Volume 6, Issue 8

Production of Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Polyethylene Composite for Ballistic Protection PDF

Akubue P.C., Igbokwe P.K. and Nwabanne J.T.

Kenaf reinforced polyethylene composites for ballistic protection was produced in this work. The samples of alkaline treated and silane-coupled non-woven matted kenaf fibers were cut to the required dimensions and oriented vertically and horizontally in combinations with a virgin high density polyethylene (VHDPE). The composite panels were produced using Box-Behnken 3-variables settings. The following factors settings were used (molding temperature: 1600C to 2000C; molding time: 60minutes to 80minutes; fiber volume fraction: 10% to 30%) based on dry mass in a two-piece mild steel compression molding set. The pressure for heating and cooling was controlled at 12MPa. The responses as tensile and flexural values were determined and optimized. The composite sample of VHDPE ballistic test were blended based on the optimum settings of temperature: 2000C; molding time: 80minutes and fiber volume fraction:30%) and tested with Jojeff Magnum riffle gun. The mechanical and ballistic properties of the composite panel of VHDPE were determined. The studies revealed that fiber volume at 30% protected against Armor Level Protection Class of NIJ standard level III-A for VHDPE composite.

Parameters influencing connecting rod: A Review PDF

Shubham Tiwari, Ajay Kumar Kaviti

Connecting rod works as an intermediate link between piston and crankshaft. The function of connecting rod is to convert reciprocating motion into rotary motion. Since it is subjected to variable tensile and compressive load, it should be strong enough to bear that load. Manufacturing of connecting rod is one of the most important parameter that can affect the overall performance of connecting rod. Selection of connecting rod for good performance of engine is very difficult. There are various factors that are to be considered before selecting connecting rod, like type of engine, maximum rpm engine produces, requirement of relative weight, stiffness and strength of connecting rods, type of cross section like I-section, H-section, Rectangular or circular, material of connecting rod etc. After selecting the appropriate cross section, the material used in the connecting rod should be chosen wisely because during manufacturing process it has to undergo various production processes and subsequent heat treatment process, which is very much important for strength and stiffness. In this paper, a review has been attempted on selection parameter of connecting rod like cross section, manufacturing process and material selection which can enhance the performance of engine.

An Efficient Approach for Classifying Intrusion using Fusion based HMM & Clustering PDF

Chandrima Dutta, Prof. Amit Saxena, Dr. Manish Manoria

Intrusion detection system is a method of identifying unnecessary packets that may be creates some damage in the network; hence various Intrusion detection based methods are implemented to provide security in the network traffic flow. Here in this paper an efficient technique of identifying intrusions is implemented using the concept of hidden markov model and then classification of these intrusions is done. The methodology implemented here is applied on KDDCup 99 dataset where the data to be detected is first group some by using clustering approach so that the similar packets are grouped into one and the dissimilar packets are grouped into another. Now some of the important attributes are selected from the dataset and defined as the states of Hidden Markov Model and the probability is calculated from each of the state to other state and finally these probabilities are fused to find the overall probability of the dataset and hence on the basis of threshold probability packets can be classified as low and medium and high intrusions.

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermal and Thermodynamical Properties of ThO2 PDF

Karamvir Kaur

Nuclear energy has become a very important source of energy, realising the low efficiency and low productivity of fossil fuels. The nuclear fission process generates heat which is further removed by the coolant and using steam and turbines, electrical energy is produced. And for a stable fission reaction, nuclear reactor design and fuel composition alongwith storage of spent fuel and its reprocessing need to be studied, both theoretically and experimentally (if possible). Molecular Dynamics Simulation is an atomistic approach towards predicting the behavior of materials using the classical equations of motion (Newton’s Laws of Motion). This paper showcases the close results produced by the simulation by using two inter-atomic potential set of parameters for ThO2. One is Buckingham potential and the other being Buckingham-Morse-Many Body potential. ThO2 based materials are important fuel for various reactor systems (conventional Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR), Advanced Heavy Water Reactors (AHWR)) owing to a number of neutronic properties. Hence, it clearly needs an experimental database of properties like melting point, density, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity in order to meet the fuel requirements. However, due to extensive as well as expensive safety precautions, not all the properties can be determined at every required temperature experimentally. Hence, classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) is an efficient simulation technique to obtain the same. It was observed that Linear Thermal Expansion parameter was predicted very accurately by both the potentials. Moreover, Melting Point as well as single crystal elastic constants’ prediction was very close to the experimental value.

Investigation of Instructing Reforms in Databases PDF

Tarik Rashid

As the enlargement of database technology tools within the field of network communications and knowledge mining has created further projections and more views for information technologies and subsequently these information knowledge are thought of joined of the core technologies in data Technology. Thus, there's a great mandate from academic centers, business companies and marketplaces for extremely qualified experience in database areas. As a result, it's doubtless fundamental for academic analyses within the field of databases and education to conduct additional research works so to boost teaching, learning, and assessing strategies of database courses. This paper describes the salient properties of those database courses and highlights the challenges of conventional teaching/learning/assessing strategies of database courses at universities in Kurdistan generally. This paper provides comprehensive reformations to those challenges.

Lateral Earth Pressure between two Parallel Rigid Retaining Walls PDF

Eltayeb Hassan Onsa

Parallel retaining walls are usually used for jetties, docks and cutoff walls. The lateral earth pressure is a significant design parameter in retaining structures and in number of foundation engineering problems. Retaining walls require quantitative estimate of the lateral pressure for either design or stability analysis. It is known that the distribution of lateral earth pressure against retaining walls is neither triangular nor linear owing to the effect of arching in the backfill. This paper presents experimental evaluation of the reaction induced by lateral earth pressure from granular soil contained between two parallel rigid retaining walls when the distance between the two walls is narrow.

Optimized Strength Model of Cement-RHA-Laterite-Water Mix in Hollow Sandcrete Block PDF

P.N. Onuamah

With the cost of cement and transportation of sandcrete aggregates in Nigeria increasing geometrically, designers now seek more locally available materials for constructing durable structures that still stand the test of time. This paper focuses on modeling and optimizing the compressive strength of a four component mixture of Cement, Rice Husk Ash, Laterite and Water in the production of hollow sandcrete block, at 67/33 Cement/RHA and 100% laterization. The study applies the Scheffe’s optimization approach to obtain a mathematical model of the form f(xi1,xi2,xi3,,xi4), where xi are proportions of the concrete components, viz: cement, RHA, laterite and water. Scheffe’s experimental design techniques are followed to mould various hollow block samples measuring 450mm x 225mm x 150mm and tested for 28 days strength. The task involved experimentation and design, applying the second order polynomial characterization process of the simplex lattice method. The model adequacy is checked using the control factors. A purpose-made software is prepared to handle the design computation process to take the desired property of the mix, and generate the optimal mix ratios.

Study Magnetic Properties And Synthesis With Characterization Of Nickel Oxide (NiO) Nanoparticles PDF

Abdullah Hasan Jabbar, Prof.(Dr.)D.Peter Jayapandian, Dr. Vivek Kumar

Nickel Oxide (NiO) nanopowder was obtained during a chemical method, which is a bottom up approach of synthesis. It was initially prepared via chemical synthesis of main materials were nickel acetate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and cety trimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB), and extremely stirring until the pH becomes 7.5, and nanoparticles of (NiO) are prepared by thermal decomposition of freshly prepared nickel hydroxide by a sol gel and followed by heat treatment at 350oC. Nickel oxide, a kind of soft magnetic materials is one of the most attracting class of materials due to its interesting and important properties and has many technical applications, such as in catalysis, sensors and so on. The characterization of (NiO) nanoparticles for structural properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface morphology of the prepared sample was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), magnetization measurements were carried out on an Alternative Gradient Force Magnetometer (AGFM), which revealed saturation magnetization of the samples were strongly dependent on the calcinations temperature and particle size of the sample. The saturation magnetization values of the samples increased as a function of the calcinations temperature. Finally our results showed that the chemical synthesis method leads to obtain nickel oxide nanoparticles with good magnetic behavior.

A Prototype of a Mobile-Based High Blood Pressure Patients’ Self Management System PDF

Adeyemo, O. A, Abiola, O.B, and Yusuf, F.A

This paper proposed a prototype of a mobile high blood pressure patients’ self management system. This is to leverage on the increasing Internet population coupled with the increasing population of people using mobile devices, and high speed broadband that will provide a better method to support the current approach to health care service delivery. The target groups are all individuals who have high blood pressure diagnosed and people that are prone to it but most importantly the younger generations who are not particularly oblivious of the health risk posed by high blood pressure. It is hoped that the management of patients with high blood pressure in developing countries of the world will achieve a better result by reducing mortality and increase awareness if the mobile technology with health information management applications that is fast gaining accessibility and availability is deployed and hence, the study.

Investigating the effect of ocean waves on gravity based offshore platform using finite element analysis software ANSYS PDF

Dr. Oluleke oluwole, Dr.J.Odunfa, Olumide, p. Aboluwade

Finite element analysis (FEA) technology has become a very important tool for evaluating the structural integrity of massive and gigantic structures of which offshore platforms is an example. Modeling of offshore platforms has been challenging due to the complexity of structural designs and the large volume of elements used in the model.

Survey of Risk in Software Project Development by Data Mining Tree Algorithms PDF

Dhyan Chandra Yadav, Saurabh Pal

The knowledge or technical skill have major role in software engineering. Correction and completion are necessary part in software coding and documentation. Every software has different quality according to the requirement of the software project. Mistaken bug is detected by software tracking system. Mistaken bug problem is a coverable problem and mentation in the problem report for correction. In this paper we proposed and analyzed three data mining tree algorithms find the geometric mean, J static coefficient parameter (for sensitivity and specificity),correctness, completeness, error rate of data object by the help of AD Tree, Lad Tree and REP Tree algorithms.

Evaluating learning effectiveness in collaborative learning environment by using Multi-Objective Grey Situation Decision Making Theory PDF

Mr. Nilay M. Vaidya, Dr. Priti S. Sajja and Mr. Divyang U. Gor

The learner’s learning effectiveness in group encourage each other to ask questions, explain, reasoning with opinions, and elaborate and response their knowledge. It also could enhance critical thinking, because learners could understand more diverse views by sharing different perspectives on a given problem. Collaborative asynchronous learning system could understand more diverse views, if it has the conditional data representation to the user based on the understanding level. For this, the attempt in this paper is to apply Multi-objective Grey Situation Decision Making theory (MGSD) on the collaborative online learning system for measuring the basic understanding level of learner and then accordingly presents the conditional content to the user. To evaluate preliminary learning level of the user in the collaborative environment, we considered multiple parameters of the learner like age, demographic profile, family profile, basic qualification and basic competency scale.

Characterization of Lipolytic Microorganisms From Traditional Tanneries of Fez (Morocco) PDF

Elharchli Elhassan & Ibnsouda Koraichi Saad

This study led on the traditional tanneries of Fes aims at the characterization of the skins treatments stage. The most important of which are the one dropping of pigeons which by lipolytic effect of the microorganisms, would be at the origin of the skins degreasing and softening. The high lighting of the lipolytic microbial potential would be nil doubt mattering not only for the adoption of a method of non-polluting clean tanning of the environment but also for the unpublished biotechnological progress in the field of lipases application. The analysis of data collected further to the physic-chemical and microbiological characterizations in the various stages of tanning revealed the extreme character and the microbial wealth in this site. The pigeon’s droppings stage revealed three lipase producing yeasts. The kinetics of lipolytic activity for these yeasts with the biomass showed an important production of lipase in two phases suggesting the hypothesis of two synthesis lipases by the same yeasts.

Algebraic Structure of Boolean and Cubic Graphs PDF

Faisal H Nesayef

T he concept of applying Group Theory on Graphs has been developed by many researchers in order to demonstrate very basic and important graph properties and establish the connections between groups and graph theory. This was carried out by many researchers such as Biggs [ 1 ], who studied graph theory with Algebraic terms. This gave some principles ideas of applications of Algebra on Graph Theory.

Degradation kinetics of Jet fuel A and Bunker C Oil in sandy soils: the effect of plant materials amendments and nutrients PDF

Farida M. S. E. El-Dars

In this work, the kinetics of the degradation of two petroleum hydrocarbon fraction (Jet fuel A (JFA) and bunker C oil (BCO)) in sandy soil was studied during winter and spring seasons of 2010. The effect of adding some plant materials with oxidative enzymes content (A Sativa, A Cepa, Brassica Rapa and Raphanus Sativus) as bulking agent as well as the addition of N and P nutrients upon the degradation process was also investigated. The results indicated that the kinetics for JFA degradation varied between first order equation (ln C= ln C0 – kt) for natural attenuation and in the presence of A Cepa and Raphanus Sativus minced roots. Zero order equation rate (C= C0 – kt) was obtained in the case of the addition of A Sativum and Brassica Rapa roots and in the application of commercial nitrate and phosphates fertilizers to the contaminated soil mixtures. The degradation rate for the heavier fuel oil fraction using minced root materials was better described by the zero order equation C = C0 – kt applying A Cepa to the soil mixtures. However, the biodegradation kinetics rates for A Sativum, Brassica Rapa and Raphanus Sativus followed the equation C = C0 – kt(0.2) based upon higher R2 values obtained. Overall, the applied four root materials achieved ≈ 90% reduction in JFA content while a maximum of 32% reduction of BCO was achieved using Raphanus Sativus root with and without nutrients.

An In-vitro Study on Bacterial Susceptibility and Novel Resistance to Allicin PDF

Rahul Krishnaswamy

As one of the most popular vegetables, garlic has been used by many cultures as a natural cure for numerous health problems. Ranging from the ancient Israelites to our modern society, garlic’s effect on human health has been studied intensely. Used as an anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and an anti-parasitic medication by many civilizations millenniums ago, garlic is still used as a popular “folk remedy.” (Petrovska and Cekovska 106-110) Studies have shown that a particular compound in garlic called allicin possesses antibacterial qualities and has shown to be highly effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial efficacy of allicin against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, S. typhirium, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli, and examine whether bacteria undergoes mutagenesis to attain resistance to allicin. It was postulated that all bacteria tested would be sensitive to allicin, and that S. aureus would be the most inhibited, based on prior studies. Mutagenesis has never been recorded in response to allicin, but it was postulated that the bacteria would undergo mutagenesis to show resistance to allicin. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine antibacterial efficacy and extent of mutagenesis. Results were inconclusive about the antibacterial efficacy of allicin. Although some bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, were somewhat inhibited by allicin, others, including S. aureus, were not affected at all. Mutagenesis did occur in P. aeruginosa, as the zones of inhibition were remarkably different between control and mutated plates. Although allicin is undoubtedly an interesting compound with unique qualities, further studies must be done to truly examine its antibacterial efficacy.

A Review of Testing Techniques and Principles in Software Quality Assurance Testing PDF

B. Vasundhara Devi

To judge any software product it should completely free from errors, faults, bugs, and vulnerabilities that is, product should completely correct, complete, fit for use Nothing but it should satisfy all the internal, external requirements and should comply with the given functionalities then only anyone can judge the quality of the software product for these we have got plenty of tools which are entrepreneur and open source This paper describes Software testing techniques and importance of in engineering the software product and also tells about Software testing goals and principles. And also describes Software testing techniques and strategies. Finally it describes the difference between software testing and debugging.

Dynamics and Servo Control of Biodiesel Purity from a Reactive Distillation Process PDF

Abdulwahab GIWA, Saidat Olanipekun GIWA, Abel Adekanmi ADEYI

This research work has been carried out to study the dynamics and apply some techniques to perform set-point tracking (servo) control on the purity of biodiesel obtained from a reactive distillation process via the esterification reaction between palmitic acid and methanol reported in the work of Giwa et al. (2015). The model used for the study of the system was developed with the aid of System Identification Toolbox of MATLAB as a first order transfer function. The input variable of the process model was the reboiler duty of the column while its output variable was the mole fraction of biodiesel obtained from the bottom section of the reactive distillation column of the process. The open loop simulation of the developed model revealed that the system was a stable one because its response could attain a steady state when simulated. Furthermore, the closed loop responses obtained from the simulations of the process using proportional (P), proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers tuned with Cohen-Coon and Ziegler-Nichols techniques showed that the best controller for the system was PID controller tuned with Ziegler-Nichols method because, apart from the graphical comparisons made among the various controllers and techniques, the integral absolute error (IAE) and the integral squared error (ISE) of that combination (PID controller tuned with Ziegler Nichols technique) were found to be the lowest, implying that that was the best for the process considered.

Design and Finite Element Analysis of E-glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Air Bottle used in Missile System: Experimental Validation PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

The objective of this paper was to design the air bottle used in military system and to validate the design using finite element analysis. The load bearing capacity of the air bottle was 40 MPa. The air bottle was made of E-glass/epoxy composite. The hoop and helical winding layer thicknesses were, respectively, 3.6 3.013 mm. Matrix splitting was occurred along the fibers. The fibers were broken when the air bottle was tested at a pressure of 60 MPa.

Studies on the Effect of Top Bar in Bond Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete PDF

Ponmalar .S and Pandurangan .K

Self Compacting Concrete is well known for its strength and uniformity. The mechanical properties and bond strength at the steel –concrete interface of SCC varies with its varying mix design. The aim of this paper is to investigate on the bond strength of the top reinforcement and compare with the bond strength of bottom bars in both SCC and VC through pullout tests. For this SCC and VC of compressive strength 40MPa was designed and achieved through proper mix design procedures. The pullout specimen was designed as an integrated composite comprising of both pullout cubes and cubes for compressive strength test at five different levels. The study concludes that the bond transfer mechanism and the top bar effect in self compacting concrete are similar to that of vibrated concrete up to a 500mm height.

Intelligent Text Extraction System for Complex Images PDF

Rosy K. Philip, Gopu Darsan

The Intelligent text extraction system automatically identifies and extracts the text present in different types of images. The growth of digital world Detection and extraction of text regions in an image are well known problems in the area of image processing. The growth of digital world and the usage of multimedia generated a new era with a classic problem of pattern recognition. Thus Automatic text extraction from images and videos serves an important role in indexing and efficient retrieval of multimedia. The existing techniques such as region based , texture based techniques for the text extraction are not able to compact with all the applications of text extraction. The proposed Intelligent Text Extraction system automatically identifies and extracts the text present in different types of images. The system consists of different stages which include the localization, segmentation, extraction and recognition of text from the images. In the proposed system we use the discrete wavelet transform for the localization of text. The morphological operations are used which enhances the identification of correct text portions. The text part is segmented and is recognized using an efficient system. The advantage of the system is that the extracted text is shown in the .txt file. The proposed system also allows the modification of the recognized text from the image. This method shows better efficiency , precision and recall compared to the existing techniques. This shows the possibility of using this technique in more new and advanced applications.

Discrimination Resistant Privacy Preserved Data Mining PDF

Anju Sundaresan, Lakshmi S

These Data mining is the process of analyzing and summarizing data and extracting some useful information. There are some negative issues related to data mining. Potential discrimination and potential privacy invasion are two important issues among them. Discrimination is the phenomenon of unfairly treating people based on their membership in some group or category. Automated data collection may lead the way to making automated decisions, like loan granting/denial, insurance premium computation, job granting/denial etc. So, antidiscrimination techniques such as discrimination discovery and prevention have been introduced in data mining. Mainly there are two types of discrimination, direct discrimination and indirect discrimination. Privacy Preserving Data Mining deals with protecting the privacy of individual data or sensitive knowledge. There are no studies developed yet to avoid discrimination and privacy invasion simultaneously. In this work, to avoid these issues the following methods are combined. The basic idea behind discrimination finding is to apply the rule mining algorithms on the given datasets. The measure of impact of the rules is found out using elift function; the measure may be used in algorithms for prevention of direct and indirect discrimination. A discriminative attribute may be protected using two methods- direct rule protection and rule generalization algorithms. Privacy preservation is carried out based on K anonymity algorithm. In K anonymity attributes are suppressed or generalized until each row is identical with at least k-1 other rows.

Formulation of a New Generalized Equation for the Axial Force during Cold Extrusion PDF

A. Nassef, W. H. El_Garaihy

Slip-line field solutions are utilized throughout the literature upon dealing with prediction of the back pressing force during axi-symmetric plain strain extrusion. Here-after, another solution is offered. An ambitious generalized equation for the computation of the cold extrusion axial force is, systematically, deduced basing upon the slip-line field theory. In order to get a general equation which may be suitable for any friction condition, no dead zone is assumed to exit at the die exit internal inclined surface. Frictional stresses at that surface are assumed to be linearly proportional to the yield strength in shear of the workpiece material. The factor of proportionality ranges between zero for frictionless situations to unity for sticking friction conditions. The proposed equation gives the relationship among the needed pressing force and each of the material yield strength in shear, die inlet radius, radii ratio, die semi-angle of inclination and the friction condition at the workpiece-die exit.

Implementation of 5S Methodology in a Manufacturing Industry PDF

Soumya R. Purohit, V. Shantha

5 S is a step wise method to remove unnecessary items, reduce the searching time of the items, inspect while cleaning, standardize arrangement to avoid misplacing and sustain all the above through self discipline. This simple housekeeping methodology has helped effectively reduce waste and improve productivity. It has gained popularity in India through the past decade and has helped many industries improve without much capital investment. This paper highlights the step by step implementation guideline required for successful exercise of 5s as a part of the daily management practices. It shows the method to implement each pillar of the 5S Methodology- Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke in the industry in order to bring about an overall improvement in its performance. The result of implementation of each step of the 5S Methodology at Sphoorti Machine Tools Private Limited, Bangalore, India has also been shown in this paper.

Numerical Simulation for Unsteady Flow Analysis of Kaplan Turbine PDF

Vaibhav Chandrakar, Dr. Ruchi Khare

The presence of stationary and rotating blades in Kaplan turbine makes the flow complex in the turbine space. Actual flow inside the turbine passage is highly fluctuating. Model testing provides the variation of global hydrodynamic design parameters and it is impractical to test different design variants due to cost and time. The flow and pressure distribution inside the turbine can be analyzed more accurately through numerical simulation under unsteady flow condition. The courant number which is associated with time step variation directly signifies the unsteady flow conditions. The approximate solution of various non-linear partial differential equations governs the nature of flow. In the present work the overall performance of a Kaplan turbine is studied under unsteady flow conditions. The analysis is carried out at a fixed runner blade angle and three different guide vane openings by using ANSYS CFX software.

Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Rosmarinus officinalis L and Acridicide Activity on Dociostaurus maroccanus Thunberg, 1815 in Morocco PDF

El Ghadraoui Lahsen, Essakhi Driss, Benjelloun Meryem, Errabhi Nabil, El HarchliEl Hassan, Alaoui Mhamdi Mohammed and Daniel Petit

This work aims to study the chemical composition of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis L. samples collected in spring in Moyen-Atlas (Morocco) and to test their insecticide activity on survival of the pest locust Dociostaurus maroccanus. These essential oils are characterized by the presence of 1,8-cineole (42,24%), α-pinene (16,31%), camphor (10.81%), sabinene (8,64%) and myrtenol (5,01%) as major compounds. Comparative analyses among plants collected in different countries evidenced 4 well defined chemotypes, associated to more or less extended territories. Our extract was active against locusts, as estimated by the determination of the LT50 (lethal time 50). LT50 obtained was around 2.25 days for females and 1.9 days in males. This effect can be attributed to one or several compounds of the extract. Given the high humidity of produced faeces, disturbance of water intake by rectum seems to be the most probable cause of mortality.

The Effect of Variable Valve Timing on SIE Performance and Emissions PDF

Sabaa H Khudhur, Adel M Saleh, Miqdam T Chaichan

The present work deals with the overlap period variation effects; by changing the intake and exhausts valves open and close timings. The study focuses on the impact of this timing variation on engine performance and exhaust gases emission. The experimental work was conducted on the experimental single cylinder research engine SI engine type "Prodit”. The valve timings variation carried out by changing the clearance distance between the rocker arm and valve stem. Three valve overlaps (104Ëš, 108Ëš, and 112Ëš) investigated theoretically and experimentally.

A Proposed Modification of Baseline JPEG Standard Image Compression Technique PDF

Md. Kamrul Islam, Md. Moznuzzaman, Mst. Fatema Khatun, Rubina Yesmin

Image compression is the transformation of image data in an arrangement to a more compressed form. The objective of image compression is to reduce redundancy of the image data in order to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form. It is used in many applications like broadcast television; remote sensing via satellite, aircraft, radar or sonar; teleconferencing; computer communications; and facsimile transmission and medical images storage for patient monitoring systems. JPEG is one of the most popular compression techniques in the field of image compression. It has both lossy and lossless image compression part. The baseline mode of JPEG standard is a lossy compression technique which is the most popular among baseline, progressive and hierarchical modes of lossy part. Though the compression performance in baseline JPEG standard is good but still it needs to be improved. In this paper, the baseline JPEG compression standard has been modified to increase the performance. The proposed modification is done in entropy coding where a well known encoding technique; the arithmetic coding technique has been used. The typical baseline JPEG standard and proposed baseline JPEG standard modification has been implemented and performance has been measured. The experimental data states that the performance of the proposed baseline JPEG standard modification better than the typical lossy baseline JPEG standard in terms of space savings though the compression and decompression time is higher.

Experimental Investigation of the Thermodynamic Behavior of an API Standard Water Base mud PDF

Akinade Akinwumi

The behaviour of the drilling fluids under high temperature is extremely important for drilling deep wells. Most commercial oil base drilling fluid systems have limitations such as reduced rheology and filtration control if the fluid is exposed to higher temperature for prolonged periods of time. Formulating a drilling fluid system that can adequately withstand drilling in a high temperature environment is very challenging but very often little attention is given to proper fluids design. In this study, the effect of temperature (at constant pressure) on the rheological properties of water based mud was investigated. Furthermore, the conditions under which water based mud of certain composition fails were determined. The mud sample 8.6 ppg density, was prepared using a 350 ml of fresh water, 25 g of Bentonite and 0.6 g of Barite. The results of the tests performed showed that, the Viscosity drilling mud was decreasing with increasing temperature, Plastic viscosity of mud decreases with the increase in temperature, Gel strength decreases with increasing temperature until a temperature of 300 0F after which there is a general increase in gel strength, The yield point for Mud Sample was generally decreasing with temperature until a temperature of 300 oF at which the yield point dropped to a minimal value. This research work is aim at managing the challenges of changing in properties of a drilling fluid in high pressure and high temperature environment (Deep offshore).

Efficiency Estimation of the Turbocharger Compressor Wheel PDF

Vigneshwar N, Dr. Narsimhulu Sanke

The paper is to discuss on turbocharger compressor wheel at different blade angles to find out the maximum efficiency of a turbo-charger at inlet blade angle β1 = 650,450 and 350 and studied the analysis of fluid flow phenomena over a compressor wheel of the turbocharger with the help of computational fluid dynamics (ANSYS-CFX).



The principle objective of this project is to analyse and design a Tennis Court using STAAD Pro. The design involves load calculations manually and analyzing the whole structure by STAAD Pro. The design methods used in STAAD-Pro analysis are Limit State Design conforming to Indian Standard Code of Practice. STAAD.Pro features a state-of-the-art user interface, visualization tools, powerful analysis and design engines with advanced finite element and dynamic analysis capabilities. From model generation, analysis and design to visualization and result verification, STAAD.Pro is the professional’s choice. Initially we started with the analysis of simple 2 dimensional frames and manually checked the accuracy of the software with our results. The results proved to be very accurate. We analysed and designed Tennis Court [2-D Frame] initially for all possible load combinations [dead, live, wind and seismic loads]. STAAD.Pro has a very interactive user interface which allows the users to draw the frame and input the load values and dimensions. Then according to the specified criteria assigned it analyses the structure and designs the members with reinforcement details for RCC frames.



Effects of physical and chemical treatments to peroxidases from the haemolymph of the 4th nymphal instar of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria were studied to detect some properties of this enzyme system. The results showed that peroxidases oxidation of O-phenylenediamine was significantly inhibited by ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) and Na azide, but activated by the reducing agent (ascorbic acid) and CUSO4. The inhibition of peroxidases activity by EDTA as a chelating agent suggest that locust peroxidases are metaloenzymes. Peroxidases were more stable in acidic than alkaline media, and had optimum activity at pH 6. Peroxidases, as shown by the study, were less thermostable than some other enzyme systems. The relatively high temperature degrees (>50°C) affected thermostability of the enzyme. Locust haemolymph peroxidases activity increased gradually from 15 to 25°C and reaching to its optimal activity at 35°C. It is likely to take into consideration, during peroxidases studying, that they are sensitive to high temperature, alkalinity of the medium, and some salts and compounds, the situation that might affect locust peroxidases catalysis.

Bioformation of carotenoids in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) under two ripening conditions: A Kinetic study PDF

Misbaudeen Abdul-Hammed, Olugbenga Solomon Bello, Musibau Adewuyi Azeez and Nafisat Olamide Adedeji

Lycopene, the main pigment responsible for the typical deep-red color of ripe tomatoes and tomato products, has attracted attention due to its ability to act as a singlet oxygen quencher. Its biosynthesis and cyclization to beta-carotene are responsible for powerful antioxidant functions of tomatoes. In the present study, the rates at which tomato fruits ripe were investigated via the bioaccumulation of lycopene and beta-carotene under field and postharvest ripening conditions in four local cultivars commercially available in Nigeria. Results showed that the bioaccumulation of lycopene in the tomato cultivars studied under both ripening conditions follows first order kinetics with the rate constants of 0.050, 0.079, 0.101 and 0.075 per day in Ajindi-Kerewa, Beske, 3-Lobes and big local cultivars respectively under field temperature ripening. These rate constants are lower for the postharvest ripening except in big local cultivar. The bioaccumulation of beta-carotene also follows first order kinetics except in Ajindi-Kerewa and Beske cultivars. The rate constants obtained were slightly higher for beta-carotene than that of lycopene accumulation for all the four cultivars evaluated and compared under the two ripening conditions. The mechanisms of the bioaccumulation of the carotenoids are discussed. The kinetic parameters so obtained could prove useful in developing countries as a future biotechnology tool in monitoring the pace of improvement in nutritional qualities of tomato fruits during plant breeding programs.

PPARγ dependent and independent effects contribute to the anti-proliferative effect of ciglitazone in ER negative breast cancer cells PDF

Sankar Jagadeeshan, Anand Krishnan, Diana David, Jem Prabhakar, R. Malathi, S. Shabin Ghouse, S. Asha Nair

Background: Ciglitazone is a synthetic ligand of PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma) and possess potent anti-proliferative effect in cancer cells. Given the complexity in the mechanism of action of synthetic ligands of PPARγ which is strictly context dependent, we analyzed the molecular alterations associated with the cytotoxic effect of pioglitazone in ER negative breast cancer cells.

Segmentation and Detection of Optic Disc Using Kmeans Clustering PDF

Neeraj Sharma, Dr. Amandeep Verma

Diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are one of the major cause of blindness. Early stage segmentation and detection of optic disc may be of great help to ophthalmologist for treatment of patient before any serious complications. In this paper new methodology is proposed for the detection of the optical disk from the retinal images. Input image is first preprocessed using spatial average filtering on the green color band. Then the preprocessed image is divided into clusters using kmeans clustering algorithm. Cluster with maximum intensity is filtered using connected component to segment out the optic disc. Optic disc is detected by comparing the segmented optic disc and the ground truth respectively. The proposed method is tested on four public available data sets, DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE and STARE. This method offers a successful detection of OD which may help in diagnosis of various retinal abnormalities.

Performance Evolution of Quasi Orthogonal Space Time Block Code using Bit Rate PDF

Prof. Keyur Chauhan, Prof. Sanjay Shah, Prof. Deven Trivedi, Prof. Sagar Patel, Prof. Hitesh Chaukikar

This Multipath fading is inherent in wireless communication systems. Diversity is the technique which takes the advantage of multipath and mitigates the effect of fading and increase received signal strength. Space Time Block codes (STBC) is a promising way to improve the performance of wireless communication system by maximizing transmit diversity in space as well as time for flat fading channel using multiple antennas at the transmitter side and multiple antennas at the receiver side which is called as MIMO.

Study Habits and the Performance of BSCS Students in Computer Programming-1 PDF

Duran, Isidro L, Llavore, Darwin C., Dungan,Belinda M

This study aimed to seek whether the study habits of the students affect the performance of the students in Computer Programming I. Specifically, it determined the profile of the students as to their IQ and performance in computer programming-1; the level of strengths and weaknesses of the student’s study habits as to the time management, study environment, test taking as well as in note taking, reading, writing and math skills; and lastly the relationship between study habits and performance of the students in computer programming-1. Descriptive survey research design was employed in this study where questionnaire was the main instrument to gather data. Respondents consisted of 85freshmen students in the Ladderized education program which was obtained with the use of the Cochran’s formula. The study found out: IQ and final grade are extremes as reflected in the standard deviation. Also, the respondents 65.9 % or 56 are female while the remaining 34.1% or 29are male. Students responded that they need help on the different criteria on the student habits except the criteria time management. Finally, the study showed that only mathematics skill is correlated positively and significantly to the performance of students.

Constructing Intranet For Human Resources of a Collage System PDF

Prof. Mannar Younes Kashmoula , Haifa Hazim al-Tai

Been in this business adopt the idea of databases system distributor DHR design, design and adopt the way from top to bottom (Top-Down Design) in system analysis. Where the application of the system to manage the work of the Human Resources Division to cancel irregular work work , and build a database of affiliated service include the premium, and upgrade / promotion, holidays, and certificates obtained. As well as the easy transmission of data to the people and units of college and received. The transmission of data between people / college units. And to provide statistics on the data stored and displayed using the (view). And the division of tasks between workers users, according to the administrative structure of the Division of Human Resources.

Flood Detection and Management PDF

Chandni Ahuja, Resham Raj Shivwanshi

This paper aims at the research of a system for flood prevention and reduction along with an idea of recycling the flood water for future use. CWC (Central water commission) India are operating about 878 hydrological and hydro-meteorological sites covering 20 river basins for gauge, discharge, sediment and water quality observation across the country helping GIS (geographical information system) for detection of floods. This paper describes the flood prone areas of India along with the flood prevention and management techniques. Through this paper we want to introduce a new perspective of flood management system which aids to the recycling and reuse of flood water by ground water storage.


M.KThangamanibindhu, Dr.D.S.Ramachandra Murthy

The large global production of fly ash and rapid advances in geopolymer technology leads to the alternate material for OPC that is Geopolymer concrete (GPC). Geopolymers are showing great potential in future. Recycling aggregate by using it as replacement to new aggregate in concrete could reduce concrete waste and conserve natural sources of aggregates. In this paper, results of the studies carried out on the compressive strength of Geopolymer concrete partially replaced with recycle coarse aggregates have been presented.. A total of 9 mixes were tested, out of which three were conventional concrete mixes and six GPC mixes having varying combinations of flyash, GGBS and recycled coarse aggregates. The test specimens were of size 100mm x100mm Cubes and 100mmx200mm cylinders heat cured at 90°C in an oven and specimens of size 150mmx150mm Cubes were cured at ambient temperature conditions. The studies showed that the compressive strength and spilt tensile strength of different mixes were decreased with the increase in the percentage of recycled coarse aggregates.

Dictionary Based Translation Approaches in Cross Language Information Retrieval: State of the Art PDF

B.N.V Narasimha Raju, M S V S Bhadri Raju

Information Retrieval (IR) is the process of finding set of documents or texts that are required by the user. In the past decade internet content in English is shrunk from 39 percent to 27 percent. By the end of 2011, the content available in web was 24 percent of Chinese and 27 percent of English. Soon, the Chinese content will overtake English content. Other languages like Japanese, Korean, Hindi, Tamil, Malay, Thai, Vietnamese, Arabic etc. has a gradual growth in the web content. This causes more importance for multilingual approach. So, the user may have the necessity to retrieve the information in another language; this kind of problem is solved by using Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR), a sub field of IR. CLIR retrieves the information that is different from user query language. For retrieving information, CLIR presents different methods such as dictionary based translation, Machine translation and Corpus based translation. In these methods the importance of dictionary based translation has been increased due to growth in the availability of machine readable dictionaries. This article presents a detailed review of dictionary based translation, with emphasis on recent developments.

Management Strategy of Water Resources Base on Rainfall Characteristics in The Semi-Arid Region in Indonesia PDF

Jakobis J. Messakh, Arwin Sabar, Iwan K. Hadihardaja, Zadrach Dupe

Every area has its own rainfall characteristics, which needs to be analyzed for the shake of water management in a particular areas such as Kupang whose location lies in the semi-arid area in the Indonesian archipelago. This study assesses rain characteristics by means of indicators of hydrology alteration. Results analysis from five rain stations reveal that rain fall intensity is high within a very short time interval. Generally, there is an increasing of rainfall magnitude, rainy days, and maximum daily rainfall, although there are also stations experiencing decrease. During rainy season, the area is mostly wet, in reverse to the dry season where the site is completely dry. This is to imply that rainwater run-off is very high, in one hand while on the other hand infiltration of ground water in very low. As a result, flood and dryness could not be avoided. Building reservoirs or ponds might be one of the solutions of water management in the researched area for the purpose of harvesting more rain water during brief rainy season period for use in the long drought time. This research study should facilitate users of water management institution to continuously comprehend, not only the risks but also resistances in rainfall characteristics in this researched area.

Kinetics reduction of El-Baharia iron ore (Egypt) via coke breeze PDF

Hashem N.M, Salah B.A , El-hussiny N.A, Sayed S.A, Khalifa M.G, Shalabi M.E.H

Kinetics reduction of El-Baharia iron ore via solid coke breeze briquettes in nitrogen atmosphere were investigated at different temperatures ranging from 700ËšC to 1050ËšC. It was found that the best reduction properties were found at 1050ËšC, so the kinetic models were determined. Also the main crystalline phases of reduced briquettes at 1050ËšC were metallic iron (syn. Fe).

Intelligent System for Automobile Accident Prevention PDF

Shubham Surse, Rushab Kumat, Akshay Kapade

Now a day’s accidents are increasing at a large pace. Road accidents claim a staggeringly high number of lives every year. Hence various technologies are being introduced to reduce the accidents. In this project, we provide means of accident prevention using eye blink and heart beat sensor wherein the vehicle is stopped immediately. We can’t take care of ourselves while being less conscious. It was demonstrated that driving performance deteriorates with increased drowsiness and heart attacks resulting in crashes constituting more than 30% of all vehicle accidents. But the life lost once cannot be re-winded. If we adopt all the vehicles with automated security system that provides high security to driver then these ‘Drink and Drive’ accidents can be easily prevented. The main objective of this project is to develop a system to keep the vehicle secure and protect it by stopping the vehicle as soon as drowsiness and change in heart beat is detected.

Development & Evaluation of Weaning Education Tool among Mothers Infants Aged 6-24 Months in Ur-banSlum of Lahore, Pakistan PDF

Ayesha Saeed, Shafya Shahid, Fatima Hassan, Mahnaz Nasir Khan, Amina Muhammad Saeed

Malnutrition is the burning crisis among the infants and the link between infant weaning practices and malnutrition is well well-known. Enabling mothers through education seems to be very promising for improving nutritional status of children during weaning age. The study objective was development and evaluation of effectiveness of weaning education tool in Urdu among mothers of infants aged 6-24 months. Two staged study design was used to evaluate effectiveness of weaning education tool. Stage 1 consisted of need assessment and stage 2 was a quasi experimental research design without a control group. The tools were developed and administered face to face. The tools were role play, pictorial banner, pamphlets, activities and demonstration. The tools were evaluated by a knowledge questionnaire developed by researcher and administered as pretest on first day and as posttest on third day. The study settings were urban slums of Lahore. Participants were 30 mothers selected purposefully with infants aged 6-24 months. The data could be completed for 19 mothers only; response rate was 64%. The mean age of the mothers was 28 years; mean education 5 years and mean household income $ 124/month. Weaning education was the independent and weaning knowledge was dependent variable. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic data and the non-parametric McNemar test of the paired t-test was applied to observe differences between pretest and posttest. A p-value < 0.05 was taken as significance. Results revealed that there was a significant increase in nutrition knowledge regarding weaning (P- value 0.031, 0.000, 0.000, 0.002, 0.000, 0.031, 0.002, 0.000). It was concluded that weaning education of mothers can improve knowledge regarding weaning foods and thus play an important role in the health of the weaning-age child.

Modeling and Analysis of Free Energy Magnet Motor Using Finite Element Method PDF

Dr. Suad Ibrahim Shahl, Salam Mohammed Atiyah

This paper is proposed a free energy magnet motor to study the feasibility of the magnet motor that replaced electric coils by permanent magnets which do not depend on the source of energy to generate movement. This is done by generating mechanical movement on a continuous basis in a certain direction through the force of attraction or repulsion force according to the position of the rotor. The free energy can be extracted from the permanent magnets by arranging the magnets in linear and circular configuration. In this work, building of engineering models of magnet motor adopted on a set of simulation experiments by using finite element method. The simulation result of magnets in circular configuration was calculated doing a positive torque and work. Moreover, the magnets in circular arrangement were not found having any losses for all cases.

A Detailed Comparison of Image Encryption Algorithms and MIE and VC algorithms have been improved by adding compression capability PDF

Syed Shabbeer Ahmad, Dr.Angajala Srinivasa Rao

With the fast progression of data exchange in electronic way, information security is becoming more important in data storage and transmission. Because of widely using images in industrial process, it is important to protect the confidential image data from unauthorized access. In this paper, we analyzed current image encryption algorithms and compression is added for two of them (Mirror-like image encryption and Visual Cryptography). Implementations of these two algorithms have been realized for experimental purposes. The results of analysis are given in this paper.

Detection of Staphylococcus aureus from fish and water samples collected from Lake Qarun PDF

Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad, Wedad E. Eweda, Gamila E. El-Taweel, Sawsan F. Shehata, Marwa I. Abdel Tawab

Staphylococcus aureus is considered to be one of the most frequently prevailing food-borne pathogen worldwide. The number of outbreaks and number of cases of staphylococcal gastroenteritis is much higher than several other microbial food borne diseases outbreaks. Staphylococcus spp. is one of the zoonotic bacteria which could be found on fish and also could reach the aquatic environment as it was isolated from different water types (fresh or brackish water) in many countries. The present study focused on detection of total staphylococci and S.aureus in Lake Qarun,, Egypt. Staphylococci isolates were isolated from Lake Qarun, water and Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish within the period of 2010 to 2011. The determination of the four hundred typical colonies of total staphylococci and one hundred and eighty of typical colonies of S.aureus were carried out using surface plate technique. Moreover, molecular and biochemical confirmation of the S.aureus isolates were carried out by PCR analysis and biochemical reactions. Three hundred and twenty six isolates were total staphylococci +ve when tested by PCR. Also, one hundred and eighty isolates were S.aureus isolates +ve when confirmed by biochemical reactions.

Experimental evaluation of saturation thickness for 662 keV in Lead at scattering angle 120o PDF

Gurvinderjit Singh, B.S. Sandhu and Bhajan Singh

For sample having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions, the incident photons undergo a number of scatterings within the sample before finally emerging out. The multiple scatterings of photons act as a background in Compton scattering measurements and should be minimized for correct evaluation of Compton profile, The study of multiple scattering of photons is considered as a tool for the correct determination of electronic momentum distribution in an atom, non-destructive testing, effective atomic number of composite materials, reactor shielding etc. In the present work, intensity and energy distribution of multiply scattered photons originating from interactions of 662 keV photons in thick targets of lead is determined with the help of an inverse response matrix that converts the pulse-height distribution to a photon energy spectrum.

Assessment of DNA damage in Fish collected from Nile River PDF

Zeinat K. Mohamed, Ahmad M. Shaban, Noha M. Sabry and Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad

DNA damage has been introduced as a useful tool for genotoxicity evaluation in polluted environment. In this study, the influence of environmental pollutants on the DNA damage was assessed in tilapia fish collected from three different sites including non polluted (served as control site), agricultural mixed point and industrial mixed point with Nile River Damage in DNA was assessed by calculating DNA fragmentation percentage. Results demonstrated that the collected samples from the mixed point of waste water represented the highest degree of DNA damage followed by the mixed point of agriculture drain when compared with samples collected from control site. The results suggested a genotoxicity of the aquatic environment of some regions at River Nile. Additionally, the DNA fragmentation in fish provided adequate sensitivity to be utilized as a tool in the monitoring of water pollution and environmental risk assessment.

Drones- Characteristics & Development Needs PDF

Utkarsh Mittal

Drones or ‘Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ (UAVs) is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its Flight is either controlled autonomously by onboard computers or by remote control. This domain has seen rapid developments in recent years and there is more to come. The main characteristics of a drone depend upon its degree of autonomy and the endurance. A number of factors affect these characteristics. There is a crutial need for advancements in the filed of Drones and to keep up with these advancemets, changes in the rules and regulations are required. Various government agencies in different countries decide the rules and regulations for the use of drones in their respective jurisdrictions.

Spectrum Occupancy Survey in Leicester, UK, For Cognitive Radio Application PDF

Sunday Iliya, Eric Goodyer, John Gow, Mario Gongora and Jethro Shell

Cognitive radio (CR) technology has emerged as a promising solution to many wireless communication problems including spectrum scarcity and underutilization. Knowing the current state of spectrum utilization in frequency, time and spatial domain will enhance the implementation of CR network. In this paper, we evaluate the spectrum utilization of some selected bands in Leicester city, UK; based on long time spectrum measurements using energy detection method. This study provides evidence of gross underutilization of some licenses spectrum which can be exploited by CR for efficient spectrum utilization.

An Effective Approach for Semantic Text Analysis using SVM PDF

Swati Gautam, Hansa Acharya, Prof. Anurag Jain

Hence an efficient model for the text analysis is proposed using a supervised learning approach such as SVM for the clustering of text having similar semantics at word level or sentence level. The text for the analysis using semantic models needs tagging based approach and method on words and sentences at the single gram and n gram and then semantic similarity can be calculated along with the co-occurrence between words and a pair of words. Finally these pairs of words are trained and clustered using a supervised learning approach to get classification of sentence polarity i.e. positive or negative. The existing technique implemented doesn’t provide effective refinement of lexicons and also doesn’t provide higher accuracy and co-relation matrix for the text. The proposed methodology provides an effective model for the analysis of texts such as sentiment words.

Improving the Detection of Power Quality Events in Real-Time Electrical Voltage Waveform Using a Multi-detector Approach PDF

Okelola, M.O; Komolafe, O.A; Aborisade, D.O

Reliable and uninterrupted power supply is the main goal of power industries; however, the continually changing load demand often leads to power quality (PQ) events which impose severe problems towards end-users or utilities. Accurate and timely detection of these PQ events is very essential for corrective measures. In this paper, a multi-detector scheme termed joint triggering point detection (JTPD) is proposed with a view to achieving a more accurate PQ event detection in a real-time voltage waveform. The JTPD combines the advantage of the cumulative sum (CUSUM) algorithm for the statistical distribution of a signal waveform and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for change-point detection. The detection rate performance of the proposed JTPD scheme is compared with each of cumulative sum (CUSUM) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) schemes; and the results show that the proposed JTPD scheme outperforms both CUSUM and DWT.

Upgrading the Commercial Gasoline A80 by Using Ethanol and Refinery Products PDF

Abdel-Monem A. El-Bassiouny, Tarek M. Aboul-Fotouh, Tamer M. M. Abdellatief

Gasoline A80 has high percentages of benzene and aromatic content which are carcinogenic materials. Upgrading gasoline A80 has a positive effect on our environment because it produces an environmental gasoline which has less percentages of benzene and aromatic content in order to serve our country. Furthermore, upgrading gasoline A80 is the main target to produce an environmental gasoline by using blends of gasoline A80 and Refinery products from upgrading and conversion units and thus the Environmental gasoline is produced to approach to the standard European regulations of A92. In other words, three samples of reformate, isomerate, Coker naphtha and hydrocracked naphtha are blended separately with gasoline A80. In addition, the three samples of oxygenated compounds (Ethanol) and gasoline A80 are blended to produce the environmental gasoline. The physico-chemical characteristics have been studied such as density, Reid Vapor Pressure, ASTM distillation, Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, posted Octane Number, PIONA and benzene content to select the optimum sample of an environmental gasoline. Moreover, the composition of the optimum sample, a new blend of environmental gasoline, is E7.5 C3.75 H14 R27.5 I2.5 G44.75 and it is chosen according to Standard European regulations. This sample contains mainly 39.5 vol. % aromatic content, 28.9 vol. % isoparaffins and 1.1 vol. % benzene content. Therefore, this optimum sample in the overall case exactly meets the conditions of Euro-3 and approach to Euro-6 regulations. Finally, upgrading for gasoline A80 is achieved to obtain gasoline A92 as an environmental gasoline (It is the best solution in the short run).

Total Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoid Content of Some Plant leaves in South-West Nigeria PDF

Olufunmilayo D. Ayodele, Dolapo E. Olabode

Folk medicine reportedly uses the leaves of Carica papaya (Caricaceae), Magifera and Moringa oleifera as herbal remedies for the management of some diseases. This study was carried out to screen the leaf extracts of these plants and determine the total antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using standard chemical and chromatographic procedures. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of antioxidant, flavonoids and phenols. The result further showed that total flavonoid, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the dried leaves of Moringa oleifera, Mangifera L and Carica papaya L are significantly higher than those of the fresh leaves. The highest values of antioxidant activity (3278±0.02 µmol/g), total flavonoid content (0.80±0.02mg quercetin eq/g) and total phenolic content (5.275±0.015mg gallic acid/g) were found in the dry leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera while the least values of total antioxidant activity (1034.58±0.02 µmol/g), total flavonoid content (0.275±0.0015mg quercetin eq/g) and total phenolic content (2.35±0.01 mg gallic acid/g) were obtained in fresh leaves of Carica papaya L. This study also revealed that there is a strong positive correlation between the total antioxidant activity and the total flavonoid content of the leaves of the three plants studied. Also a strong positive correlation between the total flavonoid content and the total phenolic content and the strong positive correlation also existed between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the leaves of the three plants studied.The results indicated that the previously reported anti-sick ling properties of these plants may be due to their inherent antioxidant nutrient composition, thus supporting the claims of the traditional healers and suggests a possible correlation between the chemical composition of these plants and their uses in traditional medicine.

Design and Implementation an Automatic Secure Control System for Entrance Ports PDF

Mohamed M. M. Omar, Hatem Khater and Ahmed El-Mekawy

The stage of processing at port entry/exit has many shapes of obstacles such as checking a large number of passenger's documents every day. The passengers spent long time at ports until their documents have been checked by the airport's clerks since the port entry/exit procedures have been processed manually. This intern takes a long time for entrance processing and makes burdens on port's clerks. Each single sheet may contain many different names, and these names may have no relationshipwith each other.

Synthesis and characterization of Hydroxyapatite based Nanocomposites for structural applications PDF

A. Mishra, M.Gond, S.B.Kumar, D.Roy

Bone is a composite material consisting of hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 [HAp] crystals as a main phase embedded in biologically produced organic matrix. The immune system of the human body exclusively rejects any materials foreign to the body [1]. Synthetic biomaterials need HAp at least in the structure including it to avoid being rejected by living bone. Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals. It is one of few materials that are classed as bioactive, meaning that it will support bone ingrowths and osteointegration when used in orthopedics, dental and maxillofacial applications. HAp ceramics are reported with osteoconductivity that is being capable of supporting bone apposition and forming a chemical bond with bone [2]. But HAp does not have the mechanical strength to enable it to succeed in long term load bearing applications.

Energy consumption and carbon footprint analysis of Fused Deposition Modelling: A case study of RP Stratasys Dimension SST FDM PDF

Vincent A Balogun, Neil Kirkwood, Paul T Mativenga

It is envisaged and expected that professional engineers, process and product developers plays an active role in the sustainable development of manufacturing activities to overcome the global challenges of depletion of natural resources, environmental pollution and damage to the ecosystems. This however calls for the necessity of the industry to adapt and improve on the various manufacturing processes employed for their products not only to keep up with global competition by reducing its variable costs, but also for the sustainable manufacture of their products. Rapid prototyping is one of the new 3D and additive manufacturing technology available globally. This technology has been viewed as a sustainable technology since it optimises electrical energy demand and promotes zero waste technology. This overstretched hypothesis need to be tested. This work evaluate the direct electrical energy demand in fused deposition modelling FDM machine using the Stratasys Dimension SST FDM as a case study and as a panacea to understudy the electrical energy requirement and carbon footprint for rapid prototyping.

Recurent Neural Network as a Tool for Parameter Anomaly Detection in Thermal Power Plant PDF

A. Hajdarevic, L. Banjanovic-Mehmedovic, I. Dzananovic, F.Mehmedovic, M. Ayaz Ahmad

Anomaly detection refers to the problem of finding patterns in data that do not conform to expected behavior. It is very important to timely detect parameter anomalies in real-world running thermal power plant system, which is one of the most complex dynamical systems. Artificial neural networks are one of anomaly detection techniques. This paper presents the Elman recurrent neural network as method to solve the problem of parameter anomaly detection in selected sections of thermal power plant (steam superheaters and steam drum). Inputs for neural networks are some of the most important process variables of these sections. In addition to the implementation of this network for anomaly detection, the effect of key parameter change on anomaly detection results is also shown. Results confirm that recurrent neural network is good approach for anomaly detection problem, especially in real-time industrial applications.

Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Bauhinia rufescens PDF

Samaila Samaila Yaradua, Abubakar Abdullahi Lema

Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Bauhinia rufescens stem bark extract was studied for its free radical scavenging property using hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay (H2O2). The acetone, methanol and water extract showed good dose dependant free radical scavenging property in the Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assay. The result shows that Bauhinia rufescens pocesses antioxidant activity when compared to the standard ascorbic acid. As the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decreases while the concentration of the extract increases. This proved that Bahaunia rufescens is a promising agent of antioxidant activity.

Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Some Virulence Factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Patients with LRTI in Najaf Province/Iraq PDF

Zahraa Y.Motaweq, Habeeb S. Naher, HawraaA.Ali.Al-Dahhan

This study provides genotypic data on 74 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae recovered from lower respiratory tract infections. In this study, some of them were detected by traditional phenotypic methods while others detected by phenotypic and then genotipically by using monoplex-PCR technique. The results showed that all (100%) isolates were encapsulated isolates. The molecular detection of cspA gene by using specific primer for S. pneumoniae revealed positive amplification for all isolates (100%). The results showed that overall, 89.2% of investigated isolates contained the lytA gene. In spite of, all (100%) of pneumococcus isolates have autolysin phenotypically. The results of this experiment indicated for positive amplification and it has been found that ply gene is found in 97.3% of pneumococcal isolates. In this study, the nanA and nanB genes were found in all S. pneumoniae isolates (100%) and (62.2%) respectively.

Decision Making for Time and Profit Optimization as Applicable to Job –Type Production Company PDF

Ogundola J, Yakubu A.M

Computational analyses that enable the selection of appropriate job selection based on the time allocated to each job for an optimum profit. This paper work proposes a computational analyses framework for deciding which job to venture into on the account of the resources available viz: Machines, Time and other logistics. Cost optimization aims at reducing the cost attached directly to the realization of a product, this will certainly assist in increasing the profit margin, which is one of the objectives of any manufacturing company or organiza-tion. Organization could determine to embark on a project or not if the available hour and cost of material are known from the onset. A respective unit order of component, A, B, C, D, E, and F, were made and the cost of production, profit margin and operation time per unit job were estimated as presented in this paper. To decide which product and at what quantity could yield maximum profit, a computational software called Excel solver was used. It was discovered that 20 units of Component, C and 10 units of Component, F yielded an optimum profit of Six Hundred and Ten Thousand Naira (₦610,000:00) only with the mind-set of avoiding other non-profitable components in the subsequent order. For Optimal profit, it is advisable for the company to engage in the production of component C and component Fand for any other one would result to big loss for the company.

Etching Effect on Sensing Behavior of ZnO/PS Gas Sensor PDF

Isam M. Ibrahim, Shahad I.sharhan

Pulse laser deposition was used in this research by Nd:YAG laser with λ=1064 nm average frequency 6 Hz and pulls duration 10 nm) to deposit ZnO thin films with thickness 100 nm. From Atomic Force microscope of prepared samples show an decrease in average diameter with increase etching time. From FTIR spectra of porous silicon with constant current 40 mA and different etching time .The peaks at around 626 cm-1 for Si-Si , 875 cm-1 wagging mode,1073 cm-1 stretching mode and the transmittance peak at 2097 cm-1 reveal to bending mode (Si3SiH). The photolumincense spectroscopy shows that the blue shift with increasing etching time. The operation temperature of gas sensor was studied for different temperature and found the maximum sensitivity (85.3) for 30 min porous silicon time.

Controlling Articulated Robot System using 3D Kinect Visionary Sensor PDF

Dr. Wael R. Abdulmajeed, Eng. Alaa A. Hajr

Visionary system has been played a significant role in industrial environment especially in controlling the movement of industrial robot from objects to targets. In this paper implemented visionary system for articulated robot system has been build 3D Kinect camera as visionary sensor linked with controller of articulated robot system (lab-volt robot model 5250). The 3D visionary sensor is employed to detect a target object, dimensional properties as length and determine its location in 3D environment; the visionary system shows agreed capability for detecting the location and controlling movement of the articulated robot from object to target with Minimizing errors.

Osteoporotic Spine Fractures: Incidence and Management Outcomes PDF

Dr Shaival Dalal, Dr Karn maheshwari, Dr Jayprakash Modi, Dr Zulfikar Patel, Dr Kalpesh Mehta, Dr Mohit Patel

Multiple medical treatments available for Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures including hormone replacement therapy, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates--are effective in maintaining or increasing bone mass and reducing the risk of compression fracture.

Anti-Islanding Strategy for a tied PV Power Plant with grid PDF


In this paper: a new strategy of anti-islanding photovoltaic (PV) power plant will be introduced. A new islanding detection scheme based on power electronic signaling technology has been proposed in the literature. By generating, detecting and comparing between signals on the distribution feeders from the substation to the down-stream Distributed Generation (DG), the absence of the signal at the DG site will be a sign of islanding. The scheme is a remote effective detection technique and more expensive than other techniques. The strategy depends on the embedded system containing the power line signaling and both PV inverters and Numerical (microprocessor based) relays. Inverter technology and control have been discussed.

Optimal Adsorption Parameters of Banana (Musa paradisiaca) Stalk based Activated Carbon for removal of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution PDF

Ogunleye, O. O, Adio, O. , Salawudeen, T.O. and Agbede, O.O.

The present study investigated the effect of operating parameters on the adsorption process of lead ion from aqueous solution using Banana Stalk- based Activated Carbon (BSAC). A five factor, five levels Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to determine the effects of five independent variables (initial metal concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage and solution pH) on adsorption capacity of BSAC. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the parameters in the experiment. Data analysis showed that all the variables significantly affected the adsorption capacity at p < 0.05. The square of the adjusted coefficient of determination for regression model of adsorption capacity is 0.9577. Optimum adsorption capacity of 85.15mg/g was obtained when the initial metal concentration, contact time, temperature, dosage and solution pH were 200g/mL, 140minutes, 50oC, 0.15g and 8.00, respectively. There absolute error between the experimental and the predicted optimum adsorption capacity values was less than 1%.

An Efficient Approach to Enhance Throughput in Layered Overlay Multicast using Network Coding Technique PDF

G.Charlyn Pushpa Latha

In overlay networks, the available bandwidth between sender and different receivers are different.In this paper, a solution is proposed to improve the throughput of an overlay multicast session with heterogeneous receivers by organizing the receivers into layered data distribution meshes and sending substreams to each mesh using layered coding.Recent advances in information theory show that the throughput of a multicast session can be improved using network coding.The solutions utilize alternative paths and network coding in each mesh.The problem is first formulated into a mathematical programming,whose optimal solution required global information.Hence we present a distributed heuristic algorithm. The heuristic progressively organizes the receivers into layered meshes. Each receiver can subscribe to a proper no of meshes to maximize its throughput by fully utilizing its available bandwidth. The benefits of organizing the topology into layered mesh and using network coding are demonstrated clearly through extensive simulations. Numerical results indicate that the average throughput of a multicast session is significantly improved (up to 50% to 60%) with only slightly higher delay and network resource consumption.

Application of Piezoelectric Materials for Aircraft Propeller Blades Vibration Damping PDF

Alaa M. Morad, Aly Elzahaby, S. Abdallah, M. Kamel and Mohamed K. Khalil

Vibrations of turbomachinery blades are critical to jet engine durability and performance. Active vibration control using piezoelectric sensors and actuators have recently been emerged as a practical and promising technology. This paper deals with a new vibration damping technique for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propeller (BIELA 24 in diameter and 12 in pitch) utilizing piezoelectric transducers (sensors and actuators). The propeller blades are one of the main sources of turboprop engine vibration. The damping performance depends on the type and location of the piezoelectric transducers with respect to the mode shape of the blade mechanical strain. Numerical simulations are carried out for the propeller blades. A finite element modal analysis of non-rotating propeller without piezoelectric transducers is built in ANSYS-Workbench 15.0, where the numerical results are compared to the experimental measured modal data for verification. The numerical results are in very good agreement with the experimental measured data. A numerical model of the propeller without and with piezoelectric transducers is built in ANSYS. The results indicate the feasibility of using piezoelectric transducers as a smart material for vibration suppression in turboprop engines by applying these transducers to propeller blades at the first mode high modal strain areas.

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Noise from Micro Turbojet Engine PDF

Tamer M. Raef, Aly Elzahaby, S. Abdallah, Mohamed K. Khalil and S.Wagdy

Jet noise remains a significant noise component in modern aero-engines. A high-speed flow mixing with the surrounding air constitutes noise sources behind the nozzle. Since experimental activities on real aeronautical engines can be very complex and expensive, the use of parts of real engines or small-size turbojets can be very useful for research activities. The present paper describes a test rig constructed for the study of jet noise from Jet Cat micro turbojet engine used for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with a nominal thrust of 230 N at 112000 rpm. The aim is to investigate the near field noise generated by turbulent high subsonic single stream jet at different exit Mach numbers (0.4, 0.7, and 0.8). The overall sound pressure levels and pressure spectra are measured using 6 B&K ½ inch condenser microphones. The microphones are mounted on a linear rake that is setup outside the flow field to account for the growth of the shear layer. The measurements of noise source distribution along the length of the high-speed jet are taken at a grid of six axial and five radial positions. All the test instrumentation, data acquisition system and detailed measurements are presented. The data show that the peak overall sound pressure levels are observed at axial position X= 2.5-7.5 jet diameters with different radial positions. In addition, numerical solutions are obtained using three-dimensional unsteady- Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations based on the RSM turbulence model.

The sustainability of tourist destinations which have strong sense of place PDF

Faisal Alsalamah

This paper aims at investigating the sustainability of those tourist destinations which have strong sense of place. It also describes differences between the places which have a strong sense of place than those which do not have it. I have described the importance of sense of place with reference to the literature. Some tourist destination places of United States have been discussed to describe why these places have more visitors annually than others. This research also provides several recommendations and solutions to build up sense of place of certain tourist destination. The importance of tourism industry and some components for the development of the industry have also been discussed.

ERP System in Organizations PDF

Hafedh Ibrahim Alfouzan

ERP will be advances in data compression, storage and memory costs, and distributed computing should allow for real-time processing and analysis of internal and external data feeds. ERP’s supporting organization displays symbols of letting for multi-tenant public cloud, cloud-based loyal applications (so-called “virtual private”), and on-premise appliances for solutions in their catalog. Options for in-memory versus disc-based solutions will also be available.

Spin Polarization and Electronic Structure calculation of Nickel and Co2MnSi thin film interface PDF

Jibon Krishna Modak, Prof. Dr. Ariful Islam Nahid

Spintronic is an advanced branch of microelectronics based on the transport of electrons spin instead of charge. Spintronic device are superior compare to present electronic devices. Semiconductor based spintronic devices need to combine the magnetic and semiconductor technology. The spin polarization and electronic structure calculation plays an important role in the development of devices. The specific objective of this thesis is to investigated the spin polarization and electronic structure calculation of Heusler alloy/Semiconductor interface. This is very important for efficient spin injection into semiconductor. In broad sense, the research objectives of this thesis are to start and develop research capability in the spintronics researches and to cope with the global standard researcher.

Machine Utilization Evaluation Model for Nigerian Industries PDF

P. K. Oke; A. A. Atoyebi

In Nigeria industries, machines are procured most times without taking into consideration the utilization of available machines(s) because there is no too tool for evaluation. Therefore, there is a need to develop a mathematical model to serve as a tool to be used to analysis and evaluate the machine(s) throughput per month and to know the number of machine(s) to service customers. All the factors affecting machine utilization were identified in this work and used in the model development to determine the machine throughput per month. The model was validated with data which were collected from two industries which include Top Stay Nails and Wires Company (T.S.N.W.C) Osogbo and Aquados Table Water Company (A.T.W.C), Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. It was observed that from the result, T.S.N.W.C had M_T of 49240.58 kg/month of September with eleven (11) machines which is k and A.T.W.C had M_T of 48567 bags/month and 43056 cartoons/month of October with two (2) machines each. Machine utilization evaluation model will help to minimize or eradicate low production output of the company and facilitate effective machine procurement process for future expansion. This will also help the company to know actual number of machines to service customers. This developed model is highly recommended to any company, small, medium and large scale that servicing of customers is paramount to them as a result of competitive products.

Can Ordinary Leadership Skills Influence and Boost Employees’ Moral? PDF

Abdulraheem Alhosani

The study of leader traits has a long history. While researches show that the possession of certain traits alone does not guarantee leadership success, there is evidence that effective leaders are different from other people in certain key respects. This paper is to find out about the leadership ordinary situations with the subordinates that are being covered under different key leader traits including: listening, communicating the vision and mission, getting people to think, influencing the process, team working, encouraging creativity, informal talk, and being cheerful.

SideLobe Level Reduction of Compound Barker codes using mismatched filter techniques PDF

B. Kiranmai, Dr. P. Rajesh Kumar

The major advantages of pulse compression are low pulse-power which makes it suitable for solid-state devices, higher maximum range, good range resolution and better jamming immunity. The matched filter is the optimal linear filter for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive stochastic noise. Pulse compression is an example of matched filtering. But this matched filter output consists of unwanted but unavoidable side lobes. For multiple-target radar, the side lobes of the compressed pulse must be considered in the system design because of the likelihood of false alarms. At the receiver the signal processor uses weighting filters which are not matched to the transmitted waveform. When this filter is not matched to the transmitted waveform then filter output consists of unwanted but unavoidable side lobes. In this paper a new technique is proposed to suppress the side lobes of radar signals that result from standard matched filtering. This technique produces better peak side lobe ratio than all other conventional side lobe reduction techniques. In simulation the results of this filter technique for compound Barker codes is compared with the other side lobe reduction techniques.

Glacier Shrinkage And Environment- A Review PDF

Noor Ul Ane

This study was conducted in the form of a term review paper as M.Phil. Scholar at Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Pakistan during 2015. The data of last three decades concerning glacier shrinkage and its impacts was compiled through a thorough review of thirty research papers, review papers and articles published in journals of national and international repute. The status of different glaciers in different continents of the world except Australia was estimated. Common factors in all the continents included continuously rising temperature and glacier disappearance in past few decades. The factors affecting glacier shrinkage like global warming and climate change had been pointed out. Possible impacts of glacial shrinkage included floods, rising sea level and water shortages. It was concluded that glacier shrinkage is occurring globally and it may lead to catastrophic events if it occurred continuously.

The Challenges of Access To Infrastructure And Social Services in Selected Rural Communities in Etche Local Government Area Of Rivers State PDF

Ibama Brown, Wocha Chikagbum

This paper examined the challenges of access to infrastructure and social services in selected rural communities of Etche Local Government Area. The objective of this research was to ascertain the level of infrastructural provision and how rural dwellers are accessible to them. However, the research adopted the simple random sampling technique. Three communities and thirteen settlements were sampled they included Chokocho - Umuchoko, Umundu, Umunabenram, and Umuokorogbadim, Igbo –Umuoke Ikwerre-Ngwo, Umuasukpo, Edegelem, Chokota and Umuodogo and Nihi - Umuaworo, Owuozo, umuama and Umuoji. The study revealed that facilities like schools, electricity, water supply and roads were inadequately provided while facilities like banks, recreation centres were not provided at all. The study also revealed that the study area being an agricultural hub; lacked agro allied industries which would have involved in the large scale processing of agricultural produce. However, the study recommended that facilities should be equitably distributed within the various communities. Also, the community should be involved in decisions making process. Also more roads should be, constructed and broken down roads maintained for easy transportation of their farm produce

An Efficient Approach to Elliptic Curve Cryptography PDF

Rabindra Bista and Gunendra Bikram Bidari

Thi paper has analyzed a method for improving scalar-multiplication in cryptographic algorithms based on Elliptic Curves owing to the fact that has established the superiority of the Elliptic Curve next generation cryptographic algorithms over the present day cryptographic algorithms. For the implementation of the method, the algorithms have been implemented and discussed with the relevant values such the results obtained are recorded, analyzed and compared with contemporary algorithms. More specifically, this paper carried out research on various aspects of elliptic curves and alternatives to reduce the cost incurred for scalar multiplication in Elliptic Curve Cryptography thereby making it possible to construct easy reluctant additive sequence which backtracks whenever the anomalies are encountered thereby making the operation of scalar multiplication operation efficient both in terms of the required operations to be performed and the number of bits to be recorded. Although research in questions related to elliptic curves was pursued earlier for aesthetic reasons, these questions have placed themselves as prominent in several applied areas such as pseudorandom number generation, coding theory and cryptography.

Oil Fired Furnace and Induction Furnace: A Review PDF

Bhaskar Dhiman, O.S. Bhatia

Heat treatment is the linked process for treatment of machined and forging components. Furnaces can be used for heat treatment process. We have observed that the major problems in oil-fired furnace are non-uniform flame distribution, oxidation of metal, scale formation, carbon loss of metals and emission of pollutants. Oil fired furnaces have low productivity and long start-up time. To avoid these problems the new technology induction furnace should be used. By using the induction furnace instead of oil fired furnace the productivity may be increased and production cost may be reduced. So it is necessary to design, optimize and install the induction furnaces over the oil fired furnaces. This paper presents the reviews on latest trends and developments available in the area of furnaces so that the total equipment cost and losses can be minimized.

Computer Aided Drafting and Construction Of Standard Drafting Table For College Of Engineering Studio In Afe Babalola University PDF

Bankole I. Oladapo, Aban Stephen, Azeez M. Temitayo, Afolabi S. Oluwole

There is a serious need to design and construct a more convenient drafting table with a reduce cost for the high number of Students using design studio in mechanical and mechatronics department, Afe Babalola University Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. This project presents the design and fabrication of a standard drafting table with the use of “AutoCAD TM” software. The design helps to find out a precise dimensions of various part of table with great accuracy within small time and gives fine representation of drafting table. The detail drawing enhance the speed of production as each technician working on the table work on different part which makes the fabrication more faster and précised. The joining of the part was done through arc-welding using gauge 10 electrode. The slot on the adjusting hanger was machine on milling machine. The table was fabricated using a 2”*2” square pipe of 2mm thick of mild steal material commonly available in market. Main part are: stand of 2”*2” 3ft long, middle and stand brace 2”*2” 2.5ft long, the base of 1ft and the top was made of a plywood of 3ft by 4ft as the standard size for A1 paper for drafting. The straight edge of the board help in the squaring of the drafting table and a accurate drafting. The total cost of production per one is approximately N22,300. Compare to the market price from some other company of the same product of $250 as at the time of production. This makes the institution to produce 50pieces of the drafting table.

Telecom Infrastructure Sharing, A Panacea for Sustainability, Cost and Network Performance Op-timization in Nigeria Telecom Industry PDF

Nosiri O.C., Agubor C.K., Akande A.O., Ekwueme E.U

The article emphasized the importance and the necessity for mobile network operators to visualize infrastructure sharing as an essential phase of development in the life cycle of mobile telecommunication industry in Nigeria. With the unprecedented network infrastructure challenges characterized by unfavourable business environment and the need for quick network deployment, prompted the need for harmonizing, collaboration and consolidation by the key service providers to reduce the OPEX and CAPEX while at the same time provide quality service delivery. The idea of telecom operators to pursue the policy of doing it alone on the ground to be the first network to reach a certain subscribers base should never be entertained in the Nigerian telecom industry. Numerous benefits ranging from network availability, reliability, innovation, expansion, customer satisfaction and economic sustainability are harnessed from telecom infrastructure sharing and therefore should be enforceable by the regulatory agency to ensure collaboration by the Nigerian network providers.

The Impact Of Urban Growth On Housing Demand In Emerging Settlements Of Port Harcourt Metropolis: The Rukpokwu Experience PDF

Ibama Brown, Eyenghe Tari and Evangeline Nkiru Anthony Le-ol

The Research looks at housing demand as a result to urban growth. The study attempts to identify the effects of urban growth on housing demand in emerging settlements like Rukpokwu Town with respect to the identification of the causes of the upsurge in population, the impact of it on the immediate environment, challenges of residence in terms of housing need and demand, the solution of this housing challenge faced by both indigenes and other settlers in Rukpokwu Town. The study employed the multistage sampling technique which started from the identification of the five contiguous enclaves that make up Rukpokwu Town to the enumeration of the existing streets of the Rukpokwu Town, which were about one-hundred streets to the random selection of ten longest streets (two from each community), and questionnaire were administered at random. Data got from the field was collected, collated and analyzed. Results were represented by simple charts and tables. From the data got from the field it was established that the influx of people from other parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis to Rukpokwu is as result of the increased spate of violence caused by the militancy crisis which engulfed Port Harcourt between 2003 and 2006 that lead to the destruction of lives and properties that made people to find themselves out of the crisis prone areas to settle mostly at Rukpokwu Community for safety of lives and properties. Also the cheapness in the cost of the land contributed to the increase in the growth of Rukpokwu Town. However most of the houses found in Rukpokwu Town are mainly rooming wagon type houses with little or no provision of the basic facilities that aids convenience in the houses. Based on the above findings, it became very imperative to posit that; the government at the state level should embark on massive acquisition and construction of low cost housing units to accommodate the rising demand for the housing by the people, the encouragement of private sector participation in housing delivery, the state government should upgrade and in some places carryout urban renewal schemes to reduce the influx of the people to the fringes of Port Harcourt and the government’s provision of subsidized building materials to encourage land owners to build standard houses to improve on the housing quality in Rukpokwu Town. Urban growth however should not be seen as a threat to the receiving location rather it should be seen as a community.

Influenced of EPDM viscosity index improvers on Kurdistan manufacturing oils PDF

Abdulsalam R. Karim, Kareem J. Al-Salihi, Nawzad N. Ahmed

Effects of different types of EPDM (ethylene-propylene-dine monomer) improvers in manufacturing of engine oil grades (SAE-30, SAE-40, and SAE-50) on thermal properties of these oils have been investigated. The additives type (KEP270, DE3071, K 4802, DCR3 and PA 6205) were used to prepare grades (SAE-30, SAE-40 and SAE-50). The solutions were characterized by determination specific gravity, viscosity index, flash point and pour point. The effect of temperature (from40 oC to 100 oC) and concentration (from 0.5 to 3.5 w/v %) have been also studied.

Optimization Method of the Total Weighed Holding Time in a P2P Network PDF

Naors Y Anad Alsaleem

In this paper the formulation of optimization problem of the total weighed holding time is given by working out of mathematical model in peer-to-peer networks communication. The mathematical model Optimization constructed on the schedules theory. The described models and the schedules theory methods allow to display adequately structure and a P2P network function and to consider their dynamics, restriction of previous information, shifts, interruptions and other typical technological decisions that can be used for increase of a network productivity and granting quality of services QoS, QoE.

Effects of Practical Work Approach on the Performance of College Students in Graph Theory PDF

Raquel D. Quiambao

The role of mathematics in man’s life is an established fact. However, the marked difficulty experienced by students in learning mathematics as noted by the researcher calls for the need of alternative approaches to enhance performance. This paper dealt with the effects of practical work approach on the performance of college students in Graph Theory, specifically on the interaction effects of teaching approach with mathematical ability and manipulative skills. The post test-only control group true experimental design was used. Findings showed that below-average and above-average mathematical ability students taught by practical work approach performed better than their counterparts in the conventional approach. Moreo-ver, the students with high and low manipulative skills taught by the practical work approach performed better than those students with high and low manipulative skills taught by the conventional approach. Furthermore, results of the ANCOVA revealed a significant interaction between teaching approach and mathematical ability. Overall, the practical work approach as a teaching strategy was shown to be significantly effective in improving performance of the students in Graph Theory. Practical work approach should be adopted by teachers to enhance performance of students in said course.

Study of Flow Structure in Street Canyon between Dome shaped buildings through CFD PDF

Mr. Rohit Sharma, Prof. K. K. Chaudhary

This article presents the findings of some tests run using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The software used was FLUENT. Simulation was carried out for study of air flow structure in street canyon formed between two dome shaped buildings. The main issue considered was the ability of the air in the street canyon to be enriched. For this the simulation was carried out for 2D model of street canyon using computational fluid dynamics. Reynold’s Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equation is equipped using realizable K-ε model. Various results for different aspects ratios are measured for comparison. Aspect Ratios considered are 0.5, 1 and 2. Three basic entities were focused upon i.e. Wind Velocity, Static Pressure and Turbulent Kinetic Energy. This determines the effectiveness in enriching the street canyon.

Role of Proplis administration in boldenone-induced oxidative stress, Ki-67 protein alterations and toxicity in rat liver and kidney PDF

Ehab Tousson, Wafaa Ibrahim, Lamiaa, A.A Barakat, and Aya Abd El-Hakeem

Boldenone is a derivative of testosterone. The aim of this study, the effect of propolis as co-administrated in liver and kidney toxicity induced with boldenone. Sixty albino rats were divided into 4 groups; 1st control group were rats receive olive oil, the 2nd group were rats receive propolis, 3rd experimental group include animals that receive intramuscular injected with boldenone and 4th group were co- administrated group were rats receive boldenone and propolis at the same time. Ki-67 expression in liver and kidney sections were a significant increase in boldenone group when compared with the control group. Intramuscular injection of rats with boldenone showed a marked disturbance of the hepatocytes with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver and marked glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney. Co-administration of boldenone with propolis a moderate improved the renal and hepatic injuries induced by boldenone and decrease Ki-67 expression.

Utilization of Saw Dust in Cement Mortar & Cement Concrete PDF


The use of sand (river sand) plays a major role in all type of construction, especially in cement concrete & cement mortar. The ultimate aim of the saw dust concrete is to recycle the waste material from saw mill & utilizing in concrete ingredients in the state of partial replacement.

Assessment Accuracy of Static Relative Positioning Using Single Frequency GPS Receivers PDF

Mahmoud I. El-Mewafi, Ashraf A. Beshr, Ismail Zaher

Global Positioning System (GPS) technology today plays a very major role, for surveyors and geodesists especially for engineering works, mapping, and several geodetic applications. Many surveying projects are preferring low cost and accurate positioning technology for various applications. GPS applications can be grouped into static and kinematic applications. Static applications of GPS can be used for various precise applications such as position fix, establishing the geodetic networks and monitoring the structural deformation; while kinematic applications of GPS can be used in mapping of natural and artifial features. GPS receivers can be categorized also into single and dual frequency receivers. Dual-frequency receivers are the most accurate receivers due to their capabilities for eliminating a major error component (the Ionospheric effect), but these receivers are very expensive and therefore not very attractive to many applications. The low cost of single-frequency receivers is attractive, but these receivers are affected more by ionospheric errors than dual frequency receivers.

Assessment of QoE Metrics of Voice, Video traffic in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks PDF

A.Sivagami, S.Malarkkan

Remote Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) guarantee a wide extent of developing potential applications in both non military personnel and military regions, which oblige visual and sound data to upgrade the level of gathered data. The transmission of mixed media substance obliges a negligible feature quality level from the client's point of view. Be that as it may, connects in WMSN correspondences are normally temperamental, as they regularly encounter changes in quality and frail integration, and accordingly, the steering convention must assess the courses by utilizing end-to-end join quality data to build the parcel conveyance proportion. Also, the utilization various ways together with key feature measurements can upgrade the feature quality level. In this paper, we propose a real- time power aware routing protocol (RPARS) for proficient interactive media transmission.Thus, convention guarantees sight and sound transmission with Quality of Experience (QoE) and vitality productivity support. The recreation results demonstrate the profits for scattering feature content by a method for vitality effectiveness and QoE investigation with the help of VQM, SSIM, and MOS metrices.


Adetoba B. Tiwalola., Yekini N. Asafe

Recommender systems (RSs) automate some of these strategies with the goal of providing affordable, personal, and high-quality recommendations. Recommender Systems are software tools and techniques aimed at providing suggestion to support users in various decision-making processes. Development of recommender systems is a multi-disciplinary effort which involves experts from various fields such as Artificial intelligence (AI), Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Information Technology (IT), Data Mining, Statistics, Adaptive User Interfaces, Decision Support Systems (DSS), Marketing, or Consumer Behaviour. Recommender systems have proven to be valuable means for online users to cope with information overload and various techniques for recommendation algorithms have been proposed and successfully deployed in commercial environments. In this paper, a comprehensive study of recommendation systems and various approaches are provided with their major strengths and limitations thereby providing future research possibilities in recommendation systems.

Search Engine Refactoring tool for Code Clone Detection of Static and Dynamic WebPages PDF


Today cloning of codes of an authorized person leads a positive approach. But the code cloning is done by unauthorized person leads a negative approach. In the recent years, many clone detection tools have been proposed. It produces an over whelming volume of simple clones of data or structure [3]. Code clone detection the content similarity between the programs or webpages. An attempt is made to design a method called “CCDT Code Clone Detection Technique” for both static and dynamic web pages. It is based on levenshtein’s approach. This method comprises some steps like, parsing & analysis, tree construction, code similarity measure and clone detection. Experiments are carried out with open source websites and WebPages created by some volunteers. Experimental results are recorded and are showing the better detection rate.

Effect of Limiters on Higher Order Computation of Shock Tube Problem PDF

Mohammad Asif Sultan, Manash Jyoti Konwar

In this paper, some Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have been used to compute the variations in different parameters like pressure, density etc. by solving the Euler Equations for shock tube problem. The governing equations are discretized on a Finite Volume framework. Van Leer’s first, second and third order flux vector splitting method have been used to compute the inviscid flux terms. For the second order computations, MUSCL approach has been adopted. The effect of the order of the scheme on the accuracy of the solution is studied. Also for higher order schemes the effect of the limiter type on the performance of the scheme are investigated. The performance of the scheme is judged by its ability to resolve shocks, expansion fans and contact discontinuities present in the shock tube problem. Two types of limiters namely Minmod limiter and Van Albada limiter are used for the implementation of MUSCL scheme. Van Albada limiter is found to be more robust and accurate as compared to Minmod limiter.

Enhanced Production of Catalase by Penicillium Chrysogenum in Benchtop Bioreactor PDF

Fatma Hussein, Ragaa R. Hamed, Fawkia El-beih, Enas M. Mostafa and Asmaa El-shershaby

Batch cultures of P. chrysogenum were grown in a 7.5-L benchtop bioreactor under the optimum culture conditions previously established at the flask level and new parameters like agitation (300 rpm) and aeration (1vvm). Time courses of growth, enzyme production, protein content, substrate consumption and pH were followed for 7 days. Maximum intracellular catalase activity (44491 U/l) was obtained after 7 days of growth. pH control (pH 6) enhanced the production of catalase by more than 300 % while increasing agitation to 400 rpm destroyed the growth and reduced catalase production by more than 70 %. Just low concentrations (> 0.03 U/ml) of the produced enzyme were found to be sufficient to completely degrade the residual H2O2 in the bleaching liquor of textile industry after 10 min.

Characterization of As Cast and Heat Treated Aluminium Based Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites PDF

Gokul Prashanth D, Manoj Karthick C, Mahmoodul Hasan A, Jeeno Amarnath K C

Aluminium alloys are widely used in automobile industries and aerospace applications due to their good mechanical properties as compared with conventional metals and alloys. The low production price and better mechanical properties of the composites make them very useful for various applications in many fields. Even though the mechanical properties are better in Al 6061, due to its high wear behavior constrains its application. The present investigation has been focused on the development of hybrid composite involving Aluminium metal matrix reinforced with particulates of Silicon carbide and graphite. The composites are fabricated using liquid metallurgy routing. The Al 6061 composites were cast by stir casting liquid metallurgy route with a percentage of graphite varying from 2%wt to 6%wt in steps of 2%wt whereas the percentage of silicon carbide is kept constant at 10 %wt. The cast composites were tested for hardness, wear characteristics with, without heat treatment (T-6) and obtained results were correlated with microstructure. The result indicates that there is a nominal improvement in the hardness values and wear properties of both with and without Heat treated specimens.

Measurement of Bug in Documentary Specification of Software Requirement by Data Mining PDF

Dhyan Chandra Yadav, Saurabh Pal

Documented software specification is often missing, incomplete or outdated. This causes difficulties in software maintenance efforts especially when a software project involves many people or the project continues over a long period of time. Lack of documented software specification also causes difficulty in testing or verifying the correctness of a software system. In this paper, classification of the data collected from a software project or department in MASC that raises the problem report has been discussed. This data is pre-processed to remove unwanted and less meaningful attributes. These software requirements specifications are then classified into different categories like low, average, high. The processing is done using WEKA data mining tool and compares results of classification with respect to different performance of parameters. This paper has presented the combination of Software Engineering with Data Mining Techniques. In this paper we classified and detect software requirements specification defect in data set by Lad Tree, Random Tree and J48 of data mining. Experimental results show the performance of, Accuracy, Recall, probability of detection, probability of false Alarm, Type-I error, Type-II error and overall misclassification rate parameter takes care of these two error parameters.

“Who Are They?”: The Third Sex in India PDF

Lopamudra Ganguly

The word “Third Sex” is a jargon in the socio-economic structure of Indian society. “Neither man nor woman”-this concept is not very clear for the present Indian culture. But it is a striking fact that Indian ancient documents gives a witness of this “Third -Sex “phenomena. “Hjra” (common term used for Third Sex) sometimes related with another argot term prostitution. This paper accumulated the fact from ancient past with the present day scenario relates with the societal structure with this “Third Sex”.

Review on Digital Image Restoration Methods and Future Direction PDF

K. Praveen Kumar, Dr. C. Venkata Narasimhulu, Dr. K. Satya Prasad

The aim of image restoration is to estimate the original image from an observation image degraded by blur and additive noise as much as possible. Different image restoration methods have developed by many researchers. The methods reviewed in this paper are Non Linear Total Variation, PDE noise removal algorithm, Hybrid image restoration and Wavelet Analysis method. These methods having some drawbacks like stair case effect, blocky effect without gradient parameter, proper estimation of PSF, artifacts in the image respectively. The analysis and discussions indicate to that wavelet frame is a new way of solving PDEs in general, which will impart a new insight that will enrich the existing theory and applications of numerical PDEs, as well as, those of wavelet frames to get better results.

Study of RCC Structure Considering the Effect of Flexible Base PDF

Prof. Milind V. Mohod

Though the structures are supported on soil, most of the designers do not consider the soil structure interaction and its subsequent effect on structure. When a structure is subjected to an earthquake excitation, it interacts the foundation and soil, and thus changes the motion of the ground. It means that the movement of the whole ground structure system is influenced by type of soil as well as by the type of structure. Tall buildings are supposed to be of engineered construction in sense that they might have been analyzed and designed to meet the provision of relevant codes of practice and building bye-laws. IS 1893: 2002 “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures” gives response spectrum for different types of soil such as hard, medium and soft. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the effect of Soil-structure interaction on multi storeyed buildings. Also response of buildings subjected to gravity and lateral loading is finding out by ANSYS 11.0.

Design of application specific non-linear ADC for neural signal recording in Brain Machine Interfaces PDF

Pratibha Dwivedi, D. K. Mishra

In the linear ADC the useful as well as the non-useful information is digitized with the same resolution. Non-linear analog to digital converter (NLADC) are designed in order to focus more on the segment where greater information is concentrated. In this work a NLADC is designed for neural signal recording to be used in biomedical sensor applications. This ADC utilizes the exponential quantization function, consolidated into linear SARADC such that the conversion is performed based on the non-linear quantization function. It is designed for 1.5 V supply voltage and implemented in 0.18 µm technology. The maximum resolution obtained is 9.7 bits and the minimum resolution is 2 bits. The clock frequency is 250 KHz. Its dynamic range is 64.1 dB, which is 15.9 dB higher than the linear ADC with 8 physical bits. It occupies an area of 0.03521 mm2 and power dissipation of 31.04 µW has been achieved.

Effect Of Compatibilizer and Kolanut Filler Contents on the Sorption Characteristics of Low Density Polyethylene Composite PDF

Onuegbu G. C., Anyiam C. K., Akanbi M. N., Obidiegwu M. U. and Onuoha F.N.

The effect of kola nut filler and compatibilizer contents on the transport of benzene through low density polyethylene (LDPE) composite was studied at the following temperature 400C,600C and 800C .The kola nut powdered used was ground at 25µm particle size 0-5Wt% of kola nut powder and 0-2.5Wt.% of compatibilizer were mixed with 200g of low density polyethylene in an injection moulding machines. The injected polyethylene/kola nut composites were taken for sorption test. The sorption data obtained for kola nut powder filled low density polyethylene at the different temperature investigated were expressed as the molar percentage uptake (%Qt) of solvent per gram of the kola nut composites. Results show that the solvent uptake for any particular solvent at the five filler content (0-5 Wt %) generally increased with increase in sorption temperature but decreased with increase in compatibilizer and filler contents.

Forecasting Inflation in Nigeria by State Space Modeling PDF

Raphael A. Yemitan, Olanrewaju I. Shittu

In recent times, inflation figures used by policy makers and investors are usually at lag one (i.e. previous month's inflation rate). The reality of the present day situation where changes in the economy increases with a high degree of uncertainty, decision of monetary policy tools requires the use of current figures of macroeconomic indicators such as inflation. This paper, therefore aims at modelling and forecasting Nigeria's inflation rate for the current period, using the Kalman filter methodology. This paper reveals that estimating the Nigerian headline inflation rate using the Kalman filter approach is more efficient than the popular Box-Jenkins ARIMA(0,1,0). The efficiency of the Kalman Filter was mainly as a result of its built in specification for updating the estimation with the latest available information. This is evident the unbiased insample estimation of the headline inflation as well as the significant result of the results of the diagnostics test. Hence, the result imply that switches in the inflation series could cause the regime of the series to shift from a linear space to a non-linear regime. Therefore, an introduction of non-linear estimation methodologies may provide a starting point for further research and development of a modified state space methodology by redefining Kalman filter transition equation and its estimation procedure.

The Design of Smart Shopper Applications Integrating Mobile Devices with Barcode Technologies PDF

Solomon Mwanjele Mwagha, Opiata M A

Electronic shopping is increasingly being used for enhancing customers shopping experience. This paper explored on mobile devices for Smart Shopping, where a mobile based shopping management tool based on mobile phone and barcode technologies that applies to an individual’s shopping set-up was designed and implemented. Results of a preliminary study showed that a typical way of planning a shopping budget is by making shopping lists. This method is usually cumbersome since calculations are done manually while tallying the total prices for the listed items counting on to time loss. In this study we collected and analyzed information about the ordinary way of managing shopping from local shopping malls. The analysis results were used in designing the Smart Shopper application using the Rational Unified Process methodology. The application was built to run on the Android Operating System which mapped product details to a remote database.

The Use of Web and Mobile Technologies in Enhancing Intelligence Crime Monitoring and Reporting PDF

Solomon Mwanjele M, Mwachaka P M

Intelligence Crime Monitoring and Reporting (ICMR) is a concern to security systems across the nations. Security systems have the objective of crime detection and prevention. The conviction of crime doers relies mostly on responsive systems of information management. The efficiency of the security agents (such as the police) and the effectiveness with which agent’s tackles crime depends on not only the quality of information derived from crime records but also how fast information is accessed. In the current competitive world of work public establishments need quality and systematic processes to increase their working efficiency and also enhance their productivity. ICMR can handle all aspects of managing crime using first hand information reports lodged by citizens. ICMR can also perform for tracking and monitoring intelligence (or web tips) provided by the public to the security agents.


N. Sivashanmugam, Dr. C. Jothi Venkateswaran

Data Mining extracts knowledge from large databases to discover existing and newer patterns. Data mining is the technique of automatic finding of hidden valuable patterns and relationships from huge volume of data stored in databases in order to help make better business decisions. Discovering useful patterns hidden in a database plays an essential role in several data mining tasks. Frequent patterns are patterns (such as itemsets, subsequences, or substructures) that appear in a data set frequently. A substructure can refer to different structural forms, such as subgraphs, subtrees, or sublattices, which may be combined with itemsets or subsequences. If a substructure occurs frequently, it is called a (frequent) structured pattern. Finding such frequent patterns plays an essential role in mining associations, correlations, and many other interesting relationships among data. Moreover, it helps in data classification, clustering, and other data mining tasks as well. Thus, frequent pattern mining has become an important data mining task and a focused theme in data mining research. Frequent itemsets find application in a number of real- life contexts. The proposed system retrieves the optimized dataset in an efficient manner thereby mining the efficient data from the wide range of datasets.

Efficient Serial Communication using Optical Fiber Cable PDF

Miss Rimi Chauhan, Prof. R. A. Pagare

The fiber optic option board (F) provides an RS232C serial interface via a fiber optic cable. A fiber optic port is treated the same way as a standard serial port except a fiber optic cable is used for the communications medium. Optical USB Communication protocol is used for long distances which are used for Communication between point to point and point to multipoint. Fiber does not radiate any of the signals it communicates the way copper based transmissions do. Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds . A fiber optic link offers excellent electrical isolation and a high data rate. Two fiber optic cables are required for each fiber optic port. It is also used in many applications such as high speed cable internet access and optical storage systems. We are going to implement and demonstrate prototype of Optical USB (2.0) system for long distances by using PIC microcontroller to a PC via the USB port using fiber.

Study of Water Uptake into Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Aggregate Poly Brick Using Neutron Radiography Technique PDF

Md. Sayeedur Rahman, Md. Khurshed Alam, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Al Amin and S. M. Azharul Islam

A powerful non-destructive testing (NDT) technique is adopted to study water penetrating height, water absorption, initial rate of absorption (IRA) and incremental water intrusion area in EPS sample. The measurement of gray value/optical density of the neutron radiographic images of the wet sample are used. From this measurement it is found that water absorption behavior of EPS poly brick is capillary in shape at different immersion time, the IRA is very low for the first 5 minutes compare to 10-20 minutes immersion time, water uptake height is 1.2 to 6.03cm, incremental intrusion area increasing slowly with immersion time. Lightweight expanded polystyrene (EPS) brick products that have been used in engineering applications including blocks, wall panels, floor and roof panels, cladding panels and Intel’s.

Micro-Encapsulation Technique for Effective Remediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminants PDF

Wami, Emenike .Nyeche. and Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin J.

The menace of soil contamination from petroleum exploration, production and refining must be checkmated so as to conserve the environment from the prevailing pollution problems. This research investigates the subjection of some contaminated soil samples to the Micro-encapsulation remediation technique. Three soil samples (clay, sandy silt and sandy soil) contaminated with gasoline, diesel, multiple fuels, refinery wastes and weathered crude, each for all soil samples were tested for leaching and toxicity. The technique was found to be most effective in sandy soil and least in clay soil for all pollutants. The efficiency of the entire micro-encapsulation process was observed to depend on the nature of the soil, type of contaminants and also the inherent properties of the soil samples. Soils of granular, porous, permeable and uniform mineralogy promoted the remediation process. Results obtained from this investigation indicated a considerable reduction above 94% in contaminant level after the micro-encapsulation technique was employed for all soil samples. A tolerable level lower than 10mg/l as recommended by environmental agencies was achieved after the remediation process for all contaminated soil samples.

Quality of Roof Harvested Rainwater in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria PDF

Comfort Ema Michael, Ogbonnaya Uzo Osuoji, Ema Michael Abraham, Owens Monday Alile, Imaobong Udousoro

This study assesses the concentration of micro pollutants (heavy metals – Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb) in rainwater from various roofing materials and ambient source in southern Nigeria. The physicochemical properties of rainwater samples are also analyzed using standard procedures. Rainwater harvested from various rooftops indicates a mean pH of 6.68 and a value of 6.02 for the ambient rainwater. Conductivity ranged from 4.96 – 67.4 μS/cm and may be due to the dissolution of deposited aerosols and leaching of roofing materials. Turbidity and Cu exceeded allowable limits for drinking water with inputs from the rooftops. Total dissolve solid (TDS) concentration were generally low compared with WHO’s allowable limits for drinking water. Significant presence of heavy metals has also been noted in the rainwater. Water quality from asbestos was the worst among the various roof runoffs examined. Results indicate that rainwater in the region requires proper treatment before ingestion although it could be directly used for regular washing. The activities of the oil and gas exploration companies in the region could contribute to the contaminants noted in the results. While runoffs from the various roof materials could be directly used after light treatment, rainwater runoffs from asbestos roof should be thoroughly treated before usage. Results from this study would be useful for city planning and with proper treatment, may benefit the promotion of rainwater as alternative water supply towards avoiding flood and water scarcity.

Performance Analysis of Energy Consumption Rate Based Multi-Hop Routing Protocol PDF

Kajol Batra, Charanjit Singh

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Hierarchical clustered based routing protocol is one the most significant routing protocol. In Hierarchical Cluster protocol, network field is separated into clusters with each cluster having a Cluster Head (CH). In proposed protocol, on the basis of the location of sensor nodes, the sensor network field is separated into four logical regions. If sensor node’s distance is less than the predefined distance then the data is directly transmitted through nodes. Otherwise the regions are separated into clusters with each cluster having a cluster head for aggregating and transmitting the data to gateway which further transmits the data to the base station. Cluster head election in each region is based on the Energy Consumption Rate (ECR) of each node in the previous round. Simulation results show that ECR based multihop routing protocol which provides efficient usage of node’s available energy thus increases the scalability compared with existing protocols.

GNP assisted hydrolysis of Methyl Parathion and catalytic reduction of its hydrolysed product PDF

Gadadhar Barman, Swarnali Maiti and J. Konar Laha

We report a method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNP) using the aqueous extract of Andrographis Paniculata. In the synthesis of GNP, the aqueous extract of Andrographis Paniculata acts as reducing agent and neutral surfactant Triton® X100 as stabilizing agent. This bio-synthesized GNP has been used as colorimetric sensor for detection and estimation of pesticide (methyl parathion) present in water. One of the hydrolysis products of methyl parathion is p-nitrophenolate is easily reduced by NaBH4 in the presence of the bio-synthesized GNP. The reduction of p-nitrophenolate to p-aminophenolate is evidenced by a decrease in absorbance at 400 nm and simultaneous growing of a new peak at 295 nm associated with formation of p-aminophenolate. The reduction progress was observed for a period of 300 S. The plot of natural log of the absorbance at 400 nm (ln A400nm) versus time produced a straight line. As the reduction reaction is pseudo-first-order in the presence of excess NaBH4 and catalyst, the slope of the plot, yields the apparent reaction rate, kapp (3.13×10-3 s-1). Thus, this is found to be an easy method for determining reaction rate by UV−Visible spectroscopy.

Enhanced Production of Catalase by Penicillium Chrysogenum in Benchtop Bioreactor PDF

Fatma Hussein, Ragaa R. Hamed, Fawkia El-beih, Enas M. Mostafa and Asmaa El-shershaby

Batch cultures of P. chrysogenum were grown in a 7.5-L benchtop bioreactor under the optimum culture conditions previously established at the flask level and new parameters like agitation (300 rpm) and aeration (1vvm). Time courses of growth, enzyme production, protein content, substrate consumption and pH were followed for 7 days. Maximum intracellular catalase activity (44491 U/l) was obtained after 7 days of growth. pH control (pH 6) enhanced the production of catalase by more than 300 % while increasing agitation to 400 rpm destroyed the growth and reduced catalase production by more than 70 %. Just low concentrations (> 0.03 U/ml) of the produced enzyme were found to be sufficient to completely degrade the residual H2O2 in the bleaching liquor of textile industry after 10 min.

Performance Analysis of three phase induction motor drive for Various PWM control Methods PDF

Amol R. Sutar, Girish G. Bhide

This paper presents performance analysis of three phase induction motor drive for various control methods. Three phase inverters are mostly used in industries for adjustable and variable speed three phase induction motor drive systems. The working of three phase induction motor drive system is discussed. The simple method of generation of PWM signals in different modes of operation using single timer feature of PIC microcontroller are discussed and presented. Four different PWM control methods and there implementation using microcontroller chip to operate three phase inverter in four different modes is discussed. The desired control signals are generated using PIC microcontroller and applied to three phase inverter through driver circuit. Three phase inverter performance parameters are determined and compared for single pulse PWM modes such as simple 1200 conduction mode, 1800 conduction mode, and multiple pulse PWM modes such as advanced SPWM and harmonic injected PWM mode. The complete three phase induction motor drive system is designed, implemented and tested for results. The experimental and theoretical results are compared and verified.

Finite Element Analysis for Predicting Residual Stresses of Autofrettaged Spherical vessels considering Bauschinger Effect PDF

Rupali, S.C.Mondal

This paper provides FE model analysis of high pressure vessel considering von Mises yield criterion to predict behavior within the plastic zone. Residual stress distribution in autofrettaged spherical vessel subjected to different autofrettage pressure are evaluated. The optimum auttofrettage pressure and residual stresses are determined for different percentage of overstrain .The material model is currently bilinear and allows consideration of strain hardening. whether re -autofrettage results in a more beneficial compressive stress distribution and, therefore, in extension of life is examined in this study. The effect of Bauschinger effect and yield criterion on residual stress is discussed based on the FE model. The increasing application of spherical vessels for high pressure application motivates the use of autofrettage technique for an efficient and economic design.

Analysis of Android Smart Watch Artifacts PDF

Shreyas Parikh, Dhaval Chavda, Shourjo Chakraborty, Dr. Parag H. Rughani, Dr. M. S. Dahiya

Innovations of smart phones have made this era as an era of smart devices. People are using smart phones more than any other device / tool in their day-to-day life. Since, android entered to this market, use of wearable devices became possible technically and economically. These days, wearable devices like wrist band, earring, smart watch, smart shoes, etc. have become easily available and affordable. Android based smart watch is one of such popular devices being used by many people around the world. Though the watch is dependent on android smart phone, it contains lots of useful information about user. The user information stored on the device can be important in tracing any cyber crime / traditional case. This paper discusses what information the Android Smart Watch sores and analysis of this information from forensics point of view.

Determination and Comparison of Yield and Yield Components of Several Sorghum, Sudangrass, SorghumxSudangrass Hybrids and Corn Varieties Grown as a Second Crop in the Western Transition Zone of Turkey after Hungarian Vetch PDF

Fikret BUDAK

This study was carried out during the second crop season of 2008-2009 under irrigated conditions at Anatolian Agricultural Research Institute in EskiÅŸehir to determine the yield and yield components of four sorghum varieties (Leoti, Early Sumac and Rox), one sudangrass variety (Gözde 80), two sorghumxsudangrass hybrid varieties (Sweet sioux-5 and Supergraze), and five corn varieties (GüneÅŸ-610, Pioneer-3396, Tüm-82, Ant-90 and TTM815) as a second crop used after Hungarian vetch variety Budak.

Effective Listening To Be a Good Leader PDF

Nahhal Alazzam

This article describes the effective listening in a workplace and how that effect an employee to be a good leader. Also, you will find the reasons why should any employees have good listening skills. Beside some techniques to become a good listener.

Community Based Dengue Control Interventions for Behavior change and Sustainability PDF

Dengue is a viral disease which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Every year an estimated 50 to 100 million cases of dengue are reported worldwide. The aim of this overview was to investigate community based dengue prevention interventions for behavior change by available evidence of literature. We reviewed studies which were explicitly linked with community based behavior change and sustainability in dengue control interventions from available published evidence.

GAS TURBINES- Current Scenario and Future Prospects in India PDF


The gas turbine is the most versatile item of turbo machinery now days. Today, when we talk about the most widely used power generation, we think about the gas turbine technologies because these are the most widely used power generation technologies now a days. Gas turbine could play a key role in future power generation addressing issues of producing clean, efficient and fuel flexible electric power. Gas turbines are the parts of the internal combustion engine in which burning of the air-fuel mixture produces hot gases to run the turbine which therefore produces power. In gas turbines, combustion occurs continuously as compare to the reciprocating internal combustion engines in which it occurs intermittently. Currently the total design capacity of gas turbine power plants in INDIA is about 26699.9MW which is increased by 51.3% as compare to the year 2011 in which it is 13711.27 MW and most of these are installed in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tripura, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Pondicherry, Karnataka, Kerala, Haryana, Delhi.

Shear Behavior of Recycled Beams PDF

Raviinder Singh, Dr. Neeru Bansal, Er. K.S.Bedi

The present study will focus on the utilization of aggregates created mainly from crushing old concrete masses, the type of recycled aggregates that contains little or no impurities. Use of recycled aggregate in concrete can be useful for environmental protection and economy. Thus, use of recycled aggregates is an important and relevant area of research While the constant and variable angle truss models are known to provide reliable bases and to give reasonable predictions for the shear strengths of members with shear reinforcement, in the case of members without shear reinforcement, even advanced models with complicated procedures may show lack of accuracy or lead to fairly different predictions from other similar models. For this reason, many research efforts have been made for more accurate predictions. The dissertation compares the shear resistance of RAC based on the results of experimental investigation on 12 flexuraly reinforced beams without shear reinforcements with different models. Experimental investigations have been carried out to study shear strength of Recycled concrete beams having different shear span to depth ratio and having different percentage of longitudinal reinforcement.

Development of High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Solar Cells PDF

Musa Abubakar Bilya


A Review on Risks and Project Risks Management: Oil and Gas Industry PDF

Khairul Azizan Suda, Nazatul Shima Abdul Rani, Hamzah Abdul Rahman, Wang Chen

This paper is a literature reviews of risks and projects risk management for oil and gas industry. Overview of the oil and gas operations such as upstream and downstream activities forwarded and elaborated for further understanding. Literatures on risks, definition, types of risks forwarded in this paper to illustrate the importance of risks management. Poor risks management normally lead to project failures, hence project risks management discussion forwarded in this paper. Usually, project risks management for oil and gas industry will be centered towards upstream activities, if wrong decisions were made it might cause losses of trillion or billion or millions of USD. Hence, this paper is to highlights possible areas to be explored for oil and gas practitioners and academics to further enhance their operations, and eliminate losses due to poor project risks management.

Water Equivalent Determination of a Known Calorific Value Using Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter PDF

Oni Babalola Aisosa, Ibegbu Anayo Jerome

Calorific value is the most important characteristics of fuel. 2g of kerosene and diesel respectively was weighed into the crucible and a firing wire of 10cm length (of about 0.1mm diameter nickel chrome wire) is stretched between the electrodes. It was ensured that the wire is in close contact with the kerosene, while the bomb head was set. Care must be taken not to disturb the sample when moving the bomb head from the support stand to the bomb cylinder. To absorb the combustion products of sulphur and nitrogen, 10 ml of water was poured into the bomb. The bomb was connected to the oxygen cylinder via the oxygen valve and the thin bore tube. Oxygen is admitted into the bomb and the pressure is adjusted to about 25 to 30 atmospheres. The bomb is then placed in a 3000g quantity of distilled water in the inner barrel of the calorimeter. Necessary electrical connections were made. The water in the calorimeter is constantly stirred and temperatures noted. The graph of temperature against time was plotted for kerosene and diesel. The known calorific values were used to determine the water equivalent of the calorimeter which gives 321.234g and 221.321g for kerosene and diesel respectively.

Dynamic Modeling And Simulation Of Shiroro Hydropower Plant In Nigeria Using Matlab/Simulink PDF

Gbadamosi S. L and Ojo O. Adedayo

Hydroelectricity is an important component of world renewable energy supply and hydropower remains a major source of electricity generation due to its environmental friendly nature. This paper aimed at modeling and simulating hydropower plant with a view of increasing the efficiency and stability of the generating station. The hydropower plant model was developed using Matlab/Simulink software. The designed model comprises: Hydraulic turbine (PID governor, servomotor and turbine), Synchronous generator and an excitation system. The dynamic response of the system to the disturbances on the system network was studied. A three phase fault was introduced in the SHPP model at 0.1 sec and cleared at 0.2 sec. The simulated result shows that the generated voltage quickly regained its stability on the removal of the fault, the stator currents went into transient after the fault was cleared and become stable at 0.4 sec. The excitation voltage also regains its stability but it was slower and the speed of the rotor was out of stable after the occurrence of the disturbance on the system. The simulated result shows an improvement in the static and dynamic behavior of SHPP and an increase in the generating performance of the generating station.

Stabilization system of aviation gravimeter PDF

Igor Korobiichuk, Olena Bezvesilna, Andriі Tkachuk, Michał Nowicki, Roman Szewczyk

The article analyzes the existing aviation gravimetric system and their characteristics. Also the article analyzes of the most precise aviation gravimeters. Analyzed the methods of reducing the impact of factors on the output signal of aviation gravimeters, which allows to increase accuracy.

Situational Analysis of Flood and Drought in Rwanda PDF

Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie, Patrick Rufangura, Herath MPC Jayaweera, Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

In this paper, a situational analysis of flood and drought in Rwanda were assessed using AQUEDUCT Global Flood Analyzer based on the population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and urban damage for current and future projections (2030). In order to estimate future changes, three scenarios from: Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) and Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report which represents climate change and socioeconomic change scenarios respectively were employed. Data from 1981-2010 were used to determine the average monthly precipitation for current years and IPCC scenario A2 was employed to generate datasets that predict the average monthly precipitation from 2011-2100 using Meteonorm 7 software. A 10-year flood protection level was employed to ascertain the rate of urban damage, its effects on Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Population at risk. The study revealed that, Rwanda has more than 20% probability of inland flooding in any given year; a 10-year flood has a 10% probability of occurring in any given year and could cause roughly $6.1 million urban damage; $865.6 million affected GDP and 837.2 thousand affected population, if there is no flood protection. Flood and drought events cannot be totally eradicated but with mitigation approach and preparedness before its occurrence: social and economic losses can be minimized.

Genotoxic Effect of Cadmium on NileTilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) PDF

Azza A. Ashmawy, Mohammed A. Rashed, Aiman H. Atta, Amr G. Ibrahim, and Fagr Kh.Abdel-Gawad

Micronucleus test has been an excellent tool for assessing genotoxicity of waterborne substances in Nile Tilapia. Also, comet assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive procedure for quantifying DNA in individual cells. The current study was conducted to evaluate toxic effects of cadmium on Nile tilapia using cytogenetic and molecular methods. Fish were exposed to several doses of cadmium at different time intervals. The results revealed that micronucleus formation was proven to be less with low concentration of cadmium and short time interval than that obtained with high concentration and long exposure time interval giving evidence that treatment duration has affected the genomic system. Comet assay in erythrocytes of Nile Tilapia revealed that fish treated with high dose of cadmium and long duration of exposure showed a significant increase both in the number of damaged nucleus and in the comet scores compared with negative control of fish. The results suggested that formation of the micronuclei exhibited significant variations which might be related to the inhibition of the cadmium on the antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the significant increase in DNA damage estimated by comet assay could be probably due to the elevation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).



The objective of the paper is to present applica-tions of Lagrange’s theorem, order of the ele-ment, finite group of order, converse of La-grange’s theorem, Fermats little theorem and re-sults, we prove the first fundamental theorem for groups that have finite number of elements. In this paper we show with the example to motivate our definition and the ideas that they lead to best results. It can be used to prove Fermat's little theorem and its generalization, Euler's theorem. These special cases were known long before the general theorem was proved. In this paper some Corollaries gives the famous result called the Fermat’s Little Theorem. In this paper we see that given a subgroup H of a group G, it may be possible to partition the group G into subsets that are in some sense similar to H itself

Algorithm of evaluation of the unstable equilibrium state of dynamically tuned gravimeter PDF

Igor Korobiichuk

The article describes the development and investigation of the algorithm of valuation of the dynamically tuned gravimeter state using the least-squares method on the basis of information about the movement of sensors regarding the unstable equilibrium; evaluation errors caused by the inadequacy of the accepted approximation of the model and the real signal, and the errors caused by the kinematic nonlinearity have been also studied and described.

Effect of non-compactible Spatial Referenceframes on Cognitive Workload PDF

Greeshma Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Ronnie V Daniel, Vijander Singh, Alok Prakash Mittal

We investigated the cost of information processing incurred by mental workload with non-compactible spatial reference frames, in context of task demands, usig encephalogram (EEG) signals. It is hypothesized that when egocentric people on performing object based transformation strategy (mental rotation) and allocentric people while performing perspective-taking task, their mental workload increases. A total of 28 subjects participated in this study. The participants were classified as egocentric and allocentric based on ‘Animal in a row’ task. Those participants that were classified as egocentric were made to the task of mental rotation while those that were classified as allocentric were assigned perspective task. The encephalogram signals were taken when the participants performed the tasks. The statistical approach of approximate entropy (ApEn) is used to examine the changes in the workload wherein the median is taken as the threshold value. It is shown in previous works that when mental workload increases the approximate entropy decreases. Results showed a lesser value of approximate entropy for allocentric group during perspective task and similarly a lower value of approximate entropy for egocentric group during mental rotation.

Influence of Temperature of precursor solution on Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline CdTe thin Films Deposited by chemical bath deposition technique PDF

Preeti Pathak, Dr.M.Ramrakhiani, Dr. P. Mor

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals were synthesized using cadmium chloride and potassium telluride as starting materials; this reaction was carried out at pH = 11.2 and refluxed at 90°C for 5 hrs. The CdTe solution “A” prepared were coated on the glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique to obtain thin films of the CdTe with different temperature. The effect of temperature during the deposition on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdTe thin films has been investigated. The CdTe films exhibited tetragonal structure with (111) preferential orientation. The crystallite size of the films decreased from 25.32nm to 16.90nm with the increase of temperature and the band gap of the films increased from 2.42eV to 2.59eV with the decrease of the crystallite size The CdTe thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy.


Deven N. Trivedi, Sanjay K.Shah, Keyur Chauhan, Ankur macwan, Hitesh Chaukikar

Dental biometrics is used to recognize persons in the forensic domain. we presented an automatic dental image segmentation using various algorithms and presented graphs using histogram in mathematical morphology. This work presents an automatic method for matching dental radiographs. In this we take human teeth radiograph of perfect matching is derived by comparing abstracted data in tabular form. All the derived data are compared by using Thresholding & more matching. Samples are to be consider as perfect data & come to optimized result for human identification.

Text Extraction from Natural Images of different languages Using ISEF Edge Detection PDF

Sanjay K. Shah,Deven N. Trivedi, Keyur Chauhan, Ankur Macwan, Hitesh Chaukikar

In this paper, we proposed the algorithm text extraction of different images of languages. In computer vision research area, text is very important in images. Here we use edge based extraction of text using ISEF (infinite symmetrical edge filter). ISEF is optimal edge detector which gives accurate results for text in images. Text extraction involves detection, localization, tracking and enhancement. Large numbers of technique have been proposed for the text extraction. Our aim is to present robust technique for text extraction of different languages images.

Forecasting potability of Groundwater using Univariant and Multivariate model and its Spatial Representation PDF

Sai Praneeth G, Dr. Shobha G, V Anantharama

Ground water quality index is forecasted using machine learning teqnique. Water sample data for is collected from the wells of Chikballapur. Two models are developed for the prediction and forecasting ground water. The first model, which is an univariate analysis model, is constructed using the technique of Artificial Neural Networks integrated with Decision tree algorithm to predict the salt content of the water sample and also to classify it as potable or not. The second model, which is multivariate analysis is constructed using Linear Regression integrated along with Pearson Coefficient, predicts the values of the parameters.

Existing Site Layout Planning Models and Approaches PDF

Mohamed Nour El-Din, Hesham Bassiouni, Khaled Shawki

The field of site layout planning studies have commenced as early as the early 70’s, a significant amount of effort has been directed at developing algorithms for identifying optimal construction site layouts which have been addressed separately until now. However, in this study a single framework is made of showing a list of different site layout planning models that can help future research to make a link between different models. The possibility of using a similar approach to find an optimum solution for the planning of construction site layouts under using population based meta-heuristics, trajectory based meta-heuristics and graphical based methods is assessed.

Irrigation Scheme Development and Management Strategy for Conflict Affected Northern and Eastern Province of Sri Lanka PDF

Sivakumar SS

The Northern and Eastern Provinces comprises the whole of eight districts, namely Jaffna, Mannar, Vavuniya, Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu, Trincomalee, Batticaloa, and Amparai and covers an area of 18,881sq.km. The population is 2.9 million Agriculture, including fisheries, has been the principal economic activity in the province. Over 50% of the total work force in the province depends on agriculture for their livelihood. With the increase in population, industrialization and urbanization, demand for water has increased. The domestic and industrial water use has to be given due consideration than the agriculture water use. The industrial sector’s share of the Gross Domestic Product was 23% in 1996, compared to about 19% for agriculture, forestry and fisheries in whole country. Preliminary calculations based on per capita water use for domestic needs, water requirement for the irrigation sector and projections for industrial and commercial water needs show a trend of increasing water demand. Even though the Government has been developing water resources (surface irrigation facilities as well as ground water extraction facilities) for the economic and social wellbeing of the community, it has found that the scope for further development is reducing gradually. Water resource augmentation is a limited option. Since new projects tend to be less technically feasible and less economically viable. Therefore the importance of conservation and efficient management of available water resources should be addressed properly. Groundwater is used in the domestic, agriculture, commercial and industrial sectors. Several government organizations, non-governmental organizations, commercial enterprises and private sectors are promoting the extraction of ground water without any control or restrictions. This problem of unregulated groundwater use has led to over-exploitation of shallow aquifers and water quality problems. The major demand management consideration with respect to groundwater is that groundwater use is unregulated and controlled only by natural occurrence, recharge and the degree of impact by other groundwater uses. This paper analyse little on overall potential of North-East and specific research finding on few Northern river basins and recommend some strategies for the water sector development. In the mean time a complete study on all the river basins in North is going on.

Fuzzy Rule Base System for Student grade Classification in Online Test PDF

Solaf A.Husain and Miran H.Mohammed Baban

This research will present a fuzzy rule-based model for student grade calssification in the online test.

Hardening of RC Beam & column Junction by utilizing Fiber Sheet PDF

Dr.R.S.Talikoti, Prof. A.J.Mehetre, Er.M.A.Nawale

This paper will give the information about strengthening of different parameter by using CFRP & GFRP. Strengthening of existing structures has become a major part of construction activity in our country. Many civil structures are no longer safe due to increased load specifications in the design codes. The beam column joint is the crucial zone in a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame. It is subjected to large forces during severe ground shaking and its behaviour has a significant influence on the response of the structure. The assumption of joint being rigid fails to consider the effects of high shear forces developed within the joint. The shear failure is always brittle in nature which is not an acceptable structural performance especially in seismic conditions. The revisions of Indian code provisions have necessitated strengthening of several existing structure in country.



An investigation has been made in this work to optimize the process conditions for the biodesulphurization and biobeneficiation using sulpholobus Brierleyi bacterium strain. Standard central composite design with 22 full fractional design was used to develop the models. The models were optimized using matlab. The surface responses of the plots shows that microbial population and leaching time interacted effectively to enhance the degree of biodesulphurization and biobeneficiation. The result show that 99.93% of biosulphurization was obtained at optimum values of 88 days and 108 cells/ml while optimum values of 71 days and 108 cells/ml of microbial population were obtained for 49.86% degree of beneficiation.

Microbial production of Green polymer Xanthan Gum from Xanthomonas Campestris PDF

Magar Subhash B, Jadhav A S, Dr.Sumitkumar Jana, Dr.G.T Mohanraj

Microbial polysaccharides are biothikners mostly added in wide variety of products as a viscosifying, Stabilizing, emulsifying, gelling agent. In conventional cultivation method, air is used as source of oxygen for the fermentation process. During xanthan gum fermentation, formed gum increases viscosity of fermentation broth. Novel cultivation methods have been successfully developed in laboratory with hydrogen peroxide as oxygen source to eliminate gas-liquid mass transfer resistance in the xanthan gum fermentation broth. The experiments were carried out using wild type cell and HOCL treated cells. The experiments shows productivity increases from 0.126 g of xanthan gum per g. of cell for wild culture with H2O2 based cultivation (110%).Viscosity of xanthan gum increased about folds from 65 cP (wild culture with aeration) to 122.5 cP (HOCL treated with H2O2 based cultivation).Thus experimental results shows that the improvement in xanthan gum quality and yield can be obtained using HOCL treatment and oxygen supply strategy.


S.. F. Akinade, O.B. Shittu, D.A. Ojo and F.O. Olufemi

Typhoid fever, a systemic disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi) remains a major public health problem in many parts of the world. Widal test appears to be the only laboratory means employed in the diagnosis of typhoid fever among suspected patients and the test continues to suffer from serious cross-reactivity with other infectious agents. This project was designed to confirm the diagnosis of typhoid fever from stool culture of Widal test positive patients using molecular method. Prospective study on stool samples of Widal test positive patients was conducted.


Nrusingh Charan Mohapatra

This is a common height formula for any triangle on any side of it. If ABC is any triangle then AD , BE and CF are the heights on the sides BC , AC and AB respectively.

Wireless System for Vehicle Accident Detection and Reporting using Accelerometer and GPS PDF

Shailesh Bhavthankar, Prof. H.G.Sayyed

Accident threatens human lives more and mainly road accident is common today. During accident many people lose their life because medical services and family member not getting accidental information on time. In this paper, an efficient vehicle wireless system is designed and implemented for vehicle accident detection and reporting using accelerometer and GPS. Accelerometer sensor is used to detect crash and GPS give location of vehicle. In case of any accident, the system send automated message to the preprogrammed number such as family member or emergency medical services via GSM.

Effects of Process Parameters on the Microstructure and Hardness of 7020/Al2O3 Composite Layer Fabricated by FSP PDF

El-Sayed I. Abdel Aziz, M.M.Z. Ahmed, I El-Mahallawi, M.M. Al-Aiat

FSP technique was employed to produce Al–10%Al2O3 surface nanocomposite on Al7020 substrate. Effects of number of passes and tool direction on nanoparticle distribution and matrix microstructure have been explored. Microstructure and mechanical properties of samples were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and hardness measurements. As a result, it was found that Al2O3 particles were good distributed inside the substrate with an average penetration depth of about 1000μm. The surface nanocomposites produced in this way had excellent bonding with the substrate. The hardness of the surface nanocomposite was about 1.5 times that substrate. Moreover, the grain refinement of matrix and improved distribution of nanoparticles were obtained after each FSP pass.

To Investigate the Relation between Class Dependent Transformation Function Coefficients for Voice Conversion PDF

Radhika Khanna, Parveen Lehana

Voice conversion, is the modification of the speech of one speaker (called source speaker) into the speech of another speaker (called target speaker). The quality of the synthesised speech depends upon the precise estimation of the transformation function, which is very difficult as there are many features of speech which are difficult to extract automatically, such as meaning of the passage and intention of the speaker. Although a good estimate of the transformation function may be obtained from the dynamics of the spectral envelopes of source and target speakers , the misalignment of the patterns of phonemes in the passages of the source and target may hamper the precise estimation. The quality of the transformed speech depends upon various factors such as alignment of phonemes of source and target speaker, estimation of transition segments, estimation of transformation function, and resynthesis algorithm, the quality of the speech will be further deteriorated if the transition segments are not aligned properly. The most error prone process in voice conversion is the alignment of transition segments. It means exact alignment of the corresponding speech units in the source and target passages is necessary for the accurate estimation of the transformation function. Different methods have been used for alignment. These may be based on dynamic warping, cluster mapping, HMM, speech recognition, unit selection, and adaptation models.

A Comparative Study of the Methods of Concrete Mix Design Using Crushed and Uncrushed Coarse Aggregates PDF

T.C. Nwofor, S. Sule and D.B. Eme

The study aims at comparing two methods of concrete mix design; The British Department of Environment Method and The American Concrete Institute Method, using the crushed and uncrushed coarse aggregates at various target strengths. A total of Forty-Five cubes were produced. Fifteen concrete cubes were produced with crushed aggregates (Granite) using the DOE method. Another fifteen cubes were produced with uncrushed coarse aggregates (Gravel) using the DOE method, while the remaining fifteen concrete cubes were produced with crushed aggregates using the ACI method. Each of these cube were produced at different mix strength M20, M30 and M50, according to IS 456:2000 and tested at different curing days; 7days, 14days and 24days respectively. The compressive strength values were determined at ages 7, 14 and 28 days curing periods respectively. Results obtained showed that the uncrushed aggregates gave a higher 28-days compressive strength compared to that obtained from the crushed aggregates, but the reverse was the case for M50 were the result obtained using the crushed aggregate gave a higher strength than that obtained from uncrushed aggregate. It was also found that using the DOE method, the overall result obtained gave some low and high strength values at some point or the other. The same goes also for the ACI method, an average of 36.2N/mm2 for M20, 45.6N/mm2 for M30 and 67.7N/mm2 for M50 was obtained at 28-days using the DOE method and an average of 33.9N/mm2for M20, 46.9N/mm2 for M30 and 73.35N/mm2 for M50 using the ACI at 28-days. The ACI did not make provision for uncrushed aggregate in its design method, implying that comparison could not be made in that regard.

Development of Multipurpose Cadastre of Udoka Housing Estate, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria for Efficient Land Administration PDF

Umenweke, D.O; Igbokwe, J.I; Ejikeme, J.O and Igbokwe, E.C

Multipurpose cadastre has capability to store, manipulate, analyse and retrieve parcel based land related information. In this study, a multipurpose cadastre was developed and implemented for Udoka Housing Estate, Awka in Anambra State of Nigeria. The spatial and geometric data were acquired by land surveying techniques using a second order Wild T2 theodolite and standardised steel tape, while the attribute data were obtained by groundtruthing. The layout plan was produced with AUTOCAD 2007 software using the adjusted coordinates of the beacons. This hardcopy layout plan was converted to digital layout plan through scanning, georeferencing and digitising. Arc GIS 9.2 software was used to perform GIS operations of storing, processing, manipulating, analysing and displaying of desired information. Multipurpose cadastral information layers were created for roads, parcels, beacons, residential buildings and perimeter lines. Queries were created to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed multipurpose cadastre. These queries among others are query for roads that are not bad, query for developed and undeveloped parcels, query for parcels with duplexes ad bungalows, query for parcels that are used for residential and non-residential purposes, query for parcels whose owners are from Anambra State and query for parcels whose owners are females. The result shows that 83.78% of the total plots were developed while 16.22% were undeveloped. Out of the 83.78% developed plots, 62.37% were duplexes while 37.63% were bungalow. Also, only 2 plots or 1.8% were reserved for non-residential purposes. The results of the various queries and analyses shows that a multipurpose cadastre is a veritable tool for decision making in land related matters and should be adopted for successful implementation of the Land Reform Programme of the Federal Government of Nigeria.

Classification using Modified PSO Incorporating Probabilistic MH for Improved Convergence PDF

M. Balasaraswathi, B. Kalpana

Classification has its roots deep inside the area of prediction and analytics. Performing effective classification can provide huge advantages and improvements in several area. The huge downsides are the unavailability of enhanced techniques and the huge time consumption associated with several machine learning techniques. This paper presents a metaheuristic method based on a modified form of PSO that tends to provide better accuracies within acceptable time limits.

Device for Intrapartum Materno-Fetal care (IMFC device) PDF

Vichal P.M, Appaji M Abhishek, Dr. Manish Arora

Maternal and fetal care during labor is of utmost importance, lack of which is the major cause of neonatal and maternal mortality. Partograph is a graphical record of important data measured during labor. The main parameters that are to be recorded in the partograph are many. But the ones that can be electronically measured and recorded are the number and duration of uterine contractions, fetal heart rate, maternal pulse rate and body temperature of the mother. This project involves the design of a wearable device which can continuously monitor these parameters, display them continuously and alarm in the case of any abnormalities.

AMCD: Control and Monitor the Flow of Water Based on the Temperature PDF

Prof Ashwin Patani, Prof Miloni Ganatra

In any industry (e.g. manufacturing plant, process plant etc) majority of final control elements are control valves and motors. They are used indiscreetly in some or the other way. Whether you want to move something or control something they are only used. The controlling of such variables is done by PLC or through some other techniques that might be suitable to the industry. But the problem with these controlling parameters is that they are voluptuous and at instances can make a hole in your pocket. System-on-chip solutions based on ARM embedded processors address many different market seg¬ments including enterprise applications, automotive systems, home networking and wireless technolo¬gies. The ARM Cortex™ family of processors provides a standard architecture to address the broad performance spectrum required by these diverse technologies .SOC is where the world is headed. Creating a single hardware that is compatible with all software can be used for variety of application in much more reliable and cheaper way. The outcome is a hassle free easy atomization in industry with the use of tablet that can perform multitasking.

Production of Exogenous Enzyme Using CHAETOMIUM THERMOPHILE FUNGUS through fermentation of wheat straw under opti-mal conditions required for Maximum Enzyme Production PDF

S. Raza, T.N. Pasha, A. S Hashmi, F.Latif and H.Mubeen

The study was conducted to determine the possibilities of degrading the fibre content of sunflower oil meal (SFOM) by converting complex cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars. It was done by treating SFOM with a multi enzyme product from a fungus, Chaetomium thermophile, through fermentation of wheat straw under optimal conditions required for maximum enzyme production. Four enzyme activities viz, total cellulase, endo-ß-1, 4-glucanase, ß-glucosidase and xylanase were determined in the multi enzyme. The effect of fermentation duration was determined. Optimum fermentation time found was 96 hours. The thermostability of enzymes was checked at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C. Activities of these enzymes were found to be 1.0, 2.0, 0.95 IU/ml/min. and 12.0mg/ml/min. of Fpase, endoglucanase, ß-glucosidase and Xylanase, respectively. Optimum incubation time was determined as 15 hours at 56°C. Crude fibre contents of SFOM treated and incubated with enzyme was reduced from 24% to 16.0%. The enzyme was also applied to SFOM without incubation


Adenaike F. A.

There are many variables that determine the final strength of cement stabilized earth bricks. This research considers the soil composition. The soil is the basic material for the production and should be the starting point in the quest to improve compressive strength. Four brickyards were visited in Owode Egba and the general practice is to increase the cement water ratio of the mix by thumb rule once the final product appears to be weak as the excavated soil varies from place to place and depth.

Dynamic Clustering of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks using a Genetic Algorithm, Towards Balancing Energy Exhaustion PDF

Mohamed Elhoseny, Khaled Elleithy, Hamdi Elminir, Xiaohui Yuan, and Alaa Riad

Placing few heterogeneous nodes in Wireless Sensor network (WSN), such as nodes with more computing powers, is an effective way to increase network availability in terms of lifetime. Despite the success of various clustering strategies of heterogeneous WSN, the numerous possible sensor clusters make searching for an optimal network structure an open challenge. In this paper, we propose a heterogeneous sensor node clustering method using a Genetic Algorithm to optimize the energy exhaustion namely Dynamic Clustering of Heterogeneous WSNs using Genetic Algorithm ’DCHGA’. In DCHGA, the structure of the network is dynamically decided after each message transmission round. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, DCHGA greatly extended the network life and the average improvement with respect to the second best performance (using stable nodes) based on the first-node-die and the last-node-die were 33.8% and 13%, respectively. While in case of mobility heterogeneity of sensors, the improvement was between 12.6% and 9.8%. The balanced energy consumption greatly improved the network lifetime and allowed the sensor’s energy to evenly deplete. The computational efficiency of DCHGA is comparable to the others and the overall average time across all experiments was 0.6 seconds with a standard deviation of 0.06.

Sequence Analysis of Human HBA and HBB Thalassemia Genes PDF

Shahid. R, Muhammad. W. S, Sadaf. S, Saima. J and Hira. M

Thalassemias are diverse group of hereditary disorders in which there is a low rate of synthesis of one or more of the globin polypeptide chains. Also, one of most common autosomal recessive disorders worldwide. Thalassemia are quantitative abnormalities of polypeptides globin chain synthesis. Normally an individual inherits two β-globin genes located one each on two chromosomes 11, and two alpha globin genes one each on two chromosome 16, from each parent i.e. normal adult hemoglobin is α2β2. The study is focused on analysis of mutated genes, their sequences and protein domains. The human alpha (HBA1) and beta (HBB) loci determine the structure of the 2 types of polypeptide chains in adult hemoglobin HbA.

Wireless Acquisition of Biosignals for Physiological Variability PDF

Manasi M. Gharat, Laxmi S. Sargar, Aarti Bokade, U.R.Bagal

Functional disorder of the human systems can be estimated using the parameters obtained from physiological signals. An electronic system for real-time acquisition and wireless transmission of an electrocardiogram is designed. It can be used for monitoring of physiological parameters, short term variability at rest, during surgery and in stress. ECG is picked up using surface electrodes in lead II configuration and amplified using AD620 instrumentation amplifier from Analog Devices. An Ultra low powered MSP430FG4618 microcontroller from Texas Instruments is used for digitization and wireless transmission of ECG through Bluetooth module HC-05. The ECG is received by computer with inbuilt Bluetooth support. The signal is acquired and displayed in user friendly GUI using LabVIEW from National Instruments.

Automated Detection of R-peaks in Electrocardiogram PDF

Laxmi S. Sargar, Manasi M. Gharat, Sushma N. Bhat, U.R. Bagal

Electrocardiography is a method of picking up the biopotentials generated in the myocardium using electrodes put on the heart or body surface. The record of the biopotential is called as electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG is characterized by P-wave, QRS complex, T-wave, S-T segment etc. The analysis of these characterized features can be used for estimation of cardiovascular function. An algorithm for detection of ECG peaks has been developed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). It was implemented for MIT/BIH ECG database. The ECG R-peak detection was automatically detected with tolerance variying from 0 to 6 ms. The sensitivity, positive predictivity and detection error was calculated for the investigated algorithm.

Analysis of Dispersion Compensation System for Optical Fiber Communication in a WDM Network PDF

Md.Abul Bashar Sarkar, Kazi Saiful Alam

Fiber-optic dispersion and its effect on optical transmission system are analyzed. In Opti-System simulation environment a dispersion com-pensation system is built with a simple WDM network. Input optical power is varied from 10-20 dB. To compensate the dispersion of fiber, most commonly used dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) technology is used. Three DCF schemes (pre-compensation, post-compensation, mix-compensation of dispersion compensation) are compared. It was found that the mix- compensation scheme gives best result (Q-Factor and BER performance). Simulation result also showed the effect of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) in optical fiber transmission to reduce the losses. Design also includes the optimum power level that can be used for this system in the mentioned power range.

Synthesis and Characterization of ZIF-8 Filler for Preparation of Mixed Matrix Membrane PDF

R.M. Abhang, K.S. Wani, V.S. Patil

Development of mixed matrix gas separation membranes by utilizing nano sized inorganic particle with polymer matrix is new approach for improving the separation properties of polymeric membranes. To overcome the several challenges of mixed matrix membrane (MMM) like dispersion, contact of fillers with polymer, percentage of filler loading, size and shape of crystal, stability of membrane in harsh conditions, selective separation of gases needs to find material in such a way that the permeability of polymer should match with the permeability of inorganic fillers. Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIFs) a subclass of metal organic framework is an emerging class of porous solid nano sized crystals comprised of imidazolate linkers and metal ions with structure similar to zeolite. It exhibit permanent porosity and high hydrothermal and chemical stability. Due to their molecular sieving effect, facile syn sis and compatible with the polymers, it reveals its im-portance during preparation of mixed matrix membrane.

Quantum computing models for algebraic applications PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In our days the quantum computers may be used for a great number of algebraic applications exponentially faster in comparison to the classical computing equipment. In this article are considered key aspects of quantum models algebraic applications in terms of the application of the algorithms in a quantum circuit using only elementary quantum operations, which is important for determining the potential applicability of the models in the practice.

Influence of Automotive Air Conditioning load on Fuel Economy of IC Engine Vehicles PDF

Mr. Kaustubh Shete

Recently, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in United States were able to figure out that United States could save over $6 billion annually if all the light-duty vehicles in the country achieved a modest 0.4-km/L (1-mpg) increase in fuel economy. Their study also showed that the US uses 27 billion liters of gasoline every year for air conditioning vehicles. Factors affecting the AC load on the engine include climatic conditions, cabin conditions, compressor speed, difference between the climatic (outside) conditions, and overall efficiency of the AC system etc. The opportunities to reduce this AC load on the engine include thermal load reduction by use of advanced window glazing & parked car ventilation, the use of seat based climate control, recirculated air & by application of alternative cabin cooling techniques. By the application of these techniques significant reduction in the AC load can be achieved which will benefit us especially because of the large number of new cars sold each year. In a country like India where fleet penetration has reached a high level, we can save substantial amount in foreign exchange & reduce the dependence on crude oil imports & reduce the extra atmospheric pollution caused due to the use of automobile air conditioning systems. Therefore, reductions in automotive air conditioning loads on the engine are quite clearly the need of the hour, making tomorrow’s vehicles more fuel efficient, while keeping passengers comfortable.

Shoulder Surfing Proof Secure Authentication Algorithm Using Textual Passwords PDF

P Aditya Kiran, Dr. A Sri Krishna

Authentication is the basic requirement of information security. Many real life applications require the identity of a user. Strong text based password scheme which are difficult to memorize provides certain degree of security. It has motivated graphical authentication as an alternative to the text-based authentication. The graphical implementation has a disadvantage of user selecting the wrong order. It was observed that the selection of images and the rule that controls the choice of the images were critical in the implementation of the system. The paper proposes a new method which is the enhancement of the login and password system. The system is more secure and vulnerable to shoulder surfing. The system has been tested with various passwords by novice users.

Conceptual Design Knapsack Sprayer for Palm Oil Cultivation by Ergonomic Approach PDF

Tineke Mandang, M Faiz Syuaib, Brian Hoffni

Designing a tool/machine needs ergonomics approach in order to match between man-machine system. One of the important tools in oil palm cultivation is knapsack sprayer. This study was conducted in aiming to understand occupational risk on the knapsack sprayer operation. So, ergonomic analysis is needed for these activities to understand the need of intervention to reduce the risks of working and complaints that occur. Based on Nordic Body Map questionnaire, the operator of knapsack sprayer suffered musclular fatigue and pain on the leg (28%), the upper arm left (27%) and the neck (14%). Based on Range of Motion’s criteria, dangerous zone (Zone 3) are the flexion of hip, shoulder, and neck. Futhermore, REBA method was applied to evaluate work posture in detail. The REBA revealed that score of 8 or more were resulted on “Loading”, “Pumping” and “Spraying” work elements. These mean that work elements were high level of MSD’s risk thus changing in the working condition is needed soon. Workload analysis found that 17 kg of total weight knapsack sprayer with the dimension of knapsacks sprayer’s tank is (390 x 171 x 534) mm. Recommanded resting time for knapsack sprayer operator is 125 minutes for 4 hours working time.

Enhancing Unemployment and Development Opportunities through Petroleum Refining and Product Industries in Nigeria PDF

Olayande. J.S, Aikhuele.J.G, Manzo.H, Fasipe. O

The Nigerian Economy is dependent on the Oil and Gas sector, though the Agricultural sector still has its role to play in development too. Opportunities to enhance employment and development in Nigeria rely on the Gas, Petroleum Refinery, Petrochemicals and Fertilizer industries. Points where highlighted and research comparison for both past and present where made in different sectors with statistics taken for employed and unemployed citizens and economic performance by various industries. Recommendations were enumerated and a conclusion was drawn on how to enhance the present unemployment and development rate in the various industries in Nigeria.

Suggested Approach to Stocks' Selection for Enhancing Portfolio Performance PDF

Mona N. Abdel Bary

Financial time series data are a sequence of prices of some financial assets over a specific period of time [10]. In this paper we will focus our research on the most volatile and challenging financial market; the stock market. All the financial analysts carry out many kinds of research in the hope of accomplishing one goal; to beat the market. To beat the market means to have a rate of return that is consistently higher than the average return of the market while keeping the same level of risk as the market. This paper introduces approach to stock'selection for enhancing portfolio performance.The process of selection of a portfolio can be divided into two main stages; namely evaluation of the performance of available stocks and the choice of the portfolio. Markowitz (1952), (1959) is concerned with the second stage in which the portfolio is selected only without evaluation and stocks' selection [7], [8]. Hence, an emphasis should be given to the first stage to enhance the second stage performance. There are two major problems affecting the optimization portfolio process; outlier and multicollinearity problems. To explain this, the outlier problem leads to wrong expectation of both the rate of the return and the rate of the risk. Therefore, this problem may result in wrong selection of the optimal portfolio. Additionally, the multi-collinearity problem causes increase of risk in a certain manner in which the drop down of one stock in the portfolio leads to the drop down of the whole portfolio. It is necessary to introduce the approach of stocks' selection in a portfolio to avoid the portfolio drop problem, and to avoid the bad effect of the stock market movement, and to gain an un-expectation return. Thus, this paper aims at introducing complete analysis of the stock market which presents a useful analysis for all investors of the stock market in order to be able to analyze the outlier problem, determine the multiicollinearity stocks groups, determine the stocks group controlling the stock market movements, and the outstanding stocks group, constrain the sum weights of each group in the portfolio frame to enhance the portfolio performance.

Quality Management of Reinforced Concrete Structures in the context of construction industry in Saudi Arabia in the moderate and small sector PDF

Mostafa. M. M.

In order to achieve the purpose of this research, two special questionnaires were designed to fulfill the task of this research, exemplified the subject of quality management of reinforced Concrete Structures in the context of construction industry in Saudi Arabia in the moderate and small sector, the questionnaires have been distributed in some construction companies and construction projects, distributed in different places located in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and has been narrowed in the moderate and small sector category, We discussed the problems of defining quality in construction industry, examined possible benefits of implementing quality, and looked at barriers to quality implementation in construction industry. We used data collected through an interview with contractors and data from the two questionnaire surveys.

Ferro fluid based squeeze film in porous annular plates considering the effect of transverse surface roughness PDF

Hardik P. Patel, G.M.Deheri and R.M. Patel

This article aims to analyze the behaviour of a ferrofluid squeeze film between transversely rough annular plates with the help of boundary conditions depending on the magnetization parameter. The stochastic averaging model of Christensen and Tonder for characterizing the surface roughness has been employed here. The related stochastically averaged Reynolds’ type equation is solved to obtain the pressure distribution, leading to the derivation of load carrying capacity. The results presented reveal that a suitable boundary condition may help us in bringing down the adverse effect of roughness to a significant extent. But, the situation remains fairly better when negatively skewed roughness is in place. Besides, this type of bearing system supports certain amount of load in the absence of the flow, which does not happen in the case of conventional lubricant, based bearing system.

Control Design of Grid-Connected PV Systems for Power Factor Correction in Distribution Power Systems Using PSCAD PDF

Haider Muaelou, Khaled M. Abo-Al-Ez, and Ebrhim A. Badran

In modern electric power systems, the dependence on solar power is increasing. The grid connected applications are very important with deficit in conventional power stations due to fuel shortage. The design of the control strategy to connect photovoltaic (PV) systems to the electric distribution grid is a challenging issue. This paper focuses on a controller design and its implementation in grid connected PV systems for power factor correction in distribution power systems. The first step is modeling of the components of the PV system, mainly; the PV source, the DC-DC converter, and the grid interface inverter with the appropriate filter. PSCAD is used for simulating this study. The proposed controller is then designed. The proposed control strategy targets the design of the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and the control of injected active and reactive power. The control of the reactive power is addressed in this paper to equip the PV system with power factor correction capability, which improves the overall performance at the point of common coupling (PCC). Proposed operation scenarios are suggested to test the controller validity. The results show that the model is accepted and the proposed controller gives the required performance.



In the modern construction world, concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material. Concrete is a high-volume, low-cost building material produced by mixing cement, water and coarse & fine aggregates. It is an essential component of roads, foundations, high-rises, dams and other staples of developed landscape.

Surface Detection and Avoidance Robot PDF


Robotics is the field which occupies vast section in today’s world. Most of them are autonomous, self-intelligent, and they reduce most of human work. Here we have designed a robot that will avoid absence of surface underneath automatically without any control. So human life is saved while driving an automobile if this arrangement is placed in front of driving automobiles. IR Sensor is used for detecting the surface below the robot. L293D motor driver is used for controlling the motors in the robot. We have avoided the use of microcontroller in this robot, so designing the circuit is much easier.

Enhanced QoS Based on Secure Reliable Key Routing Mechanism in Mobile Adhoc Network PDF

V.L. Pavani, B. Sathyanarayana

Ad hoc wireless network is experiencing challenges due to various security issues and resource constraints in nature high mobility. There is always the challenge to create a reliable and optimized network for efficient routing. Ensuring a dynamic way that path which is known in communications is always a challenge in the mobile ad hoc network. Most of the existing secure routing protocols will target a particular type of malicious attacks or behavior of network. We propose a secure reliable key routing (SRKR) mechanism for secure and dynamic routing in mobile adhoc network for enhancing the QoS. It defines a unique reliable key for each communication route to perform a securing data packets routing using asymmetric cryptography and secure encrypted message routing. We evaluate the proposal through simulated experiments in different mobility scenario in a network. Simulation results shows an enhancement in QoS through achieving high throughput over existing approaches.

Low Power 8, 16 & 32 bit ALU Design Using Clock Gating PDF

R Keerthi Kiran, Dr. A B Kalpana

In today’s world most of us use one or another sort of portable electronic device, and the major problem we face is the battery backup of device. This problem motivated in design of low power ALU which is the integral of any processor. This paper is an attempt in designing a low power energy efficient ALU using clock gating technique to reduce the dynamic power consumption. In this paper an 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit ALU with and without clock gating is designed and analyzed for its power consumption for different clock frequencies. It has been seen that we can reduce the dynamic power consumption by using clock gating to a great extent. It is observed that the percentage of power reduction increases as size of ALU is increased.

GPU-based Real-Time Multiple Moving Objects Tracking using Intergrated Spatial Region Graph for Video Surveillance PDF

Samy S.A. Ghoniemy

This paper presents the intergration of a proposed enhanced multi-objet color tracking, Partitioned Region Matching, and Spatial Region Graph for real time multi-object taking.


OYEBODE, Oluwadare Joshua, ADEBAYO, Victor Babafemi, OYEGOKE, Sunday Olakunle

A paper presentation on Water and development challenges in Nigeria can never come at a better time than now. It has been carefully written, with respect to previous publications and works done in the light of the Water Sector of Nigeria. The Nigerian Government has long considered the provision of water supply and sanitation services to be the domain of the federal, state and local governments. However, the public sector has not been successful in meeting more than a small portion of the demand for water and sanitation of residential and commercial users. Services are in critically short supply. For example, out of the 85 million people living in urban and semi-urban areas, less than half have reasonable access to reliable water supply. It is the keen interest of the writer to bring forward the various challenges of the sector and probable solutions. It has been said, for the system to come alive, every mechanism of the system needs to be forthcoming. The Government should be the Referee; the policy making and implementing arm, the various investors and finally the populace, who doubles as the costumer and also the consumer. It is the expectation this work would generate the interest of the various Organs of the Nigerian Government, Water Sector Investors, NGOs, External Partners and the entire populace that we need to play our individual role to make the Sector a worthy one, thereby eradicating poverty, unemployment and various ills that seems to be contributed by this vague negligence and mass failure.

Profit Analysis and Availability of a repairable redundant3-out-of-4system involving Preventive Maintenance PDF

M.Yas. Haggag

Studies on two unit repairable standby system dealing with availability and profit analysis involving preventive maintenance are numerous. However little attention is paid on the study of evaluation of reliability characteristics such as availability, busy period and profit function of multi component system such as 2-out-of-3 system involving four types of failures. The purpose of the present paper is to carry out the reliability of a redundant system with preventive maintenance. In this paper, we studied the availability and profit analysis of a repairable redundant 3-out-of-4 system with preventive maintenance involving four types of failures and develop explicit expressions for steady-state availability and profit function. The failure time distributions are exponential whereas the repair distribution is arbitrary or general. The expression for reliability is derived using supplementary variable technique. The numerical results for a particular case have also been made. Some particular cases have also been obtained analytically and graphically to see the impact of preventive maintenance on some system measures of effectiveness .Certain important result have been evaluated as special cases. Results have shown that system with preventive maintenance is better in terms of system effectiveness than system without preventive maintenance.

Algorithm for switching 4-bit packages in full quantum network with multiple network nodes PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this research are offered two versions of an algorithm for superdense encoding of а 4-dimensional qubit vector. The algorithm for switching of 4-bit packages in a full quantum network with multiple network nodes includes superdense encoding and is implemented as quantum logic circuit. The proposed two algorithmic solutions and the applied quantum circuit open new perspectives for more effective methods for establishment of a full quantum switching network.

Indexed cluster of controlled computational operators PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this article is considered how to turn a n-bit increment operator into an O(n) cluster of controlled indexed computational operators CNOT, NOT and Toffoli. The incrementing cluster computational operators are an extension of the work of the author on the construction of controlled cluster computing NOT-s and the expansion of a NOT operator with many controls into a linear number of NOT-s with two controls. In order to reach the final goal, namely construction of NOT-s with many controls without an ancilla bit, is required the ability to perform large incrementations.

Mathematical approaches for modified quantum calculation PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this report is proposed a programming technique for presentation of an operation modifier as an operation and are examined some of the mathematics around this programming technique.

Quantum multidimensional operators with many controls PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this report is proposed an approach for constructing a quantum circuit, containing O(n^2) Toffoli gates, CNOT gates and single qubit gates that implements а C^n(X) gate for n > 3, without using work qubits. For solving the problem is constructed a C^n NOT gate from linear number of Toffoli gates and single qubit gates, without using ancilla bits.

Theoretically optimal computing frontiers for rapid multiplication through decomposition PDF

Nikolay Raychev

The productivity of the computation systems is determined to a high degree by the speed of multiplication, which is а basic element in multiple applications for digital signal processing, quantum computations, etc. The various approaches for design of asymptotically rapid algorithms for multiplication have developed in parallel with the evolution of the effective multiplicator architectures. This article examines different approaches for optimal rapid multiplication.

New solitary wave solution of the generalized Hirota-Satsuma couple KdV system PDF

Mostafa M. A. Khater, Emad H. M. Zahran

In this research, we find the exact traveling wave solutions involving parameters of the generalized Hirota-Satsuma couple KdV system according to the modified extended tanh-function method with the aid of Maple 16. When these parameters are taken special values, the solitary wave solutions are derived from the exact traveling wave solutions. It is shown that the modified extended tanh-function method provides an effective and a more powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. Comparison between our results and the well-known results will be presented.


G. K. Azever, S. M Sani, A. M. S Tekanyi and A. D Usman

In this paper, we developed an adaptive algorithm for improved bandwidth utilization in a GSM network and to reduce congestion. The work adopted the joint scheme based on call admission control (CAC), bandwidth degradation and load balancing techniques, while using Dijkstra algorithm to determine the shortest path to route calls among the collocated base station cells. The developed joint scheme algorithm is implemented using NetBeans IDE 6.9.1 platform to generate call traffic so as to obtain call parameters results, including NCBP and HCDP values of interest. These performance metrics namely, New Call Blocking Probability (NCBP) and Handover Call Dropping Probability (HCDP) were evaluated to determine the results prior to, and after, the application of the joint scheme algorithm. Simulation results shows that call blocking and call dropping reduced by 48.3% and 52.3% respectively of the algorithms used before and after the application of joint scheme. This signifies that the developed congestion control scheme has better quality of service due to minimum number of call blocked and call dropped in the network.

Studies on the Enhancement of Soil Stabilization Using Electro-Kinetic Process PDF

C.A Poornima, Dr V.Stalin

To study the effect of Geo-synthetics material for varying orientation and number of layers in the dewatering process of soft clay subjected to electric field, for varying Initial Moisture Content, spacing of electrode and voltage across the terminals. Using electro kinetic cell experiments were conducted by varying voltage of 40 and 60 V, IMC of 65% and 75% and electrode spacing of 20 to 40 cm. It is concluded that the number of Geotextiles increases, the time taken to attain steady state considerably decreases. Regarding the orientation, for vertical orientation is only marginal increase in rate of dewatering but for horizontal orientation the enhancement in dewatering rate is appreciable. In another attempt is made to enhance the soil-lime stabilization by Electro-kinetic process, with and without electrical field it is found that the pH variation is negligible initially and appreciable variations were seen at 24hrs and 48hrs when voltage is not applied. When voltage is applied the pH increases in cathodic region and decrease in anodic region and also dewatering take place from anode to cathod. Hence the strength increases due to calcium accumulation and dewatering process. The same influence is observed for increasing spacing (20cm and 30cm) and voltage (20V and 40V). Thus it may be summarized that Electro- Kinetic process of dewatering for horizontally placed geotextiles are effective and also soil-chemical reaction can be substantially enhanced using the same

Protection of Source and Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks PDF

Prabhjot Kaur,Mandeep Kaur

In wireless sensor networks messages are sent from source to sink, but it sometime becomes a risky communication way because of presence of eavesdropper. During transfer of packet or message from source to sink an eavesdropper may attack on the network and creates problem for the sender or receiver, as the eavesdropper may trace the path and detect the location of source or sink very easily. Because of this security is always remained a concern topic in wireless sensor networks. Different techniques introduced time to time for the protection of source and sink in wireless sensor networks. I n this paper we have also introduced a scheme for the location privacy. This technique especially effective when eavesdropper will try to locate the location of source or sink by using DREAM protocol. In this scheme deviate location information and false identity of sensor nodes is provided to the eavesdropper which can confuse the attacker and protects our source as well as sink.

Color Document Image Authentication With Data Repair Capability PDF

Ms.Lekshmi.C.R, Mr.K.Saravanamoorthy

A new authentication technique for color images with data repair capability.The RGB channels are first transformed into three secret embedding channels SEC using reversible integer transform.Agroup of 2×2 blocks which is the strongest points of non overlapping spacially adjacent pixels in S,E and C image is selected as the valid blocks for embedding the secret message.Then adaptive mod 4 embedding operation is further applied to all the valid blocks to embed a pair of binary bits using the shortest route modification scheme.Each secret message is alsoencrypted by RSA encryption algorithm to provide the system wih more security.Data will be embedded inside the image using the pixels.Then the pixels of the stego image can then be accessed back inorder to retrieve back the hidden data inside the image.However, a secret key is needed by the receiver inorder to retrieve back the data.This secret key is generated by RSA decryption algorithm.By using the secret key to retrieve the data,it maintains privacy,confidentiality and accuracy of the data.The proposed method was tested on different color images.From the experimental results,compared with the some well known adaptive and non adaptive authentication techniques,the proposed method provides larger embedding capacity,while being less detectable by steganalysis methods.


Adenaike F. A.

Structural failure and building collapse are common phenomena in modern Nigeria. As the pressure on housing increases with the population, the need to procure cheaper alternatives and improve on delivery time for construction are bearing heavily on quality. This is more evident in the erection of the new buildings. Since most of the modern buildings are framed in reinforced concrete, the low compressive strength of the blocks used for such buildings do not cause immediate failure. However when the structures are exposed to extra loading and use, they start to fail. Cracks, deflections, excessive moisture penetration and low bearing capacity are the bane of these structures erected with the sandcrete blocks.

Techniques for Detection of Misbehaving Nodes in MANET: A Study PDF

Rasika Mali, Sudhir Bagade

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be defined as a collection of large number of mobile nodes. MANET has variety of applications such military, disaster stuck areas and the characteristics like dynamic topology, no fixed infrastructure etc. Still there are some security issues and challenges in it. MANET is vulnerable to various attacks due to its open medium. Hence there is need to study in detail about how to detect malicious or misbehaving node present in network. In this paper we present different techniques for detection of misbehavior of node. Techniques studied in this paper are: Watchdog, ExWatchdog, TWOACK, S-TWOACK, 2ACK and Adaptive ACKnowledgment (AACK), CONFIDANT, Record and Trust Based Detection. All techniques are analyzed with parameters like type of misbehavior, key mechanism used, advantages, limitations and performance evaluation using packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. We also suggested with the further research directions.

A Correlate of Criterion and Norm Referenced Tests on Secondary School Students’ Biology PDF

Casmir N. Ebuoh (Ph.D)

The purpose of this study was to correlate the students’ performance in criterion and norm referenced tests in senior secondary Biology in Nkanu West Local Government Area of Enugu State. The design of the study is co relational study. The population for the study consisted of all the 1596 students of senior secondary two (SS 11) of 2014/2015 academic session. The sampling techniques were multi-stage stratified and proportionate random sampling. The sample size comprised 735 students sampled from the seventeen (9) secondary schools. Method of data collection was on students’ scores on criterion and norm referenced tests administered to the students in Biology. In data analysis, students’ scores in criterion and norm referenced tests were correlated using Pearson’s ‘r’ The significance of the correlation coefficient results obtained was tested with T-test at five percent (5%) level of confidence. The result showed that there was positive and high relationship between criterion and norm referenced test scores in all the various schools. There is significant relationship between students’ performance in criterion and norm referenced tests scores in secondary schools Biology.

Effects of Individual and Group Test Administration on Students’ Achievement in Biology in Secondary Schools PDF

Casmir N. Ebuoh (Ph.D)

The type of test administration used by teachers in assessing students in Biology in Nigerian secondary schools had been implicated. In view of the above problems, the present research work was designed to find out the effects of individual and group test administration on SS3 students’ achievement in Biology. The researcher adopted a non-equivalent quasi-experimental design. A sample of 320 SS3 students was drawn from the four schools in Enugu south Local Government Area of Enugu State. In each school used, two intact classes were randomly drawn; one intact class was then randomly assigned to the experimental groups 1 and II. The two groups were assessed using individual and group test administrations respectively. A research question and hypothesis guided the study. Relevant data for the study were collected using individual and group tests on Biology Achievement Test (BAT). Research question was answered using mean and standard deviation while hypothesis was tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The results revealed that the use of individual test administration in assessing students in Biology in the secondary schools was found to achieve higher than group test administration. Some recommendations were made based on the findings of the study

Towards an Automated Contact Centers ( An Implementation of Artificial Intelligence and Text Mining techniques for CRM) PDF

Mohammed Mahmoud Ibrahim Sakre

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is an important tool for organizations to win a good share of the market for their products. Call Centers are the backbone of the operational side in Customer service and support of CRM. Contact centers have been typically human-based service systems. This research presents a future vision which involving multidiscipline system that achieves many goals for CRM and Business Intelligence using database, Artificial Intelligence and Text Mining techniques for unstructured data. The objective of this research is to design and implement an automated system to support customers and reduce the tasks of the Contact center human resources. The proposed system is composed of many modules which are implemented in stages. This research presents a usage of a proposed Arabic Question Answering (QA) Module as a main module in an automated contact center. The proposed system receives a natural language query from the user in a form of a speech or text. It presents an answer, in a form of a speech or text, as a response, based on the stored data. The stored data may be in a form of a database of questions, which had been asked before, with their answers and/or may be in a textual form. The proposed QA Module uses information retrieval, text mining and Arabic natural language processing approaches to get a list of the closest answers to the input query. The Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is used to enhance the selection of the final and closest answer from the list. Arabic natural language processing is used in the proposed system along with LSI. The proposed QA Module is tested for Arabic language and showed average precision, recall, F-measure and MRR as 92%, 92.8%, 0.936 and 0.906 respectively.

Bibliometric Analysis of Water Resource Development and Utilization Based Research Studies in Sri Lanka PDF

Navaneethakrishnan, S and Sivakumar, S.S

Sri Lanka’s science and technology research and development activities are now being directed towards facilitating the country’s development process. In this connection main scope of this study is focused on Water Resource Development Studies based publications of Sri Lankan scholars. Studies on evaluation, development and quality of water Water Resource Development Studies based research of Sri Lanka will led to development of new scholarly activities. A total of 1026 records of contributions of 2254 authors with Sri Lankan affiliation were analyzed in this study to identify the research trend of Sri Lankan contributions in water Water Resource Development Studies based research with bibliometric indicators. The analysis of the data reveals that generally there is no progressive increase in Relative growth rate of contributions and Degree of Collaboration was 0.83 during the study span. Among the productive authors Giordano, M. is in the top position and ‘Agricultural Water Management’ was preferred by scholars for scholarly communication.

Evaluation of Wastewater Network of Al-Anwaar in Al-Kut City, Iraq by Using SWMM and GIS Techniques PDF

Mashaan O. Hadi,Mahmoud El-Mewafi, Metwally S, Ahmed Awad and Saleh Suliman

Sewerage network in urban areas, such most other infrastructure, buried underground, making access to data difficult and expensive. So, there are some Institutions that all or any data from their own sewage network is limited .The study provides an Various choice and appropriate modern technology in the design, development and expansion of sewerage networks instead of the usual ways to process a wide survey method, which requires a lot of time, effort and money with a high rate of errors. That the process of evaluation and expanding sewage adopted on parameters, they are provided by Remote Sensing and GIS .The study has addressed Al-Anwaar in Al-Kut city, is Iraqi city , as a study area that wastewater systems where needed analysis for manholes and pipes by using SWMM. Comparison between the slopes of the wastewater and surface slopes of the lines of the interview was conducted. Design of sanitation depends on two parameters, hydraulic engineering parameters and parameter which requires a substantial and broad sweep and accurate drawing. It was noted that the study of the pipeline is working adequately. Using GIS tools in the sewer pipes system is a suitable method in analysis sewer network and provides the data that used in SWMM program.

Effect of HRT on the biodegradability of textile wastewater in an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor PDF


The effect of operational parameters such as HRT, influent COD concentration, co-substrate was investigated to achieve the maximum COD removal efficiency in the reactor. Results indicated that anaerobic treatment of textile wastewater studied was possible with the supplementation of an external carbon source in the form of glucose (about 3g/l) to achieve a maximum COD removal efficiency of 91.67% with a HRT of 1.748 h and OLR of 7.962kg COD/m3. day. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential applicability of ABR system for the treatment of textile wastewater with varying HRT from 1.748,1.165,0.874,0.699 and 0.582 days.

Shock Analysis of E-Glass/Epoxy Composite Submersible Hull Subjected to Pressure Loads of Underwater Explosion using Finite Element Method - Experimental Validation PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

Underwater explosion is a most important peril to ships and submarines, given that detonation underneath a hull can produce greater damage than an above-surface one of the same explosive size. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict the influence of shock pressure loading on the submersible hull using finite element analysis. The maximum displacement of the submerged hull has been found to be 0.0712 m for the explosion charge weight of 25 kg. The damage has occurred in the submersible hull exposed to explosion charge weight of 25 kg. The impact test by falling weight results were in good agreement with the results obtained through finite element analysis. The hull damage can be endorsed due to failure of fibers in tension and the failure of matrix in shear.

On the study of optical and structural properties of zinc oxide thin films by sol-gel dip coating technique PDF

Ajayi Jonathan Olanipekun, Oluwatomi Similoluwa and Adedokun Oluwaseun

This paper reports the study of optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip coating technique. ZnO thin films were prepared by sol-gel process using zinc acetate di-hydrate, ethanol and di-ethanolamine as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The dipping time of the substrates and annealing temperature of the thin films were varied. And then structural and optical properties of the as-prepared ZnO thin films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively while the thickness of the as-deposited thin films were determined using a gravimetric method. The structural analysis shows that the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and a preferential c-axis orientation. The films have high transmittance in the VIS/NIR region and low transmittance near the fundamental absorption. The absorbance of the ZnO thin film was observed to be low in the VIS/NIR regions and high in the UV region. From these results, an increase in dipping time, leads to an increase in the thickness of the thin films which also leads to a better uniformly distributed films with smooth absorption spectra of the ZnO thin films. Decrease in the average transmittance of the deposited ZnO thin films was found to be related with increase in annealing temperature of the ZnO thin films.

Library & Information Science Journals in DOAJ: A Bibliometric Study PDF

Dr. Shipra Awasthi and Dr. Babita Jaiswal

This paper presents a bibliometric study of library and information science journals archived in the directory of open access journals. A total of 72 LIS journals are focused and included in the paper. The analysis has been done on different parameters like country wise distribution, language wise distribution, etc.

Design Optimization and Installation of Induction Furnace over Oil Fired Furnace PDF

Bhaskar Dhiman, O.S. Bhatia

By installing the induction furnace in place oil fired furnace the productivity increased and production cost decreased. Due to high cost saving its payback time is very short. Optimization of induction furnace is done carefully in area of billet feeding. The stress given on to minimize the human labor and to gain more automation. While designing various components economy, compactness, cost reduction and weight reduction are kept in mind. Cost estimation of each component done suitably. In the end cost analysis done between oil fired and induction furnaces in order to observe differences obtained in production cost and productivity.

An Overview of Human Resource Management Strategies applied in Knowledge Management PDF

N.Sivasubramanian, Dr U.Syed Aktharsha, Prof. M.Sheik Mohammed

The paper attempts to compile an overall view on the impact of Human Resource Management (HRM) on Knowledge Management (KM). To establish a good knowledge management system in a firm, human resources are vital tool. The productivity of the firm and to remain competitive in the field, human resources are fore most important. The challenge lies with the conversion of tacit knowledge residing in the human resources has to be brought out in code able form by means of training, documents, lecture etc. By adapting proper strategies, it could be feasible to meet the organizational goal, and sustain in competitive manner. Various steps followed and approach to be taken are to be modelled depending upon the nature and organizational culture of the firm.

Reliability Estimate of Unconfined Compressive Strength of Black Cotton Soil stabilized with Bagasse Ash and Cement Kiln Dust PDF

Hamidu, H. I, Sani J. E, Bello A. O., and Yisa G. L

Reliability of estimates of strength characteristic values from laboratory results for specimens compacted at the energy levels of British Standard Light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH) for compacted bagasse ash treated black cotton soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator was developed by incorporating data obtained from Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test gotten from the laboratory test to produce a predictive model. Data obtained were incorporated into a FORTRAN-based first-order reliability program to obtain reliability index values. variable factors such as water content relative to optimum (WRO), hydraulic modulus (HM), bagasse ash (BA), cement kiln dust (CKD), Tri-calcium silicate (C3S), Di-calcium silicate (C2S), and maximum dry density (MDD) do not produced acceptable safety index value of 1.0 at the three energy levels namely BSL, WAS and BSH compactive effort at coefficient of variation (COV) ranges of 10-100%. Observed trends indicate that the WRO, HM, BA and MDD is greatly influenced by the COV and therefore must be strictly controlled in CKD/BA treated black cotton soil. Stochastically only BSH compactive efforts are the only energy levels that can be used to model the 7 days unconfined compressive strength of compacted CKD/BA treated black cotton soil because the safety index values obtained are closer to the acceptable 1.0 safety index for serviceability limit state design (model 1) of structural components.

An investigation in cloud computing security: problems and challenges PDF

Mohammadjavad Hosseinpoor, Mortaza zolfpour- Arokhlo

Cloud computing is a model in order to provide easy access to a common source in term of demands from adjustable computing sources (networks, servers, storing, applications and services) which Is capable of being provided quickly and deployed with the leas managerial efforts or interaction with service provider. In this regard, one of the main problems is security. In this research various security challenges in cloud computing was investigated in three sections and their importance is evaluated from least to most important.

Study on reducing briquettes of El-Dekhaila iron oxide waste by hydrogen gas PDF

N.A. El-Hussiny,Hala. H. Abd El-Gawad, F.M.Mohamed, M.E.H. Shalabi

Reduction of El-Dekhaila iron oxide waste briquettes was carried out in the temperature range 700 to 950 oC. In reduction kinetic study the most satisfactory model was to take the slope of the initial linear region of fractional reduction vs. time curve as a measure of rate constant (k). In k vs. 1/T plots were straight line from which Activation Energy was calculated.

Heavy metal copper uptake by adsorption using Crotalaria burhia as an adsorbent PDF

Himmat Singh Panwar

The wastewater containing bivalent copper was treated with adsorbent prepared from Crotalaria burhia (a plant of western Rajasthan) was investigated in batch experiments. The results showed removal of 74.8% of copper in the 60 mgl-1 copper solutions. The adsorptive capacity of the Crotalaria burhia was dependent on the pH of the copper solution, with pH 6 being optimal. The adsorption data fit well with the adsorption isotherm models. Comprehensive characterization of parameters indicates Crotalaria burhia to be an excellent material for adsorption of Cu(II) to treat wastewaters containing low concentration of the metal

Stratified Visco-Elastic Fluid Flow in a Slip Flow Regime Past a Porous Surface in Presence of Heat Source/Sink PDF

Kamal Debnath

A steady stratified visco-elastic fluid flow past a porous plate in a slip flow regime has been investigated under the influence of heat source/ sink. The plate is subjected to a constant suction veloctiy. In this study, generalized boundary conditions for the slip flow regime at the plate are used. The mechanism of visco-elastic fluid flow contains both viscous and elastic responses and it is characterized by Walters Liquid (Model BËŠ) for short relaxation memories. The governing equations are solved analytically by using perturbation technique. Velocity profile and temperature fields are presented graphically and shearing stress and Nusselt number (rate of heat transfer) are represnted in tabular form for various values of flow parameters involved in the solution with special emphasis given on the effects of visco-elasticity and stratification.

Design of Controller for Inverted Pendulum System PDF

Rupali Khairnar, Chandrakant Kadu

In this paper PID Controller and LQR is designed for Cart- Inverted pendulum system to obtain optimal control. While calculating PID values here wind disturbance (Fw) is taken into account. The designed controller gives better set point tracking and disturbance rejection. Using Pole placement and linear quadratic regulator controller gain of PID’s are calculated. Further this robust technique is verified using two different laws with disturbance input by using MATLAB and SIMULINK.

Water Quality Of Some Polluted Lakes In Ghmc Area, Hyderabad - India PDF

T.Vidya Sagar

The present research work has been carried out in surface water in Greater Hyderabad Metropolitan City (GHMC), Telanga State, India during 2012-2013 to assess its quality for drinking and irrigation. Out of many lakes in GHMC, Saroornagar Lake, Miralam Tank, Hasmathpet Lake, Nallacheruvu, Safilguda Lake, Kapra Lake, Fox Sagar, Mallapur Tank, Pedda Cheruvu in Phirjadiguda, Noor Md. Kunta and Premajipet Tank are presented in this study. Results of the water quality shows alkaline character (pH: 6.4 to 7.6) with TDS varying fresh (878 to 950 mg/L) to brackish (1,056 to 3,984 mg/L). The Lakes show RSC negative (-1.3, to -4.1 and Premajipet Tank counts -28 me/L) indicates reduced risk of sodium accumulation due to offsetting levels of calcium and magnesium. The lakes represent Medium Hazard Class under Guidelines of Irrigation Hazard Water Quality Rating (Ir.HWQR) in respect of %Na, and Excellent (non hazard) in respect of SAR. Average EC are in the range 1463 – 2275, represent Medium except Noor Md. Kunta and Premajipet Tank, which represent High and Very High Hazard Class under Ir.HWQR with large negative RSC (-28). Premajipet Tank is Heavy Pollution receptor and Noor Md. Kunta follows it. The Lakes lie on Class E due to Low DO and High BOD as per CPCB Primary water quality criteria for "designated best uses" except Premajipet Tank and Noor Md. Kunta.

Cost Effective Grounding Grid Design for Substation PDF

Soni M, Dr. Abraham George

Well-designed grounding system is very much essential as far as the safety of the crew and the substation equipments are concerned. Optimal design of grounding system for a substation is complex due to the involvement of numerous parameters. In this paper grounding system is cost optimized by MATLAB simulation and the results are analyzed. Variation in touch and step voltages for different values of fault currents with variations in conductors spacing, depth of burial and number of ground rods are plotted. The grid design parameters such as ground resistance, ground potential rise, step and mesh voltages, total length of grid and ground rods are calculated based on IEEE Std. 80-2000.

Modification in the Design of a Service Truck Used in the Mining Sites PDF

Simons Anthony, Ofori-Ntow Eric jnr

Heavy duty (off- high- way) trucks used in the mines and road construction sites need to be supplied with fuel and lubricants on the work field without moving them to the fuel filling stations due to the time lock up required to move them and the space to accommodate them. A service truck designed for the purpose of supplying the off- high- way trucks with these fuel and lubricants has it supplying hoses exposed to dust and water when it rains. Subsequently introduce dust and water to the lubricants and fuel during supply. The dust and water cause regular breakdown of the trucks’ gear box, hydraulic pumps and valves. Laboratory analysis of the used oil from the off- high- way trucks indicates high rate of foreign materials such as dust. This paper looks at how best to modify the design on the service truck to eliminate the exposure of its supplying hoses from dust and water which are the main contaminates found in the used oil analysis. Manufacturing techniques, design procedures and the effect of the environment were considered in selecting materials for the modification. It is concluded that, the provision of a galvanized steel formwork to house the supplying hoses will prevent dust and water from getting into contact with the fuel and lubricants, therefore reducing the rate of breakdown of the off- high- way trucks. This will ensure that the trucks are available all the time.

Design of a Handheld Multipurpose Telescopic Device for High Altitude Jobs in Rural Areas in West Africa Sub Region PDF

Simons Anthony, Osei Nyantekyi Abednego, Olisama Awele Daryl

This work sought to design a handheld multipurpose telescopic device for high altitude jobs in rural areas, in order to minimise the difficulties, risks and cost involved in undertaking such jobs. This handheld device comprises a telescopic pole, locking keys, an adjustable head, and various attachments for the head. The attachments designed for this telescopic pole include paint roller, cleaning brush, sweeping brush, and harvesting bag. The telescopic pole could be folded up to about 2.5 m for easy mobility and storage, and it can be extended up to 9 m. The maximum mass of attachment that the device can carry without failure is 7.304 kg, which is the weight of about 16 fruits It is recommended that additional studies should be conducted to design more attachments for the device.

Impact of Cloud Computing on Reliance & Privacy to Enhance Online Shopping in Pakistan PDF

Miss Robina Kousar , Dr. Abdul Hyee , Miss Khoula Saleem, Miss Noreen Rafi

Cloud computing is what people dreamt about as services on internet for their business. This study focused on the buying online in Pakistan. Reliance, privacy and cloud computing are the factors that affect the online buying. For this perseverance, a survey was conducted using a questionnaire. SPSS 21 registered version was used and correlation and regression analyses were run. It was proved that there is a positive impact of independent variables on dependent variable. The scope of this study covered up that population of Pakistan which was using internet and cloud applications.

Challenges Facing Assessment of Accident Vehicles in Ghana PDF

Anthony Simons, Eric Kofi Gbadam

In this paper, reports of assessment of accident vehicles over a four-year period for an insurance company in the Western Region of Ghana were analyzed; three of such reports were considered as case studies. General difficulties facing mutual assessors in performing their duties and ignorance on the part of policy holders, engineers and garage managers, about the procedure for claims of accident repairs were outlined. It was observed that of the forty eight cases that were assessed, 64.58% did not follow the right procedure for accident repair works, 77.08% of the total cases had the prices of the damaged items inflated and 43.75% of the cases had other parts not affected by the accident included in the accident repair works. Repair works which were not inspected by mutual assessors before commencement of work were 47.92%. Finally, ways to avoid delays in assessing accident vehicles and payment of indemnity are recommended.

A Novel Routing Protocol based on Efficeincy Division Factor PDF

Anzaar Ahmad, Dr. S .C Gupta, Dr. R.C Joshi

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) network is very dynamics in nature and hence provides many challenge to routing protocol. MANETs network have two different topologies: f hierarchical architecture and flat. In a flat network design, each node has essentially the same job and is adequate for small networks and is easy to design, implement and maintain as long as the network stays the same. When the network become large in number of nodes, a flat network becomes unmanageable and undesirable because it provides delay and jitter and put makes the network unstable. So hierarchical network becomes a better choice. In a hierarchical network, the nodes are divided into clusters. Each cluster have a cluster head (CH) which is mainly responsible for the route calculation and communication with in the cluster and outside the cluster. This work proposes a novel routing protocol for clus-tering that divides the larger network into small clusters. The scheme , used to choose the cluster head (CH) is based on efficiency division factor (EDF).

Solid Waste Classification, Quantification and Management Practices in Lahore PDF

Muhammad Qasim, Mubashar Tanveer, Aroj Bashir, Malik Muhammad Anees, Moeen Khalid, Iqra Sanam, Maham Abbas, Muhammad Ummad Jabar & Farwa Talat

The rates of Solid waste generation vary in various sectors of country. Waste is classified and sorted on the base of supply instead of kind. Currently, there aren't any standards or regulations for the assortment of solid waste and its disposal. In Pakistan 40-65% of solid waste is comprising bio degradable stuff. The study is about solid waste management in Lahore, the study represent work with Citizens Commission for Human Development (CCHD). CCHD is a non-governmental organization that provides social and environmental services like solid waste management, awareness and education to the people of city Lahore, Pakistan. The organization provides environmental services to over 70,000 residents in Johar Town, Township, and Model Town in Lahore. The study is about environmental protection, pollution prevention, reduction of solid waste from the environment and its proper disposal as well as awareness to the people about importance of cleaner environment and reducing the burden on environment.

The Role of Educational Software in Improving the Performance of Students PDF

Mohammad Ali Bani Younes

The use of educational software as a tool in teaching and computerized learning increases the learner’s skills that are needed during his/her study. It also helps in providing a proactive environment between the student and the teacher from one side and among students from another side, which will result in the best results. It was clear that the use of these educational software increases the advancement of students in their achieved schools work as well as their push towards learning in all steps of the educational process. Research confirmed that the deployment of computer in education and considering it as a tool to help elevate the level of the push of students to learn becomes an ongoing necessity. This in turn requires providing specialized training sessions in this field, expanding the base of teachers who benefit from these sessions and equip them with skills on how to deal with the computer and how to design the educational software that is needed to serve the educational process. The use of new techniques in public schools that go alongside with updating curriculum produced better results. So, it is become necessary to do periodical training sessions to make the importance of using the educational software in education clear to the students and encourage them to participate in the educational process and deploy their rule more than before. This way it will be possible to overcome most of the difficulties that prevents the deployment of educational software in serving education.

Estimating the Yield of Rice Farms in Southern Iraq using Landsat images PDF

S.M. Ali, S.S. Salman

Forecasting rice yield before harvest time is important to supporting planners and decision makers to predict the amount of rice that should be imported or exported and to enable governments to put in place strategic contingency plans for the redistribution of food during times of famine. This study used three Vegetation Indices (i.e. NDVI, EVI, and RGVI) to predict the amount of rice yields from temporal satellite imagery (i.e. Landsat 7 and 8) for the periods 2012 and 2014. Scatterplot classification technique is also implemented to estimate the rice yield for the same periods. The estimated results obtained by both the vegetation indices and the scatterplot classification techniques have been compared with true amount of the rice product for the same periods to verify the validity of the adopted methods.

Comparative Study of Antioxidant Properties and Cytotoxic effect of Three Different Plants of Myrtacea Family PDF

S.B.Nasrin Fathima, Dr.R.Pandian and Florida Tilton

The antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Syzygium tamilnadensis, Syzygium densiflorum and Eugenia candolleana was evaluated using various antioxidant tests such as H2O2, NO, SO, FRAP and DPPH scavenging activities. The cytotoxicity activity of the extracts was also determined against the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using the MTT assay. The various antioxidant activities were compared to the standard ascorbic acid. Compared to the results of all the antioxidant assays the methanol extract of the plant Syzygium tamilnadensis exhibited the highest scavenging activities. The results of the MTT assay also provide evidence that the methanol extract of the plant Syzygium tamilnadensis has good cytotoxicity when compared to the other extracts.

Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal Screening of Three new of Alpha-aminophosphonic acids PDF

Hellal Abdelkader, Chafaa Salah, Chafai Nadjib

Due to the medicinal importance of α-aminophosphonic acid derivatives, the biological property of three synthesized α-aminophosphonic acids derivatives were screened in vitro against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and some pathogenic fungi. The results obtained are compared with those of the starting compounds. In this study, three compounds ([(4-Hydroxyphenyl) phosphonomethyl-amino]-methyl)-phosphonic acid (S1), ([(3-Hydroxyphenyl) phosphonomethyl-amino]-methyl)-phosphonic acid (S2) And ([(2-Hydroxyphenyl) phosphonomethyl-amino]-methyl)-phosphonic acid (S3) have been synthesized from 2-aminophenol (2AP), 3-aminophenol (3AP) and 4-aminophenol (4AP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed by serial dilution technique. The synthesized compounds showed good antimicrobial and antifungal activity against all the tested organisms and the results are comparable to standard antibiotic chloramphenicol. The low MIC and MBC values and high sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to the compounds led to conclude that the α-aminophosphonic acids derivatives have potential antimicrobial and antifungal properties

Self Medication Among Students PDF

Nkwoka I. J, Egua M.O, Abubakar S. A

For improved health in the community required is the full involvement of individuals looking after themselves through self care .The study was carried out in September 2014 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Sokoto state polytechnic students. A total of 140 students were chosen by simple random sampling method. Pre-tested self administered questionnaires were used to collect data for the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software packages. There is a relatively poor knowledge of the meaning of self medication among student (of Sokoto State Polytechnic) and a high prevalence that cuts across ages, gender, tribes, religious groups and faculties. The top 5 conditions treated by self medication being fever, diarrhea, cough, headaches and catarrh and the common drugs self medicated are anti malaria, analgesics and antibiotics. There should be organization of frequent enlightenment programs aimed at clarifying the various misconceptions some of the students have about self medication which should involve the participation and leadership of young people and the mass media.

Comparative Study Of Diesel Engine By Using Diesel & Biodiesel As Fuel PDF

Anand Kumar Singh, Kaustubh Natekar

This experimental study gives the result analysis of emission parameter and thermal efficiency in terms of brake thermal efficiency (BTHE), volumetric efficiency (VE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The biodiesel selected to conduct this experimental investigation is soybean biodiesel. The experimental study is conducted on a four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine using soybean biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The thermal performance and emissions characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different load condition, varying from 0kg to 6 kg difference of 3kg. The emission constituents measured are carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2).

Fabrication and characterization of electrospun poly(e-caprolactone) / TiO2 nanocomposite membranes with synergistic antibacterial property with gentamicin against MRSA PDF

Manjula Sudhakaran, S Shabin Ghouse, Nandagopal S, Sankar Jagadeeshan

Electrospinning is an efficient technique for the fabrication of polymer nanofiber composites. In this study, micro to nanoscale fiber composites of poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) / Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) were prepared through electrospinning by varying the concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles and electrospinning parameters such as applied voltage, feed-rate and distance between the tip and the collector. These electrospun fibers were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The diameters of the fiber and the interstitial pore spaces of the as prepared electrospun fibers were measured. The fiber diameter was in the range of 130 nm – 4 µm and the interstitial pore space was approximately between 200 nm – 20 µm. Furthermore, variation in the fiber diameters and the interstitial pore with the electrospinning parameters as well as concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles were also discussed.

Design of TPVDF Based Muscular Signal Sniffing Sensor Mechanism for collaborative control system of Human Shoulder Rehabilitation Exoskeleton Robot PDF

Muhammad Asif Munir, Shoaib Mohammad, Sardar Badar Hamayun Khan, Khurram M. Butt

The core intention of this research work is to sniff the muscular movement of human shoulder muscles to develop an exoskeleton robot for rehabilitation of physical weak person like elderly, handicapped and stroked one. In this paper we propose a novel design of a sensor mechanism for the sniffing of muscular movement. A piezoelectric phenomenon is used to convert the muscular movement into voltage levels. The thread type Polyvinylidene Difluride (TPVDF) piezoelectric polymer and gold terminal is selected for this purpose after cytotoxicity analysis. This TPVDF is proposed to be stitched or pasted on the human shoulder muscles to sniff the muscular movement. To verify the feasibility of this proposed design two experiments are performed and results are shown.

Secure voice frequency signal transmission in 3D MIMO encoded 4 x 2 mmWave wireless communication system PDF

Mousumi Haque, Shaikh Enayet Ullah and Md. Rezaul Islam

In this paper, we made a comprehensive BER performance simulative study on encrypted voice frequency signal transmission in a 3D MIMO encoded 4 x 2 mmWave wireless communication system. The simulated system under investigation implements various types of modern and classical channel coding schemes such as Repeat and Accumulate(RA), cyclic redundancy check(CRC), Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem(BCH), low-density parity check (LDPC), AES Block Cipher aided and ½-rated Convolutional. Based on the simulation result with MATLAB, it is quite noticeable that the simulated system is highly robust in retrieving transmitted data under mmWave MIMO fading channel in QAM digital modulation and LDPC channel coding schemes.

DEM Processing for Watershed Delineation using QSWAT PDF

M.V.S.S. Giridhar, Ramaraju Anirudh, G. Sreenivasa Rao, P. Sowmya

The study of water resources at watershed scale is widely adopted as approach to manage, assess and simulate these important natural resources. The development of remote sensing and GIS techniques has allowed the use of spatially and physically based hydrologic models to simulate as simply and realistically as possible the functioning of watershed systems. Indeed, the major constraint that has hindered the expansion use of these tools was the unavailability or scarcity of data especially in the developing countries. Soil and Water Assessment Tool is widely used to support water quantity and quality studies. SWAT and digital elevation models (DEM) can be used to perform watershed delineation to a point, a reach, or an area of interest, which is usually one of the first steps in such studies. This paper presents the methodology that preprocesses the DEM in order to facilitate interactive watershed delineation. As a result, watersheds can be delineated quickly and with consistent time response, regardless of the DEM size, or the size of the resulting watershed. In present study area Kaddam watershed of Godavari river basin has been selected. With the help of DEM file generated, Soil and Water Assessment Tool is used for delineation of Kaddam watershed. The stream line generation, number of subbasins and subbasins area has been established.

Applications of Infiltration Studies for Effective Management of Water Resource in a Coastal Belt PDF

Giridhar M. V. S. S, Trisul Kumar.G and Anirudh Ramaraju

Surface water bodies are the water on the surface of the planet such as in streams, river, lake, wet land, or oceans. Non saline surface water is replenished by precipitation and by recruitment from ground water. It is lost through evaporation, seepage and abstracted by mankind for agriculture, living, industry etc. The present study deals with applications of infiltration studies for effective management of water resources in costal belt - Gara Mandal of Srikakulam District. The rainfall data between the years 1995 – 2010 has been collected and rainfall intensity was observed by collecting monthly rainfall data. The collected rainfall data is analyzed to understand the characteristics of rainfall data such as statistical parameters and frequency parameters. The trend is determined with the help of moving average curves. Based on the moving average curves developed for the study area it is observed that the rainfall trends are decreasing for the months of January, February, April , May, September, October, November , December. For the remaining months rainfall trend id fluctuating. From the infiltration curves it is found that, at 3 locations the rate of infiltration obtained is in the range of 300 to 800mm/hr and other remaining locations are below 100mm/hr. It is also observed that in future there may be less rainfall in potential months. So, Ground water levels in the study area may decrease and may cause salt water intrusion because of costal belt.

Estimation of Hourly Reference Evapotranspiration PDF

M.V.S.S. Giridhar, Siva Vani N and Ramaraju Anirudh

Evapotranspiration is one of the major components of the hydrologic cycle. Accurate estimation of evapotranspiration is essential in many studies such as hydrologic water balance, irrigation scheduling, and efficient water resource planning and management. The precise estimation of water requirement of crop is very important factor in the application of irrigation design and scheduling. Irrigation futures aim to identify an appropriate method for the calculation of reference crop evapotranspiration. The evapotranspiration rate from a reference surface, not short of water, is called reference crop evapotranspiration or reference evapotranspiration and it is denoted by ETo. The present study evaluates the use of FAO-56 Penman Monteith method for calculating ETo hourly, daily for twelve years from march 2000 to 2012, for Dowleswaram station in Andhra Pradesh, by collecting the climatic data from the department of Hydrology data centre, I and CAD project, Hyderabad. Average of monthly reference evapotranspiration was calculated for the study area and observed the trend line, this can be used to predict the ETo for the future years, this can be useful in the irrigation of crop pattern and amount of water to be supplied. It is found that Maximum reference evapotranspiration is observed on 11th may 2002, with a value of 14.1mm. Minimum reference evapotranspiration is observed on 31stoctober 2006, with a value of 1.46mm.

Location Tracking and Security in Information Technology PDF

Winfried Yao Bonsi

Technological innovations in information technology have become very famous across the globe. Many of these technologies have great merits but they equally pose threats in security and privacy. One of such technologies is location tracking. The main objective of this technology is to ensure security and safety. This service uses information on the geographical position of a mobile device or uses Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID) or Closed Circuit TV cameras (CCTV) to track locations. It is used in areas such as health, indoor object search and personal security. It is used to identify the location of a person, which most American parents use to track the movement of their children. This service is also useful in tracking stolen items such as cars, mobile devices and laptops, store products and also very useful for the police in tracking criminals.

Speech Recognition Techniques: A Review PDF

Praphulla A. Sawakare, Ratndeep R. Deshmukh, Pukhraj P. Shrishrimal

Speech is the natural and the fundamental way of communication for most humans. Human beings are developing systems which can understand, interpret and accept the command via speech signals. Speech recognition is the process of converting an acoustic waveform into the text similar to the information being conveyed by the speaker .This paper present the basic idea of speech recognition system for fundamental progress of speech recognition and also gives overview technique developed in each stage of speech recognition.

Location Tracking and Security in Information Technology PDF

Winfried Yao Bonsi

Technological innovations in information technology have become very famous across the globe. Many of these technologies have great merits but they equally pose threats in security and privacy. One of such technologies is location tracking. The main objective of this technology is to ensure security and safety. This service uses information on the geographical position of a mobile device or uses Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID) or Closed Circuit TV cameras (CCTV) to track locations. It is used in areas such as health, indoor object search and personal security. It is used to identify the location of a person, which most American parents use to track the movement of their children. This service is also useful in tracking stolen items such as cars, mobile devices and laptops, store products and also very useful for the police in tracking criminals.

Use of Computer Aided Instruction in Enhancing English Grammar Performance of College Students PDF

Jesus Rafael B. Jarata

Integrating technology in language teaching has recently earned much popularity due to its tremendous impact on language educa-tion. This paper examined the potential of the Computer Aided Instruction in helping Filipino learners of the language to learn English grammar more easily and correctly. Using the pretest-posttest control group experimental research design, it determined the English grammar performance of first year college students of the Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University- South La Union Campus in English 100 (Basic English) when exposed to counteractive lecture. Specifically, it sought to identify the level of performance of two groups of students in terms of their scores in a teacher-made grammar test, and the significant difference between the achievements of the two groups in the pretest mean scores and posttest mean scores. Thirty students were considered and divided into groups: (1) CG who will be taught with conventional teaching and (2) EG who will undergo counteractive lecture. Incidentally, the equal mean performances of the EG and CGs in the Pretest establish their homogeneity which is poised towards the bottom—showing that the teaching-learning process on this area is wanting of interventions to make learning more stimulating to students. Meanwhile, the evident rise on the performance of the EGs establishes the effectiveness of CAI as supplement to traditional mode of instruction. The significant difference in the performances of the EG and CGs in the Posttest corroborates with all the afore-mentioned findings to emphasize the effectiveness of CAI as supplement to traditional teaching for the systematic presentation of learning techniques to students.

A New Block Truncation Coding (NBTC) For Satellite Image Retrieval Using Dot-diffusion Technique PDF

Deepti Chavan, Kiran Ashok Bhandari

Presently there are issues related to retrieval of satellite images from huge database wherein the data goes on mushrooming day by day .The low bit rate configuration are causing problems such as noise, inherent artefact .Therefore to overcome these issues a new block truncation coding using dot diffusion technique is proposed in this paper. The dot diffusion technique has the characteristic of parallelism in order to enhance the processing efficiency. Here to retrieve the best quality image the class and diffused matrix is used of size 16 × 16 . On studying and comparing the results with Block truncation coding technique using error –diffusion and the proposed new block truncation coding using dot diffusion the results show that the proposed system gives excellent image quality ,high performance . It also satisfies one of the vital the processing efficiency attribute.

Some Engineering Properties Of Shea Kernel In Ghana PDF

Emmanuel Amomba. Seweh, Samuel Apuri, Isaac Gibberson. Dukuh, Osei Tutu Isaac

Data on engineering properties of agricultural produce are essential for designing of equipment for harvesting, processing, transportation, cleaning, sorting, separation, packaging and storage. In this research, some geometric, gravimetric and frictional properties of the shea kernel were investigated. The geometric properties investigated are the axial dimensions (Length, L, Width, W and Thickness, T), geometric mean diameter, arithmetic diameter, aspect ratio, sphericity, surface area and volume. While the gravimetric properties investigated included 1000-kernel mass, true density, bulk density and porosity. The frictional properties investigated were angle of repose and static co-efficient of friction; determined: on five structural surfaces, namely: glass plywood, Mild steel, Galvanized steel and Stainless steel. Moisture content was determined on dry basis. The results obtained indicated that the mean values for the length, Width, Thickness ,Geometric mean diameter, Arithmetic diameter, Aspect ratio, Sphericity, Surface area and Volume were 2.543±0.196cm, 1.803±0.142 cm, 1.576±0.107cm, 1.928±0.101cm, 1.974±0.098cm, 71.279±4.750%, 76.104±7.249%, 11.716±1.196cm2, 3.793±0.581cm3, and ranged between (2.137-2.973cm), (1.295-2.222cm), (1.145-665.966cm), (1.610-2.194cm), (1.651-2.272cm), (46.614-90.285%, 62.530-87.968%, (8.145-15.119cm2), 2.190-5.542cm3) respectively. Also1000-kernel mass, true density, bulk density, Porosity were 4117.833g, 1.093g/cm3, 0.682±0.013g/cm3, 38.347±0.612%, and ranged between (2600.000-6020.000g), (0.867-2.008g/cm3), (37.300-38.929g/cm3), (37.300-38.929%), respectively. Angle of repose and Coefficient of static friction on Glass, Plywood, Mild steel, Galvanised steel, Stainless steel were 34.818±3.9320 and 0.168±0.020, 0.461±0.013, 0.385±0.016, 0.238±0.016, 0.292±0.027and ranged between (27.245-40.325o) and (0.151-0.184), (0.436-0.483), (0.361-0.394), (0.220-0.256), (0.262-0.301) respectively. Plywood had the highest static co-efficient of friction while glass had the least co-efficient of friction. This is due to the degree of roughness or smoothness. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics (minimum and maximum values, mean and standard deviation). All experiments were conducted at a moisture content of 6.763± 0.440 % (d.b).

Anticorrosive Effect and Catalytic Activity of a Newly Synthesized Chalcone and its Copper Complex: Application Studies PDF

Ahmed M. El-desoky, Dina M. Abd El-Aziz, Marwa N. El-Nahass

The inhibitory action of newly synthesized chalcone against the corrosion of copper in 1 M HNO3 solution was investigated using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentrations. Molecular modelling was used to gain some insight, about structural and electronic effects in relation to the inhibiting efficiencies. On the other hand, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proved very effective in the treatment of the various hazardous organic pollutants in water. The synthesized complex was found to be quite active for the catalytic degradation of the Acid Blue 25 textile dye and could be a potential model for removal dyes from colored effluents. Catalytic degradation of the Acid Blue 25 textile dye was studied using H2O2 as oxidant and copper-chalcone complex as heterogenous catalyst using steady-state absorption and emission techniques. The mechanism of the degradation process involves an electron excitation and the generation of very active oxygenated species that attack the dye molecules. The percent of degradation obtained after the reaction between the acid blue 25 dye and both H2O2/catalyst was 86.7, while the corresponding one with catalyst only was 74.6. Finally, the reusability of the catalyst, copper-chalcone complex has been reported.

Mechanical properties of Dungeness crab based chitin PDF

Michael Ikpi Ofem, Musa Muhammed and Muneer Umar

Chitin from Dungeness crab was extracted by chemical processes. Chitin film prepared by a modified method was characterised for mechanical, thermal and structure related properties. Depending on the gauge length the stress at failure decreased from 63.9MPa at 5mm gauge length to 36.6MPa at 50mm gauge length. TGA based thermal characterisation shows a two stage weight losses, one due to water and the other related to saccharide rings degradation. In the DSC no glass transition was observed whereas the Raman spectrum indicated an α-chitin polymorph with the amide band splitting into two peaks at 1653 and 1621cm.-1 XRD spectrum showed four peaks at 2Θ = 9.48°, 21.05°, 22.98° and 25.96° with a crystalline index of 86%. SEM images showed rough surfaces with fibril like morphology without any trace of porosity.

Polyphase CIC Filter Structures For Digital Receivers PDF

R.Latha, Dr.P.T.Vanathi

There are multiple ways to implement a decimator filter. In this paper, first approach addresses usage of Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC) filter transfer function through the polynomial formula with zeros and poles. Second approach is to implement a conventional poly-phase comb filter and the third approach is based on modified poly-phase comb filter. A Power efficient poly-phase decomposition comb filter with a clock distribution algorithm for its memory elements is presented. The proposed algorithm results in a significant reduction in the dynamic power consumption, comparing with the conventional poly-phase decomposition comb filter that is widely used as a first stage of decimation process in sample rate conversion for multi-rate telecommunication receivers. A general form of the proposed clock distribution algorithm is presented with respect to the decimation factor of the poly-phase comb filter. It is shown that, using the proposed clock distribution algorithm reduces the dynamic power consumption of the memory elements for a second order poly-phase comb filter when compared with polynomial CIC filter. As well as, we can reduce the dynamic power consumption of the memory elements for a third order poly-phase comb filter. It is estimated such that power consumed in modified poly-phase comb decimation filter is less than the power consumed in conventional poly-phase comb decimation filter.

Analytical study on Collaborative Filtering techniques for Location-based Recommendation PDF

Poonam Chavan

The popularity of location-based social networks provides us with a new platform to understand users’ behavior and preferences based on their location histories. Social networking applications have become very important web services that provide Internet-based platforms for their users to interact with their friends. With the advances in the location-aware hardware and software technologies, location-based social networking applications have been pro-posed to provide services for their users, taking into account both the spatial and social aspects. Location as one of the most important components of user context implies extensive knowledge about an individual’s interests and behavior, thereby providing us with opportunities to better understand users in a social structure according to not only online user behavior but also the user mobility and activities in the physical world. Under many such circumstances, a location recommender system is a valuable but unique application in location-based social networking services, in terms of what a recommendation is and where a recommendation is to be made. Collaborative filtering (CF) technique for recommendation becomes one of the popular recommendation techniques for location recommendation. This analysis presents a comparative study on different collaborative filtering methods like Hypertext Induced Topic Search (HITS) based model, CF with Collaborative Location and Activity Recommendations (CLAR) and candidate selection method used for location recommendation.

Side Channel Attack on various Cryptographic Algorithms PDF

Shraddha More, Prof.Rajesh Bansode

Information security is the protection of information system against unconstitutional access to or amendment of information, whether in storage, processing or transit and against the denial of service to authorized users. In today’s environment, security has become an important threat. Good cryptography techniques can help to mitigate this security threat. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric key encryption standard widely used to secure data where data confidentiality is a critical issue. NIST exhausted several years to analyzing the Rijndael algorithm for vulnerabilities against all known breeds of attacks and finally declared it to be a secure algorithm. In 2005 Daniel J. Bernstein stated that the software implementation of AES is susceptible to side channel attacks. Cache timing attack is a type of side channel attack where the leaking timing information due to the cache performance of a cryptosystem is used by an attacker to break the system. Over the years many researchers have proposed a number of countermeasures against Cache Timing Attack but there is no substantiation to date of any investigation carried out to determine their effectiveness and efficiency. This paper focused on implementing timing attack on different cryptographic algorithms and investigating the countermeasures against the remote cache timing attack with positive outcomes, in which research work establish a secured environment for the cryptography.

Preparation and Characterization of Pure and Ti4+doped Li4Mn5O12 Spinels as Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries PDF

S.Sharmila, B.Janarthanan, J.Chandrasekaran

An attempt was made to synthesize Li4Mn5-xTixO12 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mole) via single step molten salt method. Structural, morphological and electrical studies were carried out to analyze its structure, shape, size and conductivity of the material. XRD pattern revealed the formation of spinel structure with fd3m space group. SEM analysis exhibited the formation of polyhedral shape with micron sized particles. Conductivity of the samples was improved by Ti4+ doping with three different concentrations and 0.3 moles were identified as optimum concentration with 1 x 10-5Scm-1 at 413 K.

Instant aircraft recovery during disaster using ADS-B technology PDF

Vivek Agarwal, Saket Thakare, Akshay Jaiswal

The traditional methods of search and rescue operation in the event of an aircraft disaster has a number of limitations and is highly time consuming and cost inefficient. Dependence on RADAR technology has its own limitations and does not allow continuous aircraft tracking over vast regions of ocean bodies. In this paper, we analyze how ADS-B can prove to be a vital breakthrough as it continuously monitors aircraft’s geographical co-ordinates using a geosynchronous satellite with high accuracy and at any geographical location. Using this data, the search and rescue teams can find the aircraft in a matter of hours, and this increases the survival chances of the passengers if possible.

Preprocessing of Web Usage Data For Log Analysis PDF

Bhawesh Kumar Thakur, Syed Qmar Abbas, Mohd Rizwan Beg, Sheenu Rizvi

Frequent interaction of users with the World Wide Web to access wide ranges of information and available services, it become necessary to handle web usage data in an efficient manner. Web usage mining incorporate data generated at both client side as well as server side. But generally web log preprocessing are meant for the data available at server that is actually generated by the clients when they made any request to the server. The knowledge retrieved from preprocessing can be used to make a comfortable environment to the frequently visiting customer. Preprocessing of web log data is one of the important activities that are required to make web log data in proper format and then can be used for further knowledge discovery process

Automatic Room Temperature Controlled Fan Speed Controller Using PT-100 PDF

M. A. A. Mashud, Dilruba Yasmin, M. A. Razzaque and M. H. Uddin

Now-a-day’s technology is running with time, it completely occupied the life style of human beings. Even though there is such an importance for technology in our routine life there are even people whose life styles are very far to this well known term technology. So it is our responsibility to design few reliable systems which can be even efficiently used by them. Automatic Room Temperature Controlled Fan Speed Controller is one of them. The developed system provides an environment in which no user needed to control the fan speed. Automatically control the fan speed by sensing the room temperature. These fascinating efforts to create intelligent system are to provide human being a more convenient life. The circuit was designed using electronic components available in local market to keep the cost at low level.

Aetiology of neovascular glaucoma among patients attending a tertiary eye care centre in South India PDF

Dr Hari Ramakrishnan DO DNB FRCS(Glasg), Dr Suseela B Nair DO MS

Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a highly intractable form of secondary glaucoma caused by the development of a fibrovascular tissue in the angle of the eye. Retinal hypoxia caused by a number of diseases is responsible for this condition. This study was undertaken to assess the various etiological factors for neovascular glaucoma. Among the 42 eyes studied the commonest cause encountered was Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR -19 eyes). Central Retinal Vein Occlusion was seen in 15 eyes. Other causes noted were retinal vasculitis (2 eyes), central retinal artery occlusion (1 eye), carotid artery disease (1 eye) combined arterial and venous occlusion (1 eye), Coat’s disease (1 eye), chronic uveitis (1eye) and undetermined (1 eye).

Performance analysis of D-STATCOM with Consideration of Power Factor Correction PDF

M.Bala krishna Naik, I.Murali krishna, Dr K.Satya Narayana

In this paper proposes an intelligent approach (Fuzzy logic) for the design of PI controller for power. D-STATCOM for power factor and harmonic compensation. The proposed control strategy has been introduced in order to enhance some steady-state performances besides its functional elimination of power quality disturbances. Power factor and harmonic current of a controlled feeder section are two vital roles in steady-state power distribution system operation. Utilizing an already installed D-STATCOM to achieve these additional control objectives can help system operators maximize overall system performances.

Baseline Data Preparation of Revenue Land Record PDF

Rana Muhammad Sohail Aslam, Sajid Rashid Ahmed, Kashif Aslam

Importance of maps whether displaying spatial locations or geographical patterns remained significant in every age of mankind. Currently, different kind of maps are being prepared but human interest for land use mapping with focus on land ownership record and management is considerable at all times. In this regard, different land use mapping practices have had applied to observe, monitor and manage different man made activities at various scales. Cadastral mapping technique is one of these practices to maintain metes-and-bounds of a country at defined spatial units. Currently, traditional methods (i.e. paper maps) to update and maintain these maps are still in practice in most of the developing countries. In Pakistan, Board of Revenue (BOR), which is responsible to maintain the revenue land record at cadastral level (which locally called “Patwar System”), is mainly involved traditional revenue mapping methods. Each parcel of land in this Patwar system is called "Khasra" (i.e. a number assigned to a block of land). These khasra records are maintained through traditional cadastral mapping technique which needs to be switched with more efficient and convenient computer based methods such as geographical information systems (GIS). The purpose of this research is to propose a GIS based system that transform the traditional cadastral mapping method into a well-organized and handy mapping technique.

Design and Hardware Implementation of a Fast Responsive Handsfree Mouse Using Robust Object Tracking Algorithms PDF

KaziTauseef Mohammad

In this paper an improved pen mouse is implemented on hardware to demonstrate a robust approach for controlling mouse movements and functions. Using an illuminated marker of specific shape, color and size; actions of a mouse cursor can be effectively performed. Existing approaches involve gesture recognition of hand and eye movement to control functionality of a computer mouse. Outcome of such approaches are severely affected by the presence of background objects and surrounding light conditions. This project takes a different course towards changing the hardware design in order to use the mouse freely in the air. This technology can greatly boost the Man-Machine Interaction and allow the user of computer ease and freedom while interfacing with their devices. Our method uses combination of computer vision technology and simple inexpensive hardware that together can efficiently perform the Graphical User Interface (GUI) tasks of current commercial mouse devices (such as left and right clicking, double-clicking, and scrolling).

Comparative study of T-beam bridge longitudinal girder design using IRC 112:2011 and IRC 21:2000 PDF

R.Shreedhar and Shivanand Tenagi

T-beam Bridge is composite concrete structure which is composed of slab panel, longitudinal girder and cross girder. Present study is mainly focusses on design of longitudinal girder by IRC: 112-2011 and IRC: 21-2000. In India, till now girders are designed and constructed according to Indian road congress guidelines as per IRC: 21-2000 code in which working stress method is used. Recently Indian road congress has introduced another code IRC: 112-2011 for design of prestress and RCC bridges using limit state method. In regards to this, present study has been performed to know how design of IRC-112 differs from IRC-21 and an attempt is made to study undefined parameters of IRC: 112-2011 such as span to depth (L/d) ratio. Present study is performed on design of longitudinal girder using “working stress method” using IRC: 21-2000 and limit state method using IRC: 112-2011 code specifications. It is observed that L/d ratio of 10 in working stress method and L/d ratio of 14 in limit state method is most preferable. Quantity of materials required in limit state method is compared with quantity of material required in working stress method and it is found that concrete can be saved up to 25 to 30% using limit state method.

Evaluations of Bacillus species against Callosobruchus chinensis , Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under laboratory and store conditions PDF

Sabbour Magda and Maysa E. Moharam

ive strains of the entopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis were evaluated against two stored products insect pests, Callosobruchus chinensis , Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) . The LC50s of C. maculatus of different tested bactria which recorded that, 248, 269, 144, 88 and 110 Ug/ml after C. maculatus treated with different concentrations of B.T J, B.t 0900, Bt NRRL 2172, BT IP thurizide and Bt HD112.,under laboratory conditions ., respectively. The corresponding LC50s of C. chinensis, 233, 132, 145, 77 and 100 Ug/ml ., respectively .


D.Malathi and Dr.S.Muthulakshmi

The design of acceptance sampling plan is proposed for the truncated life tests assuming that the lifetime of a product follows Gompertz distribution using mean. The minimum sample sizes of the zero-one double sampling plan and special double sampling plan are determined to ensure that the mean life is longer than the given life at the specified consumer’s confidence level. The operating characteristic values are analysed. The minimum mean ratios are obtained so as to meet the producer’s risk at the specified consumer’s confidence level. Numerical illustrations are provided to explain the use of constructed tables. Efficiency of the proposed plan is studied by comparing the single sampling plan.



By adopting risk management, savings potentials can be realized in construction projects. For this reason, for project managers as well as real estate developers, a consideration of the risk management process is worthwhile. The risk management process comprises 6 process steps, which will be discussed in greater detail below. The integration of a risk management system in construction projects must be oriented to the progress of the project and permeate all areas, functions and processes of the project. In this, particular importance is attached to the risks in the personnel area, for, particularly for enterprises providing highly qualified services, specialized employees are essential for market success.

Attitude towards Distance Education among Graduate Students PDF

Dr. Eklak Ahamad, Dr. Zeba Aqil

Distance education is very vital for our country because of population and resources. Forma l education is not sufficient to cover all the people. The aim of this paper is to know the current attitude of graduate students about distance education. The other objective is to compare the attitude of engineering and B. Sc students towards distance education. Self made tool was used for this purpose on 200 graduate students of Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh. Items of tool have both positive and negative type. This is five point summated rating scale. The result shows that there is no difference in male and female graduate students on attitude towards distance education. Same result id found in different branches of Engineering students. They have favouarable attitude towards distance education. Religion has no role on attitude because Muslim and Hindu students also show the positive attitude. It is very important to those students who have no time for regular class because of some problems. The scope is increasing day by day of distance education and open University play significant role in this regard.

Creativity and Achievement Motivation in adolescents as influenced by their Mother’s Professionalism PDF

Dr. Zeba Aqil, Dr. Eklak Ahamad

There is one of the most important characteristics of life is creativity. It is influenced by many factors. Achievement motivation is other psychological aspects of students which are also affected by mother profession i.e. working and non-working. In this paper investigator tried to answer the above question. The objectives of the study are to study the creativity and achievement motivation in adolescents in relation to their mother profession. 200 students have taken as sample of IXth class from the school of Lucknow. In present study, Passi test of Creativity by Dr. B. K. Passi and Achievements Motivation Scale by Prof. Pratibha Dev and Dr. Asha Mohan were used for data collection. Appropriate statistical techniques used for data analysis. The results reveal that there is no significant difference between male and female students on creativity and achievement motivation. Same result is found in working and non-working women students on creativity and achievement motivation. It means that no role of mother profession on students creativity and academic motivation. Creativity is God gifted and academic motivation is related to hard working of students.



Soil is an unconsolidated material that has resulted from disintegration of rocks. The type and characteristics of soil depend largely on its origin transportation causes the sizes and shapes of particles to alter and sort into sizes. The engineering properties is permeability, consolidation and shear strength of a soil deposit are governed by the mode of formation stress history, ground water condition and physic chemical characteristics of the parent material.

The entomotoxicity of Destruxin and Nano-Destruxin against three olive pests under laboratory and field conditions PDF

Sabbour M.M and S.M. Singer

The toxin of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae , Destruxin and Nano- Destruxin was tested against the olive insect pests: Bactrocera oleae, Ceratitis capitata and Prays oleae under laboratory and field conditions. The half lif period, LC50 of the three serious olive pests under laboratory conditions after Destruxin treatments , which show that, B. oleae LC50 obtained 110 mg/L. the LC50 of C. capitate and B. oleae recorded 121 and 132mg/L respectively.

Impact of Renewable Resources Forecasting on Unit Commitment Solution of Egyptian Electric Grid PDF

S. S. Kaddah, K. M. Abo-Al-Ez, T.F. Megahed, M. G. Osman

To ensure optimum operation with the stochastic nature sources, it is essential to develop an efficient forecasting model for wind and solar power generation. A hybrid Markov chain is used to forecast solar radiation as it is suitable for modelling discrete process. While, auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is used to predict wind speed as a continuous process. Renewable forecasting methods which built in this paper was compared with the other forecasting models and found that the recommended model in this research more accurate, simpler and faster than other models. Wind speed and solar radiation are forecasted at local sites in Egypt. Based on the forecasting outcomes, it would be possible to perform unit commitment to ensure optimal operation with the presence of renewable energy. Unit committed objective for the Eastern Portion of the Egyptian electrical grid is obtained. Also, to overcome the variation and error of renewable forecasting in unit commitment, the reserve constraint is modified to develop two new reserves; up reserve and down reserve.

Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Their Nitrated Derivatives (NPAHs) at Nile River and Esmailia Canal in Egypt PDF

Hossam F. Nassar, Ning Tang, Akira Toriba, Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad and Kazuichi Hayakawa

Fresh water samples at three sites in Nile River (NR1, NR2 and NR3) and two sites in Esmailia canal (E1 and E2) in Egypt were collected. Concentrations of soluble and particulate phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) were determined by using HPLC with florescence detection and HPLC with chemilumnecence detection, respectively. The total average concentrations of the fifteen PAHs having two to six rings at NR1, NR2 and NR3 in summer and winter seasons were ranged from 2.47 × 103 to 3.20 × 103, 0.99 × 103 to 1.27 × 103 and 1.19 × 103 to 1.43 × 103 ng/L, respectively, while those at E1 and E2 were ranged from 6.17 × 103 to 7.55 × 103 and 1.27 × 104 to 1.73 × 104 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at Nile River and Esmailia canal sites were varied from 26.4 to 83.2 ng/L. The total average concentrations of eight NPAHs having three to five rings at the same sites in summer and winter seasons were varied from 7.5 to 11.2, 5.2 to 7.0 and 5.7 to 8.0 ng/L at NR1, NR2 and NR3 respectively, and varied from 7.6 to 11.8 and 16.0 to 20.0 ng/L at E1 and E2 respectively. The major sources of PAHs and NPAHs in water environment were discussed based on the most widely used diagnostic ratios of PAH pairs and mono-NPAHs to their parent PAHs, indicating a mixed contamination sources with the predominance of petrogenic source origin at Nile River sites, and pyrogenic source origin at Esmailia canal sites in both summer and winter seasons.

Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analysis of Bauhinia variegata Modern analytical HPTLC Fingerprinting PDF

Kalpana Pachouri , Sandeep Yadav

Bauhinia variegata Linn. belonging to the family leguminosae is a medium sized, deciduous tree, found throughout India. In folk medicine, the plant is considered to be used to treat gastric and blood disorders and as liver tonic diabetic. In present study the detailed pharmacognostic study and screening for leaf and bark of is carried out to lay down the standards for its quality control purposes in future standardization studies. Its includes standardization parameters i.e organoleptic, physicochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening, HPTLC determination and total phenolic content. The data obtained can use for its quality control studies.

A Tool to Measure Parameters of Sustainable Behavior in Dengue Prevention and Control Activities. A cluster randomized controlled trial PDF

Dengue, dengue fever (DF) dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome DSS), is the fastest reemerging viral public health problem in the world.


Dauda Danlami, H. M. Ibrahim, Ibrahim A. Sabo, Tasiu Mahmud, Idris Z. Sadiq

This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of different light intensity on growth, productivity and pod production on some selected varieties of cowpea. In order determine this, two varieties of cowpea which are IT90K-277-2 and IT89KD- 288 plants were evaluated to shade tolerance under four treatment 100% sun, 100% shade, 5 weeks in-out, and 5 weeks out-in. variety 288 showed higher pod weight and number of seeds under 5 weeks in-out of all the treatment; 100% shade induced reduced fodder and grain yield production in both of the varieties. These finding identified variety IT89KD-288 to be more tolerant to shade. These findings could go along way in boasting agricultural yield and productivity in the varieties.

Modelling the sustainability of low-cost hand drilling methods of shallow 1 groundwater abstraction: the case of the Upper Benue River, NE Nigeria PDF

Buba A. Ankidawa, Chris Bradley, Philip Collins and Suzanne A. G. Leroy

This paper: assesses whether current rates of groundwater abstraction from the alluvial aquifer of the River Benue, NE Nigeria, are sustainable; and examines the significance of fluctuations in summer river levels on the floodplain water table. A conceptual groundwater flow model for a floodplain cross-section is developed using MODFLOW with stratigraphic data obtained by hand augering.



Water is the most common substance on earth. It covers more than 70 per cent of the earth's surface. It fills the oceans, rivers, and lakes, and is in the ground and in the air we breathe. Water is everywhere. Regardless of language or culture, all humans share this basic need that is essential for survival. We drink water, cook with it, bathe in it, sprinkle our lawns with it, fill our backyard swimming pools with it - even create theme parks based on it. More than half of Africa's villages lack access to a clean water supply. In many of these villages, women and children must walk up to ten miles every day carrying heavy buckets and containers to fetch the day's supply of potable water for their households. Those hours could be spent on other more profitable ways.

Reel Therapy - Using Movie in Counselling and Psychotherapeutic Practice PDF

Arul Edward Joseph

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the recommendation of movies in counselling and psychotherapy, as a modern trend. In Reel Therapy (Cinema Therapy), therapists choose and assign specific films to clients, on the basis of their interpretations of films having specific therapeutic value. Reel Therapy can be a powerful catalyst for healing and personal growth for anybody who is open to learning how movies affect us by watching them with conscious awareness. Watching movies with conscious awareness can be similar to a guided visualization. The therapeutic effect and the theoretical basis for both approaches are therefore closely related.

Ferro fluid squeeze film in infinitely long porous rough rectangular plates PDF

Ankit S. Acharya, R.M. Patel and G.M.Deheri

This article aims to analyse the behaviour of a magnetic fluid based squeeze film between infinitely long, porous and transversely rough rectangular plates by considering an unusual form of the magnitude of the magnetic field. The stochastic method of Christensen and Tonder has been employed to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. The concerned stochastically averaged Reynolds’ type equation is solved with appropriate boundary conditions. The results presented in graphical form establish that magnetization offers help to a limited extent in order to minimize the adverse effect of roughness. But, this investigation establishes that by considering a suitable form of magnitude of the magnetic field the situation can be made better.



In this paper we present a scheme based on semi-Lagrangian integration (SLI) for approximating the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Exact solutions of these equations are generally difficult to find particularly when strict physical conditions are required to hold. However, in this paper we focus on the stability of an approximate solution. The solution presented is unconditionally stable and therefore allows for arbitrary time steps. It can be used for a stable and an efficient real-time simulation of fluid flow. Applications are found in computer graphics, weather forecasting and other areas that require real-time simulation of fluid flow.

Optimization of Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Considering the Mobility Effect of Nodes in Cache parameter using OPNET PDF

Lokesh Laddhani, Umesh Kumar Singh

In this paper we propose a method of improving the performance of Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol. In DSR, as well as other on-demand routing protocols, every established path is considered as temporary to reflect the mobility effect, therefore, once a path is established, it is associated with an expiration time. After the route expiration time the path is deleted from the route cache of the nodes. In practice the mobility of nodes are not equal all the time and we propose to treat paths differently according to their stationary, rather than deleting them after every route expiration time to improve performance. By simulation we show that this method improves the performance of DSR.

Effect of filler loading on the polymorphs of calcium carbonate crystallization of chitin reinforced polymer PDF

Michael Ikpi Ofem (PhD), Muneer Umar (PhD) , Musa Muhammed (M.Eng)

Crystals were precipitated by evaporation casting method within a very short time of 5 minutes at 30°C. The crystals were grown in chitin whiskers (CHW), Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and CHW/PAA composites. The volume fraction for calcite, vaterite and aragonite were respectively 0.65, 0.25 and 0.10. The calcite and aragonite volume fractions decrease in favour of vaterite as PAA increases up to 11%cw. At 3%cw aragonite polymorph growth was favoured to the detriment of calcite. SEM images in the absence of PAA and CHW, showed rhombohedral calcites were observed while rod-like aragonite polymorphs were seen when only PAA was used as template. In the presence of only CHW, a morphological mixture of ellipsoidal and disc shape with traces of rhombohedral aggregate calcite dominated the features. In the presence of both PAA and CHW, the rhombohedral shape showed roughness with irregular faces while the vaterite polymorph continued to agglomerate with the observation of porosity at higher CHW content.