This paper presents the experimental and finite element analysis of AA6061/carbon black nanocomposites. A cubical representative volume element (RVE) has been implemented to analyze the tensile behavior AA6061/carbon black nanocomposites. The carbon black nanoparticles were randomly distributed in the AA6061 matrix. The tensile strength was increased with an increase of carbon black content in the nanocomposites. The interfacial debonding was high between the particle and the matrix because the local stress concentration around the nanoparticle was increased with an increase in the volume fraction of carbon black in the nanocomposite.
Automatic vehicle detection and tracking is an essential processing system for an intelligent transport applications. However, it is posed to great challenges such as landscape variations, vehicle speed, dimension, color, etc. This paper introduces a methodology to detect and track the rear view of vehicles from videos. The methodology adopts two different color space models to detect rear lamps and rear license plates, respectively. Kalman filter is used to estimate and track the moving object and further to aid in detecting and tracking the vehicles. The relationship between the locations of the rear lamps and license plate are used to construct the Markov model, which detects and tracks the vehicle based on the kalman filter output. The experimental investigation shows the methodology maintains minimum error on detecting and tracking the vehicles. The developed user interface is believed to be useful for applying the system comfortably.
In this work (ZnO)1-x (CdO)x films were prepared by using Pulse laser deposition. Annealing in air at temperature 500 °C at constant time of 180 min. The crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) having found the presence of the ZnO hexagonal at X=0 and cubic phase pattern for CdO at x=1 and a mixing of cubic-CdO and hexagonal-ZnO phases for (X= 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) concentrations. The crystallinity of all samples improves with the thermal annealing. The optical band-gap was also studied from the optical transmittance for the as grown and annealed samples. As expected, the band-gap changes between that for pure CdO and that for ZnO.
In this paper, an improved class of Ratio type estimator has been proposed to estimate population mean of the characteristic under study. Particular cases of proposed estimator have been obtained which are improvement over existing estimator in literature and, thus, it serves as a unified study of several estimators. The expression for bias and mean square error of the proposed estimator including its particular cases have been derived up to the first order of approximation and compared Theoretically with the other improved ratio-type estimators and conditions found for which the proposed estimator is better than improved ratio-type estimators. An empirical study has also been carried out to demonstrate the efficiencies of proposed estimator.
Damietta coastal plain northern of Nile Delta, is a very promising area for energy resources, tourism and industrial activities. It suffered from several changes over the past century, especially in its boundaries and topography. The objective of this work was to study the spatial and temporal changes that took place along the coastal line of Damietta governorate by using RS and GIS techniques. This is in addition to providing an accurate estimation of the areas where erosion and deposition processes take place. For that purpose multi-temporal Landsat data were collected in 1984, 2000, 2011 and 2014. Also, two spectral indices were used in this study, which are the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the World View Water Index (WVWI)) to study the changes along the coastal water/land interface. The obtained results indicated that the eroded areas were about 14.08 km2 from 1984 to 2000, about 3.54 km2 from 2000 to 2011, and about 2.05 km2 from 2011 to 2014. The erosion rate during the studied period from 1984 to 2014 was about 0.41 km2/ year. The areas were deposition take place was about 4.92 km2 during the period from 1984 to 2000, about 4.94 km2 from 2000 to 2011 and about 6.35 km2 from 2011 to 2014. The deposition rate during the whole studied period was about 0.291 km2/ year. Accordingly, the deposition rate along the coastline was higher than the erosion rate, however it took place at different locations. Some of these areas were naturally occurred, however some others were human induced, especially after 2011. Accuracy assessment revealed that WVWI was more accurate than the NDWI in studying the changes along the coastal line. Different scenarios about the possibilities of costal submersion as a result of possible tsunamis or global warming were also studied. These scenarios indicated that a possible area of about 75.89 km2 of the coastal land could be submerged in case of a sea level raised by about 5 meters. The obtained results and the hypothetical views were also considered in setting the criteria for selecting the most suitable and secure areas for tourist.
The purpose of this undertaking was to discover the untold political experiences of school heads. Employing phenomenological approach with 18 school heads, in-depth interviews and focus group discussion, results revealed that participants divulged that their political experiences in public elementary schools in Region. Consequently, the participants mobilized their resources based on school priorities and offered their insights on what they can offer to academic community. With due consideration with the narratives of the participants, politics in education is the rallying call of school leaders in lobbying school improvements to external political structures.
Multilateral wells have been documented to afford better production performance than vertical wells in primary oil recovery processes especially in thin reservoirs. However, little is known about how multilaterals perform relative to vertical wells in water-injection secondary recovery processes, and how the configuration and pattern of arrangement of these multilaterals affect their performance. In this work, Boast98, a three-dimensional, three-phase, black oil reservoir simulator was used to simulate different waterflooding schemes involving various multilateral well configurations and patterns of arrangement using a synthetic reservoir of a given areal extend in order to compare the performance of vertical wells against multilaterals in a water-injection secondary oil recovery operation. Basically four types of multilateral well configurations were investigated which included the Dual lateral (two laterals), the Trilateral (three laterals), the Quadlateral (four laterals), and the Multilevel (four laterals) well configurations. Vertical and horizontal wells were used as base cases against which the performance of multilaterals were judged. The vertical five-spot pattern performed better than the best multilateral well scenario in terms of cumulative oil produced. All multilateral wells considered were found to be more profitable than vertical and horizontal wells because of their accelerated rate of recovery and reduced water production. The only exception was the trilateral six-spot pattern.
Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which the host’s immune system and genetic factors greatly influence the pathogenesis of the disease. Polymorphism in cytokines genes and the associated receptors is considered as a potential genetic risk factor for the occurrence of periodontal diseases.
This study has addressed the effects of urbanization on the land use pattern of Bori. The study objectives were to examine the land use pattern in Bori as at 1972 when the Master Plan for the settlement was prepared; examine the land use changes that have since then; describe the characteristics of the migrants into Bori and their reasons for moving into the place; and recommend ways to deal with the effects of urbanization, especially on land use. The study used both primary and secondary data. The main instrument used to collect primary data was a pre-coded household questionnaire administered face-to-face to a carefully selected sample of 150 heads of households. Primary data were also collected through personal observation, interview of key informants and photography. Secondary information was obtained from published and unpublished sources, including the internet. The Master Plan for Bori, prepared in 1972 was found particularly useful. Analysis of questionnaire data was carried out with the aid of the computer, using the Statistical Package of the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results were summarized using simple summary statistics, especially percentages, sometimes presented as charts and tables. Hypotheses were tested using the Chi Square test of independence between two cross-tabulated variables. The study found among others that the population of Bori had grown from 6,000 persons in 1972 to 23,741 in 2013, with in-migrants constituting 26.7% of the population. The latter were mainly people in the active age groups, with low education and mainly traders. The study further found that with the influx of migrants and the natural increase of population, there was more demand for land for residential development as well as for other uses; thus large part of the area once covered by forests had now been converted to mixed use â€“ residential â€“ commercial â€“ farmland, constituting 49.6% of the total land area as at the time of the survey. The study thus concluded, among others, that the present unorganized development and land use pattern in Bori is as a result of the absence of a Town Planning Authority to regulate and control developments in the area and also recommended, among others, that a Local Planning Authority should be established and made functional in Bori by the employment of Town Planners and other development professionals to regulate development and that the Master Plan for Bori should be urgently revised to properly organize land use and provide a basis for development control to accommodate the recent growth trend.
Recently power quality has become more important issue. Now a day’s power electronics based appliances are widely used in industries and in distribution system which creates more power quality problems. The power electronics based power conditioning devices can be an effective solution to improve power quality in power system. Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is one of the custom power devices which are used to solve voltage and current related problems simultaneously. In this paper, combined operation of UPQC with Distributed Generation (DG) is discussed. This system integrated with wind energy is able to compensate voltage sag/swell, load current disturbances. Also proposed system is able to compensate voltage interruption and active power transfer to load and source in both interconnected and islanding mode and help to improve power quality. The operation of UPQC with DG has been evaluated through simulation studies using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.
Constant supply of power is the wheel of growth to any nation’s economy. A country like Nigeria, where total power generation is less than one quarter of total demand, means of augmentation and smooth operation cannot be over emphasized. This paper presents a real laboratory design and construction of Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS) with three phase selector. The design method involves the use of electromechanical type relays, and comparators, etc. The ATS designed demonstrates its ability to perform automatic power change over activities easily without any human interaction.
The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of cost push inflation on financial performance of SACCOs in Eldama Ravine Sub County, Kenya. The study was based on a descriptive design. Data was collected by a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of SPSS version 21. The target population of the study comprised 150 Board members, the SACCOs’ unionizable staff and management staff. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain a sample size of 107 respondents. From the analysis, the study found that cost push inflation had an influence on the financial performance of SACCOs. However, there was a weak relationship between financial performance of SACCOs and cost push inflation. The study revealed that a unit increase in cost push inflation would lead to a slight increase in financial performance indicating that there was a positive weak relationship between financial performance of SACCOs and cost push inflation.
The top-table chicken feather plucking machine was optimized to top style chicken feather plucking machine and its performance was evaluated. The machine consists of metal drum, plucker finger, plucker bass, plucker rotor, feather plate, electric motor, shaft, tyre, pulley, v-belt and metallic frame. An electric motor of 1 hp provides drives to the feather plate through v-belt and pulley via 45mm diameter shaft. The rubber fingers that were fixed on the feather plate rotate against the stationary cylinder drum that was studded with rubber plucker. The machine performed the plucking as the plate rotates with the fingers against the stationary rubber plucker on the casing. The machine was evaluated using five different species of chicken at three different speeds of 400 rpm, 450 rpm and 500rpm. The results obtained showed that the machine performed highest at an average efficiency of 84.49% at the speed of 400 rpm on average time of 22.8 seconds. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results obtained showed that speed and species of chicken significantly affect the efficiency of the machine.
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic inflammation autoimmune disease which can effect multiple systems of the human body. The underlying cause of SLE is not fully known, however, genetics, heredity, and environmental features are associated with the severity and outcome of the disease. SLE is a chronic disease that is more frequent in women of reproductive age. The relationship between lupus and pregnancy is problematic: maternal and fetal outcomes are worse than in the general population, and the management of flare-ups is difficult during this period. Objectives: The aim of the present work was ANA and anti-dsDNA to determine the prevalence of autoimmune in a cohort of Iraqi SLE woman patients and to describe their sites and relation to clinical characteristics, laboratory features and disease activity in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with SLE (all patients were females) with ages ranged between (20 â€“ 40) years were taken from (Al â€“ Hassein Medical city/Karbala). Control group consisted of 20 healthy females who were free from signs and symptoms of SLE, with ANA tested by Immunofluorescence technique, also anti â€“ dsDNA antibody was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays kit supplied by (Euroimmune, Germany). C3 and C4 were measured using turbidimetry technique, their kits were supplied by(Vital Diagnostics , Italy ). Results: In the present study the ANA antibodies were positive in 100% of the cases. The mean value of anti â€“ dsDNA (300.4±201.44) which shown in highly significance. In addition results showed that serum levels of C3 and C4 were low significantly in pregnant women of SLE in coparsion with those healthy in significant negative correlation between C3 and C4 levels in lupus. Conclusion: The effect of systemic lupus erythematosus on pregnant women are associated with high risk on pregnant itself and her baby in compeer with healthy pregnant women.Index Terms— Systemic lupus erythematosus, Antinuclear antibodies, Lupus pregnancy.
This paper is intended to be an introduction into the issues involved with delivering IPTV over WiMAX networks. The use of WiMAX Networks can provide service not only for fixed but also for mobile subscribers , However, there are still issues concerning bandwidth, codec selection, QoS and payload on WiMAX , where passing IPTV traffic relates to the addition payload, besides, WiMAX technology adds its payload. This paper will address each of these issues and discuss the major players involved in deploying this new technology.
Ornamental stones have wide variety in their mineralogical, petrographic and engineering properties.Five different types of Egyptian orna-mental stones have been chosen to be analyzed chemically and petro-graphically for studying their engineering properties as a function of their petrographic characteristics. These types of studied ornamental stones including;Aswan red granite,Aswan granodiorite (grey granite), Minya, Red Sea and South Sinai compactlimestone (marble like) were prepared for mechanical and physical tests. The mechanical and physical properties included; uniaxial compression, abrasion resistance, apparent porosity, water absorption, and dry density.The results indicated that the engineering properties of samples of the same type are generally a function of a wide range of petrographic parameters including; appearance,texture, grain size, mineralogical composition,degree of metamorphism, diagenesis, rate of strength minerals, pores, micro-cracks and fossils that may affect the stone selection for different uses.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of different controlling strategies for a direct driven PMSG wind energy power system (WECS) connected to the grid. The DC link voltage is controlled by the generator side converter by using a current mode PWM controller and fixed frequency sliding mode controller (FFSMC). The Grid side converter (GSC) controls the grid active power for maximum power point tracking. The validity of the proposed control schemes has been verified by simulation. The merits of the proposed control scheme are, it does not require the measurement of wind velocity, PMSG stator currents are sinusoidal and power injected into the grid at unity power factor. Modeling of Wind turbine, PMSG, controlling of generator side switch mode converter, controlling of the GSC and Simulation results are presented. Simulation is done in MATLAB/POWERSYSTEM environment.
Cloud computing has had a tremendous impact on NGOs. Their adoption of the technology has helped to cut operational costs, streamline the flow of communications, modernize accounting systems, and facilitate resource management. Indeed, the cloud has introduced a paradigm shift in the way people manage information of resources. Email, websites, e-commerce, webinars, and social media - all of which are based on cloud computing - are now fundamental elements of NGO operations. With the increasingly ubiquitous nature of Social Networks and Cloud Computing, users are starting to explore new ways to interact with, and exploit these developing paradigms. Social Networks are used to reflect real world relationships that allow users to share information and form connections between one another, essentially creating dynamic Virtual Organizations.
Now a days, embedded systems are used in day to day life. Though people of all ages are using embedded system in daily life they are totally unaware about it. As it is widely used as safety critical device, Testing are the main issue and a matter of concern for the manufacturers.Embedded systems are developed against the issues such as best performance, less power and low cost. Several faults occur while running embedded systems. Some of them are related to components, some are related to memories and some are related to interfacing with hardwares. All these errors can be easily removed via testing algorithms.This paper focuses on new test algorithms for testing of memory of embedded systems. It deals with on online testing of embedded system and also describes the various testing techniques. BIST (Built in Self Test) which is widely used for non concurrent system is also discussed in this paper.
As departures from Benford’s law have been observed in many scientific data sets, there is a theoretical need to understand such discrepancies. We argue that the use of parametric extensions to Benford’s law is appropriate and demonstrate this for several first significant digit distributions taken from theoretical scientific laws or extracted from real-world data sets.
Big Data! The word is quiet not as simple as it sounds like. Big Data is a combination of many activities that involve elicitation of data, organizing the data on the basis of prioritization and usage and finally performing analysis of large sets cluster and collection of data; these all activities combine together to be known as BIG DATA (Fiedler, 2014). This is done so that further enhancements can be performed in discovering patterns by which it is easy to work with things in a flow (Mongodb.com, 2015).
Social media mining is a process involving the extraction, analysis and representation of useful patterns from data in the social media, deriving from social interactions (Adedoyin-Olowe, Gaber & Stahl, 2013). Social media mining is a young field which has been leading research and development by handling enormous amounts of information. Just like the mining of the minerals, data mining also involve the extraction of useful information from a larger set of data, which is otherwise not evident and is difficult to acquire.
In this work we are going to undertake the analysis of stakeholder involvement for taking or changing new initiative within the Blue Horizon Company. Nowadays consumers, employees and investors are more aware than ever of the activities going on in the business sector. We categorized the stakeholders and have investigated the degree up to which a stakeholders can be involved in the business, worked out the areas in which they should or should not be involved and hence estimated a success rate. Methods have been crafted to engage them. A critical analysis is being done that whether this approach can be useful for minimizing the hindrance occurring in propagation of the mission and vision of the company. The work elaborates that whether their involvement in Blue Horizon can help creating a consistent problem solving synergy. Further we have suggested some recommendations and precautions followed by the solution to these problems.
Smart Grids are intelligent power networks that utilize resources efficiently and involve a greater degree of remote and automatic pro-cesses than previously. Future smart grids will have an increased amount of renewable energy systems. The solar energy systems will have a considerable share of the future energy market. Accurate design of the photovoltaic (PV) system is essential for reliable and controllable operation within the smart grids. The smart and efficient operation of a PV generation system for both off-grid and grid-connected operation requires four main functions that need to be developed accurately. These functions include: the solar tracking system, the DC-DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm, the battery control charger, and the DC-AC power inverter controller. This paper presents the design and simulation of a smart PV generation system using proteus software. According to the proposed design a practical system is built and connected to a PV panel. Different measurements are taken or different radiation levels. A comparison between measurement and simulation results shows a very good agreement.
The purpose of this work is to obtain some new results for non-Newtonian fluid of type second grade performing sinusoidal motion. Exact solution of the velocity field and shear stress corresponding to second grade in an infinite cylinder are obtained by applying Laplace and Hankel transforms. Generalized function G.,.,.(.,t) and Bessel functions have been used to write solutions in the form of series. Similar solutions for Newtonian fluids performing the same motion are recovered as a limiting case.
This article presents the results of our questionnaire survey, which had as objectives to identify the most relevant performance indi-cators in the Moroccan industrial sector, which has been run since January 2013.
The present investigation deals with the analysis of physiochemical parameters of wastewater from some residential areas and commercial areas of Chandrapur city, Maharashtra. The samples of wastewater were collected from an eight different open drains flowing through the city and finally join the surface water bodies. The samples were collected in the month of July and August 2012 at morning 7:00 am to 9:00 am. Several working parameters such as PH, conductivity, Total dissolved solids; Alkalinity, DO, COD and BOD were analyzed by using Standard methods recommended by NEERI(1998) and the analyzed result were compare with standard values recommended by CPCB(Central pollution control board,India). As per obtained results the values of BOD were found above the prescribed limit and may be concluded that the quality of wastewater is harmful for direct discharged into surface water.
This paper draws the attention of the structural designers and architects to the importance of employing the environmental data in all design and construction stages of buildings. The paper dispelled the fact that final design of buildings cannot be performed ignoring the environmental data and solar radiation, especially in Sudan asone of the hot-dry tropical regions. In that respect, the paper focused on the introduction of the solar radiation values that are received by the buildings during the day into the selection of most suitable construction material, as well as the design of thermal insulation thickness for walls and roofs of buildings at Khartoum State in Sudan.
The study investigates the validity of Pitman and White correlation on sedimentation efficiency of a ferric dosed sludge using the sludge volume index (SVI) and stirred specific volume index (SSVI) settleability tests. This was conducted using a 2000ml graduated cylinder, mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration and mean sludge volume of 3 replicate samples after 30 minutes analysis, based on the Water Research Council (WRC) method. The SSVI and SVI parameters were analysed to determine the most suitable approach to be adopted in examining the operating state of the clarifier using the Pitman and White solid flux correlation. The SVI test yielded a better sludge settling characteristics with an SVI of 240 ml/g while the SSVI test produced a poor sludge settling characteristics with an SSVI of 316.6 ml/g, anticipated to be due to the stirring and non-stirring variations. After a series of simulation, the Pitman and White model was found to be suitable for ferric dosed sludge settling at boundary conditions of MLSSâ‰¤3000mg/l, SSVIâ‰¤120ml/g, particle settling velocity 7.78m/hâ‰¤voâ‰¤8.16m/h, tank diameter of 28.5mâ‰¤dâ‰¤29.2m and a reduced number of tanks. For increased MLSS (3000mg/l
Obesity is a public health problem, reaching epidemic proportions, with an increasing worldwide prevalence. Acupuncture is one of the traditional modalities that has proved to help in weight Loss. Acupuncture needles can be used either at body acupoints or as ear acupunture.
The purpose and objective of this study is to investigate and scrutinize the impact of sewing thread types and stitch types on seam strength and efficiency of superimposed seam for cotton apparel. An experimental design was employed for the study which included four types of thread and two stitch classes for cotton apparel. The performance properties investigated were seam strength and efficiency. The seam strength and efficiency of the fabric were determined using the tensile testing machine (Tinius Olsen).Seam strength have been measured and analyzed both in warp and weft directions.. Mean and inferential statistics (Analysis of Variance at 0.05 alpha levels) were used for the analyses of the data. The results in this study revealed that differences existed between the four thread types with regard to seam strength and efficiency. Polyester-wrapped threads with a polyester filament core thread shows better seam strength and seam efficiency in all stitch types involving in this study. The study has also brought to light the behavior of seams in the different stitch and threads of cotton fabric. The statistical analysis showed that the significant and positive impact of the stitch types and thread types on the seam strength and efficiency. Finally this work will therefore help manufacturers of apparels to know the suitable thread type on the market to decide on and stitch types that would help to achieve quality seams to meet consumers’ desire in terms of seams.
The rural guide plan is one of rural development plans that can have a fundamental and infrastructural role in the widespread development of rural areas. Using its potentials and capabilities, this plan will be able to prepare background for improving the public and welfare facilities of rural life condition. The present research will explore the rate of villagers' involvement in relation to the rural guide plan. The questionnaire and field observations forms have been used to analyze the data. The results show that the villagers have the positive average in indices of physical participation and decision making but they have a weak participation in financial participation due to the economic problems. At the end, some strategies have been proposed according to the results of the research.
The aim of this study is analysis of correlation between the values of HbA1c and cholesterol, triglycerides, hdl, ldl and treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients with diabetes type 2 in tetovo region.
Obscurity has received increasing attention in the literature due to the users’ awareness of their privacy nowadays. Obscurity provides protection for users to enjoy network services without being traced. While Obscurity-related issues have been extensively studied in payment-based systems such as e-cash and peer-to-peer (P2P) systems, little effort has been devoted to Connectionless mesh networks (WMNs). On the other hand, the network authority requires conditional Obscurity such that misbehaving entities in the network remain traceable. In this paper, we propose a security architecture to ensure unconditional Obscurity for honest users and Ascribable of misbehaving users for network authorities in WMNs. The proposed architecture strives to resolve the conflicts between the Obscurity and Ascribable objectives, in addition to guaranteeing fundamental security requirements including authentication, confidentiality, data integrity, and nonrepudiation. Thorough analysis on security and efficiency is incorporated, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed architecture.
Decision support models have proved useful in helping managers build and implement business strategies. In this paper, we propose to use a revised version of Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique to help advise on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy of an organization. More particularly, we explore the case of a Multi-National Corporation (MNC) operating in the IT consulting industry where we apply the proposed method to appraise the cause-effect relations of 24 indicators in 4 areas of management. In addition, we propose a more intuitive and informative graphical representation of DEMATEL outcomes to categorize sustainability performance indicators by importance and by strength of impact produced or received. Results show that boosting professional gender equality and work ethics is a top priority. We also find that financial performance is influenced subsequently to an HR-centered CSR policy. Based on our findings, we suggest guidelines for the CSR strategy to be adopted.
With technological advancement in modern era, sizes of various tools used in various engineering applications has become smaller and smaller. Especially, the field of micro- engineering has gained a tremendous impetus. Working at micro-level has been a challenging job in the field of engineering for quite some time. This paper proposes the design of a 3-dimensional microelectromechanical system (3-D MEMS) model of an inverse piezo- electrically actuated single pole- double throw switch. Inverse Piezoelectric actuation has the advantage of fast response and reasonable power consumption. This paper also focuses on the optimization of the structure which will yield the best possible switching displacement (more displacement) for a particular voltage applied to the piezo â€“ material. We have used Finite Element Method (FEM) of COMSOL Multiphysics version 4.4 to analyze all the structures. Various models have been tried out, each being subjected to numerous dimensional, structural and material variations, and the structure with best possible output has been put forward. All the parametric studies, which included total displacement of the piezo-material, stress developed has been carried out by linearly varying the voltage from 0-10 Volts.
Pistons as one of the most complex components among all automotives and other industry field components are designed to withstand damage caused due to extreme heat and pressure of combustion process. Many of experimental studies regarding the internal combustion engines process have been carried out, but few had only focused on the numerical studies like stress distribution, thermal and heat transfer analysis. This present study focuses on a 3-D transient state temperature distribution analysis on a gasoline piston model of a tri-cycle. Mathematical model was formulated, solved and simulated using a Finite Element Method (FEM) in-built in the COMSOL Multiphysics software 4.3a to determine the temperature distribution and gradient of the piston model ranging from 523K â€“ 673K. The parameters used for the simulation were liquid (Gasoline), Gases (Air) and Aluminium alloy UNSA96061 (Piston). The Completed mesh tetrahedral consists of 86225 elements and the number of degrees of freedom solved for were 18553 in 367 s (6 minutes, 7 seconds) in the mesh optimization. It was discovered from the results obtained that the temperature in the combustion chamber of the tricycle engine varies with respect to time, along the piston.The transient analysis from the time dependent solver revealed that the temperature of the piston at the TDC (Top Dead Centre) in the first power stroke is higher compared to the subsequent power strokes, which is an indication that more heat was transfer at subsequent power strokes. Probable recommendations were later made.
Cocoyam is a crop valued for its tubers and leaves in West Africa and beyond. In recent times, there is an increase in demand and consumption of ‘local’ food in Nigeria. This rise is as a result of the widely held belief that these local delicacies are natural and hence obviate fear of contamination from consumption of processed or artificial food. Nigeria is the world leading producer of cocoyam, however, the prevalence traditional methods of cocoyam production, processing, and storage has hampered its utilisation and farmers’ access to export market for profit optimization. It then becomes necessary to evaluate the present postharvest operations of cocoyam with a view to ascertain their adequacy and shortcomings, and highlights the areas that need research focus to drive revolutionary approach in cocoyam study and guarantee value addition to cocoyam food chain. Thus, this work reviews efforts in cocoyam research so far and propose ways to meet up with future demands.
In this study a treatment unit for wastewater resulted from maize processing for sucrose, fructose and starch production is pro-posed. Wastewater obtained with a capacity of 3960 m3/day is analysed. Main pollutants in wastewater are settable matter, sulphide, SO2, ammonia; COD and BOD while no problems concerning pH, temperature, oil and grease. The recommended treatment process is a high rate aerobic activated sludge (sludge load 0.5 kg BOD/ kg sludge day). Total dissolved solids will be critical even after aerobic. Most of the organic will be removed, but inorganic salts may be too high. This will require some type of reverse osmosis (RO) treatment which is suitable also for Cl--removal; while total phosphorus removal will be done by chemical precipitation.
Sungai Johor is considered the main river in Johor that flows roughly north-south direction and empties into the Johor Strait, thereby affects the water quality in the Strait due to high pollutant inflow along the river. For modelling the hydrodynamic and water quality, Environmental fluid dynamic code (EFDC) is used.
Objective: Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of basal metabolic state and in oxidative metabolism. This study evaluated some biochemical alterations in post-pubertal hyperthyroidism. Additionally, the ameliorating role of folic acid supplementation was investigated. Methods: A total 60 male albino rats were equally divided into six groups; the first and second groups were the control and folic acid groups respectively while the 3rd group was the hyperthyroid rat group; the 4th and 5th groups were co- and post treated hyperthyroid rat with folic acid respectively and the 6th group was self treated hyperthyroid rat group. Results: Serum T3 & T4 levels were a significant increase while TSH levels were a significant decrease in rats receiving thyroxine indicating the induction of hyperthyroid state. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL levels (lipid profile) were a significant decrease in hyperthyroid rats when compared with control group. On the other hand; MDA, catalase and nitric oxide levels in spleen tissues were a significant increase in hyperthyroid rats when compare with control group, while glutathione and total protein levels were a significant decrease in hyperthyroid rats when compared with control group. Treatment of hyperthyroid with folic acid were improved this alterations. Conclusions: Our results revealed that, folic acid as a treatment was better if it is administered as an adjuvant after returning to the euthyroid state.
Background: The thyroid hormones are recognized as key metabolic hormones that play a critical role in brain development, mediate important effects within the CNS throughout life and regulate the metabolism and functions of various neurotransmitters. The hippocampus is a major component of the rat brains, where it belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in long term memory and spatial navigation. In Alzheimer’s disease, the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to suffer damage; memory problems and disorientation appear among the first symptoms. Heme oxygenase (HO) is a heme-catabolizing enzyme that converts heme into biliverdin, iron and carbon monoxide. Promising therapeutic effects of increased brain HO-1 levels have been reported in models of neurodegenerative disorders and brain infection including Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), and malaria. The present work aimed to declare the effect of low thyroid hormone status on hippocampus tissue histopathological and immunohistochemical changes of p35 and caspase. Also, the present study aimed to elucidate the role of hemin and ketoconazole (KTZ) supplementation as a HO inducer and inhibitor respectively. Material and method: Seventy male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: GI, Control group; GII, Thyroidectomized group; GIII, Sham operated group; GIV, Thyroidectomized & Hemin group; GV, Thyroidectomized & KTZ group; GVI, Sham operated & Hemin group and GVII, Sham operated & KTZ group. Results: the results obtained revealed various histopathological changes showed a large number of damages neurons, diffuse vacuolar degeneration, degenerating (i.e., shrunken, argyrophilic) neurons with reduction and distortion of the pyramidal cells in the hippocampus of thyroidectomized rats when compared with the hippocampus of control or sham rats. Hippocampus coronal sections in thyroidectomized rat that treated with hemin revealed little tissue injury with mild neuronal damage and a few diffuse vacuolar degeneration. There were a moderate to strong positive reactions for p53-ir (grade 3) and cas-ir (grade 4) were detected in hippocampus on thyroidectomized rat group. A marked decreased (grade 1) and (grade 2) in the intensity of p53-ir and caspase 3 respectively on the hippocampus in thyroidectomized rat that treated with hemin when compared with thyroidectomized rat. Conclusion: our results revealed that hemin has an ameroliating role in hippocampus of thyroidectomized rats by improving the histopathological alternation and the intensity of p35 and caspase 3.
Solar energy advanced to occupy a significant place between the used energies of the near future. The operational principles of photovoltaic (PV) devices become more understood that led to an increase in the power conversion efficiencies of such devices. Solar cells or PV systems performance is affected by dust and dust storms highly impact the collected energy. Many studies showed that the accumulated dust reduces the performance of solar panels; however, these results were not clearly quantified.
The pace by which information flows cross organizational boundaries is rapidly increasing. Individuals and groups in organizational contexts are exchanging more information across different â€“ often isolated â€“ platforms. Against a backdrop of conventional information management, present business ecosystem mandates more systematic management of information and hence holistic systems. This paper highlights how management information systems have come to be increasingly adopted. Initially rejected as of little relevance to companies' operations and strategy, information systems have shown more enhancements as to necessitate adoption. Therefore, management information systems have been widely adopted in many industries, most notably supply chain, environment stewardship and hospitality. User acceptance is one major consideration information system developers should integrate into conception and design. Three considerations, on a negative side, should be made in developing a management information system: (1) past usage behavior, (2) (national, organizational and group) cultural influences, and (3) company size. The paper concludes by recommendations.
At this point in life as I enter a program of graduate study, it is difficult to conceive of a more meaningful activity than a self-study that addresses such questions as: Which people and events have shaped me? What motivations drive me? What are my core values? What is my self-concept or self-image? Where am I in my life right now?
Severe local thunderstorm is the extreme weather convective phenomenon generated from cumulonimbus cloud. It has a devastating effect on human life. Correct forecasting is very crucial factor to save life and property. Here in this paper we have applied artificial neural network to achieve desired result. Multilayer perceptron has been applied on upper air data such as sunshine hour, pressure at freezing level, height at freezing level and cloud coverage (octa NH). MLP predicted correctly both ‘squall’ and ‘no squall’ storm days more than 90% with 12 hours leading time.
Coal is the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel source. As an energy resource of Bangladesh it’s contributing a lot in the economy as well as a solution to the power starvation throughout the country. About two third of the population in North-western part of Bangladesh is making their livelihood by food production but the decreasing rate of production caused by the degradation of soil is an direct effect of the Barapukuria coal mine which is the only operating coal mine in the country. A survey on the area shows that a lot of farmers are changing their profession due to the loss of their labor and invest. This paper shows the effect of mine drainage water and other potential factors impelling dreadful conditions on soil at the neighboring areas of Barapukuria mine. Authors suggested a proper effluent system which can provide a supply of fresh water needed for irrigation and some special soil treatment methods that might be useful for the betterment of the agricultural lands.
Knowledge management has become an intangible asset that organizations use in gaining competitive advantage and improving organizational processes in their operations. Various forms of knowledge management strategies have been employed in construction organizations. However, the result from practice shows social mechanisms are not exploited to their full capacity which therefore, reduces the level of benefits organizations can accrue from effective KM implementation. This work investigated and identified that social processes where been unheeded in construction organi-zations in the United Kingdom. Quantitative analysis was carried out within organizations to determine if the hypothesis is true and to identify the social mechanisms in place to support knowledge sharing. The results identified coaching , mentoring, communities of practice among other mechanism were implemented in construction organizations, however, priority seems to be placed on some mechanisms more than others based on the most easily implementable for the company.
In the normal system for gas supply we have different nodes through the path. Each node is controlled by a hand pump for on/off status. The proposed system, in this paper, offers two parallel paths at each node where there is a two solenoid controlled by the remote station. This control is done through data transmitted from a pressure sensing switch nearby solenoid. The data measured from each pressure switch is sent wireless to control central using zigBee.The control central reply back with a suitable control order for the two parallel paths to overcome the problem may be faced.
In this paper we simulate the total operation of friendly environmental oily water treatment system by using a ladder logic Siemens S7. This system is implemented to make sure anticontamantion for sea water to keep the marine life safe.
Storage of data is required in all the high performance VLSI circuits used today. The need for the day is large amount of data to be stored and accessed as fast as possible. Approximately, after every two years, the maximum storage capacity that can be practically implemented doubles. The area efficiency of the memory array, the number of stored data bits per unit area is an important design criterion. Another important performance criterion is the memory access time. The access time determines the speed of the memory array. The area and delay are key parameters that decide the overall efficiency of an SRAM. This paper deals with designing an SRAM chip to improve the efficiency of memory array by reducing the area and observing the variations in delay for variations in process parameters. The schematics are implemented in ELECTRIC VLSI software and simulated using LTSpice.The layouts are also implemented using the same.
In today’s modern world, IC engines are tested for its performances such as speed & torque developed. To test the performance of these engines dynamometer controllers & associated instrumentation is used. This paper describes how PID controller for dynamometer provides a mean for testing engine in desired & controlled conditions such as speed, torque with respect to throttle position in order to test engine. PID acts as dynamometer controller. For implementing this controller different test scenario can be simulated in lab for performing engine test with help of eddy current dynamometer. This paper presents the implementation aspects of PID in DDC using Labview and engine performance analysis in GUI( Graphical user interface).The simulation results revealed that the engine process is best tuned using Z-N technique through Labview. Finally, results extracted from simulation are displayed in GUI of test engine.
Case study shows that HELMET is considered as a hard or padded “HAT”. There are various types of Helmet worn by soldiers, policemen, motorcyclists, sports persons and others. The helmet is like HEART of human. Many driving friends VIOLATING the rules of heart during traffic when there is no TRAFFIC POLICE available on the site.
The modelling of the magnetic field distribution of complex systems often requires the use of complicated analytical methods. One of alternative ways of handling such an issue includes finite element method. The following paper presents that this problem may be simplified by modelling single elements and combining them into a system using Elmer software. The simulation requires the definition of element’s geometry created in Netgen software, as well as the boundary conditions and the specification of material’s magnetic properties. This paper discusses the whole modelling process including chart generation, results validation via measurements, and uncertainty budget.
The ECDM process is mostly applied for machining non- conducting engineering ceramic material, such as aluminum oxides, zirconium oxides, and silicon nitrides, etc. Experiments on ECDM have been carried out according to designed experimental plan 9 data points on identified optimal parametric conditions of ECDM process found by Taguchi method of parametric optimization these are applied voltage (65 V), Duty factor (0.8), concentration of electrolyte (50 wt.%) and concentration of powder (2 wt.%). In this study, the signal-to-noise ratio for material removal rate and overcut were analyzed by Anderson-Darling Normality test. The improvement in overcut was achieved but needs more investigation in material removal rate.
This article presents the thin-layer drying of Black Galingales, which was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature by using a convective air dryer. The Black Galingales were dried for the temperature of 40à¹C, 50à¹C and 60à¹C, with the air flow velocity fixed at 1 ms-1. It was observed that the drying air temperature has strong influence on the drying rates of Black Galingales, so that the higher the temperature the less the drying time. Seven different thin-layer models were fitted to the experimental data of Black Galingales. The drying parameters of Black Galingales were found to be a function of drying air temperature. The Modified Handerson and Pabis model were revealed to be the best and it was followed by the Two term model. Moisture diffusivities of black galingales have been determined experimentally and moisture diffusivities were found to increase with the increase in drying air temperature. Moisture diffusivities of black galingales can be explained using an Arrhenius-type equation. The mean diffusivity values of black galingales in this study are 9.38Ã—10âˆ’10 m2/s.
The Weight-Based Pricing System is developed in a way to quantify items in kilograms and give their prices which have been programmed into the system. Some of the existing systems have superimposed noise on useful signal which serves as a constraint in achieving higher accuracy and wastage of energy. Therefore, this paper developed a weight-based pricing system for the agricultural produce using C-Sharp programming language with high level of accuracy. A weighing system consists of a weighing sensor that serves as transducer which converts weight to electrical signal and sends it to the developed digital pricing system which was implemented in C-Sharp programming language. The digital weight-based pricing system displays the price on the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The system has a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy assessment of the system and used to compute the prices of different agricultural produce such as yam tuber, maize grain, rice, cocoa seed, beans grain and cashewnut at various prices per kilogram. The performance of the developed system was evaluated using price(â‚¦). The price in Nigerian currency (â‚¦) of the weight-based pricing system for maize grain sold at â‚¦5 per kilogram obtained for 20kg, 40kg, 60kg and 80kg were â‚¦100, â‚¦200, â‚¦300 and â‚¦400 respectively. Similarly, the prices for various weight of each of the agricultural produce items stated above were computed at the appropriate price per kg. The system was developed put an end to visual assessment and local measuring techniques. It also enhances price stability as the transactions of every seller is monitored and recorded in the database.
Inventing and developing of remote control systems with tele-operated system have been an interesting field for producing new models of communications technologies that create high level of control of the operation of device, as a television set, from distance area. This needs a communication channel to transfer data between different electronic machines via using specific host, port number that is accepted by client and server side technologies.
DC-DC converters are nowadays employed in many applications of electrical and electronics equipments for converting DC voltages from one level to another. In this paper a buck boost converter is designed based on the given specifications and non-idealization of all the components used in the design is taking into considerations. Firstly formulas to be used in calculating the values of the components are derived, followed by calculating the component values and finally, simulation was carried out using Pspice simulation software to validate the operation of the buck boost converter circuit. The performance analysis, which includes the effect of non-idealization on key waveforms such as power output, voltage output and current are achieved and are discussed.
This paper investigates the roles and implications of agricultural practice in Lokoja urban area, the capital city of kogi state. The specific objectives of the paper are to determine the nature and magnitude of agricultural practice in Lokoja area, and to attempt on evaluation of the contributions of agricultural practice in Lokoja area in improving the livehood (benefits) of the inhabitants of Lokoja as well as the negative impacts resulting from the practice. Data on the socio-economic characteristic and agronomic practices by dry season farmers were used for this study. Dry season irrigated farming is done by both the indignous and migrants inhabitants. It is also observed that majority of the farmers have low or no formal education. The farmers use both chemical and non-chemical fertilizers to improve the crop production and these practice affect the soil in particular over time period.
Recently in Iran, One of the most successful businesses is the waste recycling. This business has opened its way as an old and a new business or industry form in domestic production chain. Old and new because of many different products that have recycled .Today many companies are producing and using recycles wastes and waste products as their industries raw materials. Cellulose wastes are widely used in the industries which use in paper mills for recycled paper products. By following of the growing industry and the untapped markets and the high volume of trade for industries, the wastes recycling companies need to choose the best strategies to obtain more shape of domestic markets or keep their shape. This paper aims to present a formulated selection of the best strategies due to the strengths, opportunities, limitations and threats of this special industry and market by analysis of a sample of the industry SWOT matrix and select them by FAHP. In this paper, the Generic strategies are used as criteria for prioritization of selected strategies to achieve and maintain optimum competitive advantage.
In this paper, the design of a co-axial fed single layer microstrip patch antenna for 5.2 GHz WLAN application is presented. The radiation characteristics of this proposed structure are studied and analyzed using “CST Microwave studio V14”, which is a commercially available electromagnetic simulator based on the method of finite difference time domain technique to achieve the desired specification. This antenna, based on a thickness of 2.4 mm Flame Retardant 4 (FR-4) substrate with a dielectric constant of approximately 4.3.The proposed antenna based on co-axial feed configuration has the maximum achievable bandwidth obtained about 350.2MHz (5.0408-5.391 GHz) at -10 dB reflection coefficient and the maximum achievable gain is 4.72 dB.
This paper presents a novel design of polygon shaped microstrip slot antenna for dual band operation. The dual bands are achieved by placing ring slot in the conventional polygon microstrip antenna. The impedance bandwidth of each operating band is found to be 6.58% and 27.53%. These bands are enhanced to 22.68% and 36.03% respectively by truncating two corners of polygon patch, which also reduces the overall size of the patch by 27.48% when compared to conventional square microstrip antenna. The enhancement of impedance bandwidth does not affect the nature of broadside radiation characteristics. Design concept of antennas is given and simulation results are discussed.
Linear filters are normally applied to act as the pre-processing aspect in various category functions present in the computer acting vision. The basics applied are the Gabor filters in the next categorized level. Support vector machine (SVM) is normally used in computer vision usage for face identification and expression recognition. The main error is encountered but due to increased dimensionality present in the closely Gabor filter, the outcome responses as a result of more demand and computational better work efficiency when carrying out the tests. Mostly the capability of the Gabor filter need to be increased and to achieve this the invention of SVM technique was suggested and placed to function and it resulted to a 1% modification improvement of the available existing neural network for based Gabor filter on face recognition criterion.
In this study, a review analysis of variety of processes that are used in the treatment and management produced water prior to reuse for petroleum operation (Hydraulic Fracturing and Injection) was measured. Samples of produced water from two locations in Heglig oilfield/in western of Sudan were taken and analyzed for their contents, some heavy metals, total suspended solids (TDS), total dissolved solid (TSS) and oil and grease. Moreover, two samples of water were tested biologically to detect the presence sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) that are most common found in water associated with petroleum.
The present work was planned to study the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments changes that may occur in the colon of the immobilized-stressed albino rats and the ameliorative role of diazepam injected intraperitoneally with therapeutic dose (0.1 mg/ kg b.w.). Sixty adult male albino rats weighing 110 ± 5g were used and divided equally into 6 groups (10 animals / each), group(I) served as control rats; group(II) rats treated with diazepam; group (III) and (IV) served as stressed rats: in which the rats were immobilized individually for 2 hrs. daily for two durations (5 and 30 days, respectively); groups (V) and (VI) served as immobilized- stressed rats for 2 hrs daily for 5and 30 days and treated with diazepam for 30 days, respectively. The results recorded a significant increase in sera cortisol of the stressed-rats for 5 and 30 days. Immunohistochemical results of colon demonstrated marked intense cytokeratin immunoreactivity at the apical part and the lateral borders of epithelial and goblet cells. Also, an obvious intense vimentin immunoreaction in the lamina propria and the blood vessels walls of the colonic mucosa of the immobilized-stressed rats for 2hrs/ daily for 5 and 30 days, these alterations were time-depended. Treatment with diazepam resulted in decreased cortisol levels, marked improvement and restoration of the cytoskeletal proteins alteration. The results indicated that diazepam is recommended to be used as a curative drug to improve the disturbances in the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments of colon induced by stress.
A study based on the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey, 2011 has said that India has the highest rate of major depression condition in the world. Major depression is a kind of neuropsychiatric disorder which can be treated by neural modulation. A region of the human brain called Brodmann area 25 (part responsible for rise of emotion) grows hyperactive, disrupting neural signal causing depression. When anti-depression drugs and Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) fail to control the hyperactivity in this region, the condition thereafter is known as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD). TRD patients can then be treated by Deep Brain Simulation (DBS). DBS system consists of three components - Implanted Pulse Generator (IPG) also called as stimulator, the lead and the extension. The device sends electrical pulses to the brain to interfere with neural activity at target site. Having any part of the device go through the skin would create a risk of infection, so the surgeon typically tunnels a small path under the skin from IPG to the electrode. There was considerable mood upliftment noticed in the patients. DBS is proving to be one of the most recent and novel intervention that involves high end technology for severely disabled patients with TRD.
This paper presents a experimental study considers the effect of aggregate size &steel fibers on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a very important parameter reflecting the ability of concrete to deform elastically. Modulus of elasticity of high strength concrete is very important in avoiding excessive deformation, providing satisfactory serviceability, and avoiding the most cost-effective designs. The present experimental study considers the effect of aggregate size and steel fibers on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. Crimped steel fibers at volume fraction of 0%.0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% were used. Study on effect of volume fraction of fibers and change of aggregate size on the modulus of elasticity of concrete was also deemed as an important part of present experimental investigation. This work aims in studying the mechanical behavior of concrete in terms of modulus of elasticity with the change of aggregate size reinforced with steel fibers of different series for M30 and M50 grade concretes.
A supercapacitor (SC), sometimes ultracapacitor, formerly electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is an electrical energy storage device which offers high energy density compared to conventional capacitors. One recent application of supercapacitors is to power the LED flashlight of high resolution camera phones. To eliminate dark and blurry photos, the camera phone designers have to meet three possible requirements while using LED flashlight: high capacitance, low ESR and suitable device thickness. Cap-XX Inc. is one of the supplier of supercapacitor to meet these requirements. In this paper, a thorough study has been done to evaluate that compared to the prismatic supercapacitor of Cap-XX Company, laser-scribed graphene (LSG) supercapacitor with gelled electrolyte is comparatively smaller in size and can provide more capacitance. Moreover, the proposed research is to optimize the capacitance of LSG supercapacitor by choosing suitable electrolyte, size and shape of electrode, and mobile ion of electrolyte for the purpose of powering LED flashlight of camera phones. The validation of the design has been done by analyzing three models of EDLC structure through MATLAB simulation tools.
Concrete efforts to integrate Software Engineering and Human Computer Interaction exist in the form of models by many researchers. Many efforts in this regard lead to various proposals of smooth integration of SE (software engineering) processes with HCI (human computer integration) for product development. One such effort is extended Agile process model. This paper presents a critical review of extended Agile Process model. It also suggests means to bring nearer the two diverse communities of SE and HCI. The objective of closing the gap between SE and HCI is to increase product usability.
This paper describes the design and development of power transmission through manual CVT. This design simplifies the transmission of power from rotary motion and also over comes the complexity of changing the speed ratios of pulleys and gears. The main purpose of this design is to attain ‘n’ number of speed ratios between designed limit. This contrasts with other mechanical transmissions that offer a fixed number of gear ratios. The flexibility of a CVT allows the input shaft to maintain a constant angular velocity. Here two conical component having required roughness is used. Power is transmitted through belt. This belt can be moved along the axis of conical components. Thus different speed ratio can be attained easily. This design can be applied in automobiles which has more efficiency when compared to automatic CVT.
This is the extended version of my earlier publication in this journal i.e. for the month of June edition 2015. I mentioned there that the proof of Fermat number to be composite beyond n = 4 is fully based on a conjecture that if u2 + 1 is composite, u4 + 1 is also composite. This conjecture was proved by the property of N-equation which was published in August edition 2013. To prove this conjecture I considered the fact that (u4 + 1) satisfies only the left hand odd element of a second kind N-equation a2 + b2 = c2. But (u4 + 1) may also satisfy the left hand odd element of a first kind N-equation except k = 1. This paper includes the fact that in both the cases the proof remains undisturbed. Because all the left hand odd elements except k = 1 are composite.
At present, the numbers of transport vehicles on the road are increasing all around the globe despite its environmental pollution. The variety of vehicles on the road leads to emission of different types of greenhouse gasses and particulate matter. These severely affect the environment and significantly affect the concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere. In Oman, at the end of 2014 the number of new cars increased by 8.6%. In Sohar, which is in the Al-Batinah region, around 48882 per day vehicles pass through Al-Batinah highway in front of Sohar University.
The key driver for deployment of sustainable Micro Grids in developing countries like India is need to provide electricity in remote & rural areas, energy security especially in urban areas and power quality. The enabling technologies like HVDC Light will play an important role in the success of Micro Grids. HVDC Light is the most interesting power transmission technology developed for several decades. It is ideal component in transmission network, which can control both active & reactive power instantaneously. HVDC Light/Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology provides key benefits like controllability, compact modular design, ease of system interface and low environmental impact. This paper describes Indian Power scenario, Concept of Micro Grids, different issue faced in implementation of Micro Grids. This paper also deals with Indian Grid, renewable potential in India, HVDC Light Technology and application of HVDC Light to Indian Transmission grid so as to build reliable & stronger grid for future. This paper also includes MATLAB Simulation for HVDC Light with mathematical analysis & output waveforms are verified as per mathematical analysis.
Cobalt doped Cadmium Cobalt Oxide nanofilms were grown by electrodeposition method using hydrated Cadmium Chloride salt as source of Cadmium ion, Citric acid as oxidizing agent, hexahydrated Cobalt Chloride salt as source of Cobalt ion, and Sodium hydroxide as pH adjuster. The percentage doping was varied from 3% to 23% in intervals of 5%. Results of the work show that the absorbance, reflectance, and refractive index are directly proportional to percentage doping with cobalt while transmittance is inversely proportional. The film exhibits low absorbance and reflectance while transmittance is generally high in all the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Geomorphological and forms have high ability to attract tourists in rural areas. Analyzing geomorphologic relationship with tourism issues including interdisciplinary researcher main tourism concern in recent years. By establishing such communication with geomorphologic tourist places human will understanding the factors affecting and the benefits of geological, geomorphologic, social and historical places, the aesthetic, scientific, cultural-historical and socio-economic are achieved. On the basis of this assumption we introduced Tis area of Chabahar as a geomorphological site for tourists which offers rural tourism and is the main aim of this research using Prolong method. The results showed that the proposed premises as a place of tourist geomorphologic feature and can be considered nothing but natural resources and tourism area. On these basis the value of these places mainly depends on their beauty and historic importance thus are of equal values of importance as tourism site. Village of Tis on the basis of public welfare has a low ranking which can be raised to higher levels as there is very high potential sites for tourism.
ATM come in a variety of form and sizes all to serve on goal; bring the bank closer to the user. ATMs have certain characteristics that need to be fulfilled at all times one of them is security. ATMs now are so advanced they can communicate with each other even if different Banks. In this research, designing and the implementation of ATM system has been conducted using an Object Oriented Approach along with the necessary tools such as UML and Microsoft Office Visio 2007. The use case took place; and the requirements were analyzed and based on the analysis the design took place; and basing on it the implementation is done based on object oriented concepts under Java NetBeans IDE 8.0.2, whereas the designs of diagrams are designed UML with Microsoft Office Visio 2007.
This study was carried out to study what IT students go through in times of wars and conflicts. Most of the literature that studied impacts of war on education studied the general educational system or children’s’ education. There is lack of studies that study specific educational field and how it is impacted. In this study more than 90 IT students currently attending universities in Baghdad and Diyala in Iraq were surveyed. The results showed that the trip to and from the university is the primary and number one issue the students face studying IT. It was also found that there is no practical solution the authorities undertake to minimize the issues the students face. As a solution a cloud based learning management system with offline capabilities was proposed to solve the major issues the IT students face studying IT.
The Wireless charging is a technique of transmitting power through the air to an electrical device for the purpose of restoring energy. Recently, the wireless charging technology has been significantly advanced in terms of efficiency and functionality. The paper presents the application of a wireless charger which clearly shows the benefit in terms of reduced costs for users to identify the best chargers to replenish energy for their mobile devices. The concept addresed in the paper relates to the universal wireless battery charger for portable electronic equipments and gadgets such as mobile phones, audio devices, etc. The Wireless Battery Charger using Standard TRS Connectors based on “Induced EMF” aims at providing unique charging facility to all the portable electronic devices of different brands manufactured around the world. The new concept forms the basis of a new generation of wireless universal charging platform for a wide range of electronic gadgets and equipments.
In recent years, automotive manufacturers have equipped their vehicles with innovative Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) to ease driving and avoid dangerous situations, such as unintended lane departures or collisions with other road users, like vehicles and pedestrians. To this end, ADAS at the cutting edge are equipped with cameras to sense the vehicle surrounding. This dissertation investigates the techniques for monocular vision based vehicle detection. A system that can robustly detect and track vehicles in images. The system consists of three major modules: Histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) is used as the main feature descriptor which is shape oriented, a machine learning part based on support vector machine (SVM) for vehicle verification, to make the system biological human eye driven lastly a technique is applied for texture analysis by applying the concept of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM).More specifically, we are interested in detection of cars from different camera viewpoints, diverse lightning conditions majorly images in low light and normal day light conditions further handling the low level occlusion. The images has been pre-processed at the first step to get the optimum results in all the conditions. In this thesis work, HOG is the main feature extraction method secondly, a texture based feature vector is calculated with the method of gray level co-occurrence matrix and to the end Support Vector Machine is used as a classifier. Experiments have been conducted on 1198 low light car images dataset with side and rear view, secondly normal day light conditions with 1657 image dataset, the dataset contains a mixed samples of partial and self-occlusion. For car images the classifier contains 2 classes of images with the combination of positive and negative images with the test and train segments. Due to length of long feature vector we have made the best filtration for deducing its size using different cell sizes for more accuracy and efficiency. Results will be presented and future work will be discussed.
In the environment polythene constitutes a high percentage of municipal wastes which pose a lot of threat to human lives and properties. Hence, the need to manage these wastes comes in. The traditional methods of disposing polythene wastes have proved to be relatively expensive and unhealthy. Recycling of these non-biodegradable wastes will be more economical, healthy and safer for the environment. Thus, polythene chipping machine was developed using locally available materials via well structured designed and construction, and its performance was also evaluated. The machine has four major parts which include hopper, chipping chamber, delivery outlet and the frame. The machine was designed to use fixed and rotary blades which were primed by high-speed electric motor and was able to shred pure water sachets in to flakes. After testing the polythene chipping machine, it shredded the polythene bags into the desired chips. Results showed that the machine produced about 10.2 kg of chipped polythene flakes as output for 30minutes. Conclusively, the efficiency of the machine was 79.69% which indicate that the machine was able to serve its purpose. The successful development of this machine will assist the underdeveloped and the developing countries in cleaning up their environment from non-biodegradable polythene wastes which have constituted a serious health and environmental problems in the society.
Tris(pentafluorophenyl)bismuth(V) carboxylates; (C6F5)3Bi(OCOR)2 and tris(pentafluorophenylcyclobismuthates have been synthesized. These compounds are monomeric in benzene and non electrolyte in acetonitrile. The formation of ring compounds were established on the basis of IR spectra, melting points, elemental analysis.
Pentafluorophenylbismuth (V) Carboxylates and µ-oxo bis[triphenylbismuth(V)] Carboxylates have been synthesissed by the author and screened for its antibacterial (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococous aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia), antifungal (against Aspergillus flavas and Aspergillus niger), insecticidal [against male and female adult cockroaches (Periplanata americana) and housefly (Musca-domestica)], and acaricidal (Tetranchus species) activity. These newly synthesised compounds were found to be moderate to significant biologically active
Orange fruit is an economic fruit that have excellent value in both human diet and medicine. It is available during its harvesting period but becomes scarce after a short while due to its poor storage techniques. This project work aimed at investigating the shelf life of five selected species of orange fruits under five different storage techniques. The storage techniques are refrigerator, room storage, Pit storage, under shade and open space. The five (5) selected species of orange fruits for this work are Tangerine, Valencia, Washington, Grape fruit and Ibadan sweet, and were harvested from Agbo community orange orchard in Makurdi directly by hand into five different boxes of five columns and ten rows each and were transferred to the research environment. Ten (10) oranges were picked out of the fifty (50) orange fruits carefully selected from each species, summing up to two hundred and fifty (250) orange fruits for this research and stored under the various storage techniques for seventy (70) days.
Background: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are the most common seriuos congenital abnormalities that affect the orofacial region. Patients with CLP and with isolated clefts of the palate have a malformation that involves critical anatomic components of the velopharingeal mechanism.
Fingerprint is one of the biometric used in security system which are practically applicable in different fields for safety measures. In forensic anthropology fingerprints are the most mature biometric technologies used for gender classification. Finger prints evidence is the most reliable and acceptable evidence in order to identify the criminal and to minimize the suspect search list. As per study many authors have carried out research on gender identification and classification techniques which are based on face image with high accuracies; but these techniques consume more time. In the same way some machine vision techniques have been carried out for the identification of gender using fingerprints. In this work we have extracted the statistical features based on discrete wavelet transform for the gender identification classification using fingerprints. The real fingerprints were collected from both rural and urban people of the different age groups. The SVM classifier is used to classify the gender. An 89 % and 91% classification rate is achieved for discrete wavelet transforms (DWT) using SVM (RBF sigma) and SVM (polynomial) classifier respectively. The concept is analyzed and reported results in this work overcome the limitations of earlier methods and algorithms with the competitive and satisfactory results.
Wireless communication systems utilize smart antennas. Smart antenna have digital signal processing unit. Smart antennas have ability to locate and track signals. Smart antenna performance depends on efficiency of digital signal processing algorithms. The Angle of Arrival (AOA) estimation algorithms is used for estimate the number of incidents signals on the antenna array and their angle of incidence. This paper based on MUSIC DOA estimation method. The simulation results show classical MUSIC algorithm, different parameters effect on estimation and methods for improvisation of MUSIC algorithm.
Software engineering deals with the all kind of software production, design to coding, software accuracy and deals with the complexity of any software system. The software failing complication can be raised in the complex software’s, when we are not able to properly analyze the properties of the software. In the past times the algorithm of genetic had been proposed to cluster the functions of similar properties. In the genetic algorithms, all the clustering values are depends on the chromosomes. It is very difficult to estimate the correct value of chromosomes, which decreases the efficiency of the software architecture analysis. For increasing the software architecture analysis, the K-Mean clustering will be used which is more efficient then the genetic clustering. This will improve the software architecture analysis and improve the accuracy and reduce algorithm escape time.
In this paper we have considered a wireless mobile network with data/voice traffic. The paper, considered two type of channel assignment (1) with guard channel (2) without guard channel. In cellular mobile system, radio channels are very limited and mobility of mobile terminal occurs a phenomenon called handoff. Handoff is defined as process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. Due to the limited bandwidth available in various cells, there is a finite probability that an ongoing call, while being handed off, or it may get dropped. Minimizing the dropping of ongoing call during the handoff is the important issue for the mobile communication. In this paper we analyzed the channel assignment by the Queueing approach and compared the result of both the models in terms of dropping and blocking probability. We used the MAHO scheme, mobile assisted handoff, in which mobile terminal assists BSS and mobile switching center makes handoff decisions. In MAHO mobile terminal required to reports its RSSI (received signal strength indication) back to its serving BSS. In first case we reserved some channels for handoff calls. And in 2nd case we didn’t use any guard channel; there is no priority in channel assignment for handoff.
Software cost estimation plays a vital role in software engineering as the success or failure of project entirely depends on it. Accurately estimating the cost of software projects is one of the most desired capabilities in software development organizations. An estimate is not really a prediction, it is a management goal. Measurement of work involved in completing a project is called size of the project.Effort and time required to develop the software can be computed by estimating the project size.Inaccurate cost estimation may lead to project failure,huge overruns and performance compromises as a consequence.In this paper, a hybrid parametric model has been proposed with size estimation model which helps to determine a set of homogeneous projects by using a technique derived from estimation by analogy.
This paper presents the evaluation and comparison of frequency dependent Microstrip Effective relative permittivity Îµ_eff (f) using the various dispersion models present in the literature. The Îµ_eff (f) of these models are evaluated using the Matlab programs which then compared with the measured data already published in the literature using an open source tool named Engauge digitizer. To check the accuracy of these formulas an r.m.s (root-mean-square) deviation from theoretical calculation and measured data has been presented. The dispersion effect on microstrip characteristic impedance is also studied using the planar waveguide model. This comparison helps the microstrip computer aided design (CAD) engineer to get the accurate and reliable information about the dispersive nature of microstrip lines.
Many graph theory problems could be solved by using the principles of group theory, such as symmetric groups, automorphisms of groups and connecting these ideas to the automorphisms of a graph. These algebraic principles play the basic role and could be used as tools to prove tasks related to graph theory.
Performance being no more synonymous with only circuit speed and processing power but also power consumption, Low power has emerged as a principal theme in today’s world of electronics industries. So, to design a low power VLSI circuit, non clocked styles like DCVSL & MDCVSL are being used. This paper is intended to show the most power efficient logic style for VLSI design for a particular circuit. It represents the simulation of different XOR Structures and their comparative analysis on different parameters such as power, supply voltage and temperature using DCVSL, MDCVSL & CMOS design methodologies. All the simulations have been carried out on Tanner Tools v13.0.
One of the main concerns of master planning is the proper designation of appropriate sites for feasible and sustainable land use. A main importance of such issue is that it withdraws attention to the necessity of adopting a multidisciplinary approach to the zoning and site selection problem, also Sustainability of urban areas has the highest priority worldwide and developing countries in particular. Fertile urban areas in Iraq are constantly deteriorating due to random urbanization.
Pollutant such as exhaust gases cause damage to human health and safety of other living organisms. Diesel, a derivative of petroleum is one of the major pollutants of air, water and soil. It is rapidly increasing every year causing grave and irreversible consequences. Adsorptive desulphurization of diesel oil has been investigated in a batch reactor using activated manganese dioxide as the adsorbent. The results obtained showed that desulphurization efficiency increased on increasing contact time. There was 53% reduction of diesel oil sulphur content at the end of the process. The respective square of correlation coefficient (R2) values of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order reaction models were estimated to be 0.8941 and 0.9987 respectively when the experimental data were fitted into them. Thus, pseudo-second order reaction model was found to better describe the desulphurization process with chemisorption being the rate limiting step. Also, the effects of desulphurization on other physico-chemical properties of diesel oil show insignificant changes after treatment. However, there is the need to improve on the methods and the adsorbents that will result in complete isolation of sulphur from diesel oil.
This study was carried out to determine some mechanical and aerodynamic properties of castor fruits and seeds as a function of moisture content. The knowledge of these mechanical and aerodynamic properties of fruits and seeds are important parameters in the design, harvesting, handling, storage and processing equipment and in the analysis and prediction of their dehusking and shelling behavior during handling and processing. To provide the needed data, investigation of the mechanical and aerodynamic properties of the fruits and seeds under different moisture content levels of 5%, 6% and 7% was carried out. Two varieties of castor fruits and seeds namely large and Small were collected and some of the mechanical and aerodynamic properties, such as compressive strength, bio-yield force, rupture force, deformation at rupture, energy, modulus of deformation , toughness and drag force, terminal velocity and acceleration were determined. The results obtained for the mechanical properties of castor fruits and seeds showed that on 6% and 7% moisture content, the forces and energy required for dehusking and shelling are higher than on 5% moisture content on both large and small castor fruits and seeds. The results obtained for the aerodynamic properties of large and small castor fruits and seeds at three moisture content showed that the larger the fruits and seeds the higher the aerodynamic properties. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using randomized block design method at 5% probability level was used to analyze the effect of moisture content, and size on mechanical and aerodynamic properties of castor fruits and seeds. It is also to determine the effect on dehusking and shelling of castor fruits and seeds.
The Big Bang theory is widely accepted as the basis for the creation of our universe. All the research thus far has been aimed at understanding the evolution of events and the reactions which took place from the time of its "actual" occurrence. The Big Bang and it's after effects and processes have been mostly amenable to logical and scientific inquiry and analysis. But very little thought or research, if any, went into understanding the medium in which the Big Bang may have taken place. Some argue that it came out of "nothing" and some imply it was the work of God and so on. There seems to be a common belief that it would be next to impossible to bring the pre- Big Bang environment under scientific scrutiny because of widely held but unshakable belief that there are no remnants from pre- Big Bang era to facilitate such scrutiny and that everything in our universe owes its existence to the Big Bang.
My research paper is based on the recent work in interior-point methods, specifically those methods that keep track of both the primal and dual optimization variables (hence primal-dual methods). These methods are special because they are numerically stable under a wide range of conditions, so they should work well for many different types of constrained optimization problems.However, you can always find a constrained optimization problem that is difficult enough to break these methods.
Most of the healthcare organizations were lagging in adoption of new technology. But, in recent few years, researchers are able to enhance healthcare services by using technologies such as mobile devices, wireless sensor networks and cloud computing. Although there is improvement in healthcare services, use of untrustworthy cloud service provider possesses a serious risk on privacy of client’s medical data and intellectual property of the mobile health service provider. In addition to that, existing research efforts do not support SQL (Structured Query Language) range queries over encrypted health records stored in cloud database. To address above problems, this paper proposes a novel design of secure mobile healthcare monitoring. The proposed system makes use of Order Preserving Encryption (OPE) technique to provide confidentiality of health records as well as to support range queries over encrypted database. Morever this paper also provides security and performance analysis of Order Preserving Encryption.
Looking up the meaning of an English word in a dictionary or a lexicon is an easy task. Unfortunately, this is not true in case of the Arabic language in which, typically, the root of a given word has to be derived first before its meaning is looked up. Deriving the root of an Arabic word is not a trivial task. Thus, students always find difficulty in learning the process. Besides, there is hardly any textbook with enough exercises to help students get trained as much as they need. This calls for developing an automated tutor that helps train students by deriving the root of an input Arabic word and generating an explanation of how the root has been derived. This paper presents an automated tool that has been developed for this purpose. It is used to train students to derive the roots of Arabic verbs provided that the root is composed of three or four characters.
According to World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Over 3 billion people i.e, 40% of the world population has an Internet connection. Internet users prefer to access web pages that range from static to dynamic, HD videos to 3D videos. Due to the dynamic nature of the website and rich user interface a lot of network bandwidth is wasted in various web contents like advertisement, images, redirection, audios and videos. Such heavy websites introduces latency in loading of web pages due to low network bandwidth. To reduce the latency a lot of research work is proposed on prefetching and parallel loading of web page content but they do not provide personalization. In this paper, we propose a novel network bandwidth conservative technique for personalize web access that reduces web latency on low network bandwidth devices or users. In particular, our approach uses object reordering, priotarization and compression algorithm to reduce the web latency. The approach allows user to specify his preferences to improve browsing experience with filtering unnecessary advertisements and unwanted content on website and compress images and videos. Thus, low latency network user's perceived latency can be minimized and network bandwidth consumption can be reduced.
Achieving the design life at planned costs of road pavements at intersections is crucial to the stakeholders who are tax payers, routes pliers and the dispensing authorities. The fact that as road pavements at intersections evolve, drainages too evolve, there is therefore call for terotechnology activities to keep the pavement structures in restored status through it design lifetime. Hence, this study investigates tero-drainage affectance in life cycle costs of road pavements at Iwo road multi route intersection in Ibadan, Nigeria. The Iwo road multi route intersection with a 500 m diameter rotary was studied, with emphasis on the drainage conditions: evaluation of adequacy and sufficiency of drainage, drainage rating, cambering and pavement design. Life cycle costs of road pavement, evaluation of Costs of Maintenance and reparatory costs of pavement deterioration from 2000 â€“ 2015. Tero-drainage activity: introduction of measure to curb waste disposal into drainage structure and removal of waste incursion. Analysis revealed that camber has dropped from 3% to 1% as opposed to 4% to 6% resulting in reduced pavement drainage efficiency and subsequent pooling and ponding of the pavement, consequence of which is the frequent damage to the pavement structure and extra restoration costs. In addition, drainage structures along certain routes were not provided, leading to inadequacy of pavement drainage at such points, furthermore, waste incursion in drainage structures have drastically made them inefficient. If drainage structures have been provided at the time of construction of the intersection, maintenance costs within the period under review would have been limited to 3.9%, meeting the standard of between 3% and 6% of construction costs, as against 164.55% incurred on maintenance and reparatory costs during the period. Consistent pavement failure from unrestored drainage results in large amount of costly repairs or replacements long before reaching their design life. Thus, provision of paved covers on the rotary drains has solved the drainage problems associated with environmental incursions. The drainability of road pavements should therefore be planned from the design stage, bearing in mind the maintenance culture of the stakeholders.
In this paper, we utilize the application of sparse representation on single image super-resolution problems. It is found from the image statistics that image patches can be well-represented as a sparse linear combination of elements from an appropriately selection over-complete trained dictionary. In this algorithm, a sparse representation for each patch of the low-resolution image, and then the coefficients in the low-resolution domain used for reconstruction of the high-resolution counterpart. By jointly training the low-resolution and high-resolution dictionaries and selecting the best match for the local patch, a super-resolution image is generated. By increasing the similarity index between the low-resolution and high-resolution local patches, it is possible to get best results. Experimental results on single image super-resolution demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.
Normally the output data from GPS can be displayed instantaneously, the only equipment which can record these data and give a history track for location is Voyage Data Recorder (VDR). The VDR is interfaced with the GPS through National Maritime Electronic Association (NMEA) interface. In this research we will record the track position for moving object like ship, car or train, then after certain period of time we retrieve these data and use it for different purposes as data analysis for the path of the journey .Electronic circuit is designed to record GPS position coordinates, this enable marine officers to analyze and track their voyage at any time, and these data can be use as track history for the journey. The designed system simply use microcontroller PIC 16f877A with simple multimedia card that can save coordinates and extract information directly without need to external complex programs.
Refuse dumpsites are found both within and on the outskirts of cities in Nigeria and due to poor and ineffective management, the dumpsites turn to sources of health hazards to people living in the vicinity of such dumps. Therefore, this paper was designed to determine the frequency and to examine the health implications of contaminations of the experimented water samples at selected dumpsite locations in Nigeria. A Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 72, RMS 95% typical) was employed to locate 20 specific sample points at 500 m radius from Aba-Eku and Ajakanga dumpsites. Sterilized 75 cl water bottles were used to collect water samples from shallow hand dug wells at an average depth of 8 m. PH meter, conductivity meter, Loviband digital analyzer, turbidity meter, and heavy metal monitoring equipment from Water Corporation of Oyo State Laboratory at Asejire were used to test for the following parameters; pH, Temperature, Conductivity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity, Lead(Pb), Copper(Cu), Iron(Fe), Chloride(Cl-), Ammonium(NH4+), Sulphate(S042-) and Calcium(Ca). The results were then analyzed using Quantum GIS Brighton 2.6 to derive the raster histograms of the sample results in order to determine the level of contamination of the well water. The results show that the level of contamination of each well varies directly on the location of each well. The farther the well is located, the lesser the level of contamination and the closer the well is located, the more the wells are exposed to serious contaminations from the dumpsite. Groundwater intended to be explored at a distance of less than100 m from any dumpsite should preferably be bore-holes or very deep wells.
Area reduction and leakage current reduction are among the major area of concern in today’s CMOS Technology. SRAM is a most common embedded memory for CMOS ICs and it uses bistable latching circuitry to store a bit. This paper provides comparative analysis on performance of different SRAM cells - 6T,8T and 12 T by considering layout, power and current values. The simulation output is obtained by using HSPICE tool.
With the development of modern technology and Android Smartphone, Smart Driving is gradually changing peoples life. Bluetooth technology, which aims to exchange data wirelessly in a short distance using short-wavelength radio transmissions, is providing a necessary technology to create convenience, intelligence and controllability. However, this paper looks into the development of an ANDROID application which is interfaced with vehicle hardware and subsequently to display call name, location, message on the hardware using bluetooth module.
Aluminum toxicity is one of the major environmental constraints limiting rice growth and productivity. To overcome that constraint the genetic study of rice crop-tolerance against Al toxicity is a one of the best approaches to save the time and efficiency. The core objective of the experiment was to identify QTLs for aluminum toxicity tolerance in introgression lines of rice. The experiment was conducted in hydroponic environment with two sets of reciprocal introgression lines derived from the cross of 02428/Minghui63 in japonica 02428 background (02428-ILs) and indica Minghui63 background (MH63-ILs) to evaluate aluminum toxicity tolerance (ATT) at the concentration of 1.5 mmol L-1 at the seedling stage. The relative root elongation (RRE) was recorded as tolerance-criterion. Furthermore, the two sets of RILs were genotyped by 384 evenly distributed SNP markers developed by the two parents. The parent 02428 has greater ATT than that of MH63. In total, fourteen QTLs for all environments on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12 including nine QTLs detected in both populations. Among them, four stable QTLs (QRl1b, QRl2, QRl9 and QRL10) on chromosome 1, 2, 9 and 10 were commonly detected in both backgrounds. The preliminary QTL mapping of ATT will provide useful information for further fine-mapping and marker-assisted selection for rice improvement of Aluminum toxicity tolerance (ATT).
This paper describes a new more difficult efficient Hydraulic System which uses lesser work to produce more output
With the increase in urbanization and degradation of the urban environment, sanitation is becoming a predominant challenge within the short run. High resolution satellite imagery gives the first conception of polluted drainage sites, whether by the river or in residential areas. This helps in studying the seriousness of pollutants and their causes. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the pollutants in wastewaters received at pump stations in Al-Kut city in Wasit governorate, Iraq by using GIS data and techniques. Water samples were collected from 24 geo-referenced pump stations distributed within the studied area before being discharged into the river. Three water samples were collected in each of the following months: February, March and April in 2015. Samples were analyzed for (BOD, COD, PO4-, NO2-, NO3-, TDS, TSS, H2S, and EC). The spatial distribution of these pollutants within the studied area was carried out using Ordinary Kriging (OK). The results revealed an increase in the concentrations of the studied pollutants when compared with Iraqi standards. The mean concentrations were: 247.54, 8.96, 0.59, 2.92, 1557.58, 232.79, 21.55, 2164.58, and 283.63 mg l-1 for BOD, PO4-, NO2-, NO3-, TDS, TSS, H2S, EC and COD, respectively. These concentrations were attributed with the human activities and land use in the studied area.
Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bone and teeth. A novel nano composite involving nHAp/polymer matrix has been successfully synthesized by wet chemical precipitation method at room temperature. The purpose to synthesize such nano composite is to respect to suitable biocompatibility, bioactivity, cytotoxicity and mechanical properties. The FTIR spectra of nHAp/polymer matrix indicated significant intermolecular interaction between the various vibrational modes corresponds to phosphate and hydroxyl groups. The results of XRD, TGA/DTA suggested that the crystallinity and thermal stability of the nHAp/ polymer matrix peaks have decreased and increased respectively. The size and morphology of the sample were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).
Have you heard about Adam’s bridge which is also known as Ramsetu bridge.The bridge between the sri lanka and rameshwaram of india. In order to study the properties of stone utilized in this bridge,We develop a fabricatingl floating stone and a fabricating floating stone foundation.The floating stone have a floating property upto the weight of 50gm and it has a compressive strength of 16.5 mpa and the floating foundation has a self weight of 2.9kg and it takes a weight upto 1.025 kg on it without sinking.
Biometrics is the computer based validation of a person’s identity and is becoming more and more essential due to the increasing demand for high security systems. The objective of this work is to implement and assess the performance of independent component analysis technique in the characterization of human faces. The ICA is implemented using MATLAB 7.0 package which defines the input layer, the hidden layer and the output layer of the network. The Independent component analysis is an array of higher order statistical neurons which learns by examples through a training process before it can function in its area of application. The face recognition code was also trained and tested using cropped face images of 50Ã—50, 60Ã—60, 70Ã—70, 80Ã—80 and they all have the same recognition rate which is 100%. In conclusion, face detection and recognition using independent component analysis is a robust and reliable method.
This work is on the study of rough weather on the speed and fuel consumption of the ship. Rough weather increases the re-sistance of the ship and thus results in speed loss which may be voluntary or involuntary speed loss. This effect results in increased power which will be needed to overcome the resistance and thus increasing the fuel consumption. To attain desired speed in rough weather, the best combination of low resistance and high propulsion efficiency should be attained and the use of weather routing device. Taylor’s standard series contours and ATTC-line along some empirical formulas were used to estimate the various components of ship resistance, Effective Power, Brake Power and Mass of fuel consumed. The rough weather was simulated using perturbation wind speeds of 30knots, 40 knots and 47 knots typical values obtainable in Indian Ocean. The behavior of the variation was similar across the four parameters RT, PE, PB, and MF investigated. However there was always a noticeable shift in the curve in a manner that suggests that the parameters increase with increase in wind speed.
Fusion of images is an important concept and can be used in a wide variety of applications, especially in the enhancement of images taken from satellites. Although there are various techniques through which images can be fused. Image Fusion is an integration of more than two images so that the invisible or blurred part of the images is visible in the resultant image. Guided filtering is a technique of filtering images so that the fused image is an enhanced image. But the technique implemented for the image fusion is not efficient in terms of fused ratio and the technique is not feasible for all type of images. Hence an efficient technique is implemented here which uses the concept of image enhancement using DWT and canny edge detection, after both the images gets enhanced the resultant images are fused to get the final fused image.
Desertification is a complex phenomenon which reduces the soil fertility involving ecological and economic processes that characterise the environment at different geographic scale. The MEDALUS model identifies regions that are environmentally sensitive area (ESAs). In this model, different types of ESAs to desertification can be analyzed in terms of various parameters such as landforms, soil, geology, vegetation, climate, and human actions. The studied area is located in the northern part of the Sinai Peninsula in arid and semi-arid region and third of its area is exposed to the threat of desertification with attention turning to the increasing area of deserts on Sinai, it is necessary to first identify areas liable to desertification before identifying mitigation and control measures. For this purpose it is necessary to prepare a desertification map as a guide for planners. In this study to evaluate the desertification condition regarding to local conditions of the study area, six indices of water, climate, soil, vegitation, management and wind erosion erosion were selected and assessment of desertification condition was conducted Based on these indices, weightening and MEDALUS model. The results showed that climate quality (CQI) with Description (Low quality), (VQI) with Description (Very low quality) and Management quality index (MQI) with Description (Moderate) have the highest effects. Soil quality index (SQI) (Moderate to High quality) have the lowest effect on the desertification process in the study area. Desertification Sensitivity Index (SDI) Almost Sensitive to Very sensitive areas ( 21-78% ) of study area was located in the desertification.
The glycine was administered to 50 patients male and female with spasticity diagnosis (caused by vascular disease or traumatic brain injury) with 46 years average, during 360 days. Was determinated their weight before and after of treatment, observed an increased of 11% in the corporal weight. The muscular clinic examination showed a significant increased (p<0.05) of 75% in the Ashwort Scale. The dynamic electromyography showed a significant increased (p<0.05) in the motor active units per second in all muscles of superior extremity like biceps before treated an mean 106.58±23.11, at 360 days the mean was 229.4±15.1. In lower extremity the anterior tibialis muscle at the start presented a value of 92.16±25.01, the mean al 360 days was 180.2±15.3.
This research aimed at study the different use of epistemic and root modality between Iranian male and female authors , as the application of these modalities is different according to the identity (gender) of the authors. So the present study attempted to explore the issue of gender in academic written papers by analyzing the type and frequency of epistemic and root modality . To do this , this study applied Quirk (1985) model for analyzing and identifying these elements. 40 research papers in the field of applied linguistics were reviewed in this study. (20 written by non-native Iranian female and 20 written by non-native Iranian male authors ). This research examined whether there is a difference in the use of such modalities by male and female non-native Iranian authors. The significance of difference in the distribution of these elements in academic papers written by non-native Iranian female and male writers was assessed by statistical chi-square technique. The results of this study showed a significant difference in the overall distributions of these modalities but no significant difference was considered in the categorical distribution of epistemic and root modalities. Based on the findings of the current study , these elements of modality were useful for having effective writing and successful writer-reader interaction.
Management tool is needed for thinning regime and maximum volume growth for effective forest management. Stand density management model was developed for Oban Forest Reserve, Cross River, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. The sampling procedure was made up of primary, secondary and tertiary sampling units of size 40m x 50m (0.2ha) were measured for diameter at breast height dbh â‰¥ 10 cm. Results showed that the average total stem volume/ha and basal area/ha in Oban forest reserve were 797 m3 34.67 m2 respectively.
BaxSr1-xTiO3 solid solutions were prepared by solid-state reaction from barium carbonate, strontium carbonate and titanium dioxide raw materials. Four compositions with x =0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 have been investigated. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The perovskite type and polycrystalline structure of the BST samples were revealed by X-ray diffraction data. The morphology, grain size distribution, porous structure and elemental composition of the sintered ceramics were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. The variation of dielectric constant and dielectric losses with frequency variation were studied at room temperature.
In the conventional mechanism spare tires in buses are often stored in a spare tire well â€“ a roof carrier area above the roof a vehicle, usually in the center, where the spare tire is stored while not in use. In most buses, the spare tire is not secured with a bolt and wing-nut style fastener. While this is still the most commonly used method for storing the spare wheel in a commercial vehicle such as bus, trucks etc. There are many disadvantages of this method. In order to overcome the disadvantages of this conventional mechanism we have designed and developed an ‘Advanced spare wheel carrier’ which can be used to store the spare wheel(s) in a vehicle. This mechanism uses electrically powered motor to lift and lower the spare wheel and has a suitable locking mechanism to lock up the spare wheel in the spare wheel bracket after the change of tire; it is also strategically located at the bottom of the bus to facilitate easy and safer tire changing. Proper selection of the Stepney bracket results in the lowest overall tyre changing cycle, reduced waiting time for travelers, No hard work for driver and reduces stress, & strategically located spare wheel bracket which facilitates easy and safer tire changing. Further, we have also developed CAD drawing and full scale working model to illustrate design features, feasibility and working of this model. We were also able to reduce the overall tire changing time from approximately 90 minutes to 30 minutes.
As most of us look ahead into what we expect for our future, we will envision a life of good health, success and family. What if the health factor was not good? What if the woman in the family became ill with one of the most uprising and terminal illnesses. Breast cancer is a type of cancer which develops from a mutated gene. “One in 10 American women who live to be 70 develops breast cancer, with more than 180,000new cases diagnosed each year.” (Predicting breast-cancer, MSNBC Health News) Most of us, when thinking of the future do not take into account the idea of becoming ill. Yet today, this is indeed an issue that needs attention as early in life as possible. Doctors who work with breast cancer patient are now recommending that women as young as 15 and 16 years old should start with self-examination. But how effective is the self-exam, and other forms of early detection, and does it really help to save women from the disease? This is a question we hope to address in the following research.
LTE is a standard for wireless data communications technology and an evolution of the GSM/UMTS standards. Meander line antenna (MLA) is the most usage of antenna that use in LTE. This paper proposes an electrically two type of small-size antenna that is based on the meander antenna structure that operates in the 2.4 GHz band of LTE. These types are MLA with different length and different thickness and log periodic MLA of vertical segment .Designs are optimized to improve radiation efficiency up to 80% , remove the ripples Which represents the simple loss of power and the band width up to 130 MHz.
Nanostructure CdS thin film was fabricated by flash deposition technique. X-ray diffraction patterns exhibit small peaks with a hexagonal phase and the value of average grain size is about 9.603 nm. The optical transitions in nanostructure CdS film is direct transition and the value of optical energy gap is about 3.96 eV. The current-voltage characteristics of the CdS/PS solar cell under dark conditions show that forward bias current variation approximately exponentially with voltage bias. The capacitance for Nano-CdS/PS Solar Cell decreases with the increase of the reverse bias voltage and with the increasing of etching time of nPS layers, the value of built- in potential for heterojunction increases with the increasing of etching time of PS layers.
Adsorption of Cu (II) ions by the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) from dilute aqueous solutions was studied. This adsorption is influenced by many physico-chemical parameters like contact time, pH and the initial concentration of the metal ion. The kinetics shows that the extraction equilibrium is fast, it is reached after 45 mn when over than 34% of metal is extracted. The amount of metal adsorbed per unit mass of the support increases with increasing pH of the metal solution and decreases by increasing the initial concentration of Cu2+ ions in the supernatant solution. The kinetics data was analyzed with various kinetic models. It was found that the pseudo-second order model using the linear regression method predicted best the experimental data. Furthermore, the adsorption process was modeled by Langmuir isotherm and the removal capacity was 362 mg/g. Indeed, the separation factor value (RL = 0.133) indicates that the adsorption of copper on DCPD is favorable.
An efficient and highly reproducible plant regeneration protocol has been developed from mature embryo of Anacardium occidentale. The recalcitrant nature of cashew has contributed to the limited success records in its in vitro culture. Browning of explant in cashew was found to be due to the oxidation of phenolic compound by polyphenolic oxidase enzyme present in the tissue when excised. In the current study, it has been reduced through the addition of activated charcoal, fast subculture passages and dark treatment. In vitro cultures of zygotic embryos were carried out on various media (Murashige and Skoog medium, Woody Plant medium) with different concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Maximum percentage of embryo germination and healthy plantlet formation was observed on WP medium containing 25mg/l 2,4-D and 10mg/l BAP compared to MS medium. In vitro developed plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to soil. In vitro mature zygotic embryo culture thus allows for the production of cashew seedlings that can be transferred to natural orchards.
Vehicular ad-hoc networks are particularly useful and well-suited for critical scenarios including road-accidents and in emergency situations. When operating in vicious or suspicious enviornment, VANET requires communication security and privacy,especially location privacy.Most of the applications in VANET like warning messages, collision avoidance messages require exact location of the vehicle. This information available in the network can be used by an adversary to track a vehicle.We need a preventive approach because lack of privacy may act as barrier in the acceptance of VANETs.This paper presents an algorithm inspired from a concept of genetic algorithms to compute the validity of the algorithm and gauge the performance of work.We analyze privacy in and performance of the algorithm by computationally finding the correlation factor. Result has shown that this approach achieved sufficient degree of privacy in the network.
Expansive soils are found in many arid and semi-arid areas in worldwide such as Australia, Canada, China, India, North Africa and the United States. Egypt as a country from north Africa has a lot areas having expansive soil. Qena governorate which is situated at 594 km south Cairo has adequate land area for expansion and being an important industrial, commercial, educational and tourist center in the Upper Egypt region. In Qena, there are several areas where this kind of problematic soil exists in the form of variable-thickness layers in the developed regions, such as new Qena city, Qeft city and El-Salheya area. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate some of engineering properties of expansive soil in El-Salheya area which is situated at 2km east Qena governorate where development has a promising future. Representative disturbed samples were taken from two sites in this area. Three samples were taken from each site at depth 1.5m, 3.0 m and 4.5 m. Different laboratory tests were carried out on these samples including, natural water content, natural dry density, grain size distribution, Aterberge limits, unconfined compressive strength, modified proctor, free swelling, swell potential and swelling pressure. These tests were supported by chemical and mineralogical investigations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The results of these tests showed that the clay in this area has mineral montorillonite predominantly with low to medium expansion. Also, some empirical equations are proposed to determine the expansion indices from soil properties.
Grade crossing accidents in Egypt Railways shows that its about 6.7 accidents per million train.km, while the average grade crossing accidents worldwide are 0.65 accidents per million train.km, which is equivalent to ten times the world average. Accidents rate on grade crossing represent about half the total accidents in Egypt Railways. This paper aims to safely alignment for grade crossing, avoiding accidents and the resulting losses and reaching to the necessary recommendations to achieve safe and safety on railway lines by applying the modern technology and safety systems. To realize this goal, grade crossing accidents should be studied then classifying according to the following, straitening of the grade crossing and determined the most severity grade crossing repeated accidents, fatalities and injuries. There are several factors that affect the dangerous of grade crossings, including train traffic and in this research was to find relative severity and this is more specific and then find out which one is more in need of development .
A study of foraminifera species distribution in the Great Kwa River revealed a foraminiferal assemblage that is sparse, poorly preserved with exotic and displaced faunas. This study further revealed that the Great Kwa River is a partially mixed (semidiurnal mesotidal) river with exotic, usually small-sized and thin walled open sea forms transported into the river through the estuary from the open ocean by tidal flow. The recovery of a large amount of shell fragments indicates that the river is characterised by a shallow shelf setting with a strong tidal influence. The foraminiferal assemblage recovered from the Great Kwa River contained arenaceous forms (Reophax spp and Karreriella spp) and calcareous forms (Globorotalia cerezoalensis and Praeglobobulimina ovata). Paleoecological interpretation of the Great Kwa River was a bit difficult due to the presence of exotic forms. Factors such as taphonomy, post- mortem transport and preservation condition in the Great Kwa River and their effect on the foraminiferal distribution were considered. The distribution of foraminifera in the Great Kwa River is similar to those found in other mesotidal rivers with influences from the estuary and open ocean.
Sustainability refers to the longevity of something, in this case businesses. For business to succeed in the long run, it has become imperative for them to ensure that their actions are not detrimental to the environment and that the same quality life and course of business can be maintained in the long run (Labuschagne, Brent & van Erck, 2005). Rapid urbanization, acceleration of business activities, growth in population, strict government regulations, resource scarcity, climate change and the shift in consumers towards environmentalism are some of the many factors that have given birth to the concept of business sustainability. The intensity of human activities that are harmful for the environment has accelerated over the recent period, causing substantial damage to the society as well as its inhabitants.
The paper presents a dynamic device designed to dynamically tuned gravimeter, which is driving the change speed rings gimbals through the use of electronic means of the controlled engine. Mathematical research of electric drive was completed. The developed device allowed simplifying the process of dynamic configuration of gravimeter.
The OMWW (olive oil mill wastewater) is the main liquid from olive oil mills. By its chemical composition, it has a very high polluting power. This products stemming from the triturating of olives very rich in organic matters (consisted phenolic, lipids) is often spread as is in the nature without controlled way, so exposing the aquatic ecosystems, has an inevitable pollution and degrades the quality of the circles. Our study is interested in the treatment of OMWW by combination of two physico-chemical and microbiological processes. The first treatment consists on a coagulation-flocculation revealing a decrease of the turbidity, a sludge production and an important discoloration of OMWW. The rate of phenolic compounds dejection after coagulation-flocculation using the ferric chloride and the aluminum sulfate are respectively 54 % and 64 %. The second microbiological treatment bringing in the capacities of A. Niger, C. albicans and C.tropicalis to reduce the rates of the phenolic compounds respectively of 100 %, 56 % and 78 % for diluted OMWW and also with 54 %, 27 % and 33 % for the raw OMWW. The decrease of the antibacterial activity of OMWW after the treatment by coagulation-flocculation is bound to a reduction of phenolic compounds by this process.
Wireless Sensor Networks have gained attention of researchers because of its wide area applications like search and rescue operation and battlefield reconnaissance. WSN consist sensor nodes which monitor the environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity. These Sensor nodes are inherently prone to failure due to constrained resources and there deployment in harsh environment. Nodes get failed because of limited energy. In this study we are dealing with those nodes whose energy get exhausted and act as fault node. In previous techniques when failure occur then its neighbor node moves towards failure position which extend the path between nodes and some load varies due to individual relocation of nodes, And LeDiR uses block movement from recovering failure, it contain less number of children replace the fault node which effect the coverage of the network. In this study we propose an Improved LeDiR technique for fault node recovery by providing extra node (actor node) when the energy of the cluster head going down. Actor nodes have high capabilities, high power. Simulation results indicate that propose technique perform better than previous technique i.e. LeDiR
Semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal of Glycine Potassium Chloride (GPC) and L-Histidine Potassium Chloride (HPC) has been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals have been investigated through various techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirm the crystalline nature and purity of the grown crystals. FTIR analyses were used to estimate qualitatively the presence of the functional groups in the grown crystal. UV-Visible spectrum shows that optical quality of the as grown crystals. The emission spectra of the crystals were recorded using spectrofluorometer. The emission peaks of GPC and HPC were absorbed at 452 nm and 530 nm respectively. The optical band gap energy was estimated as 2.7468 eV and 2.3425 eV. Thermo gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA-DTA) measurements indicate the thermal stability of the grown crystal. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) are presented and discussed. Nonlinear optical properties of GPC were 1.33 times that of KDP and HPC was not NLO active.
The paper describes a new theory for unifying Chemistry and Physics together. The paper describes how Atoms should be studied as Solar and planetry System. The paper describes how the Atoms, Molecules and its Structures mimic Stars, Planets, Solar System and Universe. And hence gives rise to theory that they infact are planet and stars. Which further have atoms which further are planets and stars to infinity. Another major postulates the paper presents is that Atom should be studied from Quantum Physics Time Dilation side as well. Using Time dilation the paper describes that how when looking at Atom we should not consider Human clock. Because clock at Atom will be ticking too much faster then clock at Human level. The paper describes how 1 second for human might mean many thousand years at sub-Atmic level.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of Emotional Intelligence Models. Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, understand, and manage emotions intelligently so as to overcome challenges with ease. Over the years, many models on EI have been proposed and numerous definitions of EI have come up. This sometimes leads to conflicting claims about what EI predicts. This paper analyses popular EI models and determines their features and liabilities. An EI text-based system has been implemented to calculate the emotional quotient of the users. This model if implemented in schools and colleges will help to identify students with negative emotional intelligence. Hence it will help in curtailing misdeeds like ragging and suicide attempts.
RF energy harvesting is a field whose time has come and its possibilities need to be explored. RF energy is everywhere. We are being bombarded with Radio Frequency energy which is emitted by sources that generate high electromagnetic fields such as TV signals, wireless radio networks and cell phone towers. Even it is new idea, many researches have been done for the optimization of RF energy harvesting system. Many of the works are related with regard to the optimization of antenna, some are with matching network and voltage doubler circuit. Those research in which matching network is concern, the author has done matching without considering the diode in the circuit, i.e. only considering capacitor and resistor because matching the diode is not straightforward. What we have done is matching the circuit with considering diode in the circuit in the Agilent ADS software. With regard to RF-DC conversion, voltage doubler, we have used Greinacher voltage doubler circuit and simulated it in ADS software up to 9 stage circuit. For the optimum stage of voltage doubler, it should be greater than 4 (n>4) and first stage capacitor should be double of the rest capacitor. With regard to the result for this paper, we have used 5 stage voltage doubler so as to trade-off between output voltage and output current. The simulated result is, at 0 dBm Vout is 1.8 V and Iout is 0.1814 mA, at 10 dBm Vout is 7.77 V and Iout is 1 mA and at 20 dBm Vout is 17.88 V and Iout is 2 mA.
This paper proposed a reconfigurable DSP architecture and algorithms, such as Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Fast Fourier Transform where basic building blocks are high performance adder, subtractors, multipliers etc. The reconfigurable architecture reduces area and become cost-effective. In the proposed DWT architecture the input data are separated as even and odd numbers of data as well as both data are input parallelly. This causes faster DWT operation then conventional architecture. In conventional architecture N-point DWT is computed in N cycles where as in proposed architecture N-sample sequence is computed in only N/2 cycles. Therefore this architecture is at least twice as fast as the conventional architecture. This paper proposed a parallel pipeline based reconfigurable Fast Fourier Transform architecture which was increases the speed of computation. Finally, we had verified the mat lab simulation result of the proposed FFT architecture by using mentor graphics tool. The proposed three architectures had been synthesized using XILINX ISE 9.1i version and the results of the same had also presented.
Lean is an established process improvement philosophy to achieve the operational excellence and the benefits can be more than just improving the process. This is evident as the benefits of Lean are truly exploited in automotive, aerospace and manufacturing sectors. There are numerous implementations of Lean philosophy in service sector such as banking, higher education, software development etc. The main aim of this paper is provide an overview of Lean philosophy and explore the benefits for airport processes. The airport processes are completely different than the manufacturing and other service sectors due to the complex interlinking between different stake holders such as airline regulations, national/international law etc. This paper exemplifies the Lean philosophy by drawing examples form Passenger Departure Process (PDP) in Abu Dhabi International Airport (a major international airport). This paper starts with examining the background to the project and why airports have many characteristic features, which are fundamentally different to the manufacturing environment in which Lean was originally devised. Since its origins, Lean philosophy has been also applied to many service environments. Further, Lean philosophy is introduced and Lean principles and waste is discussed from the PDP perspective. Along this, a brief literature review is presented on the existing process improvement approaches used in the airports. The ultimate aim of the project which it has achieved was to develop a practical methodology of applying Lean principles to the PDP help airline managers and staff eliminates the waste of available resources and so increases the passenger flow through various stages of the process in line with Lean philosophy.
This paper will give clear idea about what are the points to consider in developing Mass Notification System. Clear communi-cation is always important â€“ whether it’s a routine message about avoiding a full parking lot or a stressful emergency situation where people have to be guided out of harm’s way.Mass Notification is an efficient, effective and very flexible application that uses today’s most common communication technologies to provide notification functionalities to the building management platform assuring that your message gets through to the right people. Whether for a single building or a very large campus like university, the centralized portal provides you with the right tools to respond/response to any situation and communicate the appropriate message quickly and clearly. It easily integrates existing security system, and communication infrastructure as well as today’s most common Web-based and mobile App modalities.
Everybody moves on a curved path to cover a straight line path .This implies that to cover a straight line path, everybody moves on a curved path .The following law is derived from the above fact as follows, “ THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION ”.
The modern gear drives has been widely applied due to excellent accuracy and reliability. However, the major downside of even the most efficient gear drive is the low efficiency due to errors like backlash and considerable vibrations. These vibrations engender noisy operation and cause more wear and tear resulting in low life span. The development of a more efficient multi-angular gearless drive has been explored relatively unsuccessfully and negligently regardless of its advantages over both gear drives and simple gearless drives. Recent advances in technologies, material, analytical modeling and simulation capabilities has opened the possibility of major advances towards the design and development of a reliable, cost effective and ultra-efficient multi-angular gearless drive.
In this paper it presents the optimal design of rectangular and its verifications through experiment. The application of diffuser is in turbo jet engine, duct design air conditioning system. The concept of diffuser used in turbo jet engine is explained here. The turbo jet engine Consists of a diffuser, compressor, combustion chamber, turbine and exhaust nozzle. The diffuser in turbo jet engine increases the static pressure before entering the compressor. As pressure increases the compressor work is reduced so jet engine efficiency. Acutely it is based simple gas turbine and the exhaust gas expand in exit through nozzle and converted in to kinetic energy. This kinetic energy gives thrust hence jet moves. So use of is to increase static pressure .Many researcher have designed straight walled conical diffuser like Sovran and Klomp .In this paper optimality have tested by conducting an experiment in a rectangular diffuser. David Cerantola designed the conical diffuser discussing the effect of swirl angle, pressure recovery coefficient. The objectives of this paper is to measure optimum length of rectangular diffuser, stability of flow due to occurrence of point of inflection. Obtained data measured by digital manometer is under BIS.The validation has been done as per David Cerantola thesis.
The 6,7,8 tribromo-2 â€“methylâ€“ 4H- chromen -4- one was synthesized by reaction of bromobenzoyl chloride with 1,3 dicarbonyl. The new compounds (3), (4) was characterized by elemental analysis, 1H â€“NMR, infrared and mass spectroscopy. The biological significance was compared with amikacin as standard.
Easy access of information and data on the internet enable the users download and store lots of data in their system. Most of storage space is occupied by the duplicate data that have been downloaded or gathered from other resources and stored in the system thus increasing the requirement of the storage space. While taking the backup to the cloud same redundant data is uploaded to the cloud storage. With increase in the amount of such redundant data proper utilization of the storage resources and bandwidth is not possible. Once the data is uploaded at the cloud the user’s are not sure how secure their data is. In this paper block level deduplication approach is applied to reduce the data redundancy. In order to maintain the secrecy of the data SHA-256 a cryptographic hash algorithm is implemented. Also compression is performed on the data so that proper bandwidth utilization is possible.
Laterite is a civil engineering construction material when managed as an admixture or component of concrete/lateritic concrete. The ubiquity of laterite in this region of the world imposes the need for its utilization in concrete and road making works for the economic growth of the region. Laterite is the reddish soil layer often belying the top soil in many locations and further deeper in some areas, and here collected from the Vocational Education Building Site of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The paper presents the report of an investigation carried out to model and optimize the elastic modulus of Lateritic Concrete. The work applied the Scheffe’s optimization approach to obtain a mathematical model of the form f(xi1,xi2,xi3), where xi are proportions of the concrete components, viz: cement, laterite and water. Scheffe’s experimental design techniques are followed to mould various block samples measuring 220mm x 210mm x 120mm, with varying generated components ratios which were tested for 28 days strength to obtain the model: Å¶ = 4569.05X1+ 4501.31X2 + 4941.92X3 - 65.12X1X2 + 680.60X1X3 â€“ 25.74X2X3. To carry out the task, we embark on experimentation and design, applying the second order polynomial characterization process of the simplex lattice method. The model adequacy is checked using the control factors. Finally a software is prepared to handle the design computation process to select the optimized properties of the mix, and generate the optimal mix ratios for the desired property.
El-Baharia iron ore is a source of iron in iron and steel Co. in Egypt. This iron ore will be used for producing iron by direct reduction using hydrogen as a reducing agent. Briquettes were the form to be reduced under several conditions of changing hydrogen flow rate, and temperature.
Improving and safeguarding wastewater management and water quality are vital for all three dimensions of sustainable development. Demand for water is growing at twice the rate of population growth. Without effective strategies to manage wastewater production, its treatment and reuse, development will be constrained and the resulting negative impacts, particularly on water-scarce economies, will arrive sooner than predicted by current approaches.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams and buildings. Civil engineering is the second oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub disciplines including architectural engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, geophysics, structural engineering, earthquake engineering, material engineering, offshore engineering, quantity surveying, transportation engineering, construction engineering etc. civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.
Today phased array antennas are widely used in many applications like radar tracking, satellite communication, wireless systems etc. Hence a 2*4 multilayer microstrip antenna array design is demonstrated in this paper. The designed planar array uses coaxial feeding technique for each and every individual element. Individual element of antenna consists of circular microstrip patch with FR4 substrate having dielectric constant of 4.4.The suitable design parameters are chosen using the design equations and simulated using HFSS. Obtained Simulated results are in good expected range with the return loss of -22.15 dB and gain of 12.34 dB at operating frequency of 6 GHz. Suitable beam steering is provided and it is seen that beam steering of +/-8 degrees is achieved. The final results are compared with single layer microstrip array antenna which showed improved directivity, gain and efficiency. The main objective of the design is to use for radar tracking applications with increased number of elements hence C-Band frequency is chosen to avoid the interference with existing L-Band and S-Band radar tracking antennas.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become usual entities in all aspects of life. Education is a very socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been associated with strong teachers having personal contact with learners. ICT can be used as a core or a corresponding means to the teaching-learning process .The use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centre learning settings. But with the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important. The main purpose of this study is to develop an efficient and valuable teaching learning portfolio through the using of ICTs which can play a vital role for the development of technical and vocational education of Bangladesh. We have proper facilities and also have opportunities for implication of ICTs in the process of teaching and learning. As ICTs malfunction in many sectors of developing countries because of a lot of inherent problems like economy, proper guidance, proper motivation, availabilities of IT, electricity and so on. To use ICTs in a proper way and to get its actual benefits is a real challenge for Bangladesh. This paper will focus on the effective use of ICT in Technical and Vocational Education, along with ICT use in the teaching learning process; improve the quality of education; learning motivation, enhance learning environment. ICTs refer to forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information in classrooms.
Bean is considered a very common vegetable crop in many countries worldwide. Beans are used as green pods or as dry beans. Egypt cultivates beans either for local consumption or for exportation especially during winter and spring seasons. Root rot and damping-off during early stages of bean growth, cause great losses for growers. Growers usually use highly toxic chemical fungicides to protect their investment and get rid of damping-off problem. Using these toxic chemicals led to rejection of exported shipment. The present work offers biological control as a substitute for the toxic chemicals. In this work three different biocontrol mixtures were used. These mixtures consist of Trichoderma spp. isolates (T1+T2) or mixture of Bacillus subtilis isolates (B1+B2) or combination between T. harzianum isolate plus B. subtilis isolate (B2+T2) to illustrate their effect on plant protection against damping-off and also their side effect on beneficial bacterium Rhizobium phaseoli. Data obtained showed that the mixture of the different bioagents either formulated as powder or suspension were varied in their effect on controlling damping-off disease in beans under field condition. A mixture consists of B.subtilis+ T.harzianum (B2+T2) either in form of powder or suspension showed the highest effect in disease control compared with control treatment and the other two mixtures (T1+T2) and (B1+B2).
Electronic devices are made to operate on very low voltage; therefore a means of proper protection against overloading, short-circuiting and surging should always be of uttermost priority to the designers. A well designed electronic device with proper protective device would definitely lead to economic benefit, time saver, and less energy to re-construction. This paper reports the design and construction of an Ultra Fast Circuit Breaker (UFCB) for domestic and industrial purposes.
With the huge development of tourism, intelligent electronic tourism guides are welcomed widely. This paper presents a self-service tourism guide system based on NFC (Near Field Communication) and ARM. This proposed system consists of NFC tags and handheld terminals. NFC device includes ARM Cortex-4 module, NFC reader module and USB device. It implements FAT32 file system to read audio files from USB device. Audio files get played on Headphones. This system is suitable for the museums, exhibitions, Airports, railway stations and other intensive places. When person touches tag to the NFC reader, reader passes information to system as per the data read from tag. System verifies its stored database and play respective audio file.
In this model of relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma, only compressive solitons are found to exist. The amplitude becomes higher for smaller values of (= electron to positron temperature ratio). The investigation further revealed that higher values of ( is the initial ion streaming and is the normalized velocity of light) gives higher amplitudes of compressive solitons.
The article analyzes the possibility of the most well-known and widely applied navigation systems assembly into the general aviation gravimetric system.
Power transformer is one of the major apparatus in the power system. Power transformer breakdown or damage may interrupt power transmission and distribution operation. Hence, to manage the life of transformers and to reduce failures some measures are being adopted. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is a reliable and commonly practiced technique for the detection of incipient fault condition within power transformer. This paper presents the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for detecting the incipient faults in power transformer by using dissolved gas analysis technique. Using historical transformer failure data, ANN model was developed to classify seven types of transformer condition based on the percentage of three hydrocarbon gases. The method of DGA used is Duval triangle, while data collected from different utilities was used in training and testing processes. The proposed ANN algorithm has been tested by many real time fault samples and the results are compared with conventional Duval triangle method. The test results indicate that the proposed ANN yields a very satisfactory result where it can make a very reliable classification of transformer condition with respect to combustible gas generated.
Real wastewater containing a well defined reactive dye as one of the contaminants was subjected to a number of degradative treat-ments. The main problem of textile wastewater is the deep colour which must be removed before discharge to the main environmental drainage. A plan for treating this wastewater was designed to involve electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminium and iron electrodes as well as electrocoagulation / Fenton treating processes. A follow up of the extent of degradation was carried out through estimation of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour reduction and change of pH value. The deep colour of wastewater has been sufficiently removed as much as between 84.8 % and 98.6 % decolourization efficiency depending on EC process and initial pH of the coloured medium. A comparative correlation between EC processes employed at pH 3 revealed that COD removal and decolourization were superior to those at pH 9 especially on applying EC/Fenton process. In addition, the measurements of Fe and Mn contents using atomic absorption technique revealed the total removal of both % Fe and Mn after EC/Al process, while % Fe was slightly increased due to the external Fe2+ added after EC/Fenton process. XRD was used to specify the sludge precipitated after processes, the main precipitated materials detected were magnetite Fe24O32, Pyroxene-ideal Al4Na4Si8O24
With excessive growth of Internet, World Wide Web has become great source of Information which has been well known as big data repository consist of different variety of web pages with informative data as well as large amount of non-informative (noisy) data such as advertisements, navigational bars, copyright notices, etc. Although such noisy data is functionally useful, web users are unable to obtain more exact information is a critical issue of web-based information retrieval. Non-informative data not only degrades the web application performance but also reduces user’s interest or can mislead user. As a result, retrieving the informative data from web pages which are cluttered with huge non-informative data has become difficult task. Hence reducing such noisy data from web pages has gain immense importance in early days. In this paper, we have developed Webpage Content Searching technique which focuses on retrieving user needed informative content by characterizing non-content as noise. Webpage Content Searching technique makes use of presentational and structural similarity along with content similarity which is calculated using FP-Growth algorithm to discriminate informative and non-informative data. Webpage Content Searching technique is effective for any number of web pages regardless of their domain.
Data mining an interdiscriplinary research area spanning severl disciplines such as expert system, database system, intelligent information systems, machine learning and statistic
Aerial video surveillance means gathering data form air so as to monitor the change in information usually of people to influence, manage, direct, or protect them. Aerial video surveillance provides large amount of data but usually suffers from unintentional motion of cameras due to which there is shakiness in the video. The main task of video surveillance is to track the moving object in moving platform. Video stabilization aims to remove the shakiness in the video caused by the undesired movement in the camera thus stabilizing the video captured during aerial surveillance. In the video stabilization algorithm for detecting and matching the interest points mainly Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) are used. Kalman filter and RANSAC are used to filter the noise and remove the outliers detected while extracting interest points. Finally affine transformation is applied to estimate the global motion parameters thus stabilizing the video. Present paper proposes the video stabilization technique that uses Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) and extended kalman filters. SURF is used to detect the interest points and extended kalman filter is used for global motion detection, then using affine transformation for motion compensation thus stabilizing the video. Proposed system proved to be more accurate and efficient than the existing system.
In this work Basic concepts of algebraic graph theory and its properties are reviewed and extended to the related concepts of edge cutset matrix in Peterson graph and its properties. The relation between edge cutset matrix and incidence matrix is Introduced Rank of the Peterson graph edge cutset matrix is also reviewed.
This paper compares the performance of TCP I-Vegas (where “I” stands for Improved) with conventional TCP Vegas, in wired-cum-wireless network. The performance is compared in terms of various parameters such as throughput, goodput, packet delivery ratio, number of packets received and number of packets dropped using Network Simulator (NS-2). Simulation results show that TCP I-Vegas performs well in all the parameters when compared with conventional TCP Vegas. Actually, TCP Vegas performs well as compared to TCP Reno but when sharing bandwidth with TCP Reno its performance degrades. TCP I-Vegas has been designed keeping in mind that whenever TCP variants like Reno has to share the bandwidth with TCP Vegas then instead of using TCP Vegas, if we may use TCP I-Vegas then the loss which TCP Vegas would have to bear will not be more.
Recent advancements in electronic and wireless telecom have provided ability of design and produce sensors with low consumption, small size, appropriate price, and variant functionalities. These small sensors which are able to do operations such as receiving different environmental information according to the type of the sensor, processing and sending that information have led to an idea to emerge and develop networks called wireless sensor networks. These sensors also have some limitations in their processing power, memory capacity, power supply, and etc. these limitations cause problems which are the origin of many research issues raised in this area. From important issues in this area is to increase network lifetime in order to better use of available resources. Appropriate routing can be a solution to decrease network’s energy consumption and also increase network lifetime. In this research, we have studied routing algorithms in wireless sensor networks and also have analyzed the impact of the number of network’s intermediate sinks on increasing the network lifetime.
Surfactants and builders are the two most important ingredients in laundry, household and personal-care cleaning products. Based on the environmental consideration various detergent builders ranging from inorganic, organic and polymeric types have been developedSodium metasilicate an inorganic builder is an effective and quick-dissolving non-phosphate builder in detergent formulation that can replace the sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) which is not environmentally friendly because phosphates are excellent fertilizer for algae, bacteria, and other flora and fauna in rivers, lakes and oceans, making them bloom at very rapid rates, exhausting the oxygen supply both in the surface and in the bottom layers of water bodies, and killing fish. This phenomenon is called eutrophication. In this studies sodium metasilicate produced from Lokoja quartzite was used as a non- phosphate builder in the formulation of detergents which comprised of a mixture of 20 wt.% surface active agent (LABS) was formulated using 50 wt.% and 80 wt.% sodium meatasilicate (builder) separately, and the results of the properties of phosphate and non-phosphate detergents were compared.
Upconversion luminescence, a nonlinear process, which re-emits a photon at a shorter wavelength by the absorption of more than one photon, successively at longer wavelengths via long-lived intermediate energy states, is useful for important applications in various fields like fluorescence bio-imaging and lasers. This NIR up-conversion nanoparticle provides high penetration depth into biological tissue and results in high contrast optical imaging due to absence of an auto fluorescence background and decreased light scattering. Excitation at long wavelengths also minimizes damage to biological tissues. Herein, we report, the different mechanisms for the Upconversion process of rare-earth (Er3+, Ho3+, Tm3+) doped nanoparticle and different methods are used to synthesize and decorate up converting nanoparticle.
Large dataset and class imbalanced distribution of samples across the data classes are intrinsic propertied of the problems to be faced in the applications like bioinformatics, network security and text mining. The class imbalanced problem appears in the dataset, classification categories are not represented with approximately equal number of instances. In this paper, we have explored the solution to the problem of imbalanced representations of the classes in the dataset. In this method, instance selection is applied concurrently to the small class-balanced subsets of the training data. Then, subsets are combined based on the voting score calculated from the optimized pair of thresholds of minority and majority classes. We used support vector machine (SVM) and kNN classifier to perform the experiments on the dataset for analyzing the performance of proposed algorithm. On comparison, it is observe that proposed algorithm outperform the random sampling method. Further, proposed algorithm has linear computational complexity and can be easily be implemented using parallelism to have real-time performance.
Pulsed power system find many application in the field of industries ,medical and even in the military field, nowadays the demand is concentrated on high power density and compact size, this will lead to increase the operating frequency of converter However increasing the frequency of operation also increases switching losses and hence reduces system efficiency. in order to reduce the losses resonant converters are used, in this paper proposed dc-dc resonant converter with high power density for capacitor charging is analyzed ,designed and verified with matlab simulation .
In this paper we obtain the size of the disc in which the zeros of polar derivatives of polynomial of degree n with real coefficients with respect to a real α lie.
This article deals with the dynamics of governance in a democracy and its interconnectedness with national as well as continental development. Since political institutions are important in the development equation of any nation, because power and authority are needed for allocating resources needed for development, it highlights the imperatives of good governance in a democracy. It also notes that the extent of freedom of individuals or citizens in social, economic and political processes determines the success or otherwise of any democracy. The article, therefore, stresses that the interface of political current is governance that paves the way for development, particularly as development can be achieved only through collective efforts, directed by the predominant systems of government. Again, it emphasizes the need for the involvement of the citizens in participating in governance and the political process and equally the importance for accountability by the people at the corridors of power. In conclusion, the article emphasizes the essence for appropriate platforms to be instituted for the pursuit of the public good of the state and the need for their effective participation in the implementation of public policies for the acceleration of political, economic and social development of the state.
The public sector solid waste management system has proved not to be very efficient in dealing with the huge business of managing urban waste. The informal sector participation may offer a more reliable and sustainable solution to the increasing problems of waste management. This paper presents the combination of formal and informal management system as a better option to the existing formal solid waste management system in Enugu.
Hexavalent Chromium has been considered to be toxic and hazardous due to its carcinogenic properties. Yet various methods used for removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater include filtration, chemical precipita-tion, electrode position, membrane systems or even ion exchange process, and adsorption. Nanotechnology is the most effective in treating environmental wastes because of the reduced amount of material needed for re-moval, and it is considered to be environmentally friendly. Its application in the future is enhancing as it is less toxic and gives better performance. The present work was conducted for the synthesis of Nano size zinc oxide for the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI). Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effects of Cr (VI) concentration, pH of solution, adsorbent dose, solution temperature, and contact time variations on the removal efficiency of Cr (VI). Zinc oxide nano material was synthesized by simple heating process using polyethylene glycol (PEG). FTIR analysis and TEM microscopy were applied for determination of particle size and characterization of produced nanoparticles. The results showed that the removal efficiency decreased with increasing Cr (VI) concentration, and increasing pH of solution and increased with increasing adsorbent dosage and increasing contact time. The optimum solution temperature that gave the maximum percentage removal of Cr (VI) was 60 oC.
Smart grids reflect a modern day evolution of electricity networks in response to the need to minimize ecological impacts, improve system reliability and increase electrical and operational efficiencies. Smart grids also facilitate new applications and services and seamless integration of renewable sources. For a reliable communication and control, the communication technology used to implement the smart grid must have enough bandwidth to handle two-way data traffic. The technology must also be cost effective considering the sheer size and scale of electrical grids. Power Line communications (PLC) is a promising communication protocols for cost effective, secure and reliable realization of smart grids. This paper presents a disquisition on smart grid technologies with emphasis on PLC technologies. The role of PLC in the application of smart grids over the different voltage networks is also covered.
The strength of the senior traveler segment is the high purchasing power the length of stay in a destination, making this market segment increasingly important in present and future. Consequently, this research aims to establish a model of motivation and its relationship with the image of Bali as an international tourism destination, especially from the perspective of senior tourists. This research employed survey method and utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques. Factor analysis condensed various indicators into several key indicators to form a model with goodness of fit. Indicators representing push motivation variable include the improvement of health/fitness and the drive to perform physical exercise. Indicators representing destination identity variable include the culture and nature of Bali. Indicators representing destination creation variable include the service quality of travel agencies and service quality of travel guides. Indicators representing destination image variable include the image of cultural uniqueness and holiday atmosphere of Bali. The survey in this study involved 400 respondents of senior tourists, exclusively only foreign nationals. Goodness of fit is affirmed on the results of the analysis model, which answered the hypothesis that push motivation and destination creation affect destination image
Engineering Design is the applications of scientific and mathematical principles to a product. When we call someone an efficient designer? When they do it faster, cost effective, the product performs better than others, the user ask for the same product again and again, etc. All these are indicators of engineer’s design efficiency. To expect such efficiency from any engineer what qualities should they have and how do we understand their level? This research addresses this aspect by defining the process of designers ability assessment, breaking the basic traits and sub divisions, grading their achievement to different levels and connecting them to overall design ability allows us to quantify. This helps to understand where the engineer is standing and the design expectations we can put on them. This process sets objectives to prepare testing methods for the engineer’s assessment. The process aims to bring the quantified levels of design ability over three basic root elements of engineering design, Science, Sociology and Tactics. Placing them on grid one will be able to specify the level of the engineers and their design capability in a simple coordinate system. A beginner may fall at (1,1,1) and an efficient engineer gets measured as (3,3,3)
As an important II-VI semiconductor, with wide band gap energy of 3.7 eV, ZnS has been extensively studied due to its important applications in electronics and photonics [1-4] including light-emitting diodes, flat-panel displays, and photonic crystal devices, which operate in the region from visible to near infrared. Because of high refractive index (2.35) and high transmittance in the visible range, ZnS can be used as a reflector and dielectric filter in the area of optics [5, 6]. ZnS is a potentially important material to be used as an antireflection coating for heterojunction solar cells . It is an important device material for the detection, emission and modulation of visible and near ultraviolet light [8, 9]. In recent years, nanocrystalline ZnS have attracted much attention because the properties in nanoforms differ significantly from those of their bulk counter parts. Therefore, much effort has been made to control size, morphology and polycrystallinity of the ZnS nanocrystals with a view to tune their physical properties .
A company’s website is the firm impression that a job applicant gets. This is the only protocol by which a candidate can have the information about the corporate culture, values, norms, business and working strategies of any particular company. The way a company elaborates about the benefits and the advantages a candidate can get by securing a job in the company is key to work out the attitude of the firm towards their employees. In this particular analytical paper, we have chosen and analyzed three different consulting companies. All the companies have different workers' strength with diverse expertise and skill for a diverse client base. The prior experience of the chosen companies is almost same, but there is a difference in their development and performance. There is a clear difference in the presentation they provide about their companies on the website. Analyzing the three eminent consulting companies, the report concludes that sufficient information, articulate presentation, appropriate career path, defined benefits and orientation play a substantial role in persuading a candidate.
This paper presents the comparison of the performance of relaying strategies in a cooperative wireless system over Rayleigh fading channel. Since the quality of the channel cannot be predicted over an instant of time, there is need for the introduction of a relay node in order to improve the reliability of the received signal at the destination and extend the coverage area of the network. In cooperative wireless systems, the relay node employ amplify and forward (AF); and decode and forward (DF) protocols to retransmits the processed received signal using M-ary Phase Shift Keying (MPSK) and M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (MQAM) modulation schemes. The destination node combines the received signals from both the relay node as well as the source node using maximum ratio combiner (MRC) due to its optimal performance. The combined signal is evaluated in terms of bit error rate and the result obtained showed that BPSK and 4-QAM has the lowest bit error rate at higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) in AF relaying and in DF relaying protocols because of their low symbol period.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the necessary competences and to develop a job competence model for an effective performance of school laboratory/ workshop maintenance managers in colleges of education in the north-eastern region, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive survey design and instrument used for the data collection was a researcher developed instrument which was validated and trial tested. the internal consistency of the instrument was found to be 0.83 using Cronbach Alpha method. Mean was used to answer the research questions. All the listed competencies were viewed important by the respondents. The resulted job competence model will be able to help the executives to answer the school’s human resources policies by providing useful information regarding the necessary competencies of a school laboratory/ workshop maintenance manager. The executives will be able to apply these competencies in order to strengthen the maintenance manager’s performances at an optimal level. This model will allow determining the necessary critical competencies of the actual success of the maintenance managers and the required critical competencies for manager’s future accomplishments.
Multicast communication is a technique of passing information over large networks and it saves a lot of cost and resources. In this paper, the performances of three multicast algorithms used in wireless communication are compared based on their bandwidth utilization efficient multicast namely, the Improved Network Coding Algorithm (INCA) formulated as mixed Integer linear programming, the Network Coding Algorithm (NCA) formulated as linear program and the Multicast Incremental power algorithm (MIPA). Simulation was carried out and the results showed that the INCA with two performance metrics of loss and delay achieved reduction in the average cost of bandwidth used during multicast. For example when 60 randomly generated nodes were used multicasting to various groups of receivers, there was a reduction in the average cost of bandwidth used during multicast by 78% and 17% when compared to MIPA and NCA.
Worldwide, concept mapping is not a new technique. However, it is yet to be adapted to teaching Automobile Engineering (AE) at University of Maiduguri. In the area of AE, essay tests are the foundations of B. Eng. exams so often required by Examiners. Furthermore, it is generally accepted that practice on related instruments improves students’ performance on B. Eng. exams. Thus, the majority of exams given in the AE lecture rooms are essays. The purpose of this study is to determine if incorporating concept mapping to the lecture rooms will create more meaningful knowledge that will improve students’ performance on essay tests. AE courses were selected. Concept map training began in the first week of the instruction and continued throughout the semester as considered necessary. Four concept mapping assignments were assigned. The final exam results were compared to results from the same course taught a year before without concept mapping.
This scientific research focus that the entire ‘Cosmo universe’ shall be considered ‘created’ by supernatural person called by name by author as ‘RAMANUJAM’ who consider created everything through “MOTHER JANAKI” (Soul). In proto Indo Europe root word RAMANUJAM, JANAKI shall be called as “APPA”, “PAPPA”. Appa shall mean “VIRGIN FATHER” (GOD) and pappa shall mean “VIRGIN MOTHER” (POPE). Pope shall be considered as integral part of CREATOR and not considered elected by HUMAN CARDINALS.
The architecture for on chip network design using dynamic reconfiguration is a solution to Communication Interfaces, Chip cost ,Quality of Service, guarantee flexibility of the network. The proposed architecture dynamically configure itself with respect to Hardware Modules such as routers, Packet based Switch and data Packet size by changing the communication conditions and its requirements at rum time. In Noc, we are using Hexagonal node pattern to improve the communication performance. The proposed design avoids the limitations of bus-based interconnection schemes which are often applied in partially dynamically reconfigurable FPGA designs. With the help of this design we can achieve Low latency and high data throughput. In this paper we are reviewing the previous methods and approaches of Dynamic reconfiguration in NOC.
Site selection is one of the primary decisions in the start-up process and town planning, development or relocation of industries of all kinds. Building of a new industrial system is related with long term investment, and in this sense planning the site are a significant point on the road to progress or failure of the industrial system and that effect on all other services in the city. One of the main objectives in industrial site selection is finding the most suitable site with required conditions. A large number of researchers depend on GIS because the availability and its wide uses in site selection. GIS is a combination with other systems and methods such as the method for multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques can be used below such conditions to classify and rank options for subsequent complete evaluation, or to specify acceptable from unacceptable potentiality for many sites. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) can beneficially be used for assigning weights to various criteria in MCDA. The aim of the present study is to develop a methodology to use GIS and MCDA for a new industrial site in Al-Nasiriyah city. In this paper, we will try to find optimum solution for industrial estates site selection and applying solution in GIS
Load balancing problem on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing System (HDCs) deals with allocation of tasks to computing nodes, so that computing nodes are evenly loaded. Due the complexity of dynamic load balancing problem majority of researchers uses heuristic algorithm to obtain near optimal solutions.We have used consistent ETC (Expected Time to Compute) matrix in to study the performance of Genetic algorithm to minimize the makespan
This article is focused on the creation of own algorithm for simulation of spectral diffraction of probabilistic distributions (SDPD) in the developed for the needs of this research interactive environment for simulation of quantum algorithms. The quantum spectral diffraction of probabilistic distributions is algorithm for transformation of probabilistic distributions, designed for implementation in quantum computers. The proposed method is original and new, so not to be compared with other similar methods.
This report describes an approach for representation of quantum entanglement through state matrix. The proposed approach could be used to allow encoding of more information. The Singular Value Decomposition is useful as a measure for entanglement because the unitary operations preserve it.
This report describes an approach for encoding and decoding of discrete information about basic states at the input of operators in the phase of their outputs. The decoding is considered as a special case of interference with four different forms of decoding that reflect the classes of identity and negation operators. If an operator decode another, he is able to read the information encoded in the phase space, and reduce the encoded bits to state or its negation. Decoding relationships have been developed both as regards the parameters of the operator and in terms of Boolean functions encoding. This further leads to an increase in the level of abstraction. The approach of the proposed system differs from previous discussions of phase encoding, making encoding a substantial part of all operators so that the correct encoded information can be determined from the parameters of the operators.
Undoped and 2wt%, 4wt%, 6wt% Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by using Chemical Co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction data revealed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite phase of mean crystallite sizes 26.64 nm, 21.66 nm, 23.60 nm and 22.31 nm respectively obtained by Scherrer formula for undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles of different concentrations. Thermoluminescence studies of the nanoparticles of the above samples show TL peaks in three regions occurring around 346-361, 404 and 424-428 Kelvin. The thermal activation energy(E) of the peaks calculated by using CGCD technique are found to be 0.54 eV, 0.7eV and 0.83 eV respectively, with the first peak following nearly second order kinetics while the other two follow nearly first order kinetics. This result is in close agreement with those obtained by Chen’s Peak shape method
Neutron radiography (NR), an advanced technique for non-destructive materials testing, utilizes transmission of radiation to obtain visual information on the structure and/or inner processes of a given object and this technique have found more and more applications. In the present study an attempt is made to observe homogeneity, porosity/voids, initial rate of absorption (IRA) and water absorption behavior of single layer wire mesh (SLWM) reinforced Ferro cement plate. The results prove that elemental distribution of the SLWM Ferro cement plate is better, large number of porosity is exist, water absorption rate is very slow than the initial rate of absorption. It also complies with the IRA measurement of the sample. All the measurements have carried out by observation of gray values/neutron intensity ratio values of the respective neutron radiographic images of the sample at dry and different wet conditions. The intent of this study is to promote the more effective use of Ferro cement plate as a construction material especially as water reservoirs, sculptures and also this would further lead to an “eco-friendly” low cost housing without any loss of structural integrity.
Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) is used to analyze 13 elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Se, Rb, and Sr) in 10 different medicinal plants often used in Indian Ayurvedic system. Elemental analysis was carried out in medicinal plant samples using EX-3600, EDXRF spectrometer. Most of the medicinal plants were found to be rich in one or more of the elements under study. The elemental concentration in different part of medicinal plants and their biological effects on human physiology are discussed.
This work aimed at identifying the phytochemical composition of Ficus benjamina and to test the various extract fractions against some selected gram positive and negative bacteria. Fresh fruits of Ficus benjamina (L) were collected from Labo Tarkar’s mosque reserve area of Katsina local government area, Katsina State, Nigeria. 1.4 Kg of the air dried and powdered fruit was percolated with ethanol (5.0dm3) for two weeks. It was filtered and concentrated on rotary evaporator at 400C to yield crude extract (23.79g). This extract was fractionated by maceration using chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone yielding their soluble fractions with weights of 13.32g, 2.42g and 3.26g respectively. The fractions were subjected to various phytochemical tests. Ethanol fraction contains saponins, flavonoids etc; Chloroform fraction contains alkaloids, flavonoids etc; Ethyl acetate fraction contains alkaloids, tannins etc; Acetone fraction contains alkaloids, saponins etc; aqueous fraction contains flavonoid, tannins etc. The fractions were further subjected to the antimicrobial screening. Ethanol fraction possessed highest zone of inhibition of 23mm against Streptococcus pyogens at 250mg/ml concentration, followed by ethyl acetate fraction with 20mm against Streptococcus pyogens at 250mg/ml concentration, followed by acetone fraction with 19mm against Streptococcus pyogens at 250mg/ml concentration and the least zone of inhibition was on ethanol fraction with 6mm against Pseudomonas auriginosa at 250mg/ml concentration. It was observed that different classes of secondary metabolites were detected from different fractions of Ficus Benjamina. Also a remarkable inhibition was recorded against Streptococcus pyogens from the ethanol fraction which further justify the ethanol medical claim of the plant.
This paper investigates the dynamic causal linkages in the daily returns among five ASEAN Shariah-compliant indices (such as, FTSEMY index, MSSNGIL index, JAKSEIS index, MSTHFIL index and MSPHISL index) through the application of the standard time series techniques. Essentially, the purpose of this research is to identify the extent of linkages of Islamic stock indices in five ASEAN countries. Our study is focused on investigating the following empirical questions: (i) are these selected five Shariah-compliant stock indices cointegrated? and (ii) which major stock index was driving the selective Shariah-compliant stock indices?
In this paper I have considered the waste heat recovery from an air conditioning system. Air Conditioners often reject heat directly into the air or water circulating from a cooling tower. Normally waste heat rejected from air conditioners are used to provide hot water for domestic purposes. But based on my research it can be shown that the waste heat rejected by ACs can supply enough heat energy to provide hot water to boilers for heating and washing purposes. Using absorption heat pump, we will be able to convert the low grade waste heat into high temperature heat which is used for industrial purposes.
DNA barcoding is currently gaining popularity due to its simplicity and high accuracy as compared to the complexity and subjective biases associated with morphology-based identification of taxa. The standard chloroplast DNA barcode for land plants is normally recommended by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) plant working group that needs to be evaluated for a wide range of plant species. In Vadodara district of Gujarat, there are many natural and manmade seasonal wetlands that serve as important gateways for the migratory waterfowl. Hence these wetlands contribute significantly towards balancing of ecosystem. Many researchers had identified plant species of these wetlands by traditional methods but the aspect of identification of plants through barcoding has largely been ignored. We therefore, tested the potential of the rbcL marker for the identification of aquatic plants belonging to diverse families of some wetlands of Vadodara. This had been carried out by 2-locus combination of rbcL and matK as the standard plant barcode Maximum likelihood tree analysis was also performed to evaluate the discriminatory power of the rbcL gene. The classical taxonomic classification was then compared with the classification obtained through DNA Barcode tree. For evolutionary analysis, Tajima’s D Test, Substitutional Matrix and Nucleotide substitution model analysis were performed. Our findings showed that using rbcL gene sequences, majority of the samples, i.e. (90%) were identified at genus level but at species level only 10% identification was possible.
The association between excessive sodium intake and hypertension necessitates reduction of dietary sodium intake. This study investigated the effect of 1%, 2% and 3% of water soluble ash extract (WSA) from banana peels on proximate, mineral and sensory properties of dried beef. Portions of beef loin, each weighing 500g, were treated with one of the three levels of WSA. The positive control used was 1%, 2% and 3% of table salt (TS) while distilled water was used as the negative control. The treated portions were equilibrated with 1L of their respective solutions for 1h. The portions were thereafter cut into strips and dried at 60oC for 15h. Proximate, mineral and sensory analysis was carried out immediately after drying. Data analysis was done using statistical analysis system (SAS) version 9.1 to identify significant differences in treatment means of proximate values, mineral levels and sensory scores. Mean separation was done at p<0.05. The results showed that beef treated with WSA had lower sodium than that treated with TS. Sensory evaluation showed that there was no significant difference in preference between beef treated with 1% WSA with 1% TS and 2% TS. There is therefore a potential for 1% WSA to be used in dried beef to enhance sensory properties with the specific intention of reducing dietary sodium intake.
Classification of satellite imagery is very important for the assessment of its accuracy. In order to determine the accuracy of the classified image, usually the assumed-true data are derived from ground truth data using Global Positioning System. The data collected from satellite imagery and ground truth data is then compared to find out the accuracy of data and error matrices are prepared. Overall and individual accuracies are calculated using different methods. The study illustrates advanced classification and accuracy assessment of land use/land cover mapping using satellite imagery. IRS-1C-LISS IV data were used for classification of satellite imagery. The satellite image was classified using the software in fourteen classes namely water bodies, agricultural fields, forest land, urban settlement, barren land and unclassified area etc. Classification of satellite imagery and calculation of accuracy was done by using ERDAS-Imagine software to find out the best method. This study is based on the data collected for Bhopal city boundaries of Madhya Pradesh State of India .
Flood is not only a local environmental problem but also a challenge that is faced globally. It is a phenomenon that has caused severe loss of lives and properties in different settlements both in developed and developing countries. In Nigeria, flooding is experienced annually in both urban and rural areas. Northern part of Nigeria is one of the areas faced with the menace of annual flood despite the dry climatic conditions of the area which is characterized by severe droughts. This research assesses the causes and effects of flood disaster on agriculture and socio-economic activities in Northern Nigeria. The study areas were Yola and Numan in Adamawa state. Both urban and rural areas affected were analysed and a cross section analysis shows that laws and policies on flood control and land use were implemented in the state. These areas were the ones affected the most and were placed on a ‘category A’ list of relief materials and shelter during the flood. The trend of flooding events indicated that climate change may be one of the major causes of floods in these areas. However, further study showed that the communities and properties washed away were situated by the flood plains and were at risk of inundation during the rainy seasons. It also discusses the effects the socio-economic and environmental well-being of the victims affected and also the huge impact on agriculture and food security especially in northern Nigeria since the major livelihood there is farming and pastoralism. Several issues together complicate and make the impact worse but the basic solution is a sustainable foundation of laws and policies that should be strictly adhered to, this goes without saying that for the laws to be accepted by individuals, the government has to play her part in providing the basic and necessary amenities like homes builds safely away from the plains.
The onset of era of undersea warfare with the invention of submarines has a long history of some devastating accidents that has claimed lives. Most of the accidents had a timeline for the crew to escape, unfortunately there were no rescue or evacuation systems devised. The system proposed is an ideal setup that has potential ability to either transfer personnel from one submarine to another or eject to the surface with the crew safely housed inside. There are about two capsules which can be launched one after another enabling all crew transfer. The capsule includes electromagnets for interlocking with the other submarine. The analysis of the shell was done under static and dynamic load conditions and the pressure exertion on the shell was found to be under safe limits.
Cu2SnS3 (CTS) powders were prepared by hydrothermal (HR) and solid state reactions (SSR) using low cost starting materials. Using HR, single triclinic (mohite) Cu2SnS3 phase was obtained. Otherwise, for SSR cubic Cu2SnS3 was obtained with two other compounds, Cu4SnS4 and SnS having orthorhombic crystal structure for both of them. UV-Vis spectra for HR and SSR preparations showed maximum absorbencies at about 290 and 240 nm with band gap values of 2.25 and 2.5 eV, respectively. The calculated conductivities were equal to 2.5x10-2 and 6.12x10-3 S/cm for samples that prepared by HR and SSM reactions, respectively. Also the charge transfer resistance (Rct) were 3.5 and 24 ï— for photo electrochemical cells (PEC) prepared by HR and SSR, respectively. A good electrochemical photovoltaic cell was accomplished power conversion efficiency per unit area (PCE) of about 1.58 and 0.93 % for cells prepared by HR and SSR, respectively.
The development of efficient models and controllers is central to better understanding and analysis of operational efficiency of modern hydropower plants. In this work, an intelligent Levenberg-Marquardt based Neural Network Predictive Controller (NNPC) was developed for Shiroro hydroelectric power station using actual data obtained from the plant operation. Results obtained after training and simulation of the system show that neural network technique serves as an efficient approach of designing hydroelectric power station models and controllers.
The positive impact of the applications of intelligent systems and softcomputing techniques on modern healthcare systems remains significant. This work therefore highlights the role of intelligent systems as a means of improving healthcare provision by designing, optimizing, training and implementing an Adaptive Neurofuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for improved diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH). The LVH features and the training dataset for the MATLAB-based classification-type ANFIS were extracted from patients’ Electrocardiogram (ECG) sheet. The results from the performance analysis of the proposed system showed that the Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed aids medical personnel in making detection and diagnosis of LVH.
Shells, stressed skin structures because of their geometryand small flexural rigidity of the skin, tend to carry loads primarily by direct stresses acting in their plane. Concrete shallow funicular shells of rectangular ground plan, double curvature with different rises are loaded to failure with a concentrated central force. Specimens of size 100 cm x 60 cm in plan with edge beam of size 4 cm x 4 cm are prepared with concreteof grade M30 for which the mix design is carried by Indian standard method. The specimens are prepared with various rises and moist cured. They are subjected to ultimate loads and the corresponding strains and deflections are measured. Failure patterns for shells with different rises are observed. From the experimental investigations a relation between span to rise ratio and ultimate load is arrived. It is concluded that the ultimate loads are function of the rise of the shell.
Extensive use of Microstrip antenna motivates researchers for its optimization. May techniques are there for antenna optimization which results up to 30% reduction in patch dimensions. Today’s world of minituration needs more optimizations for effective utilization of patch antenna. The paper proposed technique for optimization of microstrip antenna using Split Ring Resonator and Thin Wire Metamaterials. This Metamaterial structure gives negative refractive index at their plasma frequency. The frequency of optimization for microstrip antenna is same as that of plasma frequency of metamaterial structure. Simulation of Unit Cell for Metamaterial gives S-parameters for the same. Parameter extraction from those S-parameters gives operating range of frequency. When patch antenna is loaded with Metamaterial structure negative permeability and negative permittivity enhances antenna parameters. This results in optimized patch dimension and similar antenna performance. Approximately 44 % reduction at frequency 5.2 GHz and 4.7 GHz had been observed. The proposed technique results in almost 6 dB of gain over a impedance band over 200 MHz at frequency 5.2 GHz and 4.7 GHz. Limitation of the suggested technique is that it operates over a limited band of frequencies.
Amla is well â€“ known for its rich vitamin c (ascorbic acid) and polyphenol contents. The present study was to assess the protective efficacy of amla fruit extract against gamma radiation and cadmium induced changes in Nucleic acid content in mice liver. For this mice were exposed to different dose of gamma radiation (3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy) separately, with and without cadmium chloride treatment in control groups. While in experimental groups, the animals were given amla fruit extract orally seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment and continue to last autopsy. It was found that DNA content decreased while the RNA content increased in both control as well as Emblica treated groups. Such alteration in nucleic acid content showed a dose-dependent and synergistic action. An early recovery observed in Emblica pre treated animals showing protective action of Emblica.
In this study, one of the applications which implemented a non-invasive Emg Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) system was developed and tested with normal subjects to restore foot drop during gait. to Control the Stimulation Output of the system, the subjects must retain some dorsiflexor muscle power. The control signal that adjust the electrical stimulus intensity of the ankle dorsiflexor is based on the detection of the amplified, Electromyography (EMG) Signal recorded using surface electrodes positioned over the ankle dorsiflexor and associated group of muscles. The voluntary contraction of ankle dorsiflexor could serve as the trigger of the stimulation of the system and to adjust the stimulus intensity automatically.
In this paper, we made a comprehensive simulative study on multi-view video signal transmission in a dual polarized MIMO single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) communication system. The system implements various signal processing and signal detection schemes such as Haar based discrete wave transformation(DWT) , two-dimensional nonlinear Median filtering, 1/2- rated Convolutional , Repeat and Accumulate (RA) and BLUE.It is noticeable from such study that the multiview video signal with quite reasonably acceptable video frame quality is retrieved under scenario of implementing 1/2- rated Convolutional channel coding, BLUE and QAM digital modulation schemes.
Present days internal combustion engines plays important role. The classical approaches are limited for checking of some measurable output variables and does not provide a deeper insight and usually do not allow a fault diagnosis. Advanced methods of supervision fault detection and fault diagnosis become important for many technical processes, for the improvement of reliability, safety and efficiency. Fuel consumption and vibration signals are being able to be used for monitoring the conditions of internal combustion engines. Most of the conventional methods for fault diagnosis using acoustic and vibration signals are primarily based on observing the amplitude differences in the time or frequency domain. Unfortunately, the signals caused by damaged elements, such as those buried in broadband background noise or from smearing problems arising in practical applications. In the present study, a Response surface methodology technique with analysis of various approaches is proposed to identify the fuel consumption and vibration signals for fault diagnosis in an internal combustion engine. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the engine system for fault diagnosis under various conditions. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique is effective in the fault diagnosis of an internal combustion engine
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, alternative, environmental friendly, clean fuel used in engines. It can be produced from renewable sources like vegetable oils and animal fat. However, it is better if the product can be obtained from a non-edible source or a waste. As a result of this, waste cooking oil, which had low free fatty acid content, obtained from the cafeteria of Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti (ABUAD) has been utilized in this work to produce biodiesel via a transesterification reaction between the oil and methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide catalyst and by applying the D-optimal technique of the response surface methodology with the aid of Design-Expert to design the experiments that were carried out. The input parameters varied in the work were reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time. After the production, the biodiesel samples were analysed and some of their properties were compared and found to fall within the ranges of the standard values, which was an indication that the material produced was actually biodiesel. In addition, a model of the system was obtained and optimized using the D-optimal design technique of response surface methodology, and it was discovered to represent the system very well because the model was found to be significant as its probability value was estimated to be less than 0.05 that was chosen based on the confidence level of 95%, and its high R-squared value was also found to be very close to unity (1). Therefore, D-optimal design of response surface methodology has been successfully applied to biodiesel production from waste cooking oil of the cafeterias of ABUAD.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation has received considerable attention recently as a possible threat to the health of persons living near high tension electric power lines, distribution substations, and even in close proximity to common household electric appliances. Results of epidemiological and laboratory research are examined to assess risks associated with magnetic fields generated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic sources. Health risks associated with such fields include a wide variety of ills ranging from disruption of normal circadian rhythms to childhood cancers. Risk assessment has been particularly difficult to deter-mine in light of an ostensible lack of a dose-response relationship. Current media sensation fueled in part by an equivocal position adopted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the controversy. Recommendations for prudent avoidance of possible dangers are presented along with policy implications concerning health risks associated with magnetic fields.
The development of efficient models and controllers is central to better understanding and analysis of operational efficiency of modern hydropower plants. In this work, an intelligent Levenberg-Marquardt based Neural Network Predictive Controller (NNPC) was developed for Shiroro hydroelectric power station using actual data obtained from the plant operation. Results obtained after training and simulation of the system show that neural network technique serves as an efficient approach of designing hydroelectric power station models and controllers.
Drug Delivery Unit for Closed Loop Anaesthesia System developed to optimized drug administration during anaesthesia and sedation.The main goals of general anaesthesia are adequate hypnosis, analgesia and maintenance of vital functions. Closed-loop systems are able to make decision on their own and try to reach and maintain a preset target .With the help of patients electrode EEG,ECG and GSR these biosignals taken from patient ,processed and analysed in microcontroller then index values obtained from the patient parameters. Then microcontroller compared index & target values & accordingly intravenous infusion rates of the hypnotic drug propofol and analgesic drug Fentanyl is adjusted to maintain the target range and with the help of syringe mechanical assembly drugs were delivered to the patient.
Squall-thunderstorm is a mesoscale severe weather event. The weather parameters like pressure, temperature from surface level to different levels of the upper atmosphere, cloud coverage, sunshine hour and lapse rate play an important role to generate the Thunder cloud. In this article, our focus is to establish a possible connection between the occurrence of the thunderstorms in Kolkata, North-East India and different types of atmospheric predictors. Here data have been considered both for ‘squall-storm’ and ‘no-squall-storm’ days. The total data set has 485 data from the year 1969 to 2002. K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) techniques have been applied in this research work. The application of K-NN method has been found to be useful in classifying the ‘squall-storm’ and ‘no-squall-storm’ days.
Development of urban Multi-Purpose Cadastre is very useful in Land information management in urban environment. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D). This paper discusses development and implementation of a multipurpose cadastre of Busari Olarinre Scheme Layout in Atiba. Atiba Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. This was achieved by providing systematic procedure for recording information on the allocated parcel of land, both spatial and attribute data, link both spatial and attribute database and perform some analyses, to demonstrate the capability of multipurpose cadastre and performing spatial query and analysis which serve the user’s needs satisfactorily. Primary and secondary datasets of the study area were acquired, processed and analyzed using ARCGIS 9.2 software. In order to obtain the best answers from the database queries, single and multiple criteria query were performed using GIS techniques. The results of database queries were presented in form of multipurpose cadastral map and tables and subsequently discussed. It is recommended among other things that multi-purpose cadastre maps should be made available to decision makers in order to enhance efficient socio-economic administration.
Simple and sensitive visible spectrophotometric methods for the assay of Picloram have been developed. In this method describe the interaction of Picloram, with this based on the formation of ion-pairs of Picloram with the dyes, Bromothymol blue, which is extracted into chloroform and have absorption maxima at 425 (Bromothymol blue ). Regression analysis of Beer's law plot showed good correlation in the concentration range of 5- 30 Î¼g/mL. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully for the analysis of Picloram in its technical grade, formulations and environment samples. No interference was observed from common formulations and environment samples.
The coffee pulping wastewater used for this study is characterized by low pH, high concentration of COD, nitrogen and phosphorous. With aluminum plates as anode and cathode electrodes and at a current density of 93.87 A m-2 the electrochemical reactor performance was found to be good. The experimental results show that the COD, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus removal was found to be 95%, 90%, 89% and 94% respectively. The BOD to COD ratio increased from 0.012 to 1.49 in 105 minutes of electrolysis duration, indicating improvement of wastewater biodegradability. The minimum energy consumption was found to be 1.102 kWh kg-1 COD removal. This study showed that EC reactor performance was good in terms color, nitrogen and phosphorus removal but still remains a high concentration of COD. Since there was an improvement of BOD5/COD ratio, an attempt is made to remove the remaining COD in ASBR. The COD, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency in ASBR was found to 69%, 99% , 99% and 99% respectively. The combined electrochemical treatment of coffee pulping wastewater followed by ASBR removes 96% of COD and ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, phosphorus removal was nearly 100%. This study proves that the EC technique followed by biological treatment in ASBR found to provide an efficient and economic alternative for dealing with recalcitrant organics present in coffee pulping wastewater.
Sinai Peninsula is one the most vital areas in Egypt due to its wealth of mineral resources, oil wells and gas fields. This is in addition to its tourist resorts and geographical location which overlooks three of the world continents. The objectives of this work were to develop the drainage networks in Dahab and Kid valleys and to make an assessment of the expected flood hazards and their management. Arc hydro extension under ArcGIS software was used to develop the drainage network in both valleys for the digital elevation model (DEM). Flood hazard was derived from the morphometric characteristics of each valley. The dam sites were proposed. The major results of this work was the development of the drainage network for both valleys and their sub-basins by using GIS-techniques. Flood hazard was more serious in Dahab valley when compared with Kid valley due to variations among the morphometric, topographic and climatic characteristics of both valleys. However, local variations were also observed among the different sub-basins within each valley. Dam sites were proposed to protect infrastructure from flood hazard, to harvest and sustain water resources and to develop settled villages.
In many institutions and organizations, student and staff attendance is taken seriously as most management frown at absenteeism and sanction the individuals involved. Traditionally, the method of attendance taking used to be done manually using a physical register booklet. This method is prone to manipulation and impersonation. The attendance register could get damaged, stolen or lost. Therefore, several electronic techniques were developed to counter some notable flaws typical with the traditional method. These include clocking machine, RFID, biometrics, etc. While the clocking machine and RFID methods could not solve the problem of impersonation properly, some people fear the health effects of the use of biometrics like iris and facial scanner. Fingerprint scanning has been by far the more acceptable biometric system with the ability to eliminate all the trouble spots reported so far although computer support is always required. Therefore, this paper presents a fingerprint attendance system designed to also operate as a standalone and handheld system without the use of a computer, unlike other fingerprint attendance systems.
Nowadays, Cloud Computing is becoming the major source of inspiration for the global world which is a system based on the Internet to facilitate low budget small and medium enterprises and associations across the world to get them benefits from the real fun of information technology. In cloud computing infrastructure, web is the primary source which is being used as a software service to merge different high peak technologies. The high impact of cloud computing is being recognized by Small and Medium scale Enterprises very rapidly. The Cloud Computing concept actually incorporates Software as a Service (SaaS), Web 2.0, Web infrastructure and some known emerging technologies, and is gradually being attracted by the industry and the researchers’ community. In our paper, we described the experience and the lessons that we have learnt from the SME’s environment in Pakistan, in construction of a Cloud Computing platform. Essentially, we have given the output of the results attained by a web based survey, which was carried out on www.kwicsurvey.com, for the feedback regarding the Cloud Computing implementation problems in Small and Medium scale Enterprises across the country. Speciï¬cally, we have discussed some practical issues for system implementation. Our paper is presenting an attempt to implement a domain specific Cloud Computing Service as a platform in Small and Medium scale Enterprises in Pakistan, with large scale web based implementation of the said technology. We hope that researchers across the globe will be get beneï¬tted from the Cloud Computing implementation in SME’s when it is read.
High impedance is difficult to identify through conventional protection such as distance or over current relays. Fault location plays very important role in power system engineering in order to clear fault quickly and restore power supply with minimum interruption. The major faults in distribution lines are line to ground fault, line to line fault and three phase faults. In this paper a 100 km, 11KV, 50 Hz power distribution line model is developed using MATLAB to obtain fault voltage and current waveforms. The fault conditions are simulated using MATLAB-SIMULINK and fault detection is implemented with Daubechies wavelets. During the occurrence of faults, the grid current and voltages undergoes transients. Discrete wavelet transform has been applied as a noble technique for non-stationary signal analysis. These transients can be analyzed using discrete wavelet transform and the fault can be classified. The result shows that the algorithm is capable of performing the fault locations with accuracy.
Car parking is becoming very difficult due to increase in number of cars at very rapid pace while the availability of parking space is limited. Certain amount of time is spent by people on searching for parking space & thus traffic slows down resulting in congestion. The parking space availability information is not available for the people who are looking for the space to park their vehicle. As a solution to this problem, the present work made an effort to develop an automation assisted car parking system with the capabilities like finding the empty space along the path, detecting the obstacle & avoiding collision and parking itself into the parking space effectively. This system enhances the comfort & safety of driving in constrained environment. The proposed system makes use of ATmega32 microcontroller which acts as brain of this project for monitoring and controlling various hardware components. Hardware components such as infra Red (IR) proximity sensor, magnet door sensor & MAX sonar sensor are utilized as controlling elements of this automation assisted car parking system.
Extreme Pathway analysis method includes determination of extreme pathways consider all the necessary reaction steps of a network that must be used to complete the synthesis process.Extreme pathways can be characterized by their lengths . As an example of this application ,RBC metabolism and its metabolic physiology have been interpreted as an application of extreme pathway.Genetic Algorithm are adaptive heuristic search algorithm based on the evolutionary ideas of natural selection and genetics. It is an optimization method for searching optimums(global maximums or minimums).Through genetic algorithm it is possible to detect the global optimum of the extreme pathways which we have implemented.
The dynamic axial crushing of a thin-walled hot-rolled carbon steel square tubes are performed and their results were compared with published numerical and experimental data of a thin-walled high-strength steel. The goal is to determine and compare the mean crushing force, collapsed mode, energy absorption and crush force efficiency of the tube with respect to their different length sizes and impacting velocities using the commercial finite element Abaqus/Explicit package. The parameters used in this study are the peak crushing force, energy absorption, crush force efficiency (CFE) and specific energy absorption (SEA). The mild steel tube showed an increase in energy absorption with increased velocity of the striking plate. The overall crushing behavior of our models also showed a good correlation with experimental results.
The metamaterials are artificially engineered structures with unusual electromagnetic properties. In this paper, we review the implementation of isotropic metamaterials that exhibit a negative permittivity and a negative permeability, thus leading to a negative index of refraction. Specifically, the paper focuses on transmission line metamaterials which are planar structures comprising a network of distributed transmission lines loaded periodically with inductors L capacitor C, in high pass configuration. The periodic unit cell is much smaller than the wavelength, thus leading to an effective medium in which the lumped loading elements can be either discrete or printed.
Flooding is one of the most common environmental weather-related natural hazards that can affect people's infrastructure and the natural environment. The major cause of flash flood is the occurrence of extremely heavy rainfalls over a short period, they are sudden and highly unpredictable and rapid snow melt and low water absorptive capacity of soil, etc. leading to an increased overland flow, despite the total fall rainfall amount relatively small in Sinai Peninsula,. This paper presents the based methodology on (GIS) to estimate flash flood risk levels in sub-basins within the Wadi Fran and Wadi El-Aawag and then estimate its impact on the road network through integrating geomorphological and geological data in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. In addition to, use remote sensing data. Where was calculated flash flood hazard degree on the highway Suez-Sharm El-Shaikh, which is passing in Al- Tour city, as well was calculated the risk degree of the flash flood on Franâ€“Katherine road using the morphometric analyses model, and also was produced a flood risk map based on the results of the morphometric analysis, These results are essential to define the more sections of roads, which will Exposed of flood hazard, Thus it is possible to help this study in taking appropriate measures to mitigate the probable hazards from floods in the area with prioritization.
Coastal structures especially dikes and breakwaters may have balance on offshore sandy seabed. Foremost causes of lowering crest are consolidation of the foundation layers, wave-induced scouring and liquefaction. Many studies have been conducted to figure out the sinking phenomena of the coastal structures over the past decades. This article has reviewed the findings of observational, physical and real case studies to present comprehensive overview of the gradual sinking phenomena of maritime structures into sandy seabed. This study also reveals which sinking phenomena might have higher influence at what circumstances of marine hydrodynamics. Both consolidation and scour are quantifiable and may be incorporated during design of the crest level, while places susceptible to liquefaction are not suitable as construction site without ground improvement.
This article presents an approach to the constructing a class structural analysis of Petri nets, where elementary siphons are mainly used in the development of a deadlock control policy of flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs), that has been exploited successfully for the design of supervisors of some supervisory control problems. Deadlock-free operation of FMSs is significant objectives of siphons in the Petri net. The structure analysis of Petri net models has efficiency in control of FMSs, however different policy can be implemented for the deadlock prevention. Petri nets models based deadlock prevention for FMS's has gained considerable interest in the development of control theory and methods for design, controlling, operation, and performance evaluation depending of the special class of Petri nets called S3PR. Both structural analysis and reachability tree analysis is used for the purposes analysis, simulation and control of Petri nets. In our experimental approach based to siphon is able to resolve the problem of deadlock occurred to Petri nets that are illustrated with an FMS.
This paper deals with nature of singularities for imploding radiations in Five dimensional Vaidya space times. We will examine the nature of singularities with exponential mass function. We observe strong curvature naked singularity is the outcome.
Satellite signals for communication and navigation experience impairment effects due to ionosphere especially in the equatorial region. The causes and significance of ionosphere disturbances are a kind of research that is of great interest in this area. Space-based radio communication systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) is providing a unique chance to explore the impact of the ionosphere as the signals propagate from the satellites to the GPS receivers. Sarawak which is located near to the equatorial region has been selected for the aim of this research. By utilizing the Total Electron Content (TEC), data recorded by the GPS Ionospheric Scintillation & TEC Monitor (GISTM), the ionospheric effect was examined and related to the signal strength performance. The recorded TEC were tested by comparing to TEC obtained from CODE Global Ionosphere Maps (GIMs) in time series. The results have shown a high consistency of TEC in the time domain with their corresponding minimum and maximum values of TEC that occurred at the same time. The preliminary developed SNR empirical model using regression curve fitting approach is a function of slant TEC from the satellites to the reference station path. This model will be used to forecast the satellite signal strength performance with an input parameter of slant TEC.
In this paper, thin films of copper oxide nanoparticles mixed with 2% wt of nickel oxide are deposited on glass and porous silicon (PS) substrates with orientation (111) etched at 30 minutes. The current density was varied from (10 to 50) mA/cm2 with a step of 10 utilizing pulsed laser deposition technique for the manufacture of hydrogen gas sensor. The films are annealed in air at 400 °C for two hours. The PL result of PS shows that the peak position is shifted to the higher wavelength region due to increase etching current. On the other hand, the atomic force microscopy shows an increase in average diameter with increasing etching current (10-30) mA then decrease. Moreover, the FTIR spectra of porous silicon exhibit that the pore surface includes a high density of dangling bonds of Si for original impurities such as hydrogen and fluorine, which are residuals from the electrolyte. Finally the sensitivity of the hydrogen gas sensor are increased with increasing operating temperature.
The development of measurement geometry for Experimental computed tomography scanner is used for cross-sectional imaging of an object from transmission data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. The aim of this research is the development a first generation Experimental CT scanner to institute laboratory for learning which perform highly efficient to understand the actual CT working. It also plays vital role to get the knowledge of data acquisition & image reconstruction techniques.
The increasing of population in pilgrimage area Tirumala near Tirupati in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, observed as a result of the development of the modern societies is accompanied by concerns in the water sector, as a result of the increasing requirements for water supply and wastewater treatment. This situation justifies the evaluation of the system performance that covers protection of water resources &management. Poorly treated wastewater with high levels of pollutants caused by poor design, operation or maintenance of treatment systems creates major environmental problems, when such wastewater is discharged to surface water or on land. Considering the above stated implications an attempt has been to evaluate the performance of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) near balaji nagar area at Tirumala (Plant-D) capacity of 3 MLD, were collected from each units (Screening & Grit chamber, Aeration tanks, Secondary Clarifier, Storage Tank) at a peak hour.
Kinetic batch experiments were used to study the adsorption-desorption behavior of bispyribac-sodium (Herbicide, pyrimidinyl oxybenzoic acid) in soils from different locations in south of Iraq, Nasiriya, Amara, and mostly Basrah soils to study their physico-chemical properties which are regarded as responsible for adsorption-desorption properties, such as moisture content, loss on ignition, pH, organic matter contents, particle size distribution, analysis and exchangeable cations and anions. The kinetic study of adsorption processes were performed with four different initial concentrations of each pesticide, 3, 5, 10, and 15 µg ml-1 ( ratio1:10 ). The kinetic experiments were carried out after equilibration for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours for each pesticide. Desorption was evaluated using the samples in the tubes after the adsorption tests.
Knowledge is not passively received either through the senses or by way of communication, but it is actively built by cognising subject (Ernst Von Glasersfeld). Hickey et al (2001), explains that the trend in educational reforms is to teach from a constructivist perspective. Thus teachers should focus more on this approach during instruction. Martin et al (1997), observes that rather than putting fully formed knowledge into the learners’ minds, teachers should guide them in constructing knowledge through scientifically valid approaches. As such in all systems of education, science teaching and learning should involve constructivism. Basing on these ob-servations this article is aimed at exploring detailed information about constructivist instruction; its approach-es, processes, methods and the roles it plays in science instruction & science education in general.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different levels and sources of fish meal. 180 day old chicks were randomly divided into 18 experimental groups of 10 chicks each. The chicks of two commercially available fish meals with three levels of Gwadar and Sindh meals were compared in this study. Results revealed significant differences between the two sources and non-significant difference among the various levels of fish meals for weight gain which showed that Gwadar fish meal was better as compared to Sindh fish meal and apparently 8% level was better than 11 and 14% levels of fish meals. Feed consumption of chicks fed on ration containing two sources of fish meal was non-significant. On the other hand there was significant differences in feed consumption of chicks fed on ration containing various levels of fish meals. Apparently better feed consumption was observed in Gwadar fish meal as compared to Sindh fish meal. Statistically non-significant difference was noticed in the feed efficiency value for both different sources and various levels of fish meals. Apparently Gwadar fish meal had better feed efficiency than Sindh fish meal while in case of levels 8% had better feed efficiency as compared to 14 and 11% respectively.
The data used in this work is gotten Mexico observation centers and Spider observations for cosmic ray and sunspots respectively. These data is for the period of three months (January to March 2011). Using the data of sunspot counts with cosmic ray counts, graphs were plotted. The result shows that sunspots formation decreases when cosmic rays production increases. Hence sunspots have effect on cosmic rays production. It further revealed that both sunspot and cosmic rays do not correspond.
In this present article, the parametric excitation of acoustic wave along the crystallographic direction in strain dependent dielectric constant of doped BaTiO3 matrix was analyzed by the hydrodynamic model of plasma. The coupled mode theory was used to calculate the threshold electric field and growth of acoustic wave along the certain direction of the crystallographic plane of the material. These analyses are investigated in electron- phonon collision dominated regime of the material. BaTiO3 itself show high dielectric constant due to temperature dependent crystallographic phase transformation. By introducing the dopant in the crystallographic plane, the resultant structure of BaTiO3 shows slightly modification in dielectric constant as well as stiffness of the material, which is responsible for changing the acoustic velocity in the different crystallographic plane. With the help numerical calculation, the anomalous growth can be obtained in high dielectric constant along the different crystallographic plane. But their results show no changing of parametric instability of laser beam along the crystallographic plane because of the retention of centrosymmetric structure in doped BaTiO3.
For decades, diagnostic imaging in rheumatology has used conventional radiography. The development of imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and image processing methods provide rheumatologists with powerful tools that may hopefully lead to reliable diagnosis, quantitative evaluation and intuitive visualization. The standard open-source functional Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine (DICOM) software, provides the tools for interactive reconstruction of 3D images and multiplanar reformatting of data from any imaging modality. OsiriX is a free and open-source DICOM software that allows anyone to reconstruct and manipulate 3D images. It is highly practical from the perspective of user-friendliness, and its high performance processing power allows rheumatologist to easily generate a variety of images in real time and select the most adequate view of the specific anatomical structures that are of interest. The present article aims to discuss the key issues related to diagnostic imaging in patients with inflammatory arthritis, connective tissue diseases (CTDs) or systemic vasculitis, and to increase the awareness of rheumatologists about this field.
The paper is about Newton Raphson Method which is all-inclusive to solve the non-square and non-linear problems. The study also aims to comparing the rate of performance, rate of convergence of Bisection method, root findings of the Newton meted and Secant method. It also represents a new approach of calculation using nonlinear equation and this will be similar to Newton Raphson simple method and inverse Jacobian matrix will be used for the iteration process and this will be further used for distributed power load flow calculation and will also be helpful in some of the applications. The paper also discusses the difference between the use of built in derivative function and self-derivative function in solving non-linear equation in scientific calculator. The derivation Newton Raphson formula, algorithm, use and drawbacks of Newton Raphson Method have also been discussed.
A survey of different image denoising methods is performed. The different noise removal methods can be used based upon the nature of the noise that the images contain. Hybrid Graph Laplacian Regularized Regression method of noise removal gives the best result when the type of noise is Salt and Pepper and Gaussion noise.
When energy efficiency is considered then cooperative communications may not be responding since it involves multiple nodes in network. Use of distributed user Cooperation is necessary in cooperative wireless ad hoc networks (WANETs),Here we propose a Energy-Aware Reliable Routing (EARR) algorithm in topology control system to improve energy efficiency in the network. Here we jointly consider coalition of network using coalition formation algorithm which gives stable coalition(topology) structure and selecting particular path by comparing their energy consumption in bits per joule using their relay nodes in network. Simulation results show the performance which is improvement of EARR in energy efficiency compared to the existing topology controlling algorithm.
The aim of this work was to assess the impact of heavy metals from a functional waste dumpsite leachates on the groundwater integrity in the vicinity of the waste dumpsite located in Akunlemu/Ogeese community in Oyo town. Soil samples were collected from six different locations on the dumpsite at the surface at different location on the dumpsite. Six different groundwater samples were collected at various distances from the dumpsite. All the samples were examined for zinc, lead, copper, iron, cadmium and manganese. The levels of concentration of the heavy metals in the groundwater samples were compared with the WHO (World Health Organization) standard to check if their concentration is higher than the permissible limit or lower in the standard laid down.
In wireless sensor networks, services may fail due to various reasons, including radio interference, de-synchronization, battery exhaustion, or dislocation. Such failures are caused by software and hardware faults, environmental conditions, malicious behavior, or bad timing of a legitimate action. In general, the consequence of such an event is that a node becomes unreachable or violates certain conditions that are essential for providing a service, for example by moving to a different location,
An Integrated Design approach has to be adopted while making decisions for different aspects of Sustainable and Green Buildings. Among these decisions, is selection of sustainable and green building materials because many new products of different qualities, costs and environmental impacts are entering into the market at an increasing pace. This has increased the workload and responsibilities of the specifiers who will require constant flow of information about their environmental, technical and aesthetic aspects. But genuine and authenticated information about every aspect of the material is seldom available and its suitability within the project requirements is always debatable. Environmental decisions, being closely coupled with society’s built-in uncertainties and risks, are genuinely uncertain since ecological systems as well as social systems change in the future. The selection of a suitable sustainable and green material among alternative materials is a multi-criteria decision-making problem including both quantitative and qualitative Green Building criteria. The conventional approaches to material selection problem like life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tend to be less effective since qualitative criteria are often imprecisely defined for the decision-makers. The experts in the decision process make linguistic assessments about alternative materials and can state their order of preference with sufficient degree of conviction quantified using membership function in Fuzzy Logic. The aim of the paper is to solve material selection problem using approach of fuzzy group decision-making using individual fuzzy preference relations. The proposed model allows for the individual decision-makers to possess different aims and priorities while still assuming that the overall intention is to reach a common acceptable integrated decision on material selection apt for the project module.
Extensive use of Microstrip antenna motivates researchers for its optimization. May techniques are there for antenna optimization which results up to 30% reduction in patch dimensions. Today’s world of minituration needs more optimizations for effective utilization of patch antenna. The paper proposed technique for optimization of microstrip antenna using Split Ring Resonator and Thin Wire Metamaterials. This Metamaterial structure gives negative refractive index at their plasma frequency. The frequency of optimization for microstrip antenna is same as that of plasma frequency of metamaterial structure. Simulation of Unit Cell for Metamaterial gives S-parameters for the same. Parameter extraction from those S-parameters gives operating range of frequency. When patch antenna is loaded with Metamaterial structure negative permeability and negative permittivity enhances antenna parameters. This results in optimized patch dimension and similar antenna performance. Approximately 44 % reduction at frequency 5.2 GHz and 4.7 GHz had been observed. The proposed technique results in almost 6 dB of gain over a impedance band over 200 MHz at frequency 5.2 GHz and 4.7 GHz. Limitation of the suggested technique is that it operates over a limited band of frequencies.
A New pregnane type Alkaloid named Sracosalgminol [(20S)-20-(dimethylamino)-3β-methoxy-16β-hydroxyl-pregn-5-ene] was isolated from sarcococca saligna and its structure was established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques including1H,13C-NMR and inverse 2D-NMR techniques (DEPT,HMQC and HMBC) UV,MS etc.
Gasoline produced in Egypt is a low-grade gasoline that contains a high concentration of harmful components that are having a toll on our environment. In addition, those pollutants cause countless diseases and deaths annually to the Egyptian population. This paper investigates the effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on fuel properties characteristics using standard laboratory methods. Fuel properties tests are conducted for density, RVP, ASTM distillation, RON, MON, PON, PIONA, and benzene content of ethanol-gasoline blends with different percentages of ethanol. Straight run naphtha, isomerate, reformate, Coker naphtha and hydrocracked naphtha which produced from crude distillation unit, isomerization process, catalytic reforming and conversion processes respectively are blended with an oxygenated compound ( ethanol) to produce environmental gasolines A98 and A95 respectively which satisfy all specification of Euro-6 regulations. The new blends are friendly environmental and contains the less amount of benzene content. Fuel properties test-results showed that blends densities increased continuously and linearly with increasing percentage of ethanol, while Reid Vapor pressures decreased. Furthermore, ASTM distillation curves for blends are found to be lower than pure gasoline fuel. The tested blends Octane rating based on Research Octane Number (RON) increased continuously and linearly with increasing the percentage of ethanol. Results from this study will be valuable on the assessment of the suitability of ethanol-gasoline blends as bio-fuel for the automotive industry to cover for the country demands.
In tropical and sub-tropical developing countries of the world peoples are suffering from zinc deficiency. Therefore, keeping in view the scope of zinc bio-fortified rice in future, this study had been conducted to develop the zinc bio-fortified rice for controlling the hidden hunger from the peoples of zinc deficient countries. Two parents MH63 indica and 02428 japonica along with their respective 200 reciprocal introgression lines (RILs) brought under study in green house conditions. Zinc in the form of ZnSO4.7H2O at the rate of 200 ppm and control was consequently applied to the rice seedlings for the extended period of 26 days in hydroponic culture solution. Highly supplemented zinc efficient RILs were discovered. However, the phenotypic performance of zinc supplemented RI lines was better than zinc supplemented parents.
Comparative analysis uses certain criteria to judge various alternatives in the analysis. These criteria include the values of the alternatives and the likelihood of obtaining them. The petroleum industry constantly seeks for ways to cut down cost of exploration and development. An improvement on the ability to predict events ahead of the bit is the key to achieving this goal. Estimation of pore pressure finds itself so vital in the industry, especially in planning and drilling a modern deep well. No wonder there abound several methods for its prediction. The most common methods of predicting pore pressure in the industry were compared in this study. Seismic travel time data for a well in the Louisianan basin was used for the comparison. The methods compared were the equivalent depth, ratio, Eaton, Pennebarker, Hottman and Johnson, and, Matthew and Kelly. Based on the analysis in the study, the method by Eaton is the most accurate.
Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in the environment and the food chain is a major concern in the whole world. This is as a result of increase in the application of fertilizers and other agro â€“ chemicals to boost agricultural yield to meet the increasing food demand for human consumption. This work evaluated the concentration of some potentially toxic elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe and Cd) in some selected vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, cucumber, carrot and tomato) cultivated in Jos metropolis and consumed in cooked or raw form. The results showed the levels of Zn and Pb to be high in lettuce and carrot; their values range from 1.50 + 0.003 and 1.90 + 0.11 respectively and 0.30 + 0.003 and 1.40 + 0.003 respectively. Furthermore, the results revealed the trend in metal uptake from soil to vegetable to be Cu> Ni > Mn> Pb> Cd > Zn.
Body language is an important way of communication among humans, adding emphasis to voice messages or even being a complete message by itself. Human hand has remained a popular choice to convey information in situations where other forms like speech cannot be used. Hand gestures which can represent ideas using unique shapes and finger orientation have a scope for human machine interaction. Gesture recognition can be seen as a way for computers to begin to understand human body language, thus building a richer bridge between machines and humans than primitive text user interfaces or even GUIs (graphical user interfaces), which still limit the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. The performance of a general recognition system first depends on getting efficient features to represent pattern characteristics. There are several methods of representing such gesture trajectory feature. The aim of this paper is to show different features for hand’s image used with different approaches that yielding arobust and reliable hand gesture recognition.
Image binarization is vital step within the OCR (Optical Character Recognition). There are many techniques used for image binarization , however it is difficult to choose best technique that can be used for degraded images. The most objective of this paper is to present the survey on varied existing binarization techniques .This paper can act as guide for fresher’s to begin their work on binarization.
Skinput is a technology that appropriates the human body for acoustic transmission, allowing the skin to be used as an input surface. Skinput is a new skin-based interface that allows users to use their own arms and hands as touch screens by sensing different ultra low-frequency sounds that are generated when knocking various parts of skin. The feature of providing input using this projection is a boost.
The structural and magnetic properties of a series of orthoferrites, RE0.7Sr0.3Fe0.9Ni0.1O3; RE= La, Pr, Nd, Gd, and Dy were successfully prepared by the citrate-nitrate autocombustion method. All samples were antiferromagnetic with a weak ferromagnetic component due to small canting of the Fe3+ moments. The correlation between magnetic transition and structural distortion is discussed on the basis of the variation of the Néel temperature and the tolerance factor as a function of different ionic radii of the rare earth elements. The results reveal that, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that all samples crystallized in pure orthorhombic perovskite structure with space group Pbnm. The Goldschmidt tolerance factor for the perovskite decreases from 0.85 for La0.7Sr0.3Ni0.1Fe0.9O3 to 0.82 for Dy0.7Sr0.3Fe0.9Ni0.1O3 confirming that the crystal structure is orthorhombic. The molar magnetic susceptibility increased from 0.086 to emu gâˆ’1 mol at La3+ to 0.379 emu gâˆ’1 mol at Dy3+ and the coercive field (HC) of the samples was increased from 129.38Oe for La0.7Sr0.3Ni0.1Fe0.9O3 to 164.15Oe for the Dy3+ substituted sample. The Néel temperature indicates the highest value (834K) at Dy3+.
Most of all saline water of mines industry relates to a class of sodium sulfate water. The application of waters of this class for the drinking purposes is limited most often because the total salinity and the contents of separate ions are in excess of the standards. For desalination of saline waters various methods are used. Among them the membrane methods have a leading part. Considerable progress in manufacture of composite membranes results in lower cost of water desalination. At the same time desalination of saline waters brings about plenty of salt concentrates, which pose essential damage to the environment. Tightening the requirements on ecological safety has resulted in development of a number of projects for utilization of salt concentrates being formed at desalination of saline waters, and providing minimization of volumes of slimes produced. In a number of cases utilization of salt concentrates results in the production of commercial products.
In their influential work, John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky propose their views on the learning process. This paper focuses on two major themes of each philosopher’s work: Dewey’s learning by doing and Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD). Dewey and Vygotsky have similarities, such as thinking and learning in the educational process, and differences in their work toward the learning theory and relationships between learning and development. Moreover, this paper discusses both theorists’ perspective of the learning process through implementing their theories in our current schools.
With the emergence of the latest progression of the World Wide Web, a tremendous need has arisen for efficient retrieval and extraction of information. The development of image retrieval and media extraction mechanisms is of paramount significance for storing, transmitting, generating, analyzing and accessing multimedia. Color, texture, shapes and spatial layout are the core characteristics used to signify and catalog the images. These odd features of images are extracted to assess the similarity of the images in several applications, particularly airport security checks and immigration processing. To extract useful information from this notably large amount of data, several information and image retrieval approaches have been introduced in recent decades. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of the latest technical accomplishments in image retrieval and extraction, especially for search engine applications. This survey covers well-known approaches from 2007 to 2014.
The main aim of load frequency control is to minimise the transient variations and also to make sure that steady state errors is zero. Many modern control techniques are used to implement a reliable controller. The objective of these control techniques is to produce and deliver power reliably by maintaining both voltage and frequency within permissible range. This thesis studies the reliability of various control techniques of load frequency control of the proposed system through simulation in the MATLAB-Simulink environment.
In continuously developing society brainstorming session often used to generate and analyse ideas and options. It is useful to encourage specific types of thinking and can be a convenient and symbolic way to request someone to “switch gears". It involves restricting the group to only thinking in specific ways - giving ideas & analysis in the “mood” of the time. In present global scenerio this way of thinking has been coined as Business analysis; is a potential research discipline of identifying business needs and determining solutions to business problems. Solutions evolves from study often include a software-systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement, organizational change or strategic planning and policy development. Person who carries out this task is called a business analyst or BA. Business analysts do not work solely on developing software systems; but to apply business intelligence for sustainable development.Though the term business intelligence is sometimes a synonym for competitive intelligence (because they both support decision making), BI uses technologies, processes, and applications to analyze mostly internal, structured data and business processes while competitive intelligence gathers, analyzes and disseminates information with a topical focus on company competitors. If understood broadly, business intelligence can include the subset of competitive intelligence. Business intelligence and business analytics are sometimes used interchangeably, but there are alternate definitions.
Physicochemical parameters and levels of three heavy metals were determined in waste water samples collected from four selected chemical producing industries in Sango-Ota, Ogun-State, Nigeria using standard analytical procedure. Sampling was carried out between April and June, 2011. The results of the physicochemical analysis were obtained in the following range; pH (5.48-10.35), temperature (31.0-33.50C), conductivity (43.8- 1927.45 µs/cm3), chloride (66.84- 5413.63mg/L), total hardness (148.55- 261.09 mg/L), sulphate (82.50-97.00 mg/l), TDS ( 21.249- 956.450 mg/L), alkalinity (412.56 -1233.41mg/L) ,TSS (68.963- 240.562 mg /L), BOD (460.07-1833.48 mg/ L), total nitrogen,(92.11- 252.18 mg/L), and sulphide(0.01-1.94). The concentration of some metals (mg/L) in the samples analysed were found to be in the following range; Cd (0.105- 0.427), Zn (0.228- 0.368), Pb (0.351- 0.483), Na (29.46- 162.36), K (10.83- 14.84) and Mg (0.985- 2.368). Some of the results were above the permissible limits set by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) most especially, effluent from ink/paint Industry. It can be concluded that all the effluents required further treatment before releasing them into water body or land in other to prevent pollution. Proper monitoring of industrial effluent by regulatory bodies and adequate measures should be put in place in other to curb indiscriminate release of industrial effluents to the environment.
Synchronous circuits are widely used in existing systems. The most significant problem with these synchronous systems is clock skew. The clock skew is insignificant for smaller circuits. But as circuits become complex, this difference becomes very significant and extra design time and often extra circuitry needs to be used to solve the problem. With problems caused by the clock, it is very tempting to simply remove it from the system. This is the fundamental idea behind asynchronous system design. The proposed method describes the techniques to design Asynchronous (clock less) digital system. It is not as simple as just removing the clock, since the operation of the circuit must still be controlled by some other methods. Asynchronous circuits essentially govern themselves. The proposed asynchronous system design is based on Null Convention Logic (NCL) and handshaking protocol. The proposed methodology is to convert a Synchronous HDL to an Asynchronous Layout using industry standard synchronous EDA tools.
In this work hard chromium electroplating carried out on samples from steel 1037. Some parameters were changed like time of electroplating, concentration of nano zirconium oxide, and agitation velocity. The hardness investigated by micro hardness tester at load 200gr. The corrosion resistance tested by potentiostat using 35gr/liter NaCl solution. Thickness of co-deposit was investigated by ultrasonic thickness tester. The results indicate that the thickness of chromium deposit layer in creases with increasing the electroplating time. However, this increment in thickness was higher when the Nano zirconium oxide added. The thickness of hard chromium layer was increased from 15µm to about 135µm by increasing the time to 45 minutes, agitation velocity to 250 rpm and 11gr/l Nano zirconium oxide particles. The Icorr of sample electroplated by hard chromium without (ZrO2) was (91.25nA) and Ecorr also increases to (-200mV). The best corrosion resistance was Icorr and Ecorr 3.15µA and -590.5 mV respectively, on samples electroplated by co-deposit of chromium and (ZrO2) particles for 45 minutes and 4gr/l of (ZrO2). Microhardness reveals the highest hardness was 1036HV for sample electroplated with high thickness co-deposit layer.
Study on the aflatoxin contaminating poultry feeds in South-Western zone of Nigeria was carried out in May- October 2008 and November 2008-April 2009 which represent two seasons of the year during the rainy and Dry season. A total of 300 samples of finished commercial poultry feeds (broilers and layers mash) collected from different feed mills in South-Western (Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Ekiti State) Nigeria and were examined for aflatoxin contamination. Extraction of aflatoxin from feed samples was carried out both by the aqueous acetone and the chloroform extraction method. The extracts were qualitatively examined by quick screening method and thin layer chromatography method. Aflatoxin B1 in the feed samples were detected in the range of trace 10.5 Î¼g kg-1and 65.3 Î¼g kg-1. Aflatoxins B2, G1 & G2 were also present in addition to aflatoxin B1.
The effect of putting two inclined partitions inside a rectangular enclosure on natural convection heat transfer rate was studied in this work. The problem was simulated in (ANSYS FLUENT) and solved numerically. The vertical walls were heated differentially to produce a constant Ra of (3x105). The continuity equation, momentum equations, Navier-Stokes and energy equations were used in solution. The results are represented as contours of isotherms and streamlines. The results show that the maximum heat transfer rate occur at (45°) for each partition. It is more than the non-partitioned case by 1.15%. The minimum heat transfer rate occur at (90°) for each partition. It is less than the non-partitioned case by 53%.
Measurement of the emitted noise level from dredging activities and its associated equipment at a dredging site in Umuechi, a coastal Community in Rivers State of Nigeria was undertaken. The measurements were carried out with a Smart Sensor Sound Level Metre. The position of the Community as measured with a Global Positioning System (GPS) shows that it is located at 40 55’ 12.5’’N and between 0060 53’43.8’’E and 0060 53’29’’E. The measurements of the Sound Levels were taken at radial distances of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 metres away from the sources and the average Sound Power Level at each of the radial distances recorded. The results obtained indicates that the measured sound level at 10 metres from the dredging site was 138.8dB and reduces to 91.6 dB at a radial distance of 50 metres from the site, and further to 43.5 dB, which is the same as the ambient environmental noise level, at 100 metres radial distance from the source.
Ruthenium(III) complexes of dithocarbomate ligand have been prepared in situ by condensing of a substituted 2 hydroxy 3-methyle pyramidine compound with corbondisulphide . These were characterized by elemental analysis, m.p., IR, molar conductivity, magnetic moment measurements, and electronic spectra. The free ligands were also characterized by 1H NMR spectra. The thermogravitic analysis discussed in terms of possible groups effects. The electronic spectra of the free ligand and the complexes are compared and discussed. The electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spect ra of four free ligands and their complexes were measured. Infra red spectra and The deconvolution of the visible spectra of the complexes, and are assigned to the three dâ€“d transitions , 4B1g â†’ 4Eg (4T2g); 4B1g â†’ 4B2g(4T2g); 4B1g â†’ 4Eg(4T1g), respectively. The complexes showed magnetic moment in the range of 3.5â€“4.2 BM which corresponds to three unpaired electrons.
Fungicides are widely used in conventional agriculture to control plant disease. Prolonged usage often poses health problems. As modern society is becoming more health conscious, the use of botanicals is now emerging as one of the prime means to protect crops, their products and the environment from pesticides. The present study was undertaken to screen five selected plants (Piliostigma thonningii; Maytenus senegalensis; Nauclea latifolia; Vernonia amygdalina and Cassia sieberiana); apply standard scientific procedures and to determine the toxicity and test their effectiveness for the control of Phytophthora infestans the causal organism of late blight of potato under field conditions.
Recent years have seen an increase focus on foods and its components in disease prevention. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), one of the best herbal remedies in researches which studied, holds important position in history. usually used to treat infection, diabetes, colds, heart disease, and a host of other disorders.
In the educational context the leadership is very important to enhance the schooling staff’s performance and student achievement because the ways the leaders make effective decisions that enhance the students’ progress, working conditions, and their influence on teacher knowledge and skills as well. However, to have such great educational features in the school society, the decision must be made effectively and scientifically. Therefore, an analytical system to create ranking orders is required to help leaders make their proper and effective decisions based on effective criteria presented by experts.
Global solar radiation varies. And changes in the climatic conditions are worldwide environmental problems. This paper uses data consisting of weekly average of daily solar radiation for a period of one month. These data are obtained by using Daystar Solar Meter to measure the solar radiation at Ebonyi Local Government Area (Presco Campus) (80 N, 60 E). The clearness index is calculated. From the result, Ebonyi has enough solar radiation that will be utilized for photovoltaic applications. It also reveals its effect on farmers.
Monitoring depth of anaesthesia during surgery is one of the important aspects in improving patient care. During surgery there is a huge variation in patientâ€™s physiological parameters. Thus during surgery patients parameters need to be monitored & maintained within an appropriate range. This paper presents a tool to monitor depth of anaesthesia of a patient noninvasively during surgery. There are different subjective and objective methods to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. This study presents objective methods, such as electroencephalogram, heart rate variability and galvanic skin response. In this study physiological parameters (EEG, HRV and GSR) were captured from the patient with the help of patient electrodes and hardwares developed for them. These analog signals then fed to MSP430 which is an ultra low power microcontroller. In the controller analog signals were digitized with the help of an ADC and further signal processing was performed i.e. Fast fourier transform on EEG and statistical calculation on ECG. The results were displayed on LCD showing an EEG index, an analgoscore and the level of GSR. These results show the state of a patient during surgery so that it will help an anaesthesiologist to inject appropriate amount of drug dose to the patient to maintain its anaesthetic state.
School is meant primarily for students, this is why students are central in the affairs of all levels of education. Yet a lot of anti - social behaviour are exhibited by students especially in the public secondary schools. As a result, this paper investigates ways of enhancing management of student personnel services, for sustainability of quality of human resources. This aim specifically is to examine; the extent of management of student personnel services. To identify strategies for enhancing the management of student personnel service and the influence effective management of student personnel has on sustainability of human resource. Data was collected using 24 â€“ item questionnaire responded to by all the Principals in the zone, one Guidance and Counselor from each secondary school and all the Senior Prefects giving a sample size of 105. Data from the 3 research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Results revealed that there was no effective management of student personnel services. The strategies proffered were agreed upon by the respondents. Finally, it was found that proper management of student personnel services at the secondary level has positive influence on realization of sustainable future. Based on the above, some recommendations were made like principals in the zone should beef up their strategies on management of student personnel services.