide range of applications, including forensics and access control. Fingerprint image compression is a key technique to solve this problem. Among the compression techniques, JPEG compression is widely used for fingerprint compression, since it provides good compressed results. However, the standard JPEG decompression result usually contains some artifacts, such as blocking artifacts. Compression artifacts are a noticeable distortion of media caused by lossy compression technique. This artifact usually occurs when the compression ratio is high. So we can use the method of sparse representation via k-svd in jpeg compression to remove blocking artifacts in jpeg compressed fingerprint images. The blocking artifacts removal can be measured in terms of psnr and ssim vaues. The experimental results show that the psnr and ssim values shows significant improvement after k-svd algorithm in jpeg compressed image. Also watermarking in spatial domain can be applied to artifact removed fingerprint image to enhance authenticity. Matlab R2012b is used for implementation of the algorithm.

Novel technique for edge detection of vessel in angiogram images PDF

Mr. S.V.Pattalwar, Miss. Minal.P.Lokhande

In medical image processing, blood vessels need to be extracted clearly and properly from a noisy background, drift image intensity and low contrast pose. The Blood vessels of the human body can be visualized using many medical imaging methods such as X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), and Magnetic Resonance (MR). Angiography is a procedure widely used for the observation of the blood vessels in medical research, where the angiogram area covered by vessels and/or the vessel length is required.


Engr. Muhammad Imran, Engr. Muhammad Masoud, Dr. Sajid Mahmood

Earthen trapezoidal watercourses are often considered as water channels that are easy to construct and operate however they are not so simple. This is particularly the case for earthen channels in sand dune areas of thal region of Pakistan where they are subjected to a cycle of wetting and drying associated with release of water in Greater Thal Canal. This is actually a flood canal off takes at RD 180+222 from the Chashma - Jheulm (CJ) link canal near Adhi Kot in district Khushab being operated from 15 April to 15 September. Therefore, watercourses in sand dune areas have to undergo stability analysis with water and without water. One of the major parameter to be taken into account for stability is the side slope of earthen trapezoidal channel. In this respect small change in side slope of earthen trapezoidal watercourse lead to significant differences in stability, hydraulic efficiency and cut/fill volume. Geo5 Slope Stability model was used for stability analysis and Micro Soft Excel for watercourse design and calculation of Cut/Fill volume. Geo5 Slope Stability software was used to compute factor of safety by circular slip surface and polygonal slip surface. In circular slip surface factor of safety was computed using Bishop, Fellenius/Petterson, Spencer, Janbu and Morgenster-Price method, whereas in polygonal slip surface Sarma, Spencer, Janbu and Morenster-Price methods were employed to work out factor of safety. Stability analysis was performed on U/S face and D/S face for two conditions with water and without water in channel. In all the cases stability increases when the side slope (Horizontal to Vertical) of the earthen trapezoidal water channel increases leading to an increase in cut/fill volume.

Obstacle detection algorithm based on stereoscopic images A navigation aid system for the visually impaired PDF


This article presents an algorithm for stereoscopic image processing taken by the same camera in a real environment and considering two shifted captures. The aim of this treatment is to extract two important informational data about the environment: the distance separating the obstacles from the camera and their sizes. The depth calculation of an obstacle is performed by exploiting the disparity map between two considered stereoscopic images. This disparity is estimated by using the Block Matching program implemented in Matlab. In order to obtain an accurate and fast result, improvements are added to this estimation by combining "sub-pixel accuracy", "dynamic programming" and "the pyramid image technique". Finally, the determined disparity, associated with the camera calibration data, allowed us to obtain a precise estimation of the depth. The obstacle size is obtained by using the established calibration curve, giving the proportionality between the surface in pixels² of the image of object, and its real surface in m², according to the depth of the object. The tests performed in a real environment based on the elaborated algorithm give the results about the obstacle depth and its size. Tests results are completely similar to the experimental data.

Microbiological Investigation of Piper Chaba Hunter PDF

Anath Chandra Roy, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Moinul Haque, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Dr. Md. Abu Sayeed

The Piperaceae is a family of flowering plants. It is a tropical family of five genera and 500 species which are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Stem and leaves were successively extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antimicrobial investigations of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extract were carried out. All these extract showed mild to moderate activities against a number of gram positive and gram negative bacteria except shigella dysenteriae. Extracts of piper chaba stem and leaves were tested over six fungi. Viz; Aspergillus fumugatous, Mucor, Penicillium sp, Human sp, Aspergillus nigar and Havous. The extracts under examination exhibited no activity against the fungal strains.

Sub-Acute Toxicological Studies on Malic Acid-Butane-1, 4-Diol-Glycerol Co-Polyester PDF

Md. Shahruzzaman, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Moinul Haque, Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Dr. Md. Abu Bakr

Malic acid butane-1, 4-diol-glycerol co-polyester (MBGC) is synthesized from malic acid and butane-1, 4-diol with 5% glycerol of total weight as a crosslinking agent using Dean-Stark apparatus with ferric chloride (Approximately 0.4% of the total weight) as catalyst and o-xylene as the reaction medium at temperature 137-141° C for about 5 hours. The sub-acute toxicity of MBGC is studied on wistar rats. The studies included the gross observation such as changes in body weight, haematological profiles, biochemical parameter of blood and histopathology of liver, kidney, heart, lungs and spleen of diet control group, vehicle control group and also experimental group of rats. The changes in body weight, haematological and biochemical parameters are statistically insignificant after administration of MBGC in a dose of 300 µg/rat/day intraperitoneally for consecutive 21 days when compared to that of diet control group, vehicle control group and experimental group of rats. Histopathologically no abnormality is found on liver, kidney, heart, lungs and spleen of experimental group of rats after treatment when compared to that of control group of rats. This preliminary study suggests that, MBGC can be safely subjected to clinical trial for specialized application such as control release drug formulation, granular pesticides, fertilizers etc. and other purposes where biodegradable polymers be needed.

An empirical investigation on the impact of EU integration on trade flows of Albania PDF

Pranvera Kastrati and Esmeralda Shehaj

Free trade agreements are an instrument to foster trade exchange, in particular important to expand export potentials and ease import regimes. The trade volume of Albania has increased constantly after 90’s. Albanian Exports’ performance during 2007-2013 was better compared to that of imports. Trade openness index has also improved, while trade deficit showed signals of shrinking. However, these dynamics cannot be fully explained by the setting of the free trade agreements. Using annual data for the period 2001-2013 on 22 major trade partners of Albania, this study aims to investigate the impact of free trade agreements on the imports and exports of the country, and provide policy recommendations on how to exploit the trade potentials of the country. The empirical methodology comprises fixed and random effects estimation of the gravity model. The results indicate that the random effect is preferred to the fixed effects model, although standard errors have to be corrected for heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation both in the exports and imports models, and for cross-sectional dependence in the case of exports. The estimation results indicate that our findings confirm the theoretical grounds of the gravity model, but free trade agreements are not significant determinants of bilateral trade flows of Albania.

Sequential Division Circuit Using Reversible Logic Gates PDF

Md. Ashraful Haque, Sadia Rahman

Quantum computer is a computation device that incorporates quantum mechanical phenomena distinctively to perform operation on data in terms of superposition & entanglement. In contrast to traditional computer where data is represented by means of bits, Q.C makes use of Quantum bits (qubits)for data representation [12]. There are several reasons that researchers are working so hard to develop a practical quantum computer. First, atoms change energy states very quickly -- much more quickly than even the fastest computer processors. Next, given the right type of problem, each qubit can take the place of an entire processor -- meaning that 1,000 ions of say, barium, could take the place of a 1,000-processor computer. The key is finding the sort of problem a quantum computer is able to solve.

Iris Normalization using Circular Masking PDF

Mahesh Patil, Nitin Patil

Iris recognition is one of the most accurate biometric methods in use today. In present biometric identification systems iris is taking too much attention because of its reliable and secure identification measures. Regular iris recognition systems capture an image from an individual's eye. This iris image is then segmented and normalized for feature extraction process. The performance of any iris recognition systems highly depends on segmentation and normalization. For instance, even an effective feature extraction method would not be able to obtain useful information from an iris image that is not segmented or normalized properly. The proposed method uses circular masking technique for iris normalization and the results obtained are satisfactory compared to regular iris normalization techniques. Here we use CASIA V1 database for the proposed work and is implemented using OpenCV built-in library functions on Microsoft Visual Studio 2012 IDE.

Design And Implementation Of An Efficient Single Precision Floating Multiplier Using Vedic Multiplication PDF

Bhavesh Sharma , Amit Bakshi

This paper contains design of a single precision floating point multiplier by modifying the proposed architecture[6] and then comparing the different floating point multiplier architecture for the various performance parameters. The designs are modeled in Verilog HDL and synthesized based on the TSMC 180nm standard cell library. Comparisons are based on the synthesis result obtained by synthesizing all the multiplier using Cadence Encounter RTL Compiler .

Design of a High Speed Adder PDF

Aritra Mitra, Amit Bakshi, Bhavesh Sharma, Nilesh Didwania

In this paper we have compared different addition algorithms such as Ripple Carry Adder, Carry Save Adder, Carry Select Adder, Carry Look Ahead Adder & Kogge Stone Adder for different performance parameters i.e. Area Utilization, Speed of operation and Power Consumption. A high speed Adder is then designed by merging Kogge Stone & Carry Select Algorithms. The circuits have been designed using Verilog HDL & Synthesize using TSMC 180 nm standard cell. The performance parameters are obtained with the help of Cadence Encounter RTL Compiler.

A brief study to increase rice fertility in Plains PDF

Juveriya Beguam, Dr.Savithri.v

A deep study in the growth of rice production with fertile is necessary to satisfy the day to day food needs of the peoples in India. The automatic and systematic approach is necessary to increase the production and fertility of the soil in order to satisfy the people’s food consumption with good quality. To improve the production the potassium content, nitrogen content and phosphorus content has to be measured to improve the quality and high production of rice in plains.


Saddiq H.A, Perry S, Ndagana S.F and Mohammed A

Due to increasing demand for energy and unstable and continuous increase in cost of fossil fuel, attention has been shifted from the traditional power plants to energy generation using gas turbines because of the availability and low cost of its fuel. This led to the need for proper understanding of the gas turbine performance and how the energy from gas turbine can be optimally utilized. Many authors have worked on the modeling of gas turbine performance and optimal utilization of its energy output but they rarely consider different gas turbine configurations and how the configurations can be integrated into utility system. This work will therefore focus on modeling gas turbine and gas turbine exhaust using Aspen HYSYS, taking into account different possible configurations. The objective is to model different configurations of gas turbine maximizing the energy output usage (both power and heat) in a utility system using combined cycle. The results obtained shows that different configuration of gas turbine gives better result compared to simple gas turbine. The improvement is so prevalent most especially if it is integrated with utility system by generating high pressure steam in heat recovery steam generator to be used in steam turbine in form of combined cycle. Better performance of the gas turbine in combined cycle is obtained if multiple steam pressure level is generated in the heat recovery steam generator.


Ukpong, E. E., Owoh, P. W. & Roberts, U. U.

The line transect survey method was adopted to study the home range of mammals and conservation status of this ecosystem by following transect routes and trails of animals. The sampling technique adopted was stratified random sampling done by the survey of 30 transect routes in which accessibility was not made impossible by terrain. The total sample area was 6.2 km2 (30 transects of 2000 m length x 100m width) which represented 6.2 % sampling intensity of the total forest area of about 100km2. This technique was adopted in order to cover the entire home range of the species. Ten surveys were carried out in all. Conservation status was carried out by patrolling and monitoring the frequency of sighting of illegal exploiters and discovery of indices such as carbide dumps, snares, traps, as well as bullets shells which are signs of illegal hunting. The home range of Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes ; Gorillas, Gorilla gorill; and Drill monkey Mandrillus leucophaeus; based on the faecal droppings and food residues found were 60%, 66.7% and 70% respectively. The home range for Mona monkey, Cercopithecus mona; Putty nosed monkey, Cercopithecus nictitans; and Red eared monkey, Cercopithecus erythrotis; were 70%, 70% and 70% respectively. Senegal galago, Galago senegalensis; Blue duiker, Cephalophus monticola ; Bay duiker, Cephalophus dorsalis and Yellow backed duiker, Cephalophus silvicultor, were 73.3%, 66.7%, 66.7% and 63.3% respectively . Red river hog, Potamochoerus porcus; Buffalo, Syncerus caffer; Rock hyrax,Procavia capensis, exploited a home range of 63.3%, 56.7% and 80% respectively. The indices of conservation status of this ecosystem indicated that the number of guns confiscated, bullet shells found and carbide dumps seen were 5, 19, and 17, respectively. The number of traps and snares found were 14 and 32 respectively. The number of poachers and illegal loggers seen were 8 and 15 respectively.

Geoinformatic Approach for Watershed Characterization in Kasari Basin of Maharashtra, India PDF

Mr. V. S. Pawar-Patil & Mr. Sagar P. Mali

The quantitative investigation of morphometric parameters has got immense importance not only in river basin evaluation but also in soil and water conservation and natural resources management at micro watershed level. In view of that present research aims to evaluate morphometric parameters viz linear, areal and relief features of Kasari watershed by using geospatial techniques. The Kasari river is a major tributary of Panchganga river in mega Krishna basin covers an area of about 630.64 Km2 located in Kolhapur district of Maharashtra. Standard methods of Strahler’s, Horton’s, Miller’s, Chorley’s and Schumm’s were applied to examine linear, aerial and relief morphometric characteristics. The results reveals that higher potential of soil erosion is possibly observed in sub basins of KS1, KS4, KS5 and KS7 respectively and priority should be given to them in order to conservation and management of soil and water resource.


Binfa Bongfa, Abolarin, M. S., Aboh, A. M., Anekunu A. Y., Barnabas Atuci, Abdul Musa

Mineral - base damper oils predominantly in use are of good performance, but non-regenerative, environmentally unfriendly and often scarce or expensive as a result of difficulties and cost of exploration and processing. Chemo-physical properties (acidity level, specific gravity, viscosity at 400C and at 1000C, viscosity index, pour point, and flash point) of groundnut oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oil, and soya oil as damping fluids were experimentally investigated to see their suitability as alternative shock absorber fluids. The acidity levels of the oils were suitable, being below 10mgKOH/g - the maximum for lubricant, although coconut oil has total acid number as 6.70mgKOH/g. They have suitable viscosities for light and medium duty dampers; flash points, all above 1450C-the minimum from standard; viscosity indices well above 170; and pour points suitable at least for tropical region when treated with pour point depressant.

Twitter Sentiment Analysis: A Review PDF

Kishori K. Pawar, Pukhraj P Shrishrimal, R. R. Deshmukh

The basic knowledge required to do sentiment analysis of Twitter is discussed in this review paper. Sentiment Analysis can be viewed as field of text mining, natural language processing. Thus we can study sentiment analysis in various aspects. This paper presents levels of sentiment analysis, approaches to do sentiment analysis, methodologies for doing it, and features to be extracted from text and the applications. Twitter is a microblogging service to which if sentiment analysis done one has to follow explicit path. Thus this paper puts overview about tweets extraction, their preprocessing and their sentiment analysis.

Complete reliability, Chunk authentication, and Dynamic address reconfiguration feature implementation in SCTP PDF

Heena Gupta, Neeraj Maglani

The core SCTP protocol, including the extensions for partial reliability, partial chunk authentication, and dynamic address reconfiguration. The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a general-purpose transport layer protocol providing a service similar to TCP — plus a set of advanced features to utilize the enhanced capabilities of modern IP networks and to support increased application requirements. While SCTP was standardized as an RFC several years ago, there is still significant ongoing work within the IETF to discuss and standardize further features in the form of protocol extensions. In this paper, we first introduce the SCTP base protocol and already standardized extensions. After that, we focus on the ongoing SCTP standardization progress in the IETF and give an overview of activities and challenges in the areas of security and concurrent multipath transport. In this we are going to implement the complete/full reliability of messages and also the chunk authentication and dynamic address configuration will also be improved.

CPW-Fed Parasitically Loaded Circular Disc Monopole Anenna for WLAN Applications PDF

J.K.Deegwal, M.C.Govil, M.M.Sharma

A coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed parasitically loaded circular disc monopole antenna is presented and its performance analyzed in this paper. The proposed antenna comprises of straight strips, a parasitic circular patch and a slotted CPW ground plane for wireless local area networks (WLAN) applications.

Merging and Designing Biomedical devices with Telecommunication, for Creating Tele Pulse Oxi-meter PDF

Monira Omar, Mahmoud Omar, Farouk Abdallah

Hypoxia is a critical symptoms of many series chronic disease, it is manifested as lowering the blood oxygen levels. If left unchecked it may lead to life threatening condition. Many devices have been developed over the years to monitor hypoxia. However, most of them lacked portability, security, wireless connection and the ability to communicate with patient’s computer and their doctors in case of emergency. This project aim to survey several designs for pulse oximeter and then transforming them into a telemedicine device. The device created was shown to have the same accuracy and precision as any marketed instrument when tested on patients. In addition, it was programed on an e health shield and then Arduino Uno. The created and programed platform could store patient’s data and connect to the computer to download the collected data. An extra connectivity wireless module was added to allow internet connection for Mobile health connectivity. Such connection make it possible for data to be sent to doctors and distributed within the hospital using UWB. Thus providing a superior health care.

Design and Automation of IGBT Test Fixture Using PLC PDF

Savitha Pareek, Ritesh Singh, John Paul, Hitesh Dhokiya

This paper describes about the construction of the IGBT test fixture for the analysis of various characteristics parameters. To accomplish with this we have implied the knowledge of PLC (Programmable logic controller) as automation for the real time processes. The choice of PLC is made as it provides the superior reliability and contribution towards the quality and performance for the test process. IGBT tester is designed in a controlled environment to maintain the performance and accuracy of the measurement system. This system is designed to provide a precise contact between the IGBT and Test Circuit for the different static parameters of IGBT.

Energy Simulation in Buildings PDF

Vishal P. Fiske, Mr. S.J. Mane, Col. B. K. Bhonde(Retd)

This section outlines the history of building energy analysis simulation as it pertains to the work done at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The section titled, History of SERI Validation Work summarizes the factors we considered when choosing which simulations to validate.


Pavithra.S, Vaishnavi.M , Vinothini.M, Umadevi.V

In today’s world, security is very fundamental and significant issues of data transmission. Technology advancement is occurring daily in order to find a new cryptographic algorithm. Data security is concerned with the areas of data transmission. Recent advancements in cryptography has led to new techniques called Gray code based cryptography and Quantum Cryptography. In existed AES method is well suited for security applications. In our proposed system we improve the performance of the system we propose Triple AES based gray key cryptography. The XMEGA AES Crypto Module implements the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), and can perform encryption and decryption. In our new proposed implementation provides better and faster results in environment, hence data security is high.


C.Rakesh, P.Praveen sundar , M.Subramani ,M.Sindhubala

EIGRP is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) designed for routing within a single administrative domain or autonomous system (AS). It is a classless protocol which means each route entry in an update includes a subnet mask as well. The subnet masks sent with each route in updates may be of different length. This feature is called variable-length subnet 0masking and it allows for subnetting as well as address aggregation or summarization. EIGRP packets can also be optionally authenticated using an MD5 checksum, if authentication is configured. EIGRP uses the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to achieve fast convergence while remaining loop-free at all times. EIGRP updates are not sent at regular intervals; rather, updates are sent only when a metric or topology change takes place. Also, the updates will include only routes that have changed and not every entry in the routing table. In other words, EIGRP updates are both non-periodic and partial in contrast to other distance vector protocols like Routing Information Protocol (RIP). You may recall that RIP sends updates at regular intervals and includes all routes in the routing table in every update. These characteristics mean that EIGRP uses much less bandwidth than other distance vector protocols, a feature that is especially useful on low-bandwidth Wide Area Network (WAN) links.

Microstrip Patch Antenna Parameters, Feeding Techniques and Shape of the Patch - A Survey PDF

Udit Raithatha, S.Sreenath Kashyap

The wireless communication is revaluating rapidly in recent years. So, as per the comparative study of the different types of antennas, microstrip patch antenna is having more advantages.

Optimal Injection Time and Parametric Study on Gas Condensate Recovery PDF

Izuwa, Nkemakolam C, Amandi, Kenneth and Oyoh, Kechinyere B

A study on optimal injection time and parametric evaluation on gas condensate recovery is presented. Gas-condensate wells experience a significant decrease in gas productivity once the flowing bottom-hole pressure drops below the dew-point pressure. Gas recycling is a known method of remedying this problem and improving recovery. However, there is still a lack of understanding on how the gas re-injection affects the deliverability because of the complex phase and flow behaviors. The difficulty of understanding the phase and flow behaviors lies in the variation of the composition due to the existence of two-phase flow and the relative permeability effect, which brings about a change in saturation and phase properties of the fluids. These effects will impact the mobility, in turn productivity and hence the viability of a gas recycling project. This work studied the impact of relative permeability and critical condensate saturation on the flow behavior of the gas-condensate system under a gas cycling scheme, through reservoir simulations and a series of optimization, using experimental designs.

Design and Implementation of SSVEP based BCI Using a Canonical Correlation Analysis PDF

Mamta Kumari, Sunil B. Somani

Using steady-state visually evoked potential in brain-computer interface (BCI) system is the subject of a lot of research. SSVEP signals are used as basis for brain-computer interface because of its reliability, high information transfer rate, minimal training and flexibility. Canonical correlation analysis is one of the new emerging method, which seems to have some processing improvement and advantages compared to traditional SSVEP detection method, like better signal to noise ratio (SNR), lower harmonic frequencies, i.e. a series of frequencies which has same fundamental frequencies.

Characterization of Abattoir Wastewater and Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Wastewater Treatment Systems in Luna and Kera Abattoirs in Central Ethiopia PDF

Abrha Mulu , Tenalem Ayenew

The objectives of this study were characterization of abattoirs wastewater and evaluation of the performance of their wastewater treatment system (WWTS). Samples from untreated effluents of Kera and Luna abattoirs, and treated effluent of Luna abattoir were examined using standard procedure over the duration of two months period of dry season. It was found that extremely high turbidity, color, TS, TSS, BOD5, COD, NH3-N, NO2--N, NO3--N, S-2, SO4-2, PO4-3, TP, FC, TC and FOG. As a result except temperature and pH, the levels of all these parameters of the raw wastewater did not comply with effluent discharge limit of the country. The values of most parameters measured were significantly higher for Kera abattoir than Luna abattoir, at 0.05 significant level of post Hoc ANOVA. The Luna abattoir lagoon, overall percentage removal of the above parameters were 56.67%, 63.22%, 63.77%, 88.68%, 91.59%, 90.91%, -743.08%, 84.33%, 97.7%, 40.76%, 89.19%, -117.43%, -11.43%, 50.41% , 36.30%, and 66.18% respectively which were also not complying with the Ethiopian EPA discharge limit. There is a need of establishment and improvement of abattoir wastewater treatment system, as well as an intervention of regulatory bodies to ensure discharging of high quality treated final effluents by the abattoir industries.

Enzymatic mechanism during phytoextraction of heavy metals from fly ash amended soil PDF

Krishna Rawat, Bhawana Pathak, M.H.Fulekar

A pot culture experiment was carried out to study the phytoextraction potential of selected plant species, for remediation of fly ash contaminated soil. Plant species namely verbena speciosa, tagetes erecta, Cassia tora have been selected for the study. Fly ash samples were collected from coal based thermal power plants at gandhinagar from electrostatic precipitators. Soil samples were collected from Sabarmati river bed. Various physico-chemical parameters of fly ash and soil were conducted. Biomass and biochemical parameters of plants were studied for screening of plants for phytoextraction ability. Study of Photosynthetic pigment, protein content, antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Catalase (CAT), Guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) was carried out in potential plant. Fly ash heavy metals may lead to oxidative stress which is a condition in which ROS or free radicals are generated extra- or intra-cellularly, which can exert their toxic effects to the cells. However, in cells antioxidant defense mechanisms is present to detoxify the harmful effects of ROS. The plant species were found in order verbena speciosa< tagetes erecta

Images and Inverse images in the Category of Fuzzy groups PDF

P.Vijayalakshmi, Dr. P. Alphonse Rajendran

Ever since fuzzy sets were introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in the year 1965 [ 1 ], many algebraic structures were introduced by many authors . One such structure is fuzzy groups introduced in [ 2 ] and [ 3 ]. In [ 4 ] the authors introduced a novel definition of fuzzy group homomorphism between any two fuzzy groups and gave element wise characterization of some special morphisms in the category of fuzzy groups

Connectivity Restoration in WSN Using Minimal Topology Changes PDF

M.Sureshkumar, P.Umasuruthi, P.Ushapreethi

In wireless sensor networks, the efficiency mainly depends on the network connectivity among the nodes as well as coverage of the monitoring area. Failure of nodes due to technical faults or power exhaustion may disturb the existing connectivity by partitioning the network. Node replacement mechanisms are used based on the controlled mobility with the handling of node failures. The idea is to identify the critical nodes which cause the network partitioning and to designate the failure handlers for them suddenly after the network deployment of sensor nodes. To increase the network coverage by identifying the coverage holes and move the mobile nodes to a certain distance. The connectivity restoration process is done using the failure handler with identified movement distance. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches will be validated through simulation experiments.

Renewable Energy Integration into Smart grid: Problems and Solutions Based on Indian Power Scenario PDF

Abhilash M G, Parvathy P, Divyasree dinesh

On account of unevenly distributed renewable resources with more than 72,422 MW installed capacity with an estimated potential of about 189,000 MW it is really a challenge to integrate the same into the smart grids in a country like India. Of course with major sources of generation being thermal, entire thrust has been put in recent years on the development of renewable resources so that it would run side by side to the conventional ones. At the same time vast assets created in transmission and distribution will also continue to be gainfully used.

Explaining the Rights of Foreign Citizens Based on Social Justice: An Analytical Study PDF

Shahla Fani Mshati

The form of relationships between persons and government is basically recognizable under various terms such as vassal, national or citizen and the quality and quantity of mutual rights and duties of persons and government are also evaluable based on this term. One of the legal resources of public rights and freedoms in Iran is the constitutional law. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international covenants can be count as resources. The public freedoms of Iranian citizens is explained as "Rights of Nation" from 19th to 42th articles of constitutional law of Islamic Republic of Iran. In recent centuries, foreign citizens have been entered and resided in Iran due to growing the communication technologies and special geographical and strategic position of Iran in the middle east, such as linking to warm waters of Persian Gulf and Oman sea and having long borders with critical points of the region (e.g., Afghanistan, Iraq, etc). This, in turn, has led to emerge social and security problems. The legal residents with foreign citizenship must have personal, legal and human securities, which declared in the law. By studying the laws in the current research, it was found that the legal residents with foreign citizenship have not enjoyed the equality against law and the current form of citizenship law is not satisfied the current demands and hence, it should be revised. Entering the foreign people to a country, due to any reason, would have political, security, economical, cultural, and geographical and population morphological effects. Particularly, if they were admitting regardless of facilities and demands of the society, the adverse effects induced by presence of them on the vital factors of the country would be more intensive and irrecoverable.

Computerized Librificated Electronics Engineering Laboratories: An attractive scheme for skill development PDF

Haziqul Yaquin

With the growth of Electronics and Computer Science as major demanded fields in this era, the libraries are being digitalized frequently to join the steps of the running, growing and developing world of knowledge and education as well as Science and technology all for the enhancement of the convenience, due to which proper trained and skilled hands are under being required, increasing the scope in this field, in return expanding the demand of library and its technologies in other fields like Computer Science for software etc, Electrical & Electronics engineering tools, circuits, kits, equipments along with the documents, manuals etc to be operated in their respective laboratories in the same way as books, theses, journals etc are in general libraries, for the convenience and skill improvement of students in technical institutes and laboratories in much attractive and efficient way.

A Novel Approach for Range Enhancing Energy Harvester (REACH) Mote Passive Wake-Up Radios For Wireless Networks PDF

N.Shyam Sunder Sagar,N.Shyam Sunder Sagar

In recent world, the wireless sensor networks are used intensively in many applications fields, these are used by scientific researchers to improve and accelerate the performance features of networks. The designs are very challenging and are sustainable, on the above these energy- dependent sensors are relied to run for long periods. These Sensor nodes are usually battery-powered and thus have very shorter lifetime. Here this paper, introduces a improved approach for wake-up radio devices called REACH (Range Enhancing Energy Harvester) Mote in place of general sensor nodes, here these nodes use the energy harvesting circuit in combination with an ultra-low-power pulse generator to activate and wake-up the motes in the wireless network.

A Review: CMOS Based Adders PDF

Jasleen Chaudhary, Sudhir Singh

Addition is representative of many arithmetic processing operations that must be carried out in portable digital systems, and the speed and power consumption trade-offs in adder hardware are of interest to portable digital system designers. Adders are commonly found in the critical path of many building blocks of Microprocessor and digital signal processor chips. A fast and accurate operation of digital system is greatly influenced by the performance of resident adders. Adders are key components in digital design; performing not only addition operations but also many other functions such as subtraction, multiplication and division. Adders of various bit-widths are frequently required in Very Large-scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) from processors to Application specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs).In this paper different types of 8- bit adders are analyzed.

A Comprehensive Survey on Data Mining Techniques to Extent Intrusion Detection System PDF

Sudhanshu Gupta, Jaswinder Singh

Information security is most important work in current environment. Internet is widely using in each corner of the world. So to protect the data from unauthorized access effective intrusion detection system have to implement. To improve the accuracy and decrease the false alarm rate of intrusion detection system we are applying data mining techniques. The main objective of data mining technique to retrieve the data from huge data set and convert into understandable structure so that it can be use in future also. So in this paper various data mining techniques such as clustering, classification and association rules are explained that are being used for such purpose to be useful for analyzing network traffic. Positive points and negative points of data mining techniques are discussed in this paper.

Study of Ground Water Quality in Industrial Zone of Kakkalur industrial Estate, Thiruvallur,Tamil Nadu PDF

A. Kistan, Dr. V. Kanchana, Dr. Thaminum Ansari

Water quality of 7 bore wells and 3 lakes water samples representing 10 localities around the Kakkalur industrial Estate, Thiruvallur was studied for a period of four months from November-2014 to February-2015 to assess the suitability of the bore well water for domestic purposes. This study of bore well water and lake water contamination will be of immense help to researcher’s and environmental regulators to evolve and initiate mitigative measures. Studies have been carried out to identity the parameters of contamination and their distribution with the help of the existing bore wells and lake water have been analyzed for 11 parameters. The major general contaminants found exceeding standards are hardness, alkalinity, pH, dissolved salts, chlorides, Ca, Mg, SO4, and turbidity. However the bore wells containing the parameters exceeding the limit were found highly isolated presence of chlorides and hardness, thus by initiating measures to be control local stretches. Combination of parameters exceeding limit varied from bore well to lake water and bore well to bore well.

Example Based Machine Translation Using Various Soft-Computing Techniques Review PDF

Manish Rana, Mohammad Atique

This paper focus on the various techniques involved in machine translation (MT).The various techniques involved in machine ignore many aspects when they generate natural language processing (NLP). An optimization technique was one of the major tools for many years in the formulation and solution of computational problems arising in speech and language processing. One of the methods, phrase-based SMT consists of three steps: segmentation of source sentences into a sequence of phrases, translation of each source phrase to a target phrase; and reordering of target phrases into target sentences. Further a Fuzzy Inference system model is used selecting the optimal features from speech vectors. The most fundamental problems in the field of machine learning are Feature selection. Fuzzy logic plays the major role in approximate reasoning. It has the ability to deal with different types of uncertainty, the implementation of the theory to real life problems. A linguistic variable, as its name suggests, is a variable whose values are not numbers but words or sentences in a natural language. Convex optimization problems are formulated and solved, with analytical formulas derived for training the ensemble-learning parameters. The result shows that above mentioned techniques were effective to certain limit which have not yield the proper translation in case of NLP. Thus this paper proposes an idea for under the heading “example based translation using soft-computing tool” like fuzzy logic implementation to yield successful NLP.

Electric Power Transmission and Distribution Losses Overview and Minimization in Pakistan PDF

Shahzad Sarwar Bhatti, Engr. M. Umair Umer Lodhi, Shan ul Haq, Engr. Syed Nasir Mehdi Gardezi, Engr. Muhammad Ahsan Javaid, Engr. M Zeeshan Raza, Engr. M. Imran Umer Lodhi

Availability of electric power has been the most powerful source for assisting economic, industrial and social developments of any state. Electric power is transferred by means of transmission lines which deliver bulk of power from generating stations to load centers and consumers. Studying the various types of loses uncounted during electrical transmission .The losses are either Technical losses or Non-technical Losses. The technical losses consist of the Corona loss, Joule effect, Magnetic Losses and skin effect. While the Non-technical (commercial ) losses include, theft of electricity, vandalism to electrical substations, poor meter reading, poor accounting and record keeping, etc. For electric power to get to the final consumers in proper form and quality, transmission and distribution losses along the lines must be reduced to the barest minimum.

ECG Trace Digitization Using Image Processing Techniques PDF

Hussain K. Khleaf, Kamarul H. Bin Gazali, Ahmed N Abdalla, Mithaq Na’ma Raheema

Some of the image processing techniques are developed for an electrocardiogram (ECG) feature extraction and signal regeneration as a digital time series signal. In general the ECG is recorded on a thermal paper which cannot be stored for a long time, because thermal trace over time becomes erased gradually. Some hospitals are saving the ECG thermal papers as scanning images in the electronic equipments (like computers) to maintain medical records, but this method needs to high memory capacity, and use less scanning resolution that gives signal accuracy is less at preview. The main aim of this paper is to extract the 12-lead ECG signals from the thermal paper and converting it to a digital time series signals. Feature extraction and the digital time series signal were tested on 30 of 12-lead ECG paper records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, and the accuracy was between 96.31% and 98.25%. Evaluation of the proposed method for ECG feature extraction was done by comparing the obtained values with manual data and this method offered an accuracy of 98.06%. In addition can be using features extraction to perform an automatic heart disease classification using one of the artificial intelligence methods.

Artificial Neural Networking Model an Approach for the Coagulation Properties of Milk PDF

Vesna K. Hristova, M. Ayaz Ahmad, Biljana Trajkovska, Stefce Presilski, Georgi Bonev

The analysis and sequence of some technological parameters and milk coagulation properties (MCP) of Holstein Friesian dairy cows have been studied in the present research article. The milk samples have been collected from a local farm’s at Pelagonia region, Republic of Macedonia and the experimental work was conducted in the laboratories of the Faculty of biotechnical sciences, R. Macedonia and Tabuk University, KSA. The study illustrates the MCP of cow’s milk as well as the effect of milk urea nitrogen level and pH on the coagulum development. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of raw milk samples and after rennet addition also has been studied. All the said results/parameters have been compared with the soft computing approach so called artificial neural networking model, and the predictions of soft computing (ANN) model’s outcomes were found in a good agreement with the experimental data.

Robust Prediction for Intra and Inter-Handoff (RPIIH) Process PDF

Mohamed Ben Haj Frej, Christian Bach

The overall performance of mobile nodes is mainly affected by the relatively considerable time spent in the handoff process. Most of the time spent is mainly consumed during the authentication process. This process could be even longer especially when the Access Points (AP’s) are busy, which results in delays and/or packets loss. Many handoff techniques have been proposed to shorten the time of authentication however to-date, they have not been fully successful.

Critical failure factors affecting Projects Performance of Multinational Project Teams in Telecom industry PDF

Muhammad Rafid Ilyas, Dr. Muhammad Khalil Shahid, Dr. Irfan Zafar

The research on the topic of Projects failures and success was conducted on a generalize approach that covers all types of Projects and factors which are normally discussed in broader-spectrum. The focus of this research study has been on the Telecom Market of Pakistan and goes on to explore the failures taking place in various executed projects. Identification of the failures will ultimately lead to the designing of a model which if adopted can minimize the chances of failures in any project. In the study the emphasis has been both on the local teams working on the project and the ones which are being managed remotely.

The Digitalization of the Walking Stick for the Blind PDF

Vandan Patel

Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. In this project, a simple intuitive blind navigation system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility and safety of blind people during their travels. The prototype includes a wearable glove to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the ultrasonic sensor which is used to scan a direction by emitting reflecting ultrasound waves. The reflected ping received from the obstacle is inputted to the microcontroller which is used to determine the distance of the object from the user. This distance then gets outputted by a vibrating motor which vibrates with more intensity as the obstacle gets closer. The current prototype is effective in terms of eliminating the use of a cane and also making it less embarrassing for the user to travel without being noticed.

Carbon Stocks of Pure Cedrus Deodara Forest In Kumrat Valley,Dir Upper,KPK,Pakistan PDF

Muhammad Amir, Asadullah Khan, Adnan Ahmad, Alamgir Khan

The study The Present study was carried out in pure Cedrus Deodara forest of Kumrat Valley Dir Kohistan. The study was aimed to calculate biomass (t ha-1) and carbon stock (t ha-1) in the above and below ground biomass. Overall, 32 sample plots were laid out. The size of each plot was 0.1 ha. In each sample plot stem density(t ha-1) tree diameter(cm),tree height (m),stem volume(m3ha-1),stem biomass(t ha-1),total tree biomass(t ha-1) and total carbon stock (t ha-1) was calculated. The result of the present study showed that average tree density was 238 trees ha-1. Average stem volume was measured as 1839.41 (m3ha-1).The mean stem biomass was 857.40 (t ha-1).The mean total tree biomass was estimated 1281.26 (t ha-1).The calculated carbon in above and below ground biomass of Cedrus Deodara forest was 640.63 (t ha-1).

Chemical and Electrochemical synthesis for some Metal Complexes of 6-Phenyl-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile Derivatives PDF

Ahmed A. M. El-Reedy and Ragab R. Amin

A new metal Chelates of 6-Phenyl-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (HL1) and its derivatives, 6(4-Methylphenyl)-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (HL2), 6(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-thioxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (HL3) were prepared and yields complexes of the compositions [M(L)2.(H2O)2] and [M(L)2.(acetone)(H2O)], where M = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and L is the ligand. Chemical analysis, infrared as well as thermal analysis are presented to confirm the formulation of the complexes. The spectral data show that the ligands are coordinated to the metal via the thioenol sulfur atom and the nitrogen atom of cyano groups.

An Economic Assessment of Nigeria’s Smart Phone Data Bundle Consumption, Subscriber Resource Constraints, and Dynamics. The Case of Abuja & Lagos States. PDF

Eke, Chukwuemeka Ifegwu

This paper examines ways in which smart phone data consumption trends influence demand for airtime data bundles. A model of subscriber response to economic and technical stimuli, conditional on cybernomic and subscriber characteristics, is developed. Three years of survey data, gathered from subscribers of data and voice bundles to evaluate the model empirically. Single SIM smartphones, subscribers are responsive to relative Data Bundle prices and Airtime volume discounts. However, different Data Bundle packages elicit different responses. In particular, some data sharing takes place primarily through subscriber-substitution and intensified smartphone use, while changes in tariff or volume discounts for subscribers having dual SIM smartphones induces frequent and spontaneous network migration. Subscriber and public power constraints bind at different points for different data bundles demand. These results suggest that because multiple data/voice bundle platform interact, subscriber smartphone response coefficient must have multiple strands in order to replace incentives to further bundle demands.


Ali M Barakat, M.Sc, PhD; Olli Vapalahti, M.D, PhD; Hassan J Hasony, MSc , PhD

Background: There are no data on the occurrence of arboviruses and viral infection as causative agents in febrile patients and those with neurological symptoms among patient in southern Iraq.

The effect of Garlic treatment on Concentrating Temperature, Potassium Sorbate, Proximate Composition and Sensory properties of Tomato Paste PDF


Campbell 37 variety of fresh tomato was investigated. These were concentrated at different temperatures of 50OC and 70OC to produce tomato paste. During the concentration to produce paste, garlic at 0.1%w/w, 0.2%w/w and 0.3%w/w concentration and 0.02 and 0.05 potassium sorbate were added. After the production of the tomato paste (treated and the control samples) the proximate analysis was determined. The moisture content of the samples concentrated at 50OC was significantly higher than those of the samples concentrated at 70OC thus, having a moisture content range of 78.19% - 78.67% when compared to the 70OC which is 76.13% - 76.74%. Protein content of the 70OC (11.14-11-20%) concentrated temperature is significantly higher than the protein content of the 50OC (10.67-10.79%) concentrated samples. The ash content of the sample at 50OC treated with 0.1%w/w KS and 0. 2%w/w KS has no significant difference at (P < 0.05). The same trend was observed on the sample at 70OC which are 9.14% and 9.17%. The sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using trained panelist at 9 points hedonic scale. The sample concentrated at 700C, has a low score in the appearance. Potassuim sorbate at both concentration of 0.2 and 0.5 did not affect the aroma and flavour of the sample. Garlic affected the aroma and hence the low score at 700C concentration.

Performance Analysis of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Design Techniques for Optimal Servomotor Speed Control PDF

Williams U. Orji, Mbaocha C. Christian, Chukwuemeka I. Egbunonu, Chinemerem K. Okorie

Time-delays in servomotor speed control arise from inherent time-delays in its state variables or from deliberate introduction of delays into the system for control purposes. Due to the wide application of servomotors in many industrial processes, control of speed is a vital issue and has been of research interest for decades. This heuristic paper therefore presents performance analysis of Linear Quadratic Regulator controller and comparison of its time response matrices in open and closed loop model in servomotor speed control application. The aim is to show that the closed-loop servomotor has better speed control performance rather than its open-loop. It will be shown that Linear Quadratic Regulator method gives better performance, such as steady state error, settling time and overshoot. MatLab/Simulink software will be used to implement all simulations.

Key Generating Cryptosystem PDF

Ms. JemimaJayaKiruba S, Dr. Savithri.V, Ms. Mary Ivy Deepa

Key Generating Cryptosystem helps to secure the files by generating the public or master key(secret key) pair randomly after account is created in the server by the owner in the Cloud database. Data owner will encrypt the data, public key and data index & then upload it in the Cloud Server. Data owner Generates Aggregate Decryption Key (ADK) using the master-secret key, Data owner can share the data to other users by sending its ADK through E-mail securely. Original Data can be downloaded by the user only after the Verification of ADK. Data Owner will encrypt the file, public key and index into an image called Steganography to the cloud. Image is Splitted using Merkle Hash Tree Algorithm in Cloud. User will send the Request to Data Owner; if Data Owner is interested to share the file then he will share the ADK & Public Key to the User. After the user receive that mail then he/she will give their User Name, password, user Public Key, Data Owner’s Public Key & Aggregate Decryption Key to the Cloud to download the encrypted file.

Activity Recognition Using Filtering Algorithm PDF

Varun Sharma (Member IEEE), Dean. Rajneesh Narula

This paper inspect the trouble in recognition of exercise and also discover the burned calories after exercise. Our topic and motive of research to detect a problem, how walking, jogging and running effect on the human body using personalize algorithms. Pedometer is a device which is used to count the step while walking. This device may be used as a hardware device which attached with the body or may hold on body like in hand and count the steps. Every person have different way of walking and also difference in step distance, an informal calibration, performed by the user. An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration. It is not necessary that accelerometer always measure a proper acceleration for each coordinate acceleration But the benefit of this research, it remotely observe the moves, calories and find accurate results in jogging and running. There are specific algorithm used for finding the difference between the jogging and running, and detect the burned calories. Whole research performed in MATLAB platform. This platform is very reliable and flexible to use.

A Survey on Various Facial Expression Techniques PDF

Md. Sarfaraz Jalil, Joy Bhattacharya

Human Action and Expression plays a vital role for the recognition of faces in various applications. Since various technique are implemented for the recognition of various facial expressions. But here in this paper a complete survey of all these techniques implemented for facial expression is analyzed and discussed here so that on the basis of their various advantages and limitations a more improved and efficient technique is implemented in future. The proposed methodology implemented in future can be compared on the basis of number of facial features extracted and their accuracy of recognition.

Design and Simulation of Micro strip Patch Antenna on RT DUROID 5880 Substrate for Object Detection Using RADAR PDF

Anup V Patel, Manish Kumar, Ravikiran P Pawar, Vikas M Dev, Mahalakshmi M N

The area of micro strip antennas has seen some inventive work in recent years and is currently one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. This designing is very easy. In this paper SHF band frequencies x-band frequency 8 GHz gives the best result, the antenna has become a necessity for many applications in recent wireless communications, such as Radar, Microwave and space communication. The proposed antenna design on different optimum patch length and analyzed result of all optimum patch length 8GHz frequency, When the proposed antenna design on a 62mil RT DUROID 5880 substrate from Rogers-Corp with dielectric constant of 2.2 and loss tangent of 0.0004. At 8 GHz the micro strip patch was verified and tested result on CST SIMULATOR are Return loss = -15.76dB, VSWR = 1.38, Directivity = 8.591dBi, Gain = 7.752dBi, 3 dB beam width = 73degrees, and the achievable bandwidth of the proposed antenna obtained is 100MHz at -15dB return loss. All results are shown in Simulation results.


Md.Aleem Pasha, Dr.P.Ravinder Reddy, Dr.P.Laxminarayana,Dr.Ishtiaq Ahmad Khan

This work was focused to study the changes in behavior of Magnesium alloy friction stir welded joint by inserted ‘Sic’ and ‘Al2O3’ Reinforced particles with an appropriate volume fraction at weld interface by providing gap provision and interlocking between two metal plates to form a butt weld containing reinforced particles. Used a friction stir welding apparatus to stir reinforced particles into two base materials and a friction stir weld was formed. Moreover, metallurgical bonding was achieved between the reinforced particles and the base materials. Quality assessment included the visual inspection, temperature measurement in welding region, Tensile strength testing, impact strength testing, and hardness measurements. Research aimed at the recognition of FSW abilities to weld Magnesium alloys by inserting reinforced particles at weld interface and influence of reinforced particles and interlocking on weld properties. The research results have revealed that magnesium alloy AZ91 were weldable with reinforced particles using FSW process. Further it is concluded that Adding of reinforcement particles at weld interface increasing the mechanical properties such as hardness, yield strength, and small reduction in ultimate strength than base metal. But at the same time elongation decreases and the behavior of Material changes from ductile to brittle.

PIR in E-Health Using Secured Cloud Database PDF


Electronic patient health records encompass valuable information about patient’s medical problems, diagnoses, and treatments offered including their outcomes. However, a problem for medical professionals is an ability to efficiently access the information that are documented in the form of free-text. A multitude of systems are now available through which the vision of access to distributed data for personalised medicine or e-Health is now very much a reality , but retrieving these private data’s are very much in question. Private Information Retrieval (PIR) allows a user to retrieve bits from a database while hiding the user’s access pattern. The goal of Private Information Retrieval (PIR) is for a client to query a database in such a way that no one, including the database operator, can determine any information about the desired database record. This can be applied for retrieving useful data’s of patients affected by cancer across the world., while the information is stored in cloud database for each region connected through network. This paper discusses more about hybrid cloud in trust building knowledge discovery for Private informational retrieval. Existing processes for patients’ vital data collection require a great deal of labour work to collect, input and analyse the information. Privacy is also a major issue. Creating and updating these cloud databases also proves to be a difficult task, with major improvement in cancer treatments day by day, offering a solution to the needful users with private dealing is almost welcoming.

Evaluation of the Locations of Emergency Medical Service Based Black Spots on the Highway: a Case Study Darbandikhan Town PDF

Heba A. Ahmed

Today, road safety plays as key and integral role in a sustainable transportation development strategy in the most countries. One of the major steps in improving road safety is the specification of the locations with an unusual high number of accidents which is defined black spots. This paper attempts to reduce accident frequency or severity in the road network of Darbandikhan town through two things. The first is identifying the black spots on road network and arrange it according to their severity to specify the priority in treatment. The second is evaluating the effectiveness (response time) of the current locations of emergency medical service (EMS) based on black spots by using ArcGIS10 software. The results define 16 black spots in road network in the Darbandikhan town as a case study, and show improper locations for the emergency medical services. The outcomes of this study can find a way for prioritizing the black spots which need to remedial treatment to improve road safety. Also, it can be used to assess the current locations of EMS and consequently, reducing the numbers of deaths and unnecessary suffering of injured people.

An Inventory Model For Deteriorating Items With Selling Price Dependent Demand And Variable Deterioration Under Inflation With Time Dependent Holding Cost PDF

Yadav Smita, Sharma Anil Kumar, Aggarwal Naresh Kumar

In this, we considered an inventory model in which demand is taken as a function of selling price and variable rate of deterioration is taken as a linear function of time and a storage time dependent holding cost. The holding cost per unit of the item is considered to be a linear function of time spent in storage. In this paper effect of inflation rate is considered and shortages are not allowed. An inventory model is developed for obtaining optimum cycle length for the given cost structure. The proposed model reduces to well known result, by choosing appropriate value of the parameters.

Botanical Garden as a Recreational Park: Balancing Economic Interest with Conservation PDF

I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

Bali Botanic Garden (Kebun Raya Bali) was originally established for botanical research and conservation, but has subsequently grown as an attractive tourism attraction. To attain information on the development of Bali Botanic Garden, this study examines several research questions as follows: (1) what are the characteristics of visitors?; (2) what is the perception of visitors on Bali Botanic Garden?; (3) which factors push and motivate visitors to come?; (4) which factors affect the visitors of Bali Botanic Garden?. This study utilized survey method with 88 respondents as the sample. The instrument used was in the form of questionnaire, which was then analyzed with descriptive statistical tools, and factor analysis to determine factors that affect visitors to visit Bali Botanic Garden. The results are as follows: (1) visitors of Bali Botanic Garden is dominated by domestic tourists, students and private employees, 20 to 40 age group, repeat visitors, and male visitors; (2) visitors of Bali Botanic Garden are pushed and motivated by the needs for relaxation, escape, strengthening family bond and play as very strong push factors. Secondary push factors include the needs for interaction, prestige, educational opportunity, and wish fulfillment as strong push factors. Meanwhile, romance and self-fulfillment are weak push factors; (3) five factors affect Bali Botanic Garden as a destination, including fees and service, natural attraction, accessibility, atmosphere, and facilities. Several recommendations for the management of Bali Botanic Garden include: (1) consider to visitor characteristics when diversifying the botanical garden; (2) pay attention to push factors deemed important by visitors to better match their expectations; (3) consider the five factors that were formed in managing, conserving, and utilizing the botanical garden so that this garden remain a viable tourism destination for locals and visitors.

The Regenerative Energy Suspension System PDF

Gaurang Tiwari, Dr. R.K. Saxena

The amount of energy dissipated in the suspension system has brought several studies to harness the energy that was considered to be a waste previously. The factor affecting the harness of this energy is elaborated. The remedies are enlisted to overcome the issues. Few suspension system’s researches are reviewed. The paper concludes with a proposed system. Experimental results of the model are elaborated. Further, the outcomes are enlisted with future directions for applications ahead. Thereby the objective of this paper is to reveal the application of the suspension system to supply the vibration (mechanical) energy back to the battery system by converting it into electrical energy.

Data Leakage Detection Using Cloud Computing PDF

Prof. Sushilkumar N. Holambe, Dr.Ulhas B.Shinde, Archana U. Bhosale

In the virtual and widely distributed network, the process of handover sensitive data from the distributor to the trusted third parties always occurs regularly in this modern world. It needs to safeguard the security and durability of service based on the demand of usersA data distributor has given sensitive data to a set of supposedly trusted agents (third parties). Some of the data are leaked and found in an unauthorized place (e.g., on the web or somebody’s laptop). The distributor must assess the likelihood that the leaked data came from one or more agents, as opposed to having been independently gathered by other means. We propose data allocation strategies (across the agents) that improve the probability of identifying leakages. These methods do not rely on alterations of the released data (e.g., watermarks). In some cases, we can also inject “realistic but fake” data records to further improve our chances of detecting leakage and identifying the guilty party. The idea of modifying the data itself to detect the leakage is not a new approach. Generally, the sensitive data are leaked by the agents, and the specific agent is responsible for the leaked data should always be detected at an early stage. Thus, the detection of data from the distributor to agents is mandatory. This project presents a data leakage detection system using various allocation strategies and which assess the likelihood that the leaked data came from one or more agents For secure transactions, allowing only authorized users to access sensitive data through access control policies shall prevent data leakage by sharing information only with trusted parties and also the data should be detected from leaking by means of adding fake record`s in the data set and which improves probability of identifying leakages in the system. Then, finally it is decided to implement this mechanism on cloud server.

Parametric Study of Composite Steel-Concrete Beams with External Prestressing PDF

Amer M. Ibrahim, Saad k. Mohaisen, Qusay W. Ahmed

The main purpose of the present paper is to investigate the effect of several important parameters on the behavior of external prestressed composite steel-concrete beams. ANSYS computer program (version 12.0) has been used to analyze the three dimensional model. The nonlinear material and geometrical analysis based on Incremental-Iterative load method, is adopted. These parameters include effect of compressive strength of concrete, effective prestressing stress to ultimate stress ratio, effective height to center of prestressing cables ,effect of external prestressing technique , type of loading, tendon profile, degree of interaction , ratio of thickness to width of concrete slab , using unsymmetrical I-steel beams ,effect of number of stiffeners and effect Full and Partial Interaction.


Siddaraju K. 1, Gururaju 2

Images may be degraded for many reasons for example, out-of-focus optics produce blurred images, and variations in electronic imaging components introduce noise. Reducing blur or noise or both in images is known as image restoration. Multi-channel blind image restoration recovers an original image from several blurred versions without any knowledge of the blur function. In many applications the image to be processed has a multi-channel nature; i.e., there are several image planes available, called channels with redundant as well as complementary information. Here we propose a multichannel blind restoration technique for linearly degraded images without the explicit knowledge of either the Point Spread Function (PSF) or the original image. The blurred noisy image is compressed using 8 by 8 blocks DCT and filtered using zonal filter.

Design and Development of a Rectifier Stage Topology for µgrid PDF

M.Manigandan, Dr.B.Basavaraja and G.Srikanth

Microgrids (µ-grids) are new way of electrical systems consisting of distributed energy sources and sensitive loads. The subjective of operation is to distribute stable and quality electric power. As it is intricate for the use of a real µ-grid for laboratory project, development of a model that can be connected and utilized for nominal loads. The design and development of a new system configuration of the front-end rectifier stage for µ-grid is presented in this paper. First, the mathematical model of µ-grid is developed and this configuration allows the µ-grid to supply the load separately or simultaneously depending on the availability of the energy sources. Proposed hardware implementation involves Cuk-SEPIC fused converter, a cascaded multilevel inverter and a variable load. The inherent nature of this Cuk-SEPIC fused converter, additional input filters are not necessary to filter out high frequency harmonics. For extraction of maximum power from the Solar PV and wind an adaptive MPPT is used specifically a standard perturb and observe method is used for Solar PV Hardware and Simulation results will given the scope for the use of proposed Rectifier Stage Topology.

Development of Acquisition of ECG during Treadmill Exercise PDF

Chaitali Nachane, Divya Subramanian, Jyothi Warrier, Vineet Sinha

Exercise tolerance testing is an important diagnostic and prognostic tool for assessing patients with suspected or known ischaemic heart disease. During exercise, coronary blood flow must increase to meet the higher metabolic demands of the myocardium. Limiting the coronary blood flow may result in electrocardiographic changes. In this study hardware was developed for the acquisition of ECG during treadmill exercise. The ECG acquired was corrupted by motion artifacts as the subject was constantly moving. In order to obtain clean ECG, adaptive filtering technique was applied. An accelerometer was used to measure the acceleration signal of the vibrations or movement of the trunk as the reference inputs of the adaptive filter. The acquired real ECG and accelerometer data were simultaneously processed and analysed using the most widely used adaptive filtering algorithm, Least Mean Squares (LMS). The results show that the proposed method can be adapted to effectively reduce motion artifacts in stress or exercise ECG.

Analysis of Regression Equation for Skeletal Muscle Mass using Bioimpedance Technique PDF

Divya Subramanian, Chaitali S Nachane, Jyothi S Warrier, Sadhana A Mandlik

Determination of skeletal muscle mass in the body helps to analyze the associated loss of strength in individuals. It can be used in the study and analysis of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity which is now a global health problem. Although Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry can be used for the estimation they are expensive and the individual is subjected to small radiation exposure. The present study uses Bioelectrical Impedance method for estimation of Skeletal Muscle Mass using regression equations. 126 Indian subjects (age: 38±9 years) are measured for Skeletal Muscle Mass using the commercial body composition analyzer and validated against the developed Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement system. The results of the study show that there is a high degree of correlation and small error between these two methods.

Design and Development of New Architecture for Reconfiguration and Processing of Automation Industrial Control System PDF

Suvidh P. Gohane, Ganesh S. Khekare

In most Automation Industrial Process System, the processes such as manufacturing, processing, packaging etc. are performed with automation conveyor mechanism system with some particular processing pattern, If in real time there is need to use this same system to execute another process with some different modified processing pattern. There is a need of reconfiguration of the system to execute modified processing pattern. Traditionally to achieve this, new system has to be developed with new configuration, this will require programming expertise to meet modified processing pattern and are costly. So above problem taken into consideration, the design of a real time reconfigurable industrial system has been developed. The term ‘reconfigurable’ here indicates that the system consisting of various industrial machines and nodes can be configured to change its mode and sequence of operation, thus changing the work process. Such systems may be used in industries where a series of manufacturing operations and processes are implemented to obtain a finished product. Reconfiguration may be needed here to change the design or manufacturing process, to obtain or fulfill the requirements of another final product. To demonstrate the concept, a system resembling an industrial assembly line have been created, consisting of a conveyor belt mechanism and sensors with various other mechanisms operating alongside the conveyor over goods and objects being carried by the conveyor. To enable reconfiguration, new Motion Description Language Architecture (MDLA) schemes that allow the user to describe the set of processes and tasks in the form of a script that the machine understands have been proposed and designed, also developed Application Programming Interface (API) Graphical User Interface (GUI) based software where the user can write the scripts, which are then translated into MDL codes and sent to the machine which starts functioning accordingly.

Recognizing Surgically Altered Face Images Using SIFT and LDA PDF

Sajna S,Asitha B Raj

we are currently witnessing a strong worldwide popular in plastic surgery. Plastic surgery is the process of reconstructing and repairing the part of the body by transfer of tissues. People take plastic surgery to correct feature defects and improve attractiveness. This paper focused on recognizing before and after plastic surgery face images. Nonlinear variation in plastic surgery is difficult task to recognize pre and post-surgery images. Linear Discriminant Analysis is proposed to match before and after plastic surgery images. The algorithm generates multiple face granules at three levels of granularity. Here SIFT is used as the feature extractor for extracting discriminating information from granules which unified in LDA. The proposed algorithm yields high identification accuracy and less time complexity as compared to existing algorithms.

N-Dimentional Kaluza-Klein Barotropic Fluid Cosmological Model with Varying Gravitational Constant in Creation Field Theory of Gravitation PDF

H. R. Ghate, Sandhya S. Mhaske

N-dimensional Kaluza Klein cosmological model with varying gravitational constant for barotropic fluid in creation field theory of gravitation have been investigated. To get the deterministic model of the universe, we assume that , where is a scale factor and is the constant. The solution of the field equations are obtained for in particular. Also the physical properties have been studied.

Design Blimp Robot Based On Embedded System and Fuzzy Logic PDF

Sunil K. Suman , Prof. Saniya M. Ansari

Blimps robot with helium gas have main advantages, there will be no need of driving force. In this project we are going to present a low weight , embedded system based blimp unmanned Airship. Advantages of this project could be less energy consumption low noise and cost efficiency which could made them ideal for exploration of areas without Disturbing environment. In this project we are going to implement high resolution and advanced facilities with low weight camera for capturing the video or images depending on need basis. We are trying to use the Fuzzy controller for automatic control in air. We are going to facilitates blimp with obstacles avoidance. We are going to provide the stability of blimp system in air. We are providing the facilities for tracking the object on ground from the Aerial blimp system.

A Mathematical Model for Predicting Absolute Wax Thickness Distribution In Wellbores and Flow Lines PDF

Akinade Akinwumi, Ajediti Omolola

Flow assurance governs the success of the fluid journey from reservoir to point of sale. Understanding this concept helps to ensure that any development plan—from exploration through abandonment—is technically viable and designed for optimal operations throughout the field's life. Flow assurance in sub-sea focuses on preventing solid deposits from blocking the flow path. The principal solids of concern are Wax and Hydrates, sometimes Scale and Asphaltenes can also be major threats to flow assurance that must be assessed by design teams. Controlling this solid deposits involves three main strategies; keeping the system pressure and temperature in a region where the solids are unstable (thermodynamic control) or controlling the conditions of solids formation so that deposit do not formed (kinetic control) or allowing solids to deposit, then periodically removing them (mechanical control).This research work is based on mechanical solid control strategies by developing a simple analytical model for predicting the absolute Wax thickness in a specified length of pipeline via the rheological properties of the flowing fluid. Apart from predicting wax thickness rate, this work can also be used to assess prevention and remediation strategies such as insulation effectiveness and pigging frequency during crude oil production.

Effect of SOLID Design Principles on Quality of Software: An Empirical Assessment PDF

Harmeet Singh, Syed Imtiyaz Hassan

Design is one of the important phases of software development life cycle, which has an impact on entire life cycle of the project. If the design is good then all other phases of Software development life cycle like coding, maintenance and support will be stress and hassle-free. The availability of lot of data has proved that designing has a significant role and it directly impacts the quality and performance requirements. The world of Agile Development today has led the developer to compete with the latest features and technologies in the market. However for the naïve users it is difficult to maintain the design quality if there are no standard guidelines available. The design quality is sometime depend on developer expertise and experience only, so we must have standard and proved design guidances to work. If the software design is in proper accordance with the principles and patterns then it can increase the software re-usability, maintainability and scalability. This research paper focuses on empirical analysis to prove the SOLID design principles guidelines by using a working prototype, applying the design principles to it and then evaluating the prototype by using different metrics.

Request for Qoutation PDF


An RFQ is a document that is utilized in the solicitation of price and delivery quotations, which meet least necessities for a precise amount of detailed merchandise and services. It is a document prepared by an organization, which triggers relations with potential contractors. Contractors respond to it after check and adhering to the qualifications and specifications of good and services required and the terms of service. It details the price, product quality, price and mode of desired payment.

A Description of Non Linear Schrödinger Equation by Modified Exp-Function Method PDF

Arun Kumar, Ram Dayal Pankaj, Jyoti Chawla

In this paper, the modified exp-function method is used to obtain wave solutions of the Non Linear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and to construct a model for the nonlinear evolution of instability. As a result, some new types of exact wave solutions are obtained which include kink wave solutions, periodic wave solution, and solitary wave solutions. Obtained results clearly indicate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed modified exp-function method.


Ms Maria Manuel antonette, Dr.Savithri.V

A systematic approach has been developed to detect boundaries of coronary artery. The features are fu rther processed. New combinations of algorithms are used. The various techniques are Edge detection techniques, Dynamic programming algorithm, clustering algorithm and Back propagation algorithms are used. These algorithms outputs are helpful for practitioner to detect the boundary and to predict the plaque region of coronary artery. The research results are beneficial and vital to practitioners to detect the elasticity of Intima-Media Thickness.

Correlating Urban System and Hydrological system in context of Physical planning PDF

Sheetal Sharma

Urbanization result in rapid development of landscape and housing leading to physical modification of habitats, which often results with degradation of the ability of ecosystems to maintain their structures and properties, thus providing ecosystem imbalances. An area when developed for housing or other urban purposes, the immediate hydrologic effect is to increase the area of low or zero infiltration capacity and to increase the efficiency or speed of water transmission in channels or conduits ( (D. &. Leopold 1978).

Effect of Sodium Magnesium Silicate Nanoparticles on Rheology of Xanthan Gum Polymer PDF

Attia. M. Attia and Hussain Musa

Polymer flooding is known for its ability to assist in enhancing oil displacement during tertiary recovery stage. Most EOR polymers degrade and lose their viscosifying abilities at high salinity and high temperature reservoir conditions (HSHT). Laboratory rheological study of Xanthan gum was carried out before and after incorporating with Sodium Magnesium Silicate under certain conditions (25 and 60 oC; salinity: 0, 3.4, 10, 15 and 20-wt % NaCl). Experimental results show that viscosity of these polymers is strongly affected by salinity, temperature and shear rates. Xanthan gum displays a strong thermal and salinity resistance at low, medium and high shear rates. It was also found that the viscosity solutions increased with addition of sodium magnesium silicate nanoparticles, and exhibit better shear resistance and enduring thermal stability at high salinity than ordinary xanthan gum.

How to Prepare Input File of Reservoir Simulation by Using Reservoir Characterization PDF

Habibu Shuaibu and Attia M. Attia

The most generally encountered and certainly the most challenging responsibility in reservoir engineering is the description of a reservoir, both accurately and efficiently. Most of enhanced oil recovery and secondary recovery projects fails due to inadequate and insufficient reservoir characterization and dealing with heterogonous reservoir. An accurate description of a reservoir is crucial to the management of production and efficiency of oil recovery. Reservoir characterization plays a very important role in descripting the storage and flow capacity of a reservoir and also plays a decisive role in reservoir simulation. The main objective of this research is on how to prepare a reservoir simulation input file accurately to receive an accurate output, in other to achieve this we most follow the following steps. Firstly by identifying the degree heterogeneity by using methods such as Lorenz Coefficient L_k and Dykstra-Parsons coefficient V_k, secondly by using existing and recognised techniques such as FZI or HFU, permeability group, DRT to estimate the different flow units and then classifying reservoir rocks (rock typing) in a petrophysical reliable manner using approaches such as RQI, FZI, DRT, winland R35 method and allocating properties to each rock type which will aid in estimating permeability for uncored wells. Finally in order to enhance the accuracy, a comprehensive analysis and comparison of all techniques is evaluated to predict the most accurate and more reliable method to be applied to any reservoir.

Identification of potent VEGFR-2 Inhibitors of Angiogenesis through homology modeling, Structure based virtual screening, docking and molecular dynamics simulations PDF

Madhu Sudhana Saddala, A. Usha Rani and S. Ayisha

VEGFR-2 is a known protein target for antiangiogenic agents, was used in this study. In order to understand of the mechanisms of ligand binding and the interaction between the ligand and the VEGFR-2. A three-dimensional (3D) model of the VEGFR-2 is generated based on the crystal structure of the complex containing KIT and sunitinib (PDB code 3G0E) by using the Moduller9v11 software. With the aid of the MD simulation methods, the final refined model is obtained and is further assessed by SAVES server, which shows that the refined model is reliable. With this model, a flexible docking with screened compounds from Zinc database was performed by AutoDock in PyRx Virtual Screening tool. Ten lead molecules having better binding energy than query (Pazopanib). The binding interactions of compounds with active site of VP-3 model suggested that the amino acid residues (Glu13, Glu15, Leu57, Glu134, Cys136, Lys137, Gly215, Arg218, Asp 223, Arg247 and Tyr249) play a key role for drug design. The MD simulations were performed for VEGFR-2- Zinc14945139 (lead1) docking complex in NAMD v2.9. The Trajectory analysis showed docking complex and inter molecular interactions was stable throughout the entire production part of MD simulations. The predicted pharmalogical properties of best compounds, among them Zinc14945139 is well within the range of a drug molecule with good ADME profile. Hence, would be intriguing towards development of potent inhibitor molecule against VEGFR-2.

Study the effect of spatial and temporal laser pulse profile on heating a semi-infinite target in spherical coordinates PDF

S.E.-S. Abd El-Ghany

The Laplace integral transform technique in spherical coordinates is used in solving the problem of heating a semi-infinite target induced by surface absorption of a spatial and temporal laser pulse profile. Mathematical expression for the temperature distribution in the target is obtained, considering the cooling, the temperature dependent absorption coefficient of the irradiated surface. As an illustrative example computations were carried out on a semi-infinite target of (Al) target.

Quality Studies of Rainwater in Uyo Municipality, Nigeria PDF

Ndifreke Etuk Williams, Harrison Onome Tighiri

Some Uyo municipalities in Nigeria are facing environmental threats due to rainwater pollution cause by a new phase of several developments going on in the City. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the levels of heavy metals in the atmosphere to fically determine the rainwater composition and to provide a background for the chemical characteristics of rainwater in some selected Municipalities in Uyo. The rainwater samples were simultaneously collected from six locations which ranges from sample A to F, (A: Nwaniba by Nsikak eduok Junction, B: Ibom connection, C: Nepaline by Aka road, D: Nwaniba junction by Oron road, E: Ikpa junction by Ikot Ekpene road and F: Barracks road by CKS junction). Samples were collected in the rainy season period of April to August and analyzed for physicochemical and heavy metal parameters. The samples were analyzed using standard procedures and instruments which indicated the following ranges of results Pb <0.001 to 0.05 mg/L, Cd <0.001 to 0.05 mg/L, Fe 0.077 to 0.991 mg/L, SO42- 1.00 to 250 mg/L, PO43- 0.01 to 0.15 mg/L, SO3- 0.10 to 10.00 mg/L, temperature 27.70 to 28.90 0C, pH 5.90 to 6.80, alkalinity 32.00 to 500 mg/L, chloride 22.70 to 250 mg/L, DO 12.20 to 17.10 mg/L, BOD5 2.50 to 6.00 mg/L, total hardness 8.00 to 500 mg/Las CaCO3, suspended solids 10.00 to 500 mg/L, dissolved solids 0.04 to 1000.00 mg/Land total solids 10.04 to 1500 mg/L. In comparison of the results obtained with World Health Organization standard for potable water indicates that sample A, B, D and E are acidic while sample B, C, D, E and F contains excess concentration of Fe. The result of research shows that all the rainwater gotten from the sampling locations contains diverse forms of pollutant.

An investigation in to future development and adoption of online payment systems PDF

Abdullah Alsaif

This article comprises the importance of E payment systems. E-payments is a sub category of e commerce in which a customer buys or sell things online by using a web page or any sort of platform. In general all sort of transactions which are done through internet are categorized as e-payments Different means are being used for the e payments. The use of e payment is being increased rapidly. There are different methods which are currently being used for the E-Payment. These methods include different sort of cards and electronic transfer. There has been a tremendous growth in E payment methods and more people are using such services. In the future there are many other methods are coming for the implementation of e payment and e commerce such as; smart cards, RFID and bitcoins.

Using Statistics to Understand Extreme Values with Application to Hydrology PDF

Akanni O.O., Fantola J.O. and Ojedokun J.P

Environmental issues are extremely important to human existence. These issues vary from various pollution levels to climate change. They bring hazardous impacts to man in both developed and developing countries most especially when extreme cases are experienced. These extreme cases are more dangerous in developing countries than in developed countries due to inadequate monitoring research and projection. It is therefore necessary that we quantify these extreme changes in environmental problems statistically; these efforts will be tailored towards achieving sustainability using the appropriate statistical methodologies.

Continuous Water Distribution Network Analysis Using Geo-informatics Technology and EPANET in Gandhinagar City, Gujarat state, India PDF

Brinda H. Dave, Gargi Rajpara, Ajay Patel and Manik H. Kalubarme

In the present study, the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) LISS-IV data covering Gandhinagar city was analyzed for understanding the road transport network, study area and various infrastructure in the city. CARTOSAT Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data and LISS-IV data were used to generate 3-D visualization image of LISS-IV image of Gandhinagar city. The specific objective of this study was effective planning, development of water distribution network and water distribution system analysis using EPANET software. For this analysis, the present data of water distribution system was acquired from Gandhinagar Municipal Corporation (GMC), Road and Building Department and Town Planning Department, Govt. of Gujarat, Gandhinagar. The population forecast of Gandhinagar City for next three decades was carried out using three methods namely, Arithmetic Increase Method, Geometric Increase Method and Incremental Increase Method. The water demand for next three decades for the estimated population was also carried out. The Google Earth Image of Gandhinagar city was downloaded and the elevation of nodes, length of pipe was recorded for 285 nodes and equal number of pipes. These data was used in EPANET Software for analysis of pressure, head loss and elevation. This analysis resulted in pressure and elevation at various nodes and head loss at various pipes. The results of data analysis in EPANET Software indicated that there is less head loss which is very essential for continuous pressure required for continuous water supply system in Sector-8, Gandhinagar.

A Proposed Clustered Knowledge Management Development Framework (CKMD) PDF

Nahla Bishri, Sally Elghamrawy, Ali Eldesouki

Knowledge Management (KM) is a paradigm that seeks to improve the organization performance by maintaining and leveraging the present and future value of knowledge assets. Knowledge management is not a single paradigm but it is an integration of fields of study. This paper provides a framework for enhancing knowledge management performance using clustered knowledge base. This clustered knowledge management framework (CKMD) may help in the development of KM as we divided the framework into five main phases, each phase consists of sub modules explaining the entire processes in the module. This partitioning is useful for increasing the specificity of the framework as each module will have its separate tasks and algorithms. In addition this framework has the ability to cluster the knowledge extracted, which will help in knowledge utilization process to make decisions.

Resource Allocation in Project Scheduling application of GA PDF

CH. Lakshmi Tulasi, A. Ramakrishna Rao

This paper presents the Genetic algorithm as a potential method for estimating the weightages of the activities for the multiple resources. Project network is taken as an example to explain. A linear equation formulation is used to find the weightages of the activities by GA involved in the project network. Using the weightages of the activities of the network rank the activities, scheduling the activities and obtaining the project duration for the network.

Pathway analysis tools: a comparative study over the generations PDF

Dhusia Kalyani, Rizvi Ahsan Z and Ramteke Pramod W

Pathway analysis has become the most popular choice for gaining insight into the underlying biology of differentially expressed genes and proteins, as it reduces complications and has increased descriptive power. Curators of the metabolic pathway database work to present this information in an easily understandable pathway-based framework. Curators are required to define pathway limitations and classify pathways within a limts of pathway ontology to maximize the utility of the pathways to both researchers and the pathway prediction software. These apparently effortless tasks pose several challenges. This review describes these challenges as well as the criteria that need to be considered, and the rules that have been developed by these curators as they make decisions regarding the representation and classification of metabolic pathway information in different pathway analysis tools.

S-Curve Analysis of a Monopulse RADAR Receiver to find its Tracking Zone PDF

Vishal Das, Debasish Bhaskar, Rabindranath Bera

This paper is now catering for development and modeling of Monopulse RADAR having capability of collision avoidance and also helps driver to track the other vehicle with the help of PCM (Phase-Comparison Monopulse). The operation is based on tracking the passing vehicle and is also modeled having the capability to measure the bearing angle of the passing vehicles. Tracking of one vehicle to another is very complex due to the environment; this tracking can be done with the help of Monopulse antenna pattern and utilizing this Monopulse sum & difference channel signals. Out of the difference and sum channel samples, the angle error can be generated which can be used in ADAS.

Data Fusion in WSNs: Architecture, Taxonomy, Evaluation of Techniques, and Challenges PDF

Marwah Almasri and Khaled Elleithy

In WSNs, the most critical issue is energy consumption as sensor nodes have limited resources. The sensors collect data from the environment where they can fail due to variations in pressure, temperature, and electromagnetic noise. All these can result in misleading readings and measurements where a lot of energy is consumed. Therefore, data fusion is used to overcome these challenges as it assures the accuracy and the efficiency of gathered data, and eliminates data redundancy which results in saving power, thus improving the overall network performance. This paper provides a survey of research related to the data fusion domain to explore many aspects of data fusion in terms of architecture, taxonomy, and techniques and methods. It also evaluates and compares these techniques as it investigates the advantages and the drawbacks of each, and emphasizes the applicability of these techniques in the WSN domain. Finally, it presents the data fusion challenges in WSNs.

Quad Band Triangular Ring Slot Antenna PDF

Sekhar M, Chaturvedi T, Siddaiah P

A single layer single patch Quad band triangular ring slot antenna, with linear polarization is proposed which is most suitable for X-band, Ku-band and K-band applications. Impedance bandwidths of 5.56 %, 12.74 %, 11.11% and 3.81% were achieved at central frequencies 8.1 GHz, 15 GHz, 19.22 GHz and 22.77 GHz, with gains of 6.01 dB, 4.20 dB, 4.67 dB and 6.74 dB, respectively. This antenna is made by cutting a triangular ring slot in a triangular patch. The structure has the following advantages: (1) the feed is simple, (2) the antenna has single layer, (3) the structure of the antenna is simple, (4) the antenna is inexpensive. All the simulations are been performed by using commercial electromagnetic software HFSS.

Network Mobility in Intelligent Transportation System PDF

K. Aarthi

With a rapid development of the mobile technologies, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) plays an important role in shaping the future ways of Transport Sector and Mobile Networks. To maintain the Internet connectivity of a cluster (group) of nodes in ITS, whereas the Network Mobility Basic Support (NEMO BS) is adopted as a mobility management protocol for the moving Networks. Even though NEMO BS provides mobility for Mobile Network Nodes (MNNs) in a moving network, Mobile Router (MR) need to participate in mobility signaling but packet loss in NEMO increases dramatically during the handover. Enhanced FMIPv6 based on NEMO (EfNEMO) is an efficient fast handover scheme significantly diminishes the tunneling burden and handover latency. In this paper, we proposed EfNEMO is used to reduce the tunneling and handover latency of the data. It also includes the analysis of data packet cost and data packet loss. In addition, the Greedy interference Avoidance algorithm is used to reduce the interference occurs during the data packet transmission. This algorithm works depends on codeword matrices and it is formed by using iterative method. The experimental results show that our greedy algorithm technique provides a well-defined vehicular environment suitable to avoid the interference in mobility.

Evaluation of Testing Procedure for Dynamic Modulus of Asphalt Concrete PDF

Akhtar Ali Malik

The strength of asphalt concrete can be measured in terms of its dynamic modulus that is appropriate for structures subjected to earthquake and impact loading caused by both the moving vehicles and aircraft’s. Presently a large number of testing procedures are available for calculating the dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete. All these procedures are evaluated in this paper.

A Model for Compressive Strength of Concrete by Using Cylindrical Samples of 4 x 8 Inch PDF

Akhtar Ali Malik

Compressive strength (Fc) of concrete is an important strength parameters used in the design of many civil engineering structures. For its evaluation a large number of testing procedures are available. Among them compressive strength test described in ASTM C39-86 recommends 6*12 inch cylindrical samples, which need more material and are difficult to handle as well. In order to overcome this difficulty, the effect of sample size on Fc was investigated and a prediction equation developed that replaces the use of 6*12 inch samples with 4*8 inch samples.

Cost Optimization of Abrasive water jet CNC water filtration Process by Using Self proposed Technique PDF

Mohd Nadeem Khan, Shahnawz Alam

Abrasive Water jet machining is a non conventional metal removal process as well as one of the best manufacturing processes suitable for machining on very hard material. The objective of experimental investigation is to practical optimization of water purification techniques, which is the main problem, by which the maintenance time increases which directly affect the productivity of the shop floor. The problem is focused on The water is used from ground water by submersible techniques, the water from ground is not in good condition it contain many impurities so here we have to purified the water by RO filtration plant which is installed in the setup. The main objective is here before supplying the purified water to the machine it is again filter by specified inbuilt filter which costs are too high and its life is too much low as 40-50 machine hours maximum and it is imported by machine manufacturer abroad most of the time due to which the productivity is affected.In this context we had used some conventional filter setup before these inbuilt filters by which the filters life will improve and which will results to increase the productivity. In this context the cost benefits are also compared.

Economic Analysis of a Computer System with Software Up-Gradation and Priority to Hardware Repair over Hardware Replacement Subject to Maximum Operation and Repair Times PDF

Ashish Kumar, Monika S. Barak & S.C.Malik

The main objective of this paper is to make economic analysis of a computer system of two identical units- one is operative and other is kept as cold standby. In each unit h/w and s/w fails independently directly from normal mode. There is a single server who visits the system immediately to conduct preventive maintenance, h/w repair, h/w replacement and s/w up-gradation. The preventive maintenance of the system is carried out after a maximum operation time. If repair of the h/w is not possible by the server up to a pre-specific time (called Maximum Repair Time), it is replaced by new one with some replacement time. However, s/w up-gradation is made whenever s/w fails to meet out the desired function properly. Priority to h/w repair is given only over h/w replacement. The failure time of h/w and s/w follow negative exponential distribution while the distributions of preventive maintenance, h/w repair, h/w replacement and s/w up-gradation times are taken as arbitrary with different probability density functions. Graphs are drawn for a particular case to show the behaviour of MTSF, availability and profit function with preventive maintenance rate and fixed values of other parameters.

Autism Child Survey and Discussion PDF


Learning disability (Dyslexia) is a neurological disorder. It affects the brains ability to receive process, store, respond to and communicate information. It is a language based disability in which a person has trouble understanding written words. It may also be referred to as reading disability or reading disorder. Some states and schools do not allow the term dyslexia to be used to describe a student’s reading difficulties. Our dyslexia information statistics tells us that 70 – 80% of people with poor reading skills across the world. In India 12 million children were affected from dyslexia. This paper presents a brief overview of dyslexiaand how it affects the population by adopting Artificial Neural Network techniques which has been appliedsuccessfully to solve problems in numerous fields. This methodology helps to identify and diagnosis problem using Artificial Neural Networks.

Effects of prestress on a hyperelastic, anisotropic and compressible tube PDF

Dr Edouard Diouf

We consider a hyperelastic, compressible, prestress and circular tube subjected to finite torsion and axial stretch. The mechanical response of the material is describes by an Ogden strain energy function with unidirectional reinforcement. The nonlinear equations governing the boundary problem are solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The effects of the prestress on the stress distributions are presented and permit to study a prototype vascular prosthesis of small diameter.

Study the Increasing of the Cantilever Plate Stiffness by Using Stiffeners PDF

Jawdat Ali Yakoob, Iesam Jondi Hasan

The present work is aimed to study the static bending analysis of the rectangular cantilever plate with different shaped stiffeners. The rectangular thin plate is considered and its deflection due to acting load at the free tip is simulated by static analysis using FEM and (ANSYS) software then compared with exact analysis. The analysis is performed for the rectangular plates with different cross-section area stiffeners. The stiffeners area added to the plate area, or the cross section area of the plate with and without stiffeners kept constant to keep the plate weight constant. The plate and stiffeners assumed to be as rigid coupling. The static deflection is performed for different geometries of stiffeners. The boundary conditions for all plates considered as cantilever plate.

In Silico Interaction Analysis of Intracranial Pressure Reducing Agent Mannitol and its Derivatives with Human Serum Albumin PDF

Usman Sayeed, Qazi Mohd. Sajid Jamal, M. Salman Khan, Gulshan Wadhwa, Mohd.Haris Siddiqui and Salman Akhtar

There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis and treatment is supportive; with assistance given for feeding, breathing or seizure control as required. The recent data reported that mannitol (MNT) diluted into the human serum reduce the intracranial pressure, which may be effective in intracranial pressure management. Therefore, the present study was designed to find out the molecular interaction of mannitol with human serum albumin (HSA). Docking results showed that mannitol was efficiently bounded with HSA. HSA Pdb Id: 1E7H docked with Mannitol like Compounds DB00742, DB03955, DB04733, and DB03206 was -6.65 Kcal/Mol. -5.46 Kcal/Mol.and -4.54 Kcal/Mol and -6.02 Kcal/Mol, respectively. The Study reveals that in silico approach can easily explore the molecular interaction of mannitol with HSA and it will lead to understand the binding pattern of mannitol with HSA.

SIMULINK Model of PV array with MPPT using Cuk converter PDF

Ramyaka Sammangi, Raghunadha Sastry R, Sambasiva Rao N

Solar energy is most useful for sustainable development. The efficiency of Photovoltaic array will be maximum if it is operated at maximum power point (MPP). The output of Photovoltaic array is depends on temperature and irradiation levels so it is difficult to track MPP.Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is an algorithmic technique that tracks MPP and force the PV array to operate at its maximum power point. In this paper we focuses on improving Perturb and Observe (P&O) and Incremental Conductance method of MPPT techniques by eliminating its drawbacks like oscillations at maximum power point, complexity . A general model of Photovoltaic system with proposed MPPT controller and Cuk converter is implemented on Matlab and a comparision between proposed P&O and Incremental Conductance MPPT techniques under constant and variable irradiation levels is done, which proves that Incremental Conductance MPPT algorithm is robust and efficient for changing irradiation conditions and P&O is simple and efficient technique for constant irradiation condition.

Synchronizing the fractional-order Genesio-Tesi chaotic system using Adaptive control PDF

Parisa Salehyan Rad, Maedeh Nikdadian, Dr. M.Bahadorzadeh

In this paper, we address chaos control and synchronization problems of a chaotic system. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and adaptive theory, the adaptive control law is derived such that the trajectory of the chaotic system with unknown parameters can be globally stabilized to an unstable equilibrium point of the uncontrolled system. Meanwhile, an adaptive control approach is presented to the synchronization between two identical chaotic systems. It is shown in detail that the chaos control and synchronization phenomena of this 3D chaotic system can be realized by designing suitable adaptive control laws. In addition, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the theoretical analysis

Enhancement of SMIB Performance Using Robust Controller PDF

N.Siva Mallikarjuna Rao, B.V.Haritha

This paper represents the use of Robust stabilisation technique to enhance the performance of Single Machine connected to Infinite bus. H∞ loop shaping Technique is used for the analysis and the controller is developed for the same. The order of the controller obtained is high and thus, model order reduction technique is used to reduce the computational effort. The results are compared with the conventional Power system stabilizer.

Rheological Study of Fillers used in PVC Plastisol for Industrial Applications PDF

Bhasha, Parul Malik, Purnima Jain and Abhijit Baruah

Rheological tests (Study of flow) are used widely to evaluate functional coatings in terms of their properties and performance Fillers have long been recognized as useful additives for thermoplastics and particularly in PVC for many applications due to its low cost and good mechanical properties. Ground calcium carbonate is generally used as filler with an interesting ratio performance and price; it improves physical properties, Impact strength (Particularly at low temperature). In this paper,we are concerned with the rheological properties of effect of fillers of different grades prepared with plastisizer DOP-Dioctylerepthalate (1:1 ratio)by using Stirrer.Flow behaviour is characterized by using different panels which are used in automobile applications viscosity is measured by using BF-Viscometer,spindle#7 ,study of matuaration time of fillers by using cone and plate Shear rheometer by Anton Paar and study of srtructure recovery of fillers using Three Interval Thixotropy Test (3IT). Thus,conclusion can be drawn that The viscosity of thixotropic materials does not follow the same path on structure breakdown and recovery. If modulus is high which is calculated by slope ,material is highly rigid ,it means less flexible like WSPT is very less flexible , but there will be the chances of gel formation, hence CCR 501 will be the best filler,it can be used according to the automotive applications. For PVC, the material whose viscosity is decreasing when high shear rate is applied is preferred like UBC (Under Body Coating) in automotive applications. A better understanding of the factors affecting the behavior of Plastisol will go a long way in changing the art of Plastisol formulation to a science.

A Comparative Study of a Novel Coarse to Fine Automatic Image Registration using MS-SIFT & SIFT PDF

Sneha Anne Jacob, Soumya Sara Koshy

Automatic image registration is a challenging task, especially for remote sensing images. Image registration is a process for finding the precise match between two images of the same scene, taken at the same or different times, using same or different sensors, and from the same or different viewpoints. It is very important to have a registration approach which is fast, accurate, and robust in nature. For this purpose, a novel method for automatic image registration is required. This method consists of a coarse registration step and a fine-tuning step. To begin with, coarse registration step is implemented by the mode-seeking scale-invariant feature transform (MS-SIFT) .The method presented in this paper exploits the fact that each SIFT feature is associated with a scale, orientation, and position to perform mode seeking to remove outlier keypoints inorder to enhance the registration results, hence the name Mode Seeking SIFT (MS-SIFT) .

Calculation of Nodal Pricing with Rescheduling of Generators in Deregulated Power System PDF

M.Bharathi, J.Srinivasa Rao

The main objective of deregulation is to create competitive environment between producers and consumers. The transmission congestion is one of the technical problems that particularly appear in the deregulated power system. If congestion is not managed we face the problems of electricity price improvement, security and stability problems. Congestion relief can be handled using FACTS device such as TCSC and with the optimal power flow, where electricity price will be reduced. These FACTS devices are optimally placed on transmission system using Sensitivity approach method. The proposed methods are carried out on IEEE 14 bus system by using power world simulator 17 software.

Automated GSR Based GSM Secuirity System PDF

Srijeet Chatterjee

Todays world improved security system is a huge demand.. Few of the security systems which are highly developed are very costly and is difficult to use.Common people have no access to such kinds of powerful security systems.Most of banks in the developing countries use very poor kind of security system for their lockers .It is realy a necessity to develop an easily affordable but highly powerful security system.

An Efficient Mobile Voting System Scheme Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography PDF

Monali Shetty, Priyali Patil, Akshita Gandotra, Shivam Mishra

The wide-spread use of mobile devices has made it possible to develop mobile voting system as a complement to the existing electronic voting system. Mobile voting systems have the potential to improve traditional voting procedures by providing added convenience and flexibility to the voter. Voter's casted vote is protected using enhanced system security which is based on Elliptical curve cryptography scheme. Most of the Cryptographic Techniques used in many of the devices has certain limitations which make them less effective and secure. In this paper, we propose Elliptical Curve Cryptography (ECC) as the secure alternative for other less effective cryptographic techniques.

Performance Comparison of A 8X8 Array of SRAM Cells Designed Using Mtcmos and FinFET PDF

Nilesh Didwania

The down scaling of conventional CMOS has made power consumption a matter of serious concern today. The reduction in channel length results in interaction of the depletion widths of the source and drain in MOSFETs, thereby inducing faster carrier transport and hence, larger off state currents. Hence, the gate loses control on the channel. This leakage contributes significantly to static power dissipation especially when lower technology nodes are used. This motivates the need of introducing an additional gate which has improved control on the channel. One such double gate device extensively under research today is the FinFET, which is believed to be a promising candidate for replacing conventional CMOS devices to address the issue of sub-threshold leakage.

Design, construction and Testing of a strain gauge Instrument PDF

Oluwole O.O, Olanipekun A.T, Ajide O.O

The research work is on the design, construction and testing of a quarter bridge strain gauge based measuring instrument. This was achieved by dividing the whole measurement system to power section which consist of batteries, voltage regulators and operational amplifier, arithmetic, logic section consist the microcontrollers that arithmetically compute the strain, and finally input and output section for user dialog. The governing equation for the design revolves around Hooke’s law and ohm’s law. In the design we considered the instrumentation of the measuring strain gauge system which includes the Wheatstone bridge set up, microcontroller, IC programming followed by simulation using proteus design software. After the construction we carried out a uniaxial stress analysis testing with the designed strain gauge measurement instrument on a clamped wooden beam that has a modulus of elasticity 10700 N/〖mm〗^2, length of 250mm and cross-sectional area of h = 4.5 mm , b = 25mm applying load in an incremental succession, the strain and stress at different load interval is then determined. Theoretical strain calculation is then used to validate experimental analysis. For applied load 0.9806N we have the experimental strain value to be 250.14×〖10〗^(-6) while the theoretical strain value is 271.54 ×〖10〗^(-6) and for applied load 1.4709 the experimental strain value is 362.12×〖10〗^(-6), while theoretical strain value is 407.31×〖10〗^(-6). Experimental strain and theoretical calculated strain value obtained agreed to some extent.

Design of Adaptive Controller for a Level Process PDF

Avinashe K K, Akhil Jose, Dhanoj M, Shinu M M

This paper presents the application of adaptive controller for a non-linear process and analysing the effect of the controller for the system. The controller chosen is a direct model reference adaptive controller (DMRAC) for adjusting the feed forward gain using MIT rule. The non-linear system considered is cylindrical tank. The model reference adaptive controller is designed and implemented in real time by using LabVIEW. The result shows that model reference adaptive controller shows better results than conventional Proportional Integral (PI) controller.

An Efficient Load Balancing in Public Cloud using Priority based SJF Scheduling PDF

Suchita Khare, Asst. Prof. Shatendra Dubey

Cloud Computing enables various users to share resources and exchange information over internet. But several issues arises during the sharing of resources such as load balancing over cloud. Hence various techniques are implemented for the balancing of users during sharing of resources. Here in this paper a new and efficient technique is implemented using hybrid combination of scheduling using priority of resources access and shortest access time of the resources. The proposed technique implemented here provides efficient load balancing as well as provides less waiting time and have efficient response time.

Application of Micro Computer Tomography (µ CT) in Resolving Barren Measures Shale Properties PDF

Annapurna Boruah and S. Ganapathi

The microstructure of Barren Measures Shales of Raniganj Field has been investigated using micro-computed tomography (µ CT). The results show fabric anisotropy and complex pore structure among the different shale samples imaged. The shales of Barren Measures are primarily composed of varying amounts of clay minerals, quartz, and kerogen with a range of porosity 3 to 5%. Pores are isolated and interconnected including intergranular, matrix hosted and/ or organic matter hosted in nature. Three-dimensional internal structures of the shales were generated from serial sectioning and imaging of the samples and it depicted kerogen and pore connectivity across the volumes. The internal microstructure of shales is essential in understanding the micro scale reservoir heterogeneity. It controls the key aspects of reservoir development and fluid flow through the shales.

Feasibility of Harnessing Renewable Energy at an Off-grid Community in Nigeria PDF

Gbalimene Richard Ileberi

Due to high cost of fuel and fluctuating oil prices, integrating renewable energy into an existing diesel power system seems economical in the long run in meeting the load demand of off-grid rural settlements. This study analyzed the prospects of utilizing renewable energy resources in an off-grid remote community in Nigeria. Two scenarios were considered in this study using the HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) software; the diesel-only system and the diesel-wind-PV system. Economic parameters of NPC (net present cost) and COE (cost of energy) were used to compare these scenarios to determine the viability, feasibility and the most cost effective approach. The result shows that at the current diesel price of £0.67/L, it is feasible to utilize renewable energy in the community, and that despite the high initial installation cost of renewable components, the diesel-only system is about 1.3 times more expensive than the diesel-wind-PV system, making it quite an expensive option to continuously rely upon.

A Security Analysis of Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud Service PDF


Cloud services such as Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud and IBM’s SmartCloud are quickly changing the way organiza- tions are dealing with IT infrastructures and are providing online services. Today, if an organization needs computing power, it can simply buy it online by instantiating a virtual server image on the cloud. Servers can be quickly launched and shut down via application programming interfaces, of- fering the user a greater flexibility compared to traditional server rooms. A popular approach in cloud-based services is to allow users to create and share virtual images with other users. In addition to these user-shared images, the cloud providers also often provide virtual images that have been pre-configured with popular software such as open source databases and web servers.

FEA of Piston Ring by Using ABAQUS PDF

Neeraj Pandey, Neetesh Kumar Yadav, Amit Kumar Singh, Ranjeet Paswan, Anshu Pandey, Alok Kumar Pandey, Shyam Bihari Lal

The objective of undertaking this paper of “Structural Analysis of Piston Ring” is to study and evaluate the performance in real working conditions of the piston ring in internal combustion engine. In this paper, the wok is carried out to measure the stress and temperature distribution on the surface of the piston ring. The analysis predicts that due to stress the top surface of the piston ring may damage or break during the working conditions, because the damaged or broken parts are so expensive to replace and generally are not easily available. The part model of piston ring is most complex and important part therefore for smooth running of vehicle piston ring should be in proper working condition. FEA of piston ring is done with boundary conditions, which includes pressure on piston ring during working condition and created using Creo. 3 D model is imported to the Abaqus and FEA is performed. By identifying the true design features, the extended service life and long term stability is assured.

Study of Different Chemical Treatments for the Suitability of Banana (Musa oranta) Fiber in Composite Materials PDF

Md. Mamunur Rashid, Sabrin A Samad, M. A. Gafur, A. M. Sarwaruddin Chowdhury

The present works demonstrate banana fibers which were chemically modified with 7.5% NaOH & 0.055% KMnO4. The effects of modification were determined by measuring various physical and mechanical properties such as moisture absorbance, tensile strength, % elongation break and characterized by various methods such as SEM, IR etc. The ultimate tensile strength of treated fibers was lower than that of raw fibers. Percentage elongation and moisture absorption increase on treatment.

Phonon Dispersion and Heat Capacity in Poly N-Isopropylacrylamide PDF

Rushi Ghizal, Ghazala .R .Fatima, Seema Srivastava

A study of the normal modes of vibration and their dispersion in Poly N-Isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAm) based on the Urey–Bradley force field is reported. It provides a detailed interpretation of IR and Raman spectra. Characteristic feature of dispersion curves such as regions of high density-of-states, repulsion and character mixing of dispersive modes are discussed. Predictive values of heat capacity as a function of temperature are calculated.

Intelligent traffic signaling system based on vehicle demand for excessively populated developing countries PDF

Iftekhar Mahmud Towhid, Nishu Nath, Nusrat Jahan Chowdhury

Developing countries like Bangladesh use fixed cycle-fixed split scheme for signaling which is a very inefficient way and results in delay at the intersection, poor throughput and traffic congestion. So our research was focused on reducing traffic congestion in urban roads of Bangladesh and the end result proposes a customized traffic signaling scheme with indulgent phase design that allocates varying and adequate green time to any phase based on actual traffic flow demand. It emphasizes on optimizing uninterrupted traffic flow, minimizing delay time at the intersection and maximizing system throughput. This model collects real time data from traffic nodes using detection devices, designs suitable phases by efficiently calculating movement demands and chooses the right phase, cycle time and split times. At the end of the paper, it is shown that the proposed model works better than other orthodox models.

Tools for Requirements Management in GSD: A Survey PDF

Muhammad Mukhtar, Zishan Hussain Chuhan, Zulfiqar Ahmad

The software requirement specification (SRS) is a volatile document. Even well documented SRS evolves and grows throughout Software Development Life Cycle. Requirements management plays an important role to manage evolution and growth in SRS. Managing requirements in manual ways becomes very difficult especially in global software development due to some additional factors (time zone difference, cultural issues, geographical boundaries, etc.). To overcome this difficulty software industry moves to automate the requirements management. In this research activity, our focus is to survey about tools to automate the requirements management in global software development (GSD). We consider existing tools in this survey those are not developed for GSD and evaluate them on defined parameters in the context of GSD. In short our goal is to validate the existing tools for GSD.

Synergistic Analysis on SSH, SST and Chlorophyll Concentration for Upwelling Region in Arabian Sea PDF

V.Ashok Subramanian, A.Sethupathy, R.Manikandan

Increase in sea surface temperature with global warming has an impact on coastal upwelling. Past two decades (1988 to 2007) of satellite observed sea surface temperatures and sea surface height anomaly provided an insight into the dynamics of coastal upwelling in the Arabian Sea, in the global warming scenario. The Arabian Sea is one of the least studied basins of the world ocean. The altimeter data has been viewed using BRAT software and sea surface temperature data has been converted to raster image using Marine Geospatial ecology Toolbox. These high resolution data products have shown inconsistent variability with a rapid rise in sea surface temperature between 1992 and 1998 and again from 2004 to 2007.


Sathish.V, Subash Kumar.V, Thirumalaivasan.R, Pavithra.S, SitaDevi Bharatula

In today’s world, security is very fundamental and significant issues of data transmission. Technology advancement is occurring daily in order to find a new cryptographic algorithm. Data security is concerned with the areas of data transmission. Recent advancements in cryptography has led to new techniques called DNA based cryptography. Here idea of molecular biology is applied and an efficient way is proposed. In existed AES method is well suited for security applications. In our proposed system we improve the performance of the system we propose Triple AES based DNA key cryptography. In our new proposed implementation provides better and faster results in environment, hence data security is high.

Finite Element Analysis Of Disc Brake using ANSYS WORKBENCH Software PDF

Shailendra Pratap Gautam, Sateesh Chandra Yadav, Salim Akhtar,Vimlash Sahani,Sandeep Tiwari, Deepak Kumar Yadav, Shyam Bihari Lal

The aim of this paper was to investigate the structural fields of the solid disc brake during short and urgent situation braking with structural material. We will take down the value of friction contact power nodal displacement and buckle for different pressure conditions using analysis software ones the value at the hand we can determine the best suitable material for the disc brake with higher life distance.Temporary structural analysis of the rotor disc of disc brake is aimed at investigation in to usage of structural gray cost iron materials is required which improve braking efficiency and provide greater stability to vehicle. We did this investigation by using WORK BENCH ANSYS 15.0 .

The diagnostic utility of bone marrow trephine biopsies, at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital: an eleven years retrospective review PDF


Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies are indispensable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of various haematological disorders, non-haematological malignancies and patient follow-up in the 21st century, however, this investigation is sub optimally utilized in most centres. The study design is cross sectional eleven years retrospective review of trephine biopsies from achived records (2003-2013) at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital.One hundred and four cases have been recorded and highest rate of biopsies of 26% in 2011 was observed with lowest rate of 1.9% in 2004. Only 8.6% of cases were reported as inadequate. The common age group that was biopsied is 51 years and above accounting for 32.7% with male preponderance. Trephine biopsies are underutilized in this environment, looking at advances in molecular haematological diagnosis in this era. There is the need to optimize referral system especially in non- haematological diseases in the tertiary health centres.


Kuldeep Panwar, D. S. Murthy, Hitendra Pal Gangwar, R. Kumar

This paper aims to provide the comparison between results obtained by the CFD simulation of a cylindrical pebble bed thermal regenerator and results obtained by a mathematical model to simulate the operational behaviour of a pebble bed thermal regenerator. A cylindrical regenerator model of 7ft length and 8 in diameter is used to simulate the behaviour of heat regenerator during both cooling and heating cycle. Hot flue gases are made to enter at 200 0C at an average flow rate of 365 l min-1. The mathematical model is developed by energy balance along a elemental volume and the results are compared with the results obtained by commercial Ansys fluent software. CFD simulation of the model shows the excellent accuracy and shows negligible deviation with the simulation results of mathematical model.

A Novel Biometric Approach to Facial Signature Authentication Based on Thermal Imaging PDF

Shanmuga Sundaram.K, Pradeep.K, Vignesh.V, Roji Marjorie

A new thermal image resolution construction together remarkable characteristic removal and also similarity dimensions for face credit is actually offered. The particular research premise would be to enumerated algorithms that ought to get rid of vasculature information, art the thermal makeup trademark, and also understand the individual. The particular counseled formula is actually fully consolidated and also consolidates this important methods associated with characteristic removal throughout the employment of morphological employees, subscription hiring this ridge entire body Snapshot Sign up, face segmentation hiring localized span set up warn shape segmentation, noise treatment hiring anisotropic diffusion filtration system, photo morphology hiring leading head wear segmentation, article processing hiring hit or maybe overlook modify and also coordinating throughout remarkable similarity procedures projected for this task. The particular story technique in rising the thermal trademark web template hiring four pictures gripped in numerous instants associated with interval guarded in which unpredicted adjustments from the vasculature previously mentioned interval didn't modify this biometric coordinating treatment for the reason that authentication treatment relied simply on reliable thermal attributes.

Re-Refining of Spent Lubricants: Single Step Percolation through Activated Adsorbents PDF

Farah Inamullah, Muhammad Ashraf Kamal and Syed Mumtaz Danish Naqvi

This article describes a simple single step process for re-refining spent lubricants involving percolation through activated alumina, magnesite and sodium carbonate. Properties of recovered oil are comparable to that of the properties of commercial base oil. UV and FTIR examinations of the finished oil show minimized amounts of carcinogenic PAH whereas metal content removal is from 94 to nearly 100%. Adsorption through magnesite gives the highest yield about 95%.


M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

Ramanujam is Aethiest? (or) Theist?... This is the heartbeats revealed to the author of this Research article… Ramanujam (Raman + Anujam) shall be considered as universal artist. The value of universal constant may vary but the law of universe is always constant. As a layman what I know about Ramanujam is …

Comparative Analysis and Performance Evaluation of CMOS based Adders w.r.t Speed, Delay and Power Dissipation PDF

Jasleen Chaudhary, Sudhir Singh

Addition is representative of many arithmetic processing operations that must be carried out in portable digital systems[13,14], and the speed and power consumption trade-offs in adder hardware are of interest to portable digital system designers Adders are key components of digital design and architecture and microprocessors. Apart from the basic Addition they also perform other operations such as Subtractions, multiplication, division, address calculation[1]. Adders of various bit widths are frequently required in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) circuits from processors to Application Specific Integrated Circuits. In most of these systems the adder lies in the critical path that determines the overall performance of the system. In this paper, different type of 8-bit full adders are analyzed and compared for transistor count, power dissipation, delay and power delay products. The investigation has been carried out with simulation runs on Tanner environment using 180nm & 90nm CMOS process technology at 2V. The result shows that the carry skip adder has the lowest power-delay product.

Enhancement in K-Mean for Data clustering: A Review PDF

Preeti Puri, Isha Sharma

Clustering is the most commonly used method for grouping of related observations in a data set. The K-Means method is one of the mostly used clustering techniques for a variety of applications like defect detection, networking etc. In this paper we are proposing a method for making the K-Means algorithm more efficient and effective so as to reduce the complexity. Clustering algorithm forms a vector of topics for each document and measures the weights of how healthy the document fits into each cluster. Clustering can help marketers discover interests of their customers based on purchasing patterns and characterize groups of the customers. Clustering is an unsupervised classification method aiming at creating groups of objects, or clusters, in such a way that objects in the same cluster are very similar and objects in different clusters are quite distinct. In this paper the Cluster analysis or clustering is used so as to set the objects into group clusters and then those clusters into sub clusters.

Present scenario of cybercrime in INDIA and its preventions PDF

Shubham Kumar, Dr.Santanu Koley, Uday Kumar

The internet in India is growing rapidly. It has given rise to new opportunity in every field like – entertainment, business, sports, education etc. It is universally true that every coin has 2 sides, same for the internet, it uses has both advantage and disadvantage, and one of the most disadvantage is Cyber-crime. We can say, cyber-crime is any illegal activity which is committed using a computer network (especially the internet). Also, cyber-crime involves the breakdown of privacy, or damage to the computer system properties such as files, website pages or software. In India most of cyber-crime cases are committed by educated person (some cyber – crime requires skills). So, it is required the deep knowledge about the cyber –crime and it prevention. Also, in India most of the cases found where, crimes are committed due to lack of knowledge or by mistake. In this paper, I have discussed various categories and cases of cyber-crime which is committed due to lack of knowledge or sometimes due to intention behind. I also, suggested various preventive measures against these unlawful acts in day to day life.

An Electronic nose with LabVIEW using SnO2 Based Gas Sensors: Application to test freshness of the fruits PDF

M.S. Kasbe, S.L.Deshmukh, T.H.Mujawar, V.D.Bachuwar, L.P. Deshmukh and A.D. Shaligram

In this paper, various ripening stages (under-ripe, ripe and over-ripe) of banana and guava are studied. The present work is an electronic nose, which consists of a semiconductor gas sensor array and an artificial neural network (ANN). An electronic nose is used to detect the freshness of non-destructive fruits. A gas sensor array (SnO2 type) detects aroma which is emitted from the fruits in the different ripening stages of the fruits. The typical gases emitted from the fruits, e.g alcohol, methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia and carbon monoxide, have been detected by the sensor array. An artificial neural network is designed in LabVIEW software. A comparison is also made between the various ripening stages of both the fruits. We claim the novel system which is of low cost and requires minimum space. DAQ card is used to interface an array of MQ-gas sensors and (computer) LabVIEW software.

Construction and Operation of a Clap Light Switch PDF

Obot, E. P., Asuquo, U. E. and Oku, D. E.

A clap light switch which can light a bulb when one claps hand has been constructed. The device can be used to “ON” or “OFF” a bulb in our home and also for security purposes. For instance, when armed robber's invade a building, the security man clap his hands to “ON” a bulb inside the building for the people inside to be alert. The system consists of dynamic microphone which picks up the sound of one claps and produces a small signal, that is amplified by the succeeding transistor stage. Two transistors cross-connected as a bistable multivibrator changes state at each signal and one of these transistors drives a heavier transistor which controls the lamp or bulb.

Impact of Leader’s behaviors on employee creativity PDF

Emad Mubarak

This paper examines impact of leadership on employee’s creativity. Employees play an important role in the successful of organization. This topic is very important because it involves the employee’s motivation and interest in the organization. For this research, different researches will review. From this study, we want to make it clear to the leaders the wisdom of leadership in the organization and the phenomenon of power. This paper examines the role of the leadership in the role of employee’s creativity.

Mercury biomagnification in Iraqi marshland (AL-Hawizeh (HZ) food chain using stable isotope analyses PDF

Dr.Huda Farooq Zaki, Dr. Reyam Naji Ajmi

A few studies have applied this technique in Iraqi marshland. The investigated Stable isotope relationships and mercury biomagnification food webs of five stations in AL- Hawizeh (HZ) marsh in (Algae , Macrophyte), invertebrates (Bivalve) fish and Birds )with mercury of particular importance in relation to food web, and impact of this contaminants on biodiversity .were analyzed .in this research was accurately described trophic structure by d15N, while d13C reflected the carbon source for each species. An increase of mercury levels was observed with trophic level, The carbon isotope compositions of marsh suggest that biota take nutrition from coupled food-web from primary producers, whereas the nitrogen isotope compositions indicate that birds occupy > five-level trophic positions . Results given us a positive correlation between Hg concentrations and d15N. Interpretation of the stable isotope data in combination with Hg concentrations in marshes. In the marsh is too much better understanding distribution of mercury in the food web and mercury contamination of the ecosystem. An evaluation was then made of how often the 15N and 13C values differed between types of biota in marshes. There was no statistically significant p value < 0.05 differences in 15N values between sites.


Vinodha R, Mr.S.Nirmal sam

Multibiometrics is the combination of one or more biometrics (e.g.,Fingerprint and Iris). Researchers are focusing how to provide the security system, the template which was generated from the biometric need to be protected. The problems of unimodal biometrics are solved by multibiometrics. The main objective is to provide the security to the biometric template by generating making use of multibiometric cryptosystem and which is stored in a database .The accuracy of the biometric need to be improved and the noises in the biometrics need to be reduced. To enhance the security using multibiometric cryptosystem. The actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake selfmanufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which develop the new and efficient protection measures. All parties involved in the development of biometrics (i.e., researchers, developers and industry) to the improvement of the systems security to bring this rapidly emerging technology.

Using dynamic geometry sketchpad to enhance student thinking in geometry PDF


This paper examines the relationship among van Hiele perspective and its stages of student thinking in geometry with the dynamic geometry sketchpad software program. The paper examines the harmony among the dynamic geometry sketchpad software and the van Hiele perspective. Furthermore, it proposes a technique of using sketchpad software program to educate geometry in K to12 classes and using it as an instrument to create geometric thoughts. This study examines the effects of dynamic geometry into the seventh grade syllabus. Experimental method is used to examine the performance of students by using dynamic geometry software. The learners in an experimental group were busy in lessons that used the dynamic Geometer’s Sketchpad application, whereas learners in a control group get guidelines that followed an old technique. During the two weeks of this research, learners in both experimental and control groups were circumspectly observed to examine differences in motivation and attitude.

Optimal Modulation Technique for PCFICH Signaling in an LTE – Advanced Systems PDF

D. Krishna Vinci, P. Malarvezhi, R. Kumar

The downlink control channel of a Long Term Evolution system has different control channels. In which the Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) is designed to transmit the Control Format Indicator (CFI). The CFI effective transmission gives the end user effective transmission of the data without effecting the time lapse in decoding the control channels. Hence, the paper discusses the BER of the CFI transmitted in BPSK, QPSK and 16QAM modulations through an AWGN channel. The best modulation techniques are estimated and suggested.


Aishatu Umar Maigari and Maryam Umar Maigari.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the class of hydrocarbons containing two or more fused aromatic hydrocarbons. They can persist in the environment due to their low water solubility. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are relatively abundant in the environment and toxic to mammals and aquatic organisms as they can be carcinogenic or mutagenic. PAHs have accumulated in the environment mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities such as the combustion of fossil fuels. Interest has surrounded the occurrence and distribution of PAHs due to their potentially harmful effects to human health. Some microorganisms were found to be capable of transforming and degrading PAHs and these abilities may be useful in removing them from the environment. This paper discusses the main micro-organisms involved in these transformations, the major aerobic and anaerobic breakdown pathways and the factors affecting microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.



Amongst all the approaches which are available of interconnectivity between the software modules, which approach or structure is clearly defined in ways of some object oriented metrics.we have collected few software metrics to analyze the software quality under structural analysis. Aspect Oriented programming generates the software modules under new perspective called aspects. Aspect basically defines the function or the event of the software system that itself collect number of attributes and functions incorporated to the individual entity. The structural analysis mechanism is performed to analyze individual component of the software system. Once the individual module analysis is performed, at second stage, the module interaction analysis takes place. In the final stage, the collaborative analysis of all these modules takes place to perform the system integration analysis. In this section, analysis of complete software quality takes place.


Mughele Ese Sophia

There is an increasing demand nowadays to connect to internal networks from distant locations. Employees often need to connect to internal private networks over the Internet (which is by nature insecure) from home, hotels, airports or from other external networks. Security becomes a major consideration when staff or business partners have constant access to internal networks from insecure external locations.VPN (Virtual Private Network) technology provides a way of protecting information being transmitted over the Internet, by allowing users to establish a virtual private “tunnel” to securely enter an internal network, accessing resources, data and communications via an insecure network such as the Internet.

Using How dynamic software to enhance student thinking in geometry PDF

Alsharif Reham

Teaching math has advanced all through time as new gadgets and routines have been presented. The test has been to recognize which gadgets and systems are useful and which gadgets and routines are simply diverse. Change for change's purpose is not instructively right however a change for training's purpose is right. Instructors need to discover the best approach to educate, whether it is "old way" or "new way".

Natural Draft Cooling Tower Performance Evaluation PDF

Jasem H. ALsuwaidi, Omar R. Al Hamdan, M. M. I. Hammad

Cooling towers are used extensively for numerous, residential, commercial and industrial applications. The heat rejected and water evaporated in natural draft cooling towers are critically evaluated by employing the Merkel and e–number-of-transfer-units (e-NTU) methods of analysis, respectively, at different operating and ambient conditions.

Association between genetic factors and periodontal diseases in some populations PDF

Shaghayegh Pishkari, Jalaloddin Hamissi, Adeleh Ghoudosi, Salma Tabatabaei

GAgP is a multifactorial disease, which occurs in presence of bacteria and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors; leading to periodontal tissue dysfunction among subjects younger than 30 years. Proinflammatory cytokines are involved in immune response to periodontal pathogens through associating in inflammation phenomenon. It is supposed that gene polymorphisms of cytokines play a role in immune response and therefore in periodontal pathogenesis. Recent studies have suggested polymorphism in the interleukin gene association with periodontitis.



BACKGROUND: Informations about lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) and their role in clinical practice are not available in Iraq. OBJECTIVES: Investigation of LCMV prevalence in southern Iraq and their association with clinical illness, detection and molecular characterization of LCMV Iraqi isolates by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.

Left ventricle function in systemic hypertension from M-Mode to speckle tracking echocardiography PDF

Noha Hassanin M.D.

Hypertension is a major risk factor for a number of cardiovascular diseases including stroke, atherosclerosis, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, and renal disease. It affects 26%of adults worldwide, and its prevalence is predicted to increase to 29% by 2025 (1). The heart responds to long-term pressure overload in an attempt to stabilize cardiac output by means of LVH through an increase in myocyte thickness and increased deposition of extracellular matrix, adrenergic stimulation of the heart, and moving to a higher position on the Frank–Starling curve by volume expansion(2)

Assessment of environmental impacts on geochemical evolution of groundwater resources in Nubaria area, west of Nile Delta area, Egypt PDF

Fattah .K. M., Dahab, A.K and Ahmed, G. M

During the last decade, the continuous development of human society as well as the side effects of land reclamation projects left negative impacts on water resources in Nubaria area, west of Nile Delta area. Such negative impacts are pronounced in continuous groundwater deterioration and water pollution.

Respiratory Rate Measurement in Children Using a Thermal Imaging Camera PDF

Farah AL-Khalidi, Heather Elphick, Derek Burke, Reza Saatchi

Respiratory rate is a vital physiological measurement used in the immediate assessment of unwell children. Convenient electronic devices exist for measurement of pulse, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and temperature. Although devices which measure respiratory rate exist, none has entered everyday clinical practice. An accurate device which has no physical contact with the child is important to ensure readings are not affected by distress. A thermal imaging camera to monitor respiratory rate in children was evaluated.


The goal of this paper is to give a clear idea about emotions and the ways in which they can possibly be recognized by a system. It is not necessary to recognize emotions when computers are used just as tools for a computational purpose. But it is becoming important to impart to system, the ability of understanding the user. This can reduce the frustration of the user (if any), develop applications and build tools to develop social-emotional skills.

The Effect of using an Methanol and Ethanol blends with gasoline on Emissions in an SI Engine PDF

M.Sc. Mohammed Kadhim Allawi, Eng.Sagid ABD Mahmood

In this study, the performance parameters are investigated for a single cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignition engine with varying speed (1000 to2500 rpm) with compression ratios (CR=8 ). For this analysis, (base fuel) and blends of ethanol with base fuel (E10, E20) and methanol with base fuel (M10 & M20) are used. The results show that the exhaust temperature increases with the increase in engine speed for all the tested fuels. lost of heat energy with exhaust were decreased and exhaust emissions were reduced with the increase of ethanol and methanol -gasoline blends content.

Mystic features in works of Fayyaz PDF

Ali Ramazani, Narges Bigham-e-Kolaee

Hakim Molla Abdolrazzagh- Ibn-e-Ali Lahiji, Fayyaz-e-Lahiji, was among prominent Shiat philosophers and orators. He learned philosophy in classes of a famous philosopher called Molla Sadra and he was one of his best students. Always outstanding philosophers and orators have had their own line of thought and they held independence in thought. Although Hakim Lahiji was a student for Mirdamad and Sadrolmotaalehin, he had never followed them blindly and he had certain thoughts and viewpoints in philosophical and belief issues. In all works by Hakim Lahiji, his deep awareness of thoughts and beliefs of great philosophers, orators, followers of different religions, and different branches of Islamic thought such as Ashaereh, Mofawwazeh, Kisanieyeh, … can be observed clearly. In this research we have tried to study about thought philosophy of Fayyaz-e-Lahiji and his attitudes towards mysticism which has been one of the common beliefs held by scientists and scholars in Safavid period.



Are nuclear weapons more important than my life? Can’t we use million dollars to generate electricity in any other way ? Is possessing nuclear weapons more prestigious than my right to live in an environment where I am not exposed to risk of cancer and genetic diseases? Do we really have no choice but to live under a constant fear of abandoning our houses when there is an accidental radiation fallout? What kind of national security are you extending to the citizens of your country by placing the life of millions of others in jeopardy?



The synthesis of 6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one is described. This was achieved under anhydrous condition by alkaline catalyzed reaction of 2-aminopyridine-3-thiol and 2, 3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone. Also described in this work is the synthesis of 6,15-diazabenzo[a][1,4]benzothiazino[3,2-c]phenothiazine which was achieved by the condensation of 6-chloro-11-azabenzo[a]phenothiazine-5-one with a second molecule of 2-aminopyridine-3-thiol in an alkaline medium. The ease of oxidation of these sodium dithionite (Na2S2O3) reduced compoundsas well as the oxidation of these new compounds with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to sulphoxide make them suitable to be considered as a vat dyes and antioxidants in the textile and petroleum industries respectively.

Determination of field intensities belonging to the wedge regions adjacent to a convex triangular obstacle subject to axially independent conditions PDF

Sanjay Kumar

The present paper gives an interaction of standing electromagnetic waves with a smooth convex triangular obstacle K and its adjacent wedge regions. The concerning electromagnetic fields are supposed to be independent of the variations along the axis of K. Governing Helmholtz wave equation, being resulted from the Maxwell’s field equations, have been encountered subject to initial boundary conditions of the field intensities on the wedge surfaces . The concerning boundary value problem has been particularly associated with Dirichlet and Neumann conditions on , giving rise to Dual-Bessel series relations. The unknown coefficients of the said dual series relations have been determined by making use of Lommel’s integral for a pair of Bessel functions of the first kind. Two existence theorems regarding the cylindrical mode of polarisation of electromagnetic wave have established, furnishing thereby the components electric and magnetic field intensity vectors. Wave characteristics like reflection and transmission have been determined on the basis of said existence theorem. Finally the expressions of the field intensities H and E have been utilized for determining the current density.



This study investigated the effect of Further Mathematics on students’ achievement in mathematics, biology, chemistry and physics in Katsina State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty (150) students from seven (7) Senior Secondary Schools were purposively selected for the study. Three Research Questions that correspond were formulated for this study. Experimental research design was employed. All the students selected were offering mathematics, biology, chemistry and physics. A 100 -item Achievement test was administered to the students. No further mathematics test was given. Exposure to further mathematics teaching for at least two years served as treatment. Findings showed that there was no significant difference between further mathematics and none-further mathematics groups in achievement in each subject. However, further mathematics students had significantly better overall achievement (t cal = 5.089, p<0.05). It is recommended among the other thing that all science students should be encouraged to offer further mathematics.

Functioning and design of the three dimensional operating machine controlled by computer in workshop environment PDF


Computer numerical control is a technology where the functions and movements of a machine are prepared in advance by a program that contains the alphanumeric data. The paper contains aspects of the construction of a machine which is controlled numerically by computer and which communicates via a parallel port using the Floppy Drive logic. This designed machine takes data from LinuxCNC program, and from a developed program in programming language C# for partial control of the machine. The technology used in this work is developed in the workshop environment using equipment from parts left out of the use of computers and improvising a model with perfect technology. In general, machines numerically controlled by computer contains stepper motors for movement, which we have used from the CD-ROM’s.

Characteristics of Cohesive Soils Stabilized by Cement Kiln Dust PDF

Athraa M. J. Al-hassani, Sami M. Kadhim, Ali A. Fattah

Cement kiln dust CKD is a waste by-product from the manufacture process of the cement, which contributes to environmental pollution. This study has been conducted to investigate the feasibility of utilization the cement kiln dust for the soil stabilization. The characteristics of two types of cohesive soils of different clay content treated by cement kiln dust were studied. The direct shear test / unconfined compression tests, the coefficient of permeability, and durability tests (freezing-thawing and wetting-drying) were reported. Several tests were carried out to investigate the effect of curing age on the unconfined compression and coefficient of permeability. Treatment with cement kiln dust was found to be an effective option for improvement of soil properties, based on the testing conducted as a part of this research. Strength was improved and plasticity and coefficient of permeability were substantially reduced. Also, the treated samples showed a reasonable durability for both wetting-drying, and freezing-thawing.