Volume 6, Issue 9

Effect of the obesity on the pulmonary function test PDF

Jenan Hussein Taha

Obesity is a global health hazard. As standards of living are continuing to rise, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in countries all over the world. These obese individuals are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality because of its relationship with various metabolic disorders. It is also known to cause alterations in pulmonary functions, so the present study was planned to assess the effect of obesity on pulmonary function tests in adult males and females. To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), ratio between FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) among nonsmoking adult males and females. Data were collected from 247 of adult healthy subjects with range age 32.63, There were 112 males and 135 females subjects, was classified on the basis of sex specific BMI as normal weight, overweight, obese, and moderate obese groups. Pulmonary function test (PFT) and body mass index (BMI) were compared among sex and BMI groups. Subjects underwent spirometry tests according to American thoracic society standards with measurement of the following values, the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF). We found no significant differences in FVC and PEF (p value ˃ 0.05) in comparison between the obese and non-obese subjects, but there were a significant FEV1and FEV1/FVC with increasing BMI for adult females. An increase in BMI had no significant effect on spirometric measurements in adult males. Mean FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were found a high significant differences (P- value ˂0.0001) between mean spirometric values of men and women for all range BMI overweight, obese, and moderate obese.

GIS Technology for El-Gedida Iron Ore to satisfy the Requirements of Egyptian Blast Furnace PDF

Eng. B. G. Mousa, Dr. A. Kh. Embaby and Prof. Dr. M. El-Nokrashy Osman

In recent years Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has been developed and used extensively in mining industry. It is a powerful tool in many operations that support the decision-making, to search for new economic deposits. This paper aim to use GIS technique to find the locations that satisfy the requirements of blast furnace of Egyptian Iron and Steel Company from El-Gedida iron ore and to calculate the volume of iron ore that can be extracted from these locations. ArcInfo 9.3 software package was used to achieve this work.

Estimation of Maintainability in Object Oriented Design Phase: State of the art PDF

Vivek Rai, Akhilesh Mohan Srivastava, Himanshu Pandey, Dr. V. K Singh

Object oriented designing is an essential part of software environment. This study focuses on a set of object oriented metrics that can be used to measure the maintainability of an object oriented design. These metrics for object oriented design focus on measurements that are applied to the class and design characteristics. These measurements permit designers to access their software early in process, making changes that will reduce maintainability and improve the continuing capability of the design. In our paper we studied those metrics using empirical analyses for three package designs for the same software. We also found out that value of RFC doesn’t need to be low for developing a less fault prone software.

Nonlinear behavior investigation of zyncite-iron semiconductor junction PDF

Michał Nowicki, Roman Szewczyk

In this paper, we present the investigation of zyncite-iron semiconductor junction voltage-current characteristics. They were measured on the special measurement stand, in the octopus, or curve-tracer pattern. Nonlinear behavior, such as hysteresis, S-type negative dynamic resistance, and memristance-like behavior, were observed. The test stand is especially convenient to use for students, on electronics/material science classes.

The environmental aftermath resulted from chemical bombardment of Halabja Territory for the period 1988-2014 PDF

Ali A Alwaely, Hanan N Al-qaralocy, Kadhem A Al-Asadi, Miqdam T Chaichan, Hussein A Kazem

Halabja a small Iraqi city exposed to chemical weapons near the ending of Iraq-Iran war in 1988. This incident caused many death cases as well as injuries for the survivors. Most of the victims were civilians and many of them still suffering after 26 years. In the recent paper questionnaire forms distributed in Halabja territory. The sample volume was 100 forms distributed on four areas of the territory. The study showed that Kani-Vocla gave the highest number of martyrs. The destroyed houses reached 1748 house distributed over the territory. A group of diseases like ocular symptoms, hard breathing, and the body and skin malformation still hurt the survivors. The random immigration increased due to the bombardment that reached 75% of Halabja citizens. The shelling destroyed most of the water and ground environment.

The Effects of Technical and Non-Technical Losses on Power Outages in Nigeria PDF

Hachimenum N. Amadi, Ephraim N.C. Okafor

Adequate and reliable electricity supply is widely accepted as a sine qua non for the rapid socio-economic development of any nation. Researchers, over the years, have attributed electricity supply failures mostly to dilapidated electrical equipment, poor maintenance culture etc. Only a few considered the contributions of transmission and distribution losses to frequent power outages. This paper fills the gap by focussing on the effects of technical and non-technical losses on power outages in Nigeria. This study emphasizes the need for more radical measures than are currently being applied to reduce system losses and make the nation’s electric power system holistically more efficient.

Effect of Ion beam irradiation on the Physical and Chemical Properties of plasticized poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer used in Medical Device PDF

Mahmmoud S. Abd-Elmonem, Waheed M. Salem and Manal A. Elshall

Ion beams have been found to be widely applicable in improving the structure and physical properties of polymers. In this paper, the effect of ion bombardment on physical and chemical properties of plasticized poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Polymer samples were bombarded with 3 keV Ar ions to fluencies ranging from 2.8125 x 10 17 to 5.625 x 10 17 ions cm−2. The pristine and ion beam bombarded samples were investigated using TGA thermal Analyzer and FTIR spectroscopy, PET were evidently changed after irradiation. Ionizing radiations always have a large effect on the physical properties of polymers. The thermal stability of PET at various ion fluencies was illustrated increase from 439.65 to 442.88°C the pristine sample and those samples bombarded with Ar ion at the highest fluence.

Cloud removal using multi-temporal satellite images and fuzzy logic PDF

Soumya Sucharita, Satyajit Mohanty, Manoj Pandya, M. B. potdar, Leena Patel, Krunal patel

Satellite images are often obscured by cloud cover and shadows. This poses a major challenge to processing of data regarding the surface underneath. Various methods have been proposed by different researchers to obtain cloud and cloud shadow free images from satellite images. In this paper, an approach is suggested which generates cloud free image from multi-temporal images. This paper briefly reviews the existing methods for reconstruction of cloud contaminated images and then suggests an approach based on segmentation of image using Fuzzy logic. The cloud contaminated patches are detected in an image using Fuzzy C means algorithm. Following this step, blobs are detected and those pixels are replaced with the corresponding pixels from the cloud free image under the assumption that the land cover changes insignificantly during a short period of time. Filtering technique is used to remove the visible seams in the reconstructed image. Experimental analysis is conducted on satellite images and results are obtained. Both thin and thick clouds are removed effectively. We have also compared the performance of various segmentation algorithms in cloud detection. This proves the improved performance with the proposed approach.

Further development & updating of paper for Mystery of Fermat Number PDF

Debajit Das

With the help of N-equation property and Ns-Nd operation which was published in August edition 2013 an attempt was made to penetrate the mystery of Fermat Number and it was published in June & July edition 2015 of this journal. With further development of different properties of N-equation now it is felt necessary to update the papers of Fermat Number and to reestablish its proof that it is always composite for n > 4, on solid ground. Earlier proofs seem to be not so convincing as it is now. This paper contains some new properties of N-equation, rearrangement of points with little change and the proof of Fermat Number in a different angle.

Understanding Real Time OS Concepts PDF


Real-time operating systems have conquered the world of computing in a very short span. It is detailed system software. The word ‘real time' does not refer that system reacts rapidly, it denotes that there are solid and set time requirements that must be conformed at the requisite situation. If these time requirements are not completed, the results will be mistaken or untrustworthy. The basics of Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) will be argued in this analysis. What a real-time operating system (RTOS) is, how RTOS are used for computation and manage applications, and how they changed from general idea operating systems like Windows.

On-Request Channel Allocation in LTE Cellular Networks PDF

Jayasankar.S, Ann Susan Varghese

Long-term evolution (LTE) femtocells represent a very promising answer to the ever growing bandwidth demand of mobile applications. They can be easily deployed without requiring a centralized planning to provide high data rate connectivity with a limited coverage. Femtocell is low-power, very small and cost effective cellular base station used in indoor environment. However, the impact of Femtocells on the performance of the conventional Macrocell system leads interference problem between Femtocells and pre-existing Macrocells as they share the same licensed frequency spectrum. Frequency Reuse (FR) is an effort of manipulating the frequency resource allocation upon terminal's location to improve system capacity. In this paper, an efficient method to improve system capacity through interference management in the existing FemtoMacro two tier networks has been proposed. In the proposed scheme, a novel frequency planning for two tiers cellular networks using frequency reuse technique is used where Macro base stations allocate frequency sub-bands for Femtocells users on-request basis through Femtocells base-stations to cancel interference. Going to implement power allocation or distribution based enhance ment of channel capacity taken as throughput in this paper.

Factorial Analysis of Al-Si-Mg Alloy Cast Hardness Based on Thickness and Ultimate Tensile Strength PDF

C. P. Egole, G.C. Nzebuka, U.S. Ikele, M.I. Chikwue

Factorial analysis of the hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast was carried out based on its thickness and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). A two-factorial empirical model was derived, validated and used for the analysis. The derived model showed that the hardness of the Al-Si-Mg alloy cast is a linear function of its thickness and UTS. The validity of the derived model expressed as: ξ = 0.19 ϑ + 0.0003ɤ + 46.0 was rooted on the model core expression ξ - 0.0003ɤ = 0.19ϑ + 46.0 where both sides of the expression are correspondingly approximately equal. Evaluations from generated results indicated that the standard error incurred in predicting the hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast for each value of its thickness & UTS considered, as obtained from experiment and derived model were 0.5497 and 4.8667 x 10-8% & 0.4463 and 0.8758 % respectively. The hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast per unit thickness & UTS as obtained from experiment and derived model results are 0.1857 and 0.19 HRB /mm & 0.2128 and 0.2177 HRB/ Nmm-2, respectively and the correlations with thickness & UTS were all > 0.95. Deviational analysis shows that the maximum deviation of model-predicted hardness of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast from the experimental results is less than 2%. These invariably translated into over 98% operational confidence for the derived model as well as over 0.98 reliability response coefficients of Al-Si-Mg alloy cast hardness to its thickness & UTS.

Effects and Solutions of Marine Pollution from Ships in Nigerian Waterways PDF

Umo Iduk, Nitonye Samson

The effects of marine pollution are enormous, ranging from impairment of surface water quality, disruption of aquatic growth, and reduction of amenities, affecting the health of man, etc. The main problem that leads to the pollution of aquatic environment is the attitude of not adhering to laid down standards for the protection of marine environment. Based on this, investigations have been made on Nigerian waterways in finding solution to these problems. Questionnaires were formulated, and research responses gotten were inputted in tables. After analysis, 84.7% of the responses showed that pollution of the marine environment and aquatic lives affects the economy of such community being polluted and the health of people are affected negatively. It means that the solution to the pollution of the aquatic environment is for the enforcement of the necessary laws by Government, such as the IMO regulations, to ensure that full compliance by operators within the industry in order to conserve and protect aquatic resources, provide safe seafood for human consumption and protect means of livelihood. Re-educating the citizen, ship owners, crew of a ship, oil exploring companies, and other corporate bodies, to be concerned and responsible for the respect and protection of the marine environment would also bring about control to the rate at which the marine environment is polluted especially from the vessels. This will go a long way in protecting the Nigerian waterways

Logo Recognition using SURF Features and kNN Search Tree PDF

Dr. Kazi A. Kalpoma, Umme Marzia Haque

In the contest of brand value and identity, the logo represents the company and gives strong impact on its reputation. So it is quite challenging to recognize a logo to maintain its standard level while designing. In this work, only SURF features are considered for logo recognition on gray scale image data. kNN search tree algorithm is used to get the nearest neighbors distance of SURF features between two different images. The percentage of matching features is calculated to recognize logo successfully. This percentage matching measurement of different data sets leads to recognize the logo of any organization undoubtedly when reference image dataset contains that logo.

Automated Person Identification System Using Walking Pattern Biometrics PDF

Md.Navid Rahman, Dr.Kazi A Kalpoma, Dr.Tabin Hasan

This paper provides a new human identification system based on the walking pattern biometrics of a person


Elegbeleye Oladipo

Deforestation in several countries has led to the crumbling and disintegration of forest with high effects of vulnerability on forest habitat, vegetation structures and extinction of wild life. Unfortunately deforestation affects the sustainability of the environment on a global scale with more detrimental effects on developing countries. Consequences of deforestation include global warming, flooding, climate change, water and air pollution. Removal of trees without proper replacement with new ones threatens human live which can lead to poverty. Findings reveal that at least 70% of the developing world lives below poverty line. This paper talks about deforestation on a global scale, how it affects human life, its benefits and how we should join hands with the relevant authorities to stop the damages done to the environment by cutting down trees.

Virtual Team Development PDF

Faisal Alsalamah

The office of upcoming generation my not look like our offices at all. Virtual Team development is going to become a prevalent concept where work means logging in to the companies’ management website from your home and collaborating with the colleagues who work for different teams. The physical location like building becomes least important in the case. In this ways company can hire best of the talents regardless of their locations. The efficiency of the company can be enhanced by handing off work across time zones that make them to be productive all the times.

Web Service Security PDF

Dinesh Kr. Tiwari, Natthan Singh

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) plays a very important role in Information System. Researchers are pointing out that the number of Information Systems based on SOA in next few years will significantly outnumber the legacy Systems. The reason behind this is the advantages that are offered by SOA itself and the technology used for development of SOA. SOA is based on Web Service (WS) Technology and inherits advantages and disadvantages of WS Technology. This is especially important in the context of SOA security issues that differ from legacy system security principles. SOA security issues are resolved through WS security solutions, like Trusted communication principles via SOAP, WS-Security, WS-SecureConversation; Trusted Web via WS-Trust, WS-Federation, and Trusted service via WS-Policy, WS-PolicyAssertion, WS-PolicyAttachment, WS-SeurityPolicy; WS-Authorization, WS-Privacy. This paper addresses the security mechanisms that are used in SOA based Information Systems in both design as well as implementation level. The brief explanation of each of the SOA security solution is given. An overview of compatibility issues as well as positive and negative sides of these solutions in SOA is also explained.

Toxicity Evaluation of Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius on Female Albino Wistar Rats PDF

Chukwuemeka, Obinna Godfrey, Nwankpa P.; Uloneme, G. C.; Etteh, C. C.; Ben-Udechukwu, Chioma; Okafor, P. N.

Toxicity evaluation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on female albino Wistar rats was investigated by monitoring toxicity indices such as serum glutathione, antioxidant capacity and elevated cyanide in serum and urine and elevated serum thiocyanate and nitrite. Feeding of female albino Wistar rats with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius containing 12.7 mg CN-1kg-1wt/wt gave the following results; group D (animals fed with 50% Cnidoscolus leaves) had the highest mean concentration value (538.19 ± 39.28) for total cyanide (TCN)(µg/ml) in urine while the control group (animals fed with only commercial feed) had the least concentration value(29.65 ± 4.42) in urine and for free cyanide (FCN)(µg/ml) in urine, group D had 53.39 ± 1.66 while group A had 0.7 ± 0.68. But for serum total cyanide (µg/ml), the control group had the highest mean concentration value of 3.079 ± 1.52 and 1.266 ± 0.1 for serum free cyanide (FCN)(µg/ml) whereas group D had 0.358 ± 0.102 for serum total cyanide and 0.106 ± 0.08 for serum free cyanide. Total antioxidant capacity of the analysis was also observed using Sorbo method (1953) with respect to thiocyanate ion concentration in serum (µm/ml). Serum thiocyanate concentration was found to occur highest in group D with 3.50 ± 0.27 and the control group had the least with 0.15 ± 0.03. Decrease in whole blood glutathione (an important biological antioxidant) was also observed and group D contained the least mean value with -0.018 ± 0.008 (µg/ml) while the control group had the highest with 0.260 ± 0.003 (µg/ml). Increase in nitrite (N-nitrosamine precursor) was also observed. Group D had 19.94 ± 2.00 mean concentration value (µm/ml) whereas the control group had the least with 9.62 ± 1.17 (µm/ml). The toxicological implications of these findings are discussed.

Deficit Irrigation Management Practice for Major Crops in Kunigal Command Area PDF

R. Shreedhar, Dr. A.V.Shivapur & Nithya B.K.

The increase in water demand has resulted in new methods of saving water worldwide with about 70% of water being used in agriculture globally, water saving techniques has to be practiced. Irrigation technologies and irrigation scheduling may be adopted for more effective and rational uses of limited supplies of water. Deficit irrigation is one of the methods designed to ensure the optimal use of allocated water. It maximizes water use efficiency for better yields per unit of irrigation water applied through by exposing the crops to a certain level of water stress either during a particular period or throughout the growing season. A study is carried out to review the crop yield responses to deficit irrigation in Kunigal command areas. The major crops taken for study include rice, pulses, groundnut, sugarcane and millet (ragi). Simulation are carried out using agro-climatic data development of irrigation schedules under deficit irrigation and evaluation of current irrigation practices were done by crop growth simulation software CROPWAT 8.0 developed by FAO. From the simulation, it is evident that deficit irrigation incurs yield reductions in proportional to water stress magnitudes but saves substantial amount of water. The recommended deficit irrigation practice is to water stress the crop during mid stage of crop cycle thus saving more water & incurring acceptable yield reductions to the farmers.

Integrating Landsat-ETM and Aeromagnetic Data for Enhanced Structural Interpretation over Naraguta Area, North-Central Nigeria PDF

Opara Alexander. I., Onyekuru Samuel. O., Mbagwu Esther. C., Emberga Theophilus. T., Ijeomah Kingsley. C., and Nwokocha Kingsley.C.

Structural interpretation over Naraguta area was carried out using aeromagnetic and Landsat ETM data with the objective of delineating the linear features of the study. Several image processing and analytical techniques were applied to the aeromagnetic and landsat data to improve the data quality and resolution. Linear features identified in the study area revealed principal trend directions in the NW-SE, NE-SW, N-S and E-W directions with the N-S trend been dominant. Results of the 2-D spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic data revealed a two depth source model. The depth to the deeper magnetic source bodies has an average depth of 2.03km. This layer may be attributed to magnetic rocks of the basement, lateral variations in basement susceptibilities and intra- basement features like faults and fractures. The shallower magnetic sources with an average depth of 0.265km could be attributed to near surface magnetic sources, which are magnetic rocks which intruded into the sedimentary overburden. Most of the interpreted lineations were observed to correspond to the trends and positions of the trans-oceanic fracture zones in the area. There is also a marked correlation of the location of the Younger Granite Ring complexes and the lineaments in the study area. This observed relationship may be attributed to tectonic control of secondary mineralization in the study area. Most of the lineaments also correlated with the orientation of the drainage lines indicating that the drainage system in the area may be structurally controlled. Finally, the drainage pattern in the study area was observed to be dendritic which is indicative of lithological heterogeneity.

Application of Modified PSO in Economic Load Dispatch Problem of Thermal Generating Unit PDF

Youssef Nagem Amhamad, Jyoti Shrivastava

This paper deals with the problem of economic load dispatch (ELD) in thermal generating unit. The main issue of generating unit to minimize the cost of generation so modified Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is proposed for solving this issue. The modified PSO method was developed through simulation of a simplified social system and has been found to be robust in solving continuous nonlinear optimization problems in terms of accuracy of the solution and computation time The proposed algorithm is applied for the ELD of six unit thermal plant systems and the performance of the proposed modified PSO method is compared with the existing general PSO method and it is observed that this method is reliable, accurate and less iteration process. All results obtained through MATLAB Simulink software. The comparison of results shows that the proposed modified PSO method was indeed capable of obtaining higher quality solutions efficiently for ELD problems within less computation time.

Dynamic Load Distribution Cross-layer Algorithm for Video Transmission over IEEE 802.11n WLANs PDF

Lal Chand Bishnoi, Dharm Singh Jat

The advancement of the Internet technologies has brought with it a tremendous amount of multimedia traffic. Medium access coordination function incorporated by using distributed coordination function (DCF) has the limited quality of services (QoS) in Wireless networks. So it is necessary to have a mechanism for QoS on a wireless network that video and voice over Internet protocol (IP) services can run with good quality along with other data services. This simulation analyzed the performance enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) 802.11n for video transmission in light and heavy load using without mapping, static, adaptive and dynamic cross-layer mapping techniques. The proposed dynamic load distribution cross-layer algorithm gives better average throughput and PSNR value compared against the results derived from EDCA IEEE 802.11n, Adaptive Cross-Layer Mapping, Dynamic Adaptive Cross-layer mapping mechanism and the static mapping algorithm.

Introduction to SMAC- Social Mobile Analytics and Cloud PDF

Hafedh Ibrahim Alfouzan

SMAC (Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) is an integration of four technologies that have become the drivers of innovation in businesses at present.

Enhanced ac-To-ac Frequency Changer Based on Multi-Phase Smart Comparative Commutation PDF

Mohammed S. M. A. Khesbak, Ibraheem M. Khaleel, Riyadh M. Ali

Direct AC to AC power conversion was always a challenge to be proposed as an alternative for the DC-link one. This is due to multiple of reasons such as less complexity, power regeneration, and unity power factor privileges. However, the challenge is represented by producing a direct AC to AC system with output waveforms having reduced total harmonic distortion comparable or superior to that generated by the DC-link converters. In such a trend this paper introduces an enhanced AC-to-AC frequency changer with reduced total harmonic distortion frequency spectrum compared to the envelope cycloconverter one. This proposed work introduces smart comparative phases switching carried out via a processing unit that detects and measure the analogue voltages of each phase and sends a switching triggers to the power switching circuit. The proposed work reflected an effective reduction in output waveforms harmonic content (about 60%) compared to the envelope cycloconverter with low cost system requirements.

Shielding Effect During Fracture of Stainless Steels PDF

Farej Ahmed Alhegagi

The role of some microstructural features in blocking the fracture path was investigated for duplex stainless steels (DSS). Sets of fatigued specimens , Wedge Open Load WOL , were heat treated at 475ºC for different times and pulled to failure either in air , CT specimens , or after kept in 3.5% NaCl with polarization of -900 mV/ SCE i.e WOL specimens . Fracture took place in general by ferrite cleavage and austenite ductile fracture in transgranular mode. Specimens measured stiffness ( Ms ) was affected by the aging time, with higher values measured for specimens aged for longer times. The ratio of the measured stiffness to the predicted stiffness was observed to increase with the crack length. Microstructural features played a role in " blocking" the crack propagation process leading to increase the resistance of the material to fracture, R-curve vs crack length , specially for specimens aged for short times. Unbroken ligaments/ austenite were observed at the crack wake. These features may exerted a shielding stress , blocking effect , at the crack tip giving resistance to the crack propagation process i.e the crack mouth opening was reduced.. Higher stress intensity factor KIC values were observed with increased amounts of crack growth suggesting longer zone of unbroken ligaments in the crack wake. The shielding zone was typically several mm in length.. Attempt to model the bridge stress was suggested to understand the role of ligaments / unbroken austenite in increasing the fracture toughness factor.

475°C Embrittlement in Stainless Steels PDF

Farej Ahmed Alhegagi

The effect of 475°C embrittlement on the mechanical properties of duplex stainless steels (DSS) was investigated. Specimens of compact tension specimens (CT) were heat treated at 475°C for different times and pulled to failure in air. Hardness was measured and fracture surface was studied for each specimens using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Depends on treatment time results showed that specimen hardness , fracture mode , cracking bath , fracture toughness and the crack length were affected by the treatment at 475°C. An increase in specimens hardness was clearly measured with increasing treatment time at 475°C. The ferrite phase fractured in a brittle manner with more tendency to cleave with increasing treatment time. No intergranular failure was observed for all tested specimens. The austenite phase fractured in a ductile manner, plastic deformation, and showed no effect of heating at 475°C on this phase fracture mechanism.

Evaluation of Background Radioactivity In Ogbete Coal Mine Dumpsites In Enugu, Nigeria PDF

Nwankpa, Alexander Chinyere

The assessment of naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in Ogbete coal mine dumpsites in Enugu were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry with high purity germanium detector to determine the natural radionuclide in the dumpsites and to evaluate the hazards these might have on the public. The calculated average activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the samples were 18.7 ± 2.9 Bqkg-1, 24.4 ± 2.2 Bqkg-1, and 164.4 ± 17.3 Bqkg-1 respectively. The mean activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the present study is much lower than the world-wide average values of 33 Bqkg-1, 45 Bqkg-1 and 420 Bqkg-1 respectively. The present study revealed that the calculated average absorbed dose rate, indoor annual effective dose rate and outdoor annual effective dose were found as 31.2 nGyh-1, 0.15 mSvy-1 and 0.04 mSvy-1 respectively. The mean values of the absorbed dose rate, the indoor and outdoor annual effective dose rates are much lower than the world average recommended safety limits. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended the annual effective dose equivalent limit of 1mSvy-1for the individual members of the public and 20mSvy-1 for the radiation workers. Therefore it can be concluded that the present study area is radiologically safe from radiation hazards and will pose no harmful effects to the environmental and the living population.

Utilization of Mollusc Shells for Concrete Production for Sustainable Environment PDF

Adekunle P. Adewuyi, Shodolapo O. Franklin, Kamoru A. Ibrahim

The ability to reduce, reuse and recycle mollusc shell waste for civil and construction engineering applications is an attractive component of integrated waste management scheme. This paper presents the applicability of mollusc farming residues especially the shells and shell-ash in partial or full replacement for coarse aggregate and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) respectively. The chemical constituents of mollusc shell ashes at 800oC which qualify as pozzolans are comparable with the conventional cements. The physical properties and size distribution of periwinkle, cockle and oyster shells qualify for coarse aggregate which with paste and fine aggregate produce lightweight concrete without jeopardizing strength. Finally, the durability of concrete so-produced from shell-coarse aggregate is guaranteed at a maximum temperature of 300oC and the shell ash-blended cement concrete under sulphate attack experienced the least reduction in compressive strength.

Innovative Wireless Battery Charger- A Study PDF

Peeyush Chandra, Shikhar Bahl, Vandana Rathore, Alka Shukla

In this paper, an innovative design of a simple type wireless battery charger for portable electronic devices especially for mobile is proposed. The wireless charger will convert the RF/ microwave signal into a DC signal, and then store the power into a battery. The charger is divided into parts: transmitter, antenna, and charging circuit. A complete discussion of the specifications of the battery charger is provided after data measurements. This report also includes component lists, financial, data results, and other key information.

Delamination analysis of carbon-glass hybrid polymer composites in drilling process PDF

Tan, C.L, Azmi, A.I and Mohamad, N

Hybrid composites of carbon-glass fibre have gained wide application in various facets of engineering due to material property enhancements. In common practices, hybrid composite are manufactured to near-net shapes; however, finishing operation that involves machining operation such as drilling is essential for assembly with other components. In this paper, the parametric effects of controlled parameters on delamination during drilling carbon/glass hybrid polymer composite are presented. Taguchi design of experiment is employed to statistically analyze the drilling performance of carbon/glass hybrid composite. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the effects of spindle speed, feed rate and tool geometry on delamination using tungsten carbide (K20) tool of 8 mm diameter. The results showed that the delamination values are greatly influenced by the feed rate and tool geometry rather than spindle speed. This is likely due to the higher thrust force exerts on the workpiece during drilling operation.

Estimates of Aquifer Hydraulic Characteristics and Vulnerability from Surface Resistivity Data: Case Study of Ugep and Environs, Southeastern Nigeria PDF

Opara Alexander.I, Inyang Godwin.E, Onyekuru Samuel.O, Emberga Theophilus.T Ekwe Amobi.C, and Eke Daberechi. R.

Detailed hydrogeophysical study of Ugep and environs was carried out to determine the aquifer hydraulic parameters using Dar-zarrock parameters. Forty (40) vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were acquired using the digital Terrameter, SAS 4000 model. The Schlumberger configuration with a maximum current electrode spacing (AB) of 1000 meters was used for data acquisition. Twelve (12) parametric soundings were carried out near existing boreholes where pumping test data were available for correlative purposes and to constrain model predictive parameters. The VES data were interpreted using the conventional partial curve matching technique to obtain initial model parameters which were later used as input data for computer iterative modelling. The layer parameters thus obtained from the analysis were combined with information from litho-logs and pumping test data from existing boreholes to estimate aquifer hydraulic parameters using Dar-Zarrouk parameters. Results of the study revealed the aquifer resistivity in the study area ranges from 34.9Ωm at VES 3 to 3920Ωm at VES 32.The depth to the water table range from 12.4m -147m with a mean value of 67.96m, while aquifer thickness varies from 5.7m to 123m with a mean value of 47.3m.The values of the Dar-Zarrock parameters revealed that the transverse resistance varies between 84992Ωm2 to 1106.33Ωm2 with a mean value of 19,817Ωm2 while the longitudinal conductance has a mean value of 0.2848mhos/m. Similarly, hydraulic conductivity in the area ranges from 0.06m/day to 83.37m/day with a mean value of 12.75m/day, while the transmissivity values ranges from 2.233m2/day to1784.83m2, with an average of 375.93m2/day. Estimates of aquifer vulnerability rating indicates that about 2.5% of the study area has a low class of groundwater vulnerability to contamination, whereas 55% of the study area indicated moderate aquifer vulnerability with DRASTIC index ranges of 107 to 140. It was also revealed that about 42.5% of the study area falls within the high aquifer vulnerability zone with a DRASTIC index value of between136-177.

Sodium borohydride mediated one-pot synthesis of secondary amides from primary amides via reductive acetylation PDF

G. Gurunadham, R. Madhusudhan Raju*, Y. Venkateswarlu

A one-pot reduction followed by N-acetylation of primary amides to yield secondary amides using NaBH4/Acetic acid has been developed and the corresponding N-acetyl amides are obtained respectable yields.

Utilization of open-source FEM software in modeling of magnetic field distribution around unusually shaped conductor PDF

Paweł Nowak, Roman Szewczyk

The modeling of the magnetic field distribution is required in many engineering research applications. It is crucial in simulation of transformers properties, as well as in achieving electromagnetic compatibility. Analytical solutions are suitable only in special or idealized cases. Another, more general approach is based on finite element method. Basing on FEM, approximate solutions of most cases could be calculated in acceptable time. On the other hand, many FEM softwares have significant limits on the geometry of input model of simulated elements. The following paper presents partial solution of this problem, as well as exemplary results of simulations.

Location Information: Another Perspective of Intelligence Gathering for Minimizing Terrorism in Nigeria PDF

Abubakar Sani, Zauwali Sabitu Paki, Hadiza Aliyu Umar

Security challenges are the order of the day in some countries around the globe, Nigeria inclusive. Series of measures were proposed and even implemented, but due to population size, lack of social amenities (i.e. Power) and time factor rendered some of them insufficient enough to tackle the issue. Nigeria, as at February 2014, has recorded total number of cell phone users to be (167,371,945). Therefore, via wiretapping and imagery intelligence, this number or even more will be on surveillance over a period of time so as to pinpoint suspects through location information. To achieve this, there must be a tradeoff between citizen privacy and optimum security.

Methodology of Correlation Analysis in Solution of a Problem of Normalization of Projective Image Transformations PDF

Vyacheslav V. Lyashenko, Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad, Valentin A. Lyubchenko, Oleg A. Kobylin

Processing and interpretation of images is one of composing systems of the intellectual analysis of data. It is caused by that the significant part of information about outward things can be received on the basis of the video data analysis about images of the real world. At that, such analysis uses various methods, approaches and theories where the special place is occupied by the procedures connected with recognition of scenes or separate objects, presented on incoming images. Thus, it is necessary to consider the fact, that incoming images owing to objective factors could be subject to various geometrical distortions. Such distortions impose the restrictions and features on possibility of application of separate approaches and methods to processing and interpretation of images. Hence, a procedure of correlation normalization of images which allows to compare and recognize images is considered in this work. The work proves the possibility of representation of projective group of transformations, as one of versions of geometrical distortions of the incoming image, in the form of composition of the basic, simple transformations which are also versions of geometrical distortions of the incoming image. At the same time, the expediency of application of a partial correlation method for realization of procedure of correlation normalization of images is considered. The formalized description of the offered procedure of correlation normalization of images is given. Examples of separate steps of realization of the offered procedure are resulted.

The goniometer on laser gyro base PDF

Igor Korobiichuk, Olena Bezvesilna, Andriі Tkachuk, Michał Nowicki, Roman Szewczyk

The scheme of goniometer on laser gyro base and its operation algorithms are pre¬sented. Mathematical model for an angle measurement error is also presented. The analysis of measurement error components has been carried out. We paid special attention to the ef¬fect of the Earth's angular rate on the angle measurement error and showed the ways for re¬duction of this component of the error. International comparisons results are presented as wed.

An Analysis of the Hash-Based Proof-of-Work Chain in the Bitcoin Network PDF

Neel Gupte

A Bitcoin Is an electronic payment method that is based on cryptographic proof instead of trust [1] allowing any two users to manage their transactions without dependence on a third party organization (a financial institution). Each party can transfer Bitcoins to the other digitally by signing a previous hash along with the public key of the next owner and so on. The Bitcoin network timestamps the transactions into blocks and hashes them into a chain of a hash based proof-of-work [1] (block chain) and combining them into a block. Such a chain is known as a block chain. It is decided that the longest block chain shall serve as the proof of the sequence of transactions witnessed by the network. Also it is a proof that it came from the largest pool of computational power put in by Bitcoin Miners (people who help in generating new blocks for the proof-of-work in return for a bounty). A major issue with the Bitcoin network is the problem of attacking nodes trying to double-spend the Bitcoin transactions i.e. re-spend the money they have already spent. They can do so by trying to generate an alternate chain faster than the honest nodes. As long as these honest nodes manage the majority of computational power, the attacker node wont be able to interfere with the block chain. In this paper we see how effective the traditional bitcoin proof-of-work policy is against the attackers and what measures and methods can be adopted in order to nullify the probability of an attacker to interfere with the block chain.

3G/4G Services Evolution in Pakistan PDF

Misbah Ur Rehman & Dr. Irfan Zafar

With the introduction of 3G/4G services by the mobile companies, there is an eminent threat to the legacy landline business because of the data services being offered by the mobile companies. Unless and until some sustainable model is not devised, the landline business might suffer immensely with declining revenues. The research thesis will cover the present telecom scenario in the country and will look at the pre and post 3G/4G licensing scenario. After doing this analysis, the landline network will be studied and a model will be developed which will take care of the threat to the landline network.

The Effect of Wind Turbine Location on the Economic Load Dispatch Based on Particle Swarm Optimization PDF

Kamel A. Shoush, E. El-Attar

The economic load dispatch (ELD) represents one of the basic functions of power system operation and planning. In general, the task of ELD is to allocate optimally loads among on-line generating units in order to minimize the total operational cost subject to power balance, system reserve requirements and other system constraints. Renewable energy resources such as wind power have significant attention in recent years in power system field. It takes part to minimize the fuel consumption in the thermal units. This paper presents the influence of a wind turbine location on the optimization of ELD problem. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is presented to solve this problem. The performance of the presented method is evaluated using two standard systems, and compared with two published methods. The first is evolutionary represented by the genetic algorithm (GA) and the second is determinist represented by the interior point (IP). In addition, a comparison between results obtained of money profits in different buses is done to choose the most cost effective wind penetration site.

Groundwater Management in Wadi El Natrun Pliocene aquifer, Egypt PDF

Ahmed O. Ahmed, S. Khalaf, M. G. Abdalla, A. A. El Masry

Wadi El Natrun (WEN) Depression located in semi-arid area at El Behera governorate, western of Nile Delta, Egypt. The study area covers about 770 Km2. WEN Depression is very important for many aspects; agriculture, industrial, tourism and recreation investment because of high potential of groundwater, accessibility, and investment of facilities that provided by the government. During recent years, water resources of WEN have been encountered with problems due to overgrowth of exploitation establishments and agricultural processes. Thus, to evaluate the existing situation and managing a good usage of water resources, MODFLOW was used to simulate the groundwater behavior of Wadi El Natrun Pliocene Aquifer (WNPA). The calibration proses of the model parameters were applied under steady-state and transient-state conditions using the available data of 14 observation wells. Based on the MODFLOW model, four appropriate scenarios are proposed for a sustainable groundwater for prediction of the drawdown and head levels. The results of calibration appear that the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer ranges between 10 and 45 m/day. Calibrated specific storage ranges from 0.0001 to 0.1. The results of the first scenario show that the predicted total IN budget of Pliocene aquifer will be (107250) m3/day, while the OUT budget will be (107220) m3/day after simulation period (50 years).

Effectiveness of Soil Solarization with Polyethylene Sheets & Organic Manure to Control Weeds & Fungi & to Increase the Lettuce Yield PDF

Samir Gamil Al-Solaimani, Sajid Mahmood, Shakeel Ahmad, Ihsanullah Duar, Fathy.S. El-Nakhlawy, Abdullatif A. Nematullah

This experiment was conducted at King Abduaziz Agricultural Research Station at Hada Al-Sham. We investigated the effect of soil solarization with polyethylene sheets (100, 200 microns and uncovered soil) and organic manure (animal manure, cabbage leaves, date palm fronds, animal manure + cabbage leaves, animal manure + date palm fronds, cabbage leaves + date palm fronds, animal manure + cabbage leaves + date palm fronds) on some soil chemical characteristics, soil fungi population, weed growth and lettuce yield during two seasons (2009-2010). The treatments caused significant increase in the soil content of N, P and K with pronounced effect of the 100 micron sheet followed by 200 micron sheet over unsolarized soil. The polyethylene sheet (100 µ) significantly decreased the weed growth and fungal count cfu g-1 dry soil compared with 200 micron sheet and unsolarized soil. The 100 and 200 microns sheets significantly improved the lettuce yield up to 347.5 and 237.2 %, respectively, over unsolarized soil. Animal manure at 30 t ha-1 increased lettuce yield by 77.6 % compared with control. Thus, soil solarization with polyethylene sheet (100 µ) with animal manure is wise approach for sustainable control of weed and soil fungi and for improving lettuce yield.

An Affective and Adaptive E-Learning System: A Machine Learning Based Approach PDF

Lopa Mandal, Neelabjo Mukherjee, Samar Bhattacharya, Pramatha Nath Basu

E-learning has become a useful tool in today’s education used widely by independent learners, corporate organizations and educational institutions. However e-learning systems, in most cases falter because unlike a conventional teacher-student setup, e-learning environments cannot detect student moods and emotions. This often leaves way students are left on their own, with no guiding or motivating force channelizing their process of learning, increasing the dropout rates in such systems. The present work proposes a novel approach to analyze learners’ emotions using machine learning technique with no expensive equipment or questionnaire involved in the detection process. Hereby, the system on its own acts like a conventional teacher, which can predict a learner’s learning state and mood based on his actions and teaches accordingly. Here using that learning state, the learner’s emotion is instantly deduced by using Barry Kort’s spiral learning model, providing an idea of a learner’s emotional state at any given point of the learning process, which can then be used to improve the emotional state of the learner wherever required.

Modelling and forecasting the Maintenance Cost of Roads in Anambra State PDF

C. C. Ihueze and Ekwueme, O. G.

This study dealt with evaluating the maintenance cost of roads in Anambra State using the times series approach. The objective of the present study to develop a time series model for estimating maintenance cost of roads in Anambra State. Secondary data set obtained from Consolidated Construction Company (CCC) form the year 2004 to 2013 was used to evaluate the analysis. The statistical tools used include the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test, Augmented Dickey-Fuller test, time series analysis and descriptive analysis. The findings of the study showed that the maintenance cost of roads has an increasing trend over time. The series was found to be stationary using the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. Also, it was found that the series has no unit root at the first difference using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller test. It was concluded that the series was stationary overtime which implies that the model obtained can be used to make forecast for future behaviour of the process. Hence, five years forecast on the maintenance cost of roads in Anambra State was made and it was found that in the year 2018 all things being equal the maintenance cost of roads in Anambra State is expected to be about N237,226,028. This result implies that the maintenance cost of roads in Anambra State is expected be about N237,226,028 in the year 2018.

Prediction of phase equilibria in binary systems containing acetone using artificial neural network PDF

Ali Farzi, Ali Tarjoman Nejad

In this paper, phase equilibrium of eleven binary systems containing acetone is estimated using artificial neural networks (ANN). VLE data were taken from literature for wide ranges of temperature (298.15-391.25K) and pressure (2.640 to 101.33kPa). Based on obtained results, the best structure for ANN is feed-forward network with sigmoid and linear activation functions for hidden and output layers, respectively. The network consists of seven inputs for temperature, pressure, acentric factor, critical temperature and critical pressure of the system, 19 neurons in hidden layer and two neurons in output layer corresponding to vapor and liquid compositions of acetone in binary mixture. The weights were optimized to minimize error between calculated and experimental VLE data using Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation training algorithm. Results show that optimum network architecture is able to predict equilibrium data of binary systems containing acetone with an acceptable level of accuracy AAD % of 0.815, and R2 of 0.9979.

Feasibility of Waterfall Model to Enhance Human Resource Management System PDF

Shah Mohazzem Hossain, Md Rokonuzzaman, Md Abdul Wahed, Shafiul Hasan Rafi

Organisations may try to improve the effectiveness of the supply chain by managing HR across organisational boundaries. This might be a particularly effective strategy if a client organisation focuses on increasing the use of ‘good’ or high performance working practices in its suppliers, as there is considerable evidence that such practices can contribute directly to organisational success and lead to higher employee well-being. An additional advantage of such a strategy might be to help protect the client organisation’s reputation and brand image by insuring that suppliers provide employees with working conditions that customers perceive as decent. Managing HR across organisational boundaries therefore provides a mechanism by which HR practices can be diffused throughout the supply chain. Waterfall development is a widely used way of working in software development companies with a great impact on HR management.

Review of Secure Software Development in Various Agile Models PDF

Imran Liaqat, Ahsan Raza Sattar, Nayyar Iqbal, Hafiza Sadia Hassan

Software whether application or system are most valuable assets of a computer system. Hardware of computer is also dependent upon software. Initially software requirements, size, complexities and operating environment were limited. There are multiple development methodologies such as waterfall, spiral, rational unified process and now the most common agile. Scrum, XP, DSDM, FDD, and Crystal are some of commonly used agile software development methodologies being used for development of software in increments. Agile facilitates quick releases, iterations and customer involvement. Weak coding practices are major cause of software vulnerabilities. Secure programming rules should be followed for writing programs in order to manage security. Interactive Static Analysis integrates static analysis in Integrated Development Environment (IDE) it assists and indicate programmer such coding mistakes.

US-Scrum: A Methodology for Developing Software with Enhanced Correctness, Usability and Security PDF

Usman Rafi, Tasleem Mustafa, Nayyar Iqbal, Waseeq-Ul-Islam Zafar

In this modern era customized software especially web applications are given more importance because of global and simultaneous access. Software quality is an important concern of the software developers and customers. Certain number of software quality attributes such as availability, integrity, interoperability, correctness, maintainability, performance, reliability, reusability, scalability, security, testability and usability are defined for quality assessment. Agile software development methods though flexible in coping with changes and organize the software development around functional requirements. Due to advancements in web technology security threats and usability issues have also increased. Agile involves the limelight for ensuring correctness of software while ignoring important quality attributes like security and usability. The purpose of this research is to propose a hybrid model based on Feature Driven Development (FDD) and Scrum principles to accommodate quality focus in terms of correctness, security and usability. The proposed model is organized around multiple sprints, specialized managers and specialized teams. The proposed model provides the benefits of being more user focused and increased customer satisfaction by employing comprehensive verification and validation process.

Optimization of total essential oil yield of Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. by using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction PDF

Aarti Singh, Anees Ahmad

The present work deals with the extraction of essential oils from dried bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum N. Essential oil was extracted by four different methods; Traditional hydro distillation (HD), solvent extraction (SE), ultrasonication (US) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2). The optimization process was carried out using factorial design and maximum yield (3.8%) of essential oil was obtained at optimum conditions of pressure (200 bar), temperature (40 0C) and CO2 flow rate (4 g/min). Chemical composition of essential oil obtained from bark of cinnamon was analysed GCMS and FTIR and its antioxidant activity was also evaluated.

PAPR reduction in OFDM systems via genetic algorithm PDF

Amir Fawzy Rofael, Dr.Mohamed Saad Zaghloul

Peak average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) had been main concern upon last year's so many researchers digging for it. Many methods had been proposed for this aim. The most popular algorithms were the partial transmit sequences (PTS) method and variable to variable crossover in genetic algorithm (GA) there is also combination between the two methods for optimization PAPR reduction. Main question proposed was always targeting about what is the least value the algorithm can approach, main challenge was about max blocks to be used to get results for PAPR reduction.

Intelligent Sorting System Based on Computer Vision for Ba-nana Industry PDF

Kamil Dimililer, Ebenezer O. Olaniyi

In this paper, an intelligent sorting system based on computer vision for banana industry has been developed. This system is designed to solve the problem facing food production industry such as low production, and inaccuracy in production. This paper is segmented into three stages which are the image pre-processing stage, image processing stage and the identification stage. The image pre-processing stage made up of the acquiring of the banana images, the image processing stage is the processing of the images to extract the features required in training the neural network at the identification stage. In the identification stage, BPNN was used to train the network and tested with feedforward neural network. The recognition rate of 98% was obtained which shows an optimal recognition rate required in the industry.

Hand Gesture Recognition based on Digital Image Processing using MATLAB PDF

Tahir Khan under supervision of Dr. Amir Hassan Pathan

This research work presents a prototype system that helps to recognize hand gesture to normal people in order to communicate more effectively with the special people. Aforesaid research work focuses on the problem of gesture recognition in real time that sign language used by the community of deaf people. The problem addressed is based on Digital Image Processing using Color Segmentation, Skin Detection, Image Segmentation, Image Filtering, and Template Matching techniques. This system recognizes gestures of ASL (American Sign Language) including the alphabet and a subset of its words.

Development of Statistical Model for Prediction of Dynamic Modulus of Cement Concrete of Known Mixed Design PDF

Dr. Akhtar Ali Malik

Dynamic modulus (E) of concrete is an important strength parameter used in the design of many civil engineering structures. It is greatly influenced by variations in mixed design, curing condition, construction practice, and time [2]. The major objective of this study was to formulate statistical model to predict the dynamic modulus by using information about the above mentioned variation. For this purpose 6x12 inch cylindrical concrete samples of different mixed design were made and tested at different ages by the impulse load test. The data obtained was used for the development of this model that provides an indirect nondestructive testing procedure. The developed model is helpful to eliminate undue construction delays of newly constructed structural members. Moreover, the model is useful for reaching a mixed design quickly without making and testing many samples of differently mixed proportions, as recommended by ACI Standard 211.1.

Scrum Based Quality Enhancement Model for Supervising Final Year Projects of Computer Science PDF

Hafiza Sadia Hassan, Nayyar Iqbal, Ahsan Raza Sattar, Usman Rafi

The challenges of today’s computer science courses are not the specific technical competencies, but rather organizational issues which are a hindrance in effective teaching. By introducing new teaching methodologies we can cope with them and make teaching efficient and effective and can achieve worldwide standards. The purpose of this research is to introduce the integration of agile methods in a capstone course for Bachelor of Science degree. With the integration of Scrum model into computer science teaching techniques, an educational beneficent alternate of traditional teaching methodologies is identified. Rapid prototyping and incremental development provide many opportunities for students to improve and reflect themselves. The focus of Scrum on self-organizing teams offers a podium to practice project organization, by empowering students to take the obligation for the product development process. This can enhance students’ preparation for a future career as professionals. By using it, we can reduce the gap between educational and industrial hubs and can compete with global industry. We observed some encouraging points, i.e. such as the practical nature of learning by example. The main conclusion of this research is that, a modified version of Scrum methodology is necessary to work in our academic scenario. This paper discusses a case study regarding the application of scrum model in supervising the capstone projects of students of BS(IT) classes in GPCSF.

RFID Technology to control manufacturing systems using OPC server PDF

Wassim Mansour, Khaled Jelassi

Starting from the “Industry 4.0” concept, this work aims to develop an event-condition-action (ECA) based structure to control in-telligent manufacturing systems (IMS). RFID technology is used as a main component to gather data from shop floor. These data are used to control product rooting among workstations and to control systems agents (robot’s arms for example). The whole system has OPC based architecture. A generic GUI using C-sharp compiler is developed allowing users to edit manufacturing sequences that could be automatically loaded from ERP software.

Cadmium Toxicity And Its Phytoremediation A Review PDF

Anita Sharma and Sarita Sachdeva

Cumulative effect of urbanization, industrialization and population growth is increasing pressure on the limited natural resources. The change in living style has aggravated the problems. Among the diverse environmental problems, the discharge of heavy metals in environment through industrial, agricultural and domestic activities is of great concern. Removal of heavy metal from environment is a challenge as these toxic metals are non-biodegradable and bioaccumulate in living organisms. Sustainable development requires the use of green technologies to treat the wide range of contaminated aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Phytoremediation is an alternative to conventional methods for treating waste compounds. This review discusses the occurrence and toxicity of cadmium, the various remediation techniques with emphasis on phytoremediation of cadmium. Phytoremediation by plants occupying different taxonomic position is discussed. The scientific literature reveals that this technology has tremendous potential to cater for the needs and can be effectively used for environmental protection, sustainability and management.

Grey-Fuzzy Approach to Optimize the Process Parameters of Drilling of GFRP PDF

S. Ranganathan, C. Thiagarajan and P. Shankar

Glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites are alternative to engineering materials because of economic, light weight, corrosive resistance and superior properties. In this paper, a Taguchi–Fuzzy decision method has been used to determine the effective process parameters for improving the quality of the drilled GFRP composites. The influence of drilling parameters on surface quality of GFRP plastic composite material, delamination, thrust force and torque was investigated experimentally. Drilling tests were carried out using WC drills of 12 mm in diameter at 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm spindle speeds and at 0.04, 0.08, 0.12 and 0.16 mm/rev feed rates. The significant process parameters have been determined by using ANOVA. Optimum level of drilling parameter have identified by using the values of grey relational grade derived from grey analysis. The analysis of grey relational grade shows that feed rate is the influential parameter than spindle speed.

Problem Solving Approach to the Performance and Attitude in College Algebra of College Students PDF

Eduard M. Albay

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of problem-solving approach on the performance in and attitude of freshmen college students towards College Algebra. In the study, the Pretest-Posttest Control group design was utilized which involved two matched groups of respondents – the experimental group and the control group. The relevant concepts in selected topics in College Algebra were taught to the experimental group using the problem-solving approach, while the conventional approach in teaching and learning was employed to the control group. The research study was conducted during the first semester of school year 2014-2015. Necessary data were gathered through the achievement test, attitude scale questionnaire in College Algebra, form 138, and College Admission Test results sheet. The data gathered were managed using frequency counts, percentages, means, paired and t-test. The results of the analyses showed that the implementation of the problem solving approach in teaching College Algebra had positively affected and improved the performance of the respondents. it was also found out that the utilization of the problem-solving approach in the delivery of instruction in College Algebra had positively contributed to the development and reinforcement of a favorable attitude towards the subject.

An Efficient Intrusion Detection Scheme for Mitigating Nodes Using Data Aggregation in Delay Tolerant Network PDF

A.S.Syed Navaz, J.Antony Daniel Rex, P.Anjala Mary

Delay tolerant networks (DTNs) exploit the intermittent connectivity between mobile nodes to transfer data. Due to a lack of consistent connectivity, two nodes exchange data only when they move into the transmission range of nodes In DTNs, a node may misbehave by dropping packets even when it has sufficient buffers. Routing misbehavior can be caused by selfish nodes that are unwilling to spend resources such as power and buffer on forwarding packets of others, or caused by malicious nodes that drop packets to launch attacks To address the problem, we recommend a distributed scheme to detect packet dropping in DTNs. In planned TP Trust misbehavior detection scheme, is required to keep a signed contact records of its previous contacts of transfer data, disseminated to a certain number of witness nodes, carry and store which can collect appropriate contact records and detect the misbehaving nodes to resend analysis with NDD. We also planned a scheme to mitigate routing misbehavior by limiting the number of packets forwarded to the misbehaving nodes. Trace-driven simulations show MASP to transfer the data with secure group aggregators to give security to our solutions are efficient and can effectively mitigate routing misbehavior.

Data Attribute Security for Distributed Database PDF

Sapana Patil

Privacy-preserving publishing of micro data plays important in recent year because it is important to secure the sensitive information from data. We have used several micro data anonymization techniques such as Generalization, Bucketization and Slicing. A Slicing is a technique which divides data into two partitions such as horizontal and vertical. Slicing provides better data effectiveness than generalization and it also protect from membership disclosure. Data Provider aware algorithm is used for anonymization of the dataset which result into the reduction of the waiting time. Problem of attacks are removed with SQL Injection Prevention Technique. Experiments confirms that our approach achieve better utility and efficiency satisfying the security of the database.

Energy Efficient Location Privacy Preserving Based Qos Improvement in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network PDF

R.Kiruthika, L.Devi

To introduce an Energy Efficient Location Privacy Preserving (EELPP) Protocol for WMSNs that is based on the Location Aided Routing (LAR) it’s mainly used in to improve QoS in network. LAR makes significant reduction in the energy consumption of the nodes batteries by limiting the area of discovering a new route to a smaller zone. Thus, control packets overhead are significantly reduced. In EELPP a reference wireless base station is used and the network's circular area centered at the base station is divided into six equal sub-areas.At route discovery instead of flooding control packets to the whole network area, they are flooded to only the sub-area of the destination mobile node. The base station stores locations of the nodes in a position table. To show the efficiency of the proposed protocol we present simulations using NS-2. Simulation results show that EELAR protocol makes an improvement in control packet overhead and delivery ratio compared to AODV. To reduce the energy cost, nodes are active only during data transmission and the intersection of node creates a larger merged node, to reduce the number of fake packets and also boost privacy preservation. Simulation and analytical results demonstrate that our scheme can provide stronger privacy protection than routing-based schemes and requires much less energy than data preventing based.

Marine bacteria: a potential bioresource for multiple applications PDF

Ayona Jayadev, Lekshmi, M, Sreelekshmi, V., Lakshmi, S. Baby and Mary Franceena

Marine microorganisms have developed distinctive metabolic and physiological capabilities to bloom in extreme habitats and produce novel metabolites which are not often present in microbes of terrestrial origin. They are a rich source of natural products with potential applications in drug discovery, environmental remediation, and the development of new resources for industrial processes. The present study aimed to isolate bacterial strains from marine water samples and screen their potential for various applications. A total of twelve bacterial strains were isolated and screened for enzyme production, Phosphate solubilization, EPS production and Azo dye decolorizing capacity. Most of the strains showed multiple potentialities. So these strains can be positively used for commercial applications.

Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Approach to Harmonic Reduction in Multilevel Inverters for Drives PDF

Adeyemo, I. A, Fakolujo, O. A, Aborisade, D. O

Unlike utility application that requires a constant-frequency, constant-voltage high power multilevel inverter, adjustable speed drives (ASDs) used to control large industrial motors require high power variable-frequency and variable-voltage multilevel inverters that can operate over a wide range of modulation indices. In this paper, Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is proposed for computing the switching angles required to eliminate low order harmonics up to 13th order from multilevel inverter voltage waveform while keeping the magnitude of the fundamental at the desired level. RCGA is simple, derivative free, and globally convergent with any random initial values. The global search capability of RCGA is demonstrated in its ability to find solutions in the regions that are infeasible for other existing methods to find solutions. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed method efficiently mitigates harmonic distortion in multilevel inverter.

The Harmonization of Geological Information Through Standards - The Case of Keleaat M'Gouna and Sidi Flah PDF

Tarik Chafiq, Hassane Jarar Oulidi, Ahmed Fekri, Abderrahim Saadane

Nowdays, the great explosion of the Geoscience data digitized, and diversity of independently developed information sources may be difficult to operated due to heterogeneous data sources that exist in all of these systems, interoperability has become a perssing need to share geographic information and contribute to the harmonization of data.

Effects of Particle Size Variation of Palm Kernel Shell on Emission Performance and Temperature Distribution of a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor PDF

Raji Tunde Oyelade, Oyewola M. Olanrewaju, Salau T. O. Abiola

The effect of particle size variation of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) on the temperature distribution and emission performance of a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) was examined. PKS feedstock received from the farm were classified to three different sizes; ‘as received’ (6 – 22 mm), ‘mildly crushed’ (2 – 12 mm) and ‘pulverised’ (<2 mm). Combustions of the fuels were performed at Excess Air (EA) of 30, 50, 80 and 100% and fuel feed rate of 5 kg/hr in all cases. An electronic based regulating unit incorporated in the BFBC ensured that the inert bed temperature (T2) is limited to a maximum value of 750 oC in all the experiments. Significant impact of particle size variation on emission and temperature distribution in the BFBC were observed. At all EA, intense combustion and stable inert bed temperature (T2 = 750 ± 10 oC were obtained when firing size (6 - 22 mm), conversely (<2 mm) at EA>30% showed a rapid drop of inert bed temperature from750 - 500 oC. Particle size 6 - 12 mm and 2- 12 mm gave concentrations of pollutants that were within Nigeria emission limits at CO(195 – 856 ppm), NOx(9 – 182 ppm and SOx(8 – 93 ppm). No evidence of ash agglomerations was observed during the investigation thereby confirmed the effectiveness of the developed BFBC.

Design and Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks for Mobile Robot based on FPGA PDF

Prof. Dr. Hanan A. R. Akkar, Ameer H. Ali

The world has seen great interest in intelligent systems and its control methods because they are provided distinctive service to humanity in civil and military purposes. In this paper presented the design and implementation of the intelligent controller system by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for a laser mobile robot system to avoid obstacles in unknown environment. Back-Propagation (BP) method used to train the ANN. The system design was implemented and downloaded in FPGA board type Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S700A. Four DC motor were used to move the mobile robot. The MATLAB program used to train the ANN. The mobile used IR sensors to detect the obstacles. The MSE get from the training the ANN is 〖 3*10〗^(-7) which is considered suitable accuracy in robotic system.

Aging influence on the performance of the steam power units in Kuwait- case study; Doha west power station PDF

Abdualrazzaq Al-Abdulrazzaq / Gamal Yassien Salaman

This study aims to the impact of aging steam power stations on the performance of the components of the station after 30 years from the age of steam power station and at different loads, a 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum load. In this study exergy analysis to calculate the ratio of the rate of destruction in the steam unit components. The study revealed that the largest proportion of the destruction was 11.92% annual in evaporators at load 70%, and 10.64% annual at 50% of maximum load. While the percentage of the destruction in the boiler feed water pumps was 3.25% at load 50% of the maximum load of the unit steam and the highest value at load 100% was 4.17%.

Study on the Nature and Necessity of Construction Logistics Plan PDF

Ramakrishna Samanthula, Kaustuv Ghosh

A study has been carried out at Island City Center (ICC) project (an ongoing high rise building project) in Mumbai, India, for duration of seven weeks, under the esteemed guidance of L&T Construction Company’s professionals, to understand construction logistics. Significance of construction logistics has been understood by direct observations in the site and interactions with L&T Construction Company’s professionals. Many construction companies may not have a well defined construction logistics plan before execution of the project. Over the last decade it has been realized by the Indian construction majors that detailed construction logistics plan is a must for any construction project for timely completion of the project within estimated cost and necessitates contractual bindings as Prelims. This study briefly explains the nature and necessity of construction logistics plan with a practical example.

Design & Implementation an E-Commerce Sites Security System based on Local Binary Pattern Fingerprint Verification PDF

Hanaa Hameed Merzah

E-Commerce has played a major role in changing the global economic thought, but it still suffers from serious threats concerning the protection of e-commerce transactions. As a result, there is a great demand for advanced protection system to increase consumer confidence and the institution in the field of e-commerce. In this paper, an e-commerce system is presented, which is a web application designed for browsing and purchasing products from the net. This system provides improved security techniques which are password and fingerprint verification to complete the purchasing procedure and protect e-bank and the system from intruder. The verification algorithm in purchasing procedure includes a series of steps starting with using canny edge detection filter and then using Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and histogram properties as statistical approaches for feature extraction from fingerprint image. A fingerprint image is first divided into (3*3) regions from which LBP histograms are extracted and then converted into a single feature vector. This feature vector forms an efficient representation of the fingerprint and is used to measure similarities between images.The result of matching has been compared by using the Chi Square Statistic (X2) that depend on the resulted feature vector which is a powerful information to prove identity of a person. ASP.NET 2013, SQL Server 2014, VB.NET 2013 and C# 2013 programming language has been used to execute the paper algorithms. Finally, it must be mentioned that an excellent results have been obtained using different fingerprint images.

Dry and Wet Lab Studies for Some Indole Derivatives as Possible Corrosion Inhibitors for Copper in 2M HNO3 PDF

Hala.M.Hassan, Awad Al-Rashdi, A.Attia and A.M.Eldesoky

With contrast to the traditional techniques of identifying new corrosion inhibitors in wet lab, a prior dry-lab process, followed by a wet-lab process is suggested by using cheminformatics tools. Quantum chemical method is used to explore the relationship between the inhibitor molecular properties and its inhibition efficiency. The density function theory (DFT) is also used to study the structural properties of two selected indole derivatives in aqueous phase. It is found that when the indole derivatives adsorb on the copper surface, molecular structure influences their interaction mechanism. The inhibition efficiencies of these compounds showed a certain relationship to highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy, Mulliken atomic charges and Fukui indices. A wet lab study has been carried out using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) measurements to evaluate their inhibition performance in 2 M HNO3 solutions at 30o C. Adsorption takes place by a direct chemisorption on the exposed copper surface, while it most probably occurs via hydrogen bonding on the oxidized surface. Compound (1) was the most effective among the two tested inhibitors, while Compound (2) was less effective than Compound (1). Results obtained from dry-lab process are in good agreement with those recorded from wet-lab experiments.

Live Line Selective Load Shedding PDF

Adnan Ahmad, Shoaib Rauf, Nasrullah Khan

A power system has inbuilt capability to shed load automatically by voltage and frequency decline during the fault on transmission lines causing loss of generation. After the inception of heavy fault, the relays divide power system into multiple islands having varying frequencies and voltages. Natural 2% load reduction due to 1% frequency decline may be enhanced by rejecting loads using under voltage and under frequency relaying schemes to selectively disconnect auxiliary and noncritical loads as a demand side management strategy to overcome demand and supply deficits. This technique is good for live line load control instead of blanket load shedding equally affecting low and high demand consumers.

Computation Of Simple Lens Design Parameters Using C++ PDF

Kaustubh Borole & Aarti Borole

Optics form part of the Instrumentation Design of almost all branches of Science and Technology. System Engineers (non-optics personal) manage with little or no theoretical knowledge. On several occasions, Engineers are required to compute the exact values of associated lens design parameters, say, focal length of a lens to verify the design data before finalization and submitting the same for production. To compute focal length to verify the design data, and refractive index of glass material of a lens while reverse engineering, requires precise input lens design parameters along with the proper sign conventions. The sign conventions vary with the type and configuration of a lens. Correct results are achieved only with the proper signs conventions as input. This requires some basic understanding of optics. The “LENS”, lens design tool, has been developed by us for System Engineers to determine the exact values of associated lens design parameters, wherein Sign Conventions as input are totally eliminated. Only positive values of lens parameters are entered as input. The System Engineer, on the other hand, should able to give input precisely as - one of the eight configurations of a lens - much simpler than inputting the sign conventions. A guide line has been given in using the design tool “LENS” with proper illustrations. The program has been found useful at various stages of System Design and Development. The “LENS” is also useful for Experienced Optical Engineers to get the reliable results quickly and precisely.

Design and Fabrication of a Compact Microstrip Antenna with Notch Functions PDF

Botelho Sheena Clarissa, Emmanuel A.

A compact microstrip antenna with multiple band-notch characteristics is proposed. The proposed antenna has an operating frequency of 3.2 to 9 GHz, with six notch functions to reduce interference with existing systems. The notches created are C-band downlink (3.8-4.5GHz), WLAN (5.18-5.825GHz), Standard C-band uplink (5.825-6.425GHz), Extended C-band uplink (6.425-6.725GHz), Super Extended C-band uplink (6.725-7.025GHz) and X-band downlink (7.025-7.75GHz) using CST STUDIO SUITE 2010 .A return loss of -10dB has been achieved in the operating frequency range, other than the notches. There is a decrease in gain at the notch frequencies. The antenna is fabricated and the results attained from the network analyzer confirms the validity of the design which matches with the simulated results.

Real-time gesture control of a CNC machine tool with the use Microsoft Kinect sensor PDF

Karol Miądlicki, Mirosław Pajor

The paper presents a control system of the AVIA VC 760 milling machine. Its control system is based on gesture monitoring and recognition using the Microsoft Kinect Motion Controller. The system was implemented in the Matlab/Simulink environment with Kinect for Windows Runtime and Kinect SDK & Developer Toolkit library. To investigate the system, three sets of gestures were developed for the purposes of the study (basic commads and movement control). The motion of the operator’s/controller’s hand can naturally and intuitively control the table and the spindle. The influence of light, distance from the robot, the speed of gestures performed by the operator on the system was tested. The paper discusses the concept and structure of the system and test results

The Effect of Flash Flood on the Efficiency of Roads Networks in South Sinai, Egypt. Case Study (Nuweiba-Dahab Road) PDF

Mariam El-sherpiny, Mahmoud El-Mewafy, Ibrahim Hegazy

Sinai Peninsula is located at a unique position, both geographically and politically (1). In the mountainous area of Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, the improvement of infrastructure networks require reliable and accurate information about natural hazards particularly flash flood. Flash flooding is the most dangerous hazard to focus on because it prone the life of people who lives in the rough topography areas. This paper presents the assessment of flash flood hazards in the Southern Sinai governorate especially the road between Nuweiba and Dahab. GIS was used to delineate the morphometric parameters extracted from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to construct a hydrological model that, indeed, helps the decision makers to rapidly take the necessary procedures to avoid risks.

Reduction Kinetics of El-Baharia iron ore (Egypt) via charcoal PDF

Hashem N.M, Salah B.A, El-hussiny N.A, Sayed S.A, Khalifa M.G, Shalabi M.E.H

Reduction kinetics of El-Baharia iron ore via solid charcoal briquettes in nitrogen atmosphere were carried out at different temperatures ranging from 700ËšC to 950ËšC. It was found that the best reduction properties were found at 950ËšC, where the kinetic models were determined.

Wireless Body Area Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures PDF

Pejman Niksaz

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been identified for their utility in a variety of different fields such as military sensing and tracking, environmental monitoring, patient monitoring and tracking smart environments. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) technology is the consequence of the existing WSN technology. These networks are a composition of tiny, inexpensive and low-power biomedical nodes, fundamentally considered for healthcare monitoring applications. The main purpose of these applications is to ensure a monitoring of vital parameters of sick people without any interruption, while giving them the freedom of motion. The more scientists try to develop further cost and energy efficient computing devices and algorithms for WBANs, the more challenging it becomes to fit the security of WBANs into such a limited environment. As a result, being familiar with the security aspects of WBANs is necessary before designing WBAN systems. In this paper, we review the security requirements for WBANs, the different kinds of possible attacks, and also some security mechanisms used to overcome these attacks.

Determination of Monosodium Glutamate Content in Selected Traditional Meat Dishes PDF

Sameera Mustafa, Dr. Yasir Saleem, Samina Hameed

The study was conducted to determine the monosodium glutamate (MSG, Aginomotto or Chinese salt) content of selected traditional meat dishes. Six traditional meat dishes were selected from five different restaurant of Lahore. The dishes included were chicken karahi, mutton qorma, chicken biryani, seekhkabbab, chicken tikkah, palakgosht from five different places, which were Mazang, Lakshami Square,Fortress Stadium,Johar Town, M.MAlam Road. Estimation of monosodium glutamate was carried out by modified HPLC (Hiph Performance Liquid Chromatography) method of Lateef, Siddique, Saleem, & Iqbal, 2012 with minor modification. HPLC procedure included solution preparation, PH determination, Dervirization, Acidification, Extraction, Sample injection. The peak of MSG was identified by comparing it with retention time of MSG standards, that is, 8.2 min. The results from laboratory analysis concluded that MSG was present, altogether in the traditional meat dishes excluding five which were palakgosht from Lakshami Square, chicken tikha, chicken karahi, seekhkabab from Johar Town and mutton qorma from M.M Alam Road. On the bases of the data it was concluded that each restaurant adds MSG to makes their food more flavorful every time, it was observed that all the representative samples of chicken tikkah and chicken biryani contains MSG. it was also concluded that the amount of MSG was with the optimal palatability concentration i.e. 0.2 – 0.8% (w/w) as suggested by Loliger in 2000.

Structural Behavior & Design of Concrete Filled Steel Tube as Column as Per EC-4 PDF

Gaurav D. Dhadse

An efficient method of resisting lateral loads for buildings in the 60-plus-story range is to position columns farthest from the building center with shear-resisting elements in between. This idea has given rise to a whole new category of composite systems characterized by their use of super columns interconnected across the building with a shear-resisting web-like framing. Large-diameter pipes or tubes filled with high-strength concrete in the range of 41 to 138 MPa. Generally, neither longitudinal nor transverse reinforcement is used within the steel pipe or tube. So this paper is based upon the design of CFST as per EUROCODE -4 & by using Ansys’11 as a analysis tool, the structural behavior of CFST (designed by myself) is shown in this paper. So from this it concluded that double skin concrete filled steel tube is efficient one.

Sintering and Reduction via Hydrogen of Egyptian iron ore briquettes with Dolomite PDF

N.A. El-Hussiny, I.A. Nafeaa, M.G. Khalifa, S.Th. Abdel-Rahim, M.E.H. Shalabi

This investigation studied the effect of dolomite addition to iron oxide raw material on the physicochemical properties of its briquette in a green form and indurate form. Also the effect of this addition on the degree of reduction was studied. The results indicated that the addition of (2% to 8%) dolomite improve the mechanical strength of the green briquettes while the mechanical strength of indurate form decreased. Also the reduction of these briquettes via hydrogen was studied and the model of reduction was put in this paper.

Optimal Analysis of Factors Affecting Cotton Production in Benin PDF

Sakouba Ibrahim

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, Benin is ranked among the top 5 at the continental level in the production of cotton. Over the last fifteen years, despite different policies implemented by Benin’s government in agricultural sector, the cotton production has been drastically decreasing in conjunction with a rising of its production costs. Based on a triangulation approach this research aims on the one hand to determine the main factors that influence cotton production in Benin and on the other to assess if there is an optimal output that should be produced in Benin. Our findings show that, to make more profitable cotton sector, Benin needs to modernize its cotton production chains in order to produce 60 times more higher than its current level.

Three-Point Boundary Value Problems On Fuzzy Differential Equations- Existence and Uniqueness PDF

Ch.Gopalarao, R.Suryanarayana, K.V.Ramana

Methods of fuzzy differential equations are extending to include Variation of Parameters formula, Existence and Uniqueness criteria for Three point Boundary Value Problems. Incidentally, we prove existence and uniqueness criteria for Initial Value Problems On fuzzy differential equations.

Predicting of Effluent Turbidity from Deep Bed Sand Filters Used in Water Treatment PDF

Hani Mahanna, Moharram Fouad, Kamal Radwan, Hoda Elgamal

Filtration is a solid liquid separation in which water passes through a porous medium to remove suspended or colloidal impurities. Deep bed filter is one of the most important types of filtration process in which solids are removed within the granular medium. Further, it is commonly used in either conventional water treatment plants or direct filtration plants. Various characteristics have been adopted for filtration process monitoring but usually, turbidity is used for this purpose. Turbidity removal is influenced by different parameters. It was needed to predict turbidity removal as a function of these parameters. In this study, experimental pilot plant was constructed to study turbidity removal efficiency and develop a simple predictive model for effluent turbidity by deep sand filter . Sand was used as a filtration media under different filtration rates ranged from 4 m/hr to 8 m/hr. Down flow was applied to the filter through sand media with size 0.7-1.0 mm, while sand depth was 140 cm. Aluminum sulfate (alum) was used as coagulat in different doses ranged from 20 to 40 mg/lit. The used synthetic turbid water was prepared in different turbidities varying from 10 to 30 NTU. Turbidity removal was investigated as functions of sand depth, filtration rate, influent turbidity, run time and alum dose. A mathematical model was obtained for predicting of effluent turbidity from deep bed sand filter with various operating conditions ( filter depth, filtration rate, alum dose, run time, and initial turbidity).The proposed model yield highly accurate results with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.88. The proposed model showed that the most significant parameters on predicted effluent turbidity are the sand media depth and filtration rate. Also, the simple proposed model can be easily and effectively used as a decision supporting tool for prediction of filtration quality.

Implementing object oriented design methodology to develop a testing system PDF

Danendra Singh, Leonardo M. Reyneri

Object oriented designing (OOD) is a widely used development strategy based on the concept that systems should be built from a collection of reusable components called objects. Instead of using structures that separates functionality and data, objects bounds both. It guarantees that the system will enjoy a longer life while having far smaller maintenance costs and tends to model the real world in a more complete fashion than do traditional methods. Unified modelling Language (UML), based on OOD, is implemented using Visual Paradigm, a visual design tool. The system is divided into actors, use cases and class diagrams having interactions with each other. Schematic files and simulations that are done in a third party software can be uploaded into the documentation of Class diagrams in UML.

An Assessment Of Heavy Metals Accumulation In Clarias gariepinus, (Burchell 1822) And Wastewater Reservoir Of Coca Cola Company In Maiduguri Borno State, Nigeria PDF

Fabian Zira Lawrence and Abubakar Abdulrahman Kotos

Routine laboratory analyses were carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals in wastewater reservoir and fish tissue (Muscles and Gills). Wastewater has the highest concentration of heavy metals than in the fish tissue in the following order Cu>Fe>Cd>Mn>Zn, while Pb is below detection level. Among the tissue, gills were observed to have the highest concentration in the following order Fe>Cd>Cu>Mn>Zn, while Pb was also below detection limit. Mn concentration in fish has exceeded the international permissible limit by the World Health Organisatio, Food and Agricultural Organisation, and American Public Health Association. These therefore pose a threat to the consumer and the survival of the fish in the wastewater and necessitate the need for caution and stricter wastewater effluent discharge for a better water quality.

Comparing Between TOYOTA and HONDA Economically PDF

Jamil Enani

Honda Motor Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation were establish in 1946 and 1937 correspondingly. Both of companies have been facing same political economical domestic and global challenges, They have comparable business assists like labor force, technology, information and capital then how come there be such a major difference in the overall business performance? This case highlights the role of leadership, corporate culture, corporate governance and financial performance and operational strategies of the two corporations.

GIS Approach for Groundwater Quality Study in Mewat District, Haryana, India PDF

Rajvir Singh, Anup Kumar, S.K. Chakarvarti

Water is prime requirement for living beings. The availability of good quality groundwater plays vital role in developmental planning as well as agricultural practices. The modern techniques like geographical information system (GIS) are employing for studying the spatial distribution of groundwater in a terrain. In the present study, secondary groundwater quality data have been used for groundwater quality study of Mewat dis-trict in Haryana. Ten groundwater quality parameters viz. pH, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, hardness, total dissolved solids, iron, fluoride, chloride and nitrate have been used for inverse distance weighted interpolation technique in ArcGIS 9.3 software of 45 locations in the district. The result shows that pH in the study area ranges 6.5 to 8. The spatial distribution of pH shows that 1634.68 sq. km area (87.93%) falls under desirable groundwater quality. Hills cover 224.32 sq. km area (12.07%) in the study area. The alkalinity in the study area ranges 90 mg/l to 1400mg/l. The spatial distribution of alkalinity in the study area shows that 1525.77 sq. km area (82.07%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 43.04 sq.km. area (2.32%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality and 65.87 sq.km area (3.54%) falls under non-potable groundwater quality. The calcium in the study area ranges 24 mg/l to 800 mg/l. The spatial distribution of calcium in the study area shows that 1153.33 sq. km area (62.04%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 454.84 sq.km. area (24.47%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality and 26.51 sq.km area (1.43%) falls under non-potable groundwater quality. The magnesium in the study area ranges 10 mg/l to 300 mg/l. The spatial distribution of magnesium in the study area shows that 106.51 sq. km area (5.73%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 1528.17 sq.km area (82.20%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality and 224.32 sq.km area (12.07%) falls under non-potable groundwater quality. The hardness in the study area ranges 190 mg/l to 1660 mg/l. The spatial distribution of hardness in the study area shows that 11.41sq. km area (0.61%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 1574.22 sq.km. area (84.68%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality and 49.05 sq.km area (2.64%) falls under non-potable groundwater quality. The total dissolved solids (TDS) in the study area ranges 156 mg/l to 2500 mg/l. The spatial distribution of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the study area shows that 353.67 sq. km area (19.02%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 1269.52 sq.km area (68.29%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality and 11.49 sq.km. area (0.62%) falls under non-potable groundwater quality. The chloride in the study area ranges 92 mg/l to 1600 mg/l. The spatial distribution of chloride in the study area shows that 571.3 sq. km area (30.74%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 1055.54 sq.km. area (56.78%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality and 7.61 sq.km area (0.41%) falls under non-potable groundwater quality. The fluoride in the study area ranges 0.27 mg/l to 1.6 mg/l. The spatial distribution of fluoride in the study area shows that 1264.81 sq. km area (68.03%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 365.66 sq.km area (19.67%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality and 4.21sq.km area (0.23%) falls under non-potable groundwater quality. The iron in the study area ranges 0.27 mg/l to 1.6 mg/l. The spatial distribution of iron in the study area shows that 1554.19 sq. km area (83.60%) falls under desirable groundwater quality; 80.49 sq.km area (4.33%) area falls under permissible groundwater quality. Hills cover 224.32 sq. km area (12.07%) in the study area. The nitrate in the study area ranges 10 mg/l to 30 mg/l. The spatial distribution of nitrate in the study area shows that 1634.68 sq. km area (87.93%) falls under desirable groundwater quality. Hills cover 224.32 sq. km area (12.07%) in the study area. The study shows that pH and nitrate fall under desirable limit in the study area, iron falls under desirable and permissible limit while other parameters-alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, hardness, total dissolved solids, chloride and fluoride fall in desirable, permissible and non-potable limit of groundwater in the study area. The study is highly useful for planning and management of groundwater in the study area.



The evaluation of inhibitive action of crude Gmelina arborea fruit extract (GAFE) on armor steel plate ASP) in 0.1M HCl solutions has been investigated using different methods viz; weight loss method at temperature 303K-313K, Electrochemical technique (Linear Polarization Resistance) and Surface morphologic examination, using Phenom Prox Scanning Electron Microscope. The inhibitive action is observed to increase with increase in concentration of the extract, but decreases with increase in temperature. The Extract gave highest inhibition efficiency (IE) of 87.50% at 303K and 78.87% at 313K at maximum extract concentration of 0.5g/L. Inhibition efficiency (IE) of extract decreased with increasing temperature for both acids. Thermodynamic parameters evaluated gave heat of adsorption (Qads) range between -24.4904 kJ/mol -16.4337 kJ/mol with an average of -6.1547kJ/mol. The Activation energy parameter (Ea) is between 4.11 to 14.76 kJ/mol, which indicates physisorption. Free energy of adsorption process (∆G°ads) showed negatives values, which explained the spontaneous adsorption activity. Adsorption process of GAFE on armor steel plate best fitted and obeyed the El-Awady isotherm. The El-Awady 1/y parameter is <1 at all test conditions. Electrochemical investigations (LPR- curve), reveals that GAFE acts as a mixed inhibitor by retarding the cathodic and anodic reaction. Micrographs from SEM, shows evidence of plant material adsorption on ASP under similar test conditions with near smooth surface. In contrast, Micrographs of ASP after immersion in acids without GAFE shows evidence of general and localized corrosion (pitting).

Pakistan Water Woes: Solution Lies in Constitutional Reforms PDF

Fahad Bin Abdullah

Pakistan’s water woes determines the flow in the rivers since the sources lie in disputed territory Kashmir, has implications for internal politics vis-à-vis distribution of water within the provinces. There is an abundance of evidence that the River Indus has run out of already implicated as critical food shortages, increased frequency of natural disasters, dislocations of citizens and an increasingly destabilizing conflict between upper and lower riparian regions. Water and energy can be jointly managed as far as the challenges are pushed to the frontline such as constitutional amendment to tackle water force either with diverting it, storing it or both.

Artificial Recognition Sorbents on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for the Separation of Aspirin from its Structural Analogues PDF

Sooraj. M.P, Beena Mathew

Highly specific and selective artificial recognition units for aspirin was fabricated on polymer-nanocomposites (MWCNT-MIP) making use of molecular imprinting technology. The products were characterised using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-Ray diffraction studies, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopic and tunnelling electron microscopic techniques. The maximum saturated binding capacity (Qmax) for MWCNT-MIP was obtained as 0.644mmolg-1 with an 82% increase as compared with the non-imprinted counterpart (MWCNT-NIP). MWCNT-MIP shows a high regression coefficient value (R2=0.999) for Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicating enhanced homogeneity than the corresponding bulk MIP (R2=0.977). The rebinding process obeys second order kinetics with rapid template binding demonstrating the effective formation of print cavities on the surface of sorbent. Also, the theoretical and experimental values for Qe from second order kinetic data were found to be almost similar even at different temperatures. The optimized rebinding parameters of the nanosorbents were applied for the separation of aspirin from its closely related structural analogues and these studies indicated a higher relative selectivity coefficient for MWCNT-MIP towards aspirin than the bulk MIP. Further MWCNT-MIP is found to have 100% reproducibility upto four adsorption-desorption cycles.

Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Salt-Induced Metabolic Syndrome Rats Treated with Camel Milk PDF

Dandare A, Isah S A, Ladan M J, Mainasara A S and Saidu Y

Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder with high socioeconomic cost that is considered a worldwide epidemic. It is a group of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that directly promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Camel milk is readily available, affordable and it is a good source of naturally occurring antioxidants. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate effect of camel milk supplementation on serum glucose and lipid profile in salt-induced metabolic syndrome rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group I: control animals (normal), Group II salts induced untreated, Group III: salt-induced supplemented with camel milk, Group IV salt-induced treated with 100mg/kg Metformin + 10mg/kg Nifedipine. Groups II, III and IV were placed on 8% salt diet for 6 weeks, which results in significant increase (P<0.05) in serum glucose, Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TAG), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Very Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C), and atherogenic index, and a significant decrease (P>0.05) in High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Camel’s milk supplementation counteracted the effect of high salts diet, reversed the above biochemical changes and improved them towards normalcy. This study suggests that regular consumption of camel milk could provide a natural way to protect against various component of metabolic syndrome.


Ajoko, Tolumoye John and Ebughni, Nangi Petro

The complexity to analyze corrective mathematical principles to predict the characteristics of multiphase flow in pipes in the petroleum industry is a key target due to its significance. Hence, the current research on multiphase flow simulation of oil and gas in vertical flow using CFX-PRE and Ansys Fluent is focused on the identification and study of the flow-regime map; mostly on the pressure distribution across the pipe and the effect of each phase on the wall of the pipe. The methodology is based on the use of simulation tools such as Solidworks which was used to model the pipe and to do initial flow analysis and Ansys CFX-pre for preparation of the model in the computational domain. Reported results for the characteristics of multiphase like pressure drop across vertical pipes were proffered solution. Also results confirmed change in phase either by heat addition or exchange of heat between phases as the prime cause of wavy motions in fluid transportation of difference in velocities of gas and liquid bubbles along pipes. Therefore, the simulation tools employed for the research study is considered as an effective and reliable technology.

Development of Utility Information System for Management of Electricity Distribution of Iyaji Residential Layout, Oyo, Oyo State,Nigeria PDF

Omilabu, J.O; Igbokwe, J.I; Ejikeme, J.O ; Igbokwe, E.C and Njoku, R.E

Utilities are infrastructures such as electricity, water, telephone etc that provide a common good for individual and the society. Utility networks in a country are vital for the proper and smooth functioning of the modern society. A breakdown of the services of these networks can cause serious economic damage. This study focuses on proper working of electricity distribution infrastructure that can only be assessed and monitored by using Geographic Information System. To accomplish this, geometric data on electricity distribution network in the study area was acquired which involved updating the existing map of the area with GPS observation, georeferencing and digitizing the map.

Reduction of Vibrations and Noise using AA7020/Al2O3 Nano Composite Gear Box in Lathe PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

If the vibration amplitudes of a machine exceed the severity limit as per codes, the machine should be shut down to identify the faults so that remedial action can be taken to keep the machine safe. Exposure to excessive noise can damage hearing, and it is important to understand the effects of this kind of noise, particularly because such exposure is avoidable. The aim of the present work was to reduce vibrations and noise in the lathe machines using AA7020/Al2O3 nano composite gears in the gear box. As per IRD General Machinery Vibration Severity Chart, the condition of the lathe is VERY GOOD as the vibration have been reduced 95 VdB. The noise levels have been reduced to the permissible limit of 108 dB for the lathe machines with gear box having AA7020/Al2O3 nano composite gears.

Reduction of Vibrations and Noise using AA7020/SiC Nano Composite Gear Box in Lathe PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

If the vibration amplitudes of a machine exceed the severity limit as per codes, the machine should be shut down to identify the faults so that remedial action can be taken to keep the machine safe. Exposure to excessive noise can damage hearing, and it is important to understand the effects of this kind of noise, particularly because such exposure is avoidable. The aim of the present work was to reduce vibrations and noise in the lathe machines using AA7020/SiC nano composite gears in the gear box. As per IRD General Machinery Vibration Severity Chart, the condition of the lathe is VERY GOOD as the vibration have been reduced 97 VdB. The noise levels have been reduced within permissible limit of 94 dB for the lathe machines with gear box having AA7020/SiC nano composite gears.

Reduction of Vibrations and Noise using AA7020/Fe2O3 Nano Composite Gear Box in Lathe PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

If the vibration amplitudes of a machine exceed the severity limit as per codes, the machine should be shut down to identify the faults so that remedial action can be taken to keep the machine safe. Exposure to excessive noise can damage hearing, and it is important to understand the effects of this kind of noise, particularly because such exposure is avoidable. The aim of the present work was to reduce vibrations and noise in the lathe machines using AA7020/Fe2O3 nano composite gears in the gear box. As per IRD General Machinery Vibration Severity Chart, the condition of the lathe is VERY GOOD as the vibration have been reduced 100 VdB. The noise levels have been reduced within the permissible limit of 97 dB for the lathe machines with gear box having AA7020/Fe2O3 nano composite gears.

Proposed Encryption Technique for Cloud Applications PDF

Nazar Kamal Khorsheed, Omeed Kamal Khorsheed, Majdi Zakaria Rashad,Taher Tawfeek Hamza

Recently, the amount of confidential information that stored within the Cloud has been largely increased. Thus, the issue of security became more important than before. The data and services of cloud have been rabidly spread to support the expandable and secure data centers. However, these centers can be easily hacked at any time and from anywhere. With the increase of cloud users, the number of malicious activates on the cloud has been also increased. Thus, the need to ensure the safety of information that being exchanged between the users and the cloud became more significant. Many security and authentication techniques have been proposed to secure the exchanged data. These techniques aim to keep the authentication, privacy and reliability levels of data. In this paper, a simple model for data protection has been proposed. A new algorithm has been proposed to secure the stored data within the cloud. RC5 and AES algorithms have been used within this algorithm to increase the level of security and complexity, thus the attackers cannot reach to the stored data. In addition, this proposed algorithm has been applied on a shopping website that designed within this work. The performance of this algorithm has been measured and compared with the performance of RC5 and AES algo-rithms. The level of security, the running speed, the level of complexity and the resistance against the known attacks have been used to measure the performance of these three algorithms. The results indicated that the performance of this proposed algorithm was the best among the other algorithms.

Classification of MRI Images: A Review PDF

Poonam Sengar, Prof. Alekh Dwivedi, Prof. Vineet Richhariya

With the rapid development of the medical science more and more medical images are generated rapidly like OMR, CT scan, X-ray etc. Due to that an efficient system is essential for the indexing, storing and analyzing such images. The analyzing cost of such images is very high. The analysis quality also differs and highly prone to errors. The classification of such images is a quite harder job. Hence it is essential to develop a strong system for classification of such images. In this paper we are presenting some techniques that are used to classify the X-ray images.

Comparative study for various HCV Diagnostic methods used in Basrah health institutions PDF

Hanaa Ali Naem, Prof. Hassan J. Hasony

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major cause of chronic liver diseases. Various screening tests of HCV was developed since the virus was first identified in 1989. Detection of HCV infection during the window phase of infection, before seroconversion, is important in blood screening. However, there is a significant delay in the time between infection and the development of antibodies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate three screening method are used for HCV detection and compare the sensitivities of these method using PCR as gold standard .Of 160 collected blood specimens from suspected hepatitis C patients, serum separated and stored at -20º C. Then they were examined by the methods of immunochromatographic (ICA) rapid test, ELISA-3,Monolisa Ag-Ab test and PCR. Using ICA method, 153 cases were positive and 7 cases were found negative. In ELISA-3 method,152 cases were found positive and 8 were negative. In monolisa Ag-Ab method, 159 cases were found positive and 1 case was found negative. While, using PCR method, 101 cases were real positive and 58 cases were negative. Considering real time PCR for HCV RNA as the gold standard for HCV infection determination in this patient population, ELISA-3, ICA , Monolisa Ag-Ab assay yielded a sensitivity of 99%, 99% ,100% respectively and low specificity , positive predictive value of 65.8% ,65.5% ,63.5% respectively and negative predictive value of 87.5%, 85.7% , 100% respectively . Comparing three diagnostic methods, Monolisa combined Ag-Ab test proved to be more sensitive, therefore can be applied for early detection of HCV infection during window period.

Corrosion Inhibition of Carapichea Ipecacuanha Extract (CIE) on Copper in 1 M HNO3 Solution PDF

R.M.Younis, Hala.M.Hassan, R.A.Mansour and A.M.El-desoky

Carapichea Ipecacuanha Extract (CIE) was investigated as a green corrosion inhibitor for copper in 1 M HNO3 solution using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM) techniques. The effect of the temperature on corrosion behavior with addition of different concentrations was studied in the temperature range of 25-40 ºC by weight loss method. Polarization curves reveal that the investigated extract is a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increase in the investigated extract concentration and decrease with increase in solution temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor on copper surface was found to obey the Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The results obtained from chemical and electrochemical techniques are in good agreement.

Recognition of Control Chart Patterns Using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and Efficient Features PDF

Alimorad Khajehzadeh, Meisam Asady

Unnatural patterns in the control charts can be associated with a specific set of assignable causes for process variation. Hence pattern recognition is very useful in identifying process problem. This paper investigates the design of a high efficient system for recognition of common types of control chart patterns (CCPs). First it is proposed an efficient system that includes two main modules: the feature extraction module and the classifier module. In the feature extraction module, a balanced combination of the shape features and statistical features are proposed as the efficient characteristic of the patterns. In the classifier module, as the first time in this area, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is investigated. Experimental results show that the proposed system has good recognition accuracy (RA). However, the results show that in ANFIS training, the vector of radius has very important role for its recognition accuracy. At the second fold, it is proposed an intelligence system which a novel optimization module, i.e., bees algorithm (BA) is proposed for finding the best parameters of the classifier. Simulation results show that the proposed system has high recognition accuracy.

The Effects of Nozzle Angle and Distance Between Burners on Burning Velocity in Counter Flames PDF

Jassim M. Abdulkarim Jaff

Premixed laminar combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and air is studied experimentally using counterflowing axisymmetric jets. Attributes of this type of burner arrangement for studying laminar combustion are discussed in terms of flame geometry, angle of nozzle, burning velocities, and measurement access.

Smart Bin Implementation for Smart Cities PDF

Narayan Sharma, Nirman Singha, Tanmoy Dutta

In past few decades there is a rapid growth in the rate of urbanization and thus there is a need of sustainable urban development plans. Now using new age technology and strategic approach, the concept of smart cities is coming up all around the world. A smart city is incomplete without a smart waste management system. This paper describes the application of our model of “Smart Bin” in managing the waste collection system of an entire city. The network of sensors enabled smart bins connected through the cellular network generates a large amount of data, which is further analyzed and visualized at real time to gain insights about the status of waste around the city. This paper also aims at encouraging further research in the topic of waste management.

Application of 2D Resistivity Imaging and Remote Sensing/Geographic Information System (GIS) In Dam Foundation Studies: A Case Study Otobi Area of Otukpo L.G.A Northcentral Nigeria PDF

A.Lawal, U.Y Yero, D.P Ameh

This study highlights the application of geophysical and remote sensing/GIS techniques in the study of the proposed Otobi dam ax-is/foundation in southeastern Nigeria in order to establish: optimal depth to bed rock, the rock type which make up the foundation, the geological structures of the foundation, overburden thickness, concealed basement morphology, fractures /seepage channels in the subsurface thus, enabling the evaluation of the suitability of the proposed dam foundation. In this study, lineaments have been extracted directly from digital TM Land sat image after a series of enhancements and bands ratioing.The Arc GIS version 10.0 and ILWIS 3.1 was used to generate thematic drainage maps, lineament maps and rose diagram of structures. The interpretation of the satellite image of the area showed that the proposed dam foundation is dominated by NE-SW trending fractures and this is in tandem with most of the fractures observed on outcrops of Otobi sandstone in the area. This was followed by an electrical resistivity profiling along the proposed dam axis using the Wenner array. The 2D resistivity imaging reveals that the upper layer of the study area to be 7-10metres thick and consists of alluvial and residual soils with resistivity values ranging from 8-100 ohm-m. The second layer is over 10metres thick and has a resistivity value of 5-50ohm-m and made up of moderately weathered shales and mudstones with parallel permeable groundwater rich zones which are indicative of fractures. The results of the study indicate that the proposed Otobi dam foundation is underlain by numerous fractures which are detrimental to the dam and could serve as seepage channels through the dam.

Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Brass Alloys Obtained from Recycled Copper and Zinc Metals PDF

Edward Igelegbai and Oluwaseun Alo

In this work, brass alloys were produced by sand casting using recycled copper and zinc metals. The zinc content was varied from 5 to 30 wt%. The cast alloys were subjected to homogenizing annealing heat treatment. Hardness and tensile tests were carried out on the samples from each composition. Also, the samples were subjected to microstructural investigation using optical microscopy. The results obtained showed that the hardness, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation and elastic modulus of the alloys increase with increase in zinc content. Also, the micrographs of the samples reveal the presence of a single solid phase which consists of a solid solution of zinc in alpha copper. It was concluded from the study that brass alloys with good mechanical properties can be produced from recycled copper and zinc metals.

Construction and properties of Al/SiC composites using nano silicon carbide by powder metallurgy technique in pure aluminum alloy PDF

Morteza Amroni Hosseini, Hossein Aarabi, Kimiya Enayat Manesh and Mehdi Mohammadkhani

Aluminum matrix composites are widely used in aerospace, military and automotive industry. Furthermore silicon carbide powder is one of the best and common material used to reinforce the aluminum matrix composites. High strength-to-weight ratio, abrasion resistance and desired corrosion resistance of Al/Nano SiC composites are the most important of specifications of this group of composites. In this research, Al/Nano SiC composites with pure Aluminum as matrix with 0,1.5,2.5,5,10,15 and 20 volume percent of SiC were made by powder metallurgy technique (cold pressing and sintering)as reinforce used to study the effect of volume percent of SiC on mechanical properties and microstructure of the composite. Considering the electron microscope images, it is possible to understand nano SiC particles existence and their uniform distribution. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength will increase with increasing particle fraction to optimum percent, also with increasing of volume percent of SiC; the hardness of composite will be increase. In these types of composites, unlike studies using micron particles, the flexibility will not be reduced with increasing of volume fraction of Nano SiC particles. The overall results of the study show that the best outcomes are related to the sample containing 10% powder with heating at the temperature of 650° C.

Reconfigurable filtering using FFT/IFFT for PLI and High frequency artifacts removal in Real Time ECG Signal PDF

Prajna K B, Padmavathi C

Heart related problems are increasing, as the life style of people is improving. ECG signal is an explicit representation of activity of the heart. Different heart related diseases and unusualness in the heart are detected by ECG signal. ECG signals are altered by various noise and artifacts, which degrades the quality of the signal, that affect the proper diagnosis and monitoring. Hence obligatory measures have to be taken remove the noises. Here reconfigurable FFT/IFFT filter is used, that can work as a comb filter or as a band-pass filter that can supress PLI and high frequency artifacts respectively. The main focus is to de-noise the ECG signal; and analysing the performance of the reconfigurable FFT/IFFT filter in ECG de-noising applications. Correspondingly, MATLAB and Verilog simulation results are established.

Synthesis and characterization of nano hydroxyapatite with dextran nano composite for biomedical applications PDF

K. Senthilarasan, A. Ragu and P. Sakthivel

Hydroxyapatite/Dextran (HD) Nano composites are important biocompatible materials. The title compound was successfully synthesized by a wet chemical method at room temperature with different mass ratio. The composite structure and morphologies of the synthesized hydroxyapatite were analyzed by X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), Transmission electron microscope(TEM), Thermo gravimetric analysis(TGA) and antibacterial activity of the synthesized Hydroxyapatite/Dextran nano composite related with gram negative and gram positive were examined. The obtained results indicate good thermal stability. The physical and chemical properties agreed well with previous report. Lattice parameter and volume density are matched with JCPDS NO:09-0432. Antibacterial test exhibits antimicrobial activity. It can potentially be applied in biomedical and bone tissue engineering materials.


Anand M. Shelke

In this paper, the utility and applications of a MEMS Pressure Relief Valve (MPRV) are discussed. In addition, the design of a new MPRV is presented and modeled. Simulating stress analysis has proven the valve useful for driving pressures up to 10atm.

Power-aware Meta-heuristic Core Mapping Approaches for Network on Chips PDF

Mehdi Taassori, Sener Uysal

Network on Chip (NoC) has been introduced to support communications demand in System on Chip (SoC). Power consumption is a controversial issue in on-chip interconnections. Due to this issue and limited resources in NoCs such as wires, switches and virtual channels, mapping problem which are dealing with obtaining an appropriate position in topology, plays crucial role in design of NoCs. In this paper, we utilize Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Simulated Annealing (SA) as meta-heuristic algorithms to solve the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) and map the tasks to the cores on mesh-based NoCs. Experimental results reveal that meta-heuristic algorithms not only reduce the power dissipation but also improve the performance in NoCs.

Android Phone Operated Home Appliances Using Bluetooth Technology PDF

Ronauk Kumar Maharana

Many household devices operate with alternating current. These devices are switched by using switches or keys that are considered as a component of the electric circuit. All home appliances such as fans, tubelights, TVs, refrigerators, washing machines, etc. have become a part of the daily life of a normal human being. These devices are driven by alternating current supplied to every house from the energy station. Taking into consideration the different advancements in the field of electronics and robotics we can develop a method for operating all home appliances by using an android phone with the help of Bluetooth technology. In this paper, I shall discuss about the means of using Bluetooth technology for controlling any AC or DC machine by a single tap on the Android phone, using it as a remote control.

First-Principles Calculations on Cohesive Energy of Bulk and Nano Si PDF

Botan J. Abdullah, Musafa S. Omar, Nawzat S. Saadi, Qing Jiang

The structure properties in the pseudopotential density-functional scheme were investigated using Ab initio pseudopotential method within both local density approximation (LDA) and generalize gradient approximation (GGA) for silicon bulk and nanoscale solids. The calculated bulk lattice constant of silicon is found to match with experimental data from both LDA and GGA, whereas the bulk cohesive energies obtained from GGA are much closer to the experimental data than that from LDA. The cohesive energies for silicon nanoparticles, nanowires and nanofilms diverts from that of the bulk when particle sizes decreases. At size of 4 nm, the cohesive energy value of nanoparticles is -3.477 eV, which is larger than that of nanowires -4.116 eV and nanofilms -4.514 eV. The results obtained are in good agreement with literature data.

Reliability Modelling of Side Discharge Loader for Availability Estimation and Maintenance Planning in Underground Coal Mines PDF

Sankha Sarkhel, U.K. Dey

The production and productivity in underground coal mines of India over the years is decreasing at an alarming rate. For improvement in production and productivity, mechanization has become an important aspect for Indian coal industry especially in case of underground coal mines to sustain in global scenario. Side Discharge Loaders as loading system has made possible major breakthroughs in increasing production and productivity. Side Discharge Loaders (SDL) is now used as a dominant loading machine for intermediate face mechanization in underground coal mines. To meet the production and productivity issues, the SDL machine should be reliable and maintained effectively and efficiently to have maximum availability. Higher availability of machine shall enable optimum utilization thus increasing production and productivity of these capital intensive equipments. This paper seeks to study the reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) of an SDL machine with failure and repair data by Markov modeling. The constraints and reasons for machine unavailability are highlighted. The reliability and maintainability of SDL and its subsystems are evaluated. Reliability and maintainability of an SDL system are disappointing. There is scope to take decisions on optimal maintenance planning and machine improvement from this analysis.

Studying of transition metal complexes containing oxalate ion with antibacterial activity PDF

Atheer. A. Mahmood, Abdulqader M. Abdulqader, Saffa A. Raheem Mahmood, Mohammed Mosa Jafaar, Anaam Mahmood Abid

The research includes synthesis two types of complexes containing oxalate ion with metals Fe(III) and Cu(II). They had been characterized by molar conductance, melting point, atomic absorption measurements(A.A), magnetic moment measurements infrared ( FTIR) and electronic (UV.VIS) spectra. Also includes the studying of biological effect for these complexes on different pathogenic species of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus gram positive (+ve), the others are gram negative (-ve) which are included Escherichia coli (E.coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , by using Muller Inhibitors Concentration ( MIC) method In order to evaluate the effect of metal ions upon chelation and show the different activity of inhibition on the growth of bacteria.

Energy transfer studies in binary laser dye Mixtures between Rhodamine 6G and Rhodamine B PDF

Ahmed Kadem Kodeary

In this research we study the energy transfer mechanism in Rhodamine6G as donor, and as Rhodamine B as an acceptors matrix has been studied. The energy transfer process from donor molecules to acceptor molecules in the final samples has been observed spectrally. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy studies from (400-800) nm for Mixture of (R6G and RB) in Ethanol solvent for different concentration. We notice that the absorption intensity is increased with increasing concentration. We find also that the bandwidth of absorption spectrum is increased when we mix the two dyes together in comparison of each dye alone and these agree with the energy transfer mechanism. To confirm the energy transfer we observed the overlap between the emission spectrum of R6G and excitation spectrum of RB. The results show that the emission properties of acceptor molecules can be enhanced using the dye mixing binary laser dye. The results showed access to a broad spectrum extends from 525nm to 645nm, was obtained on the movement of energy with high efficiency when mixing dyes concentrations (1*10-5 R6G dye 1*10-6 RB dye).

Evolution of Degree of Polarization in Presence of Polarization Mode dispersion in Single Mode Fibers PDF

Hassan Abid Yasser, Nizar Salim Shnan

In the presence of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in single mode fiber, the degree of polarization (DOP) are affected randomly depending on the amount of PMD and the initial pulse width. In this paper, we are derived a novel analytical expression of the DOP that may be used to expect the reconstructed polarization for a single section. Thereafter, this expression was generalized for any number of concatenation sections in order to cover the randomness of the local variations of the direction and value of the PMD vector.

Effects of two fungicidal products (mancozèbe and azoxytrobine) and rosemary essential oil on Lactuca sativa physiology PDF


The sector of truck-farming horticulture knows numerous sanitary problems the most incriminated agents of which are mushrooms and bacteria’sleaves or roots. In Morocco, the lettuce Lactuca sativa is one of the most cultivated legumes. However, it’s affected by several pathogenic agents among whom Bremia lactucae Regel, a mushroom responsible for the mildew or miller of the lettuce. The chemical fight remains the most used against this problem in spite of the Man and environment fatal effects.The present work concerns the study of certain Lactuca sativa biological parameters, under the influence of two chemicals: azoxytrobine and mancozèbe, widely used by Moroccan farmers, and also Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil. To do it, we led a series of experiments to the ground, in an agricultural plot of land situated to "Ain Beida" inFez region. The studied parameters are: the number of leaves, the foliar surface, the rate of fresh and dry material and the chlorophyll rate. The obtained results have on one hand, shown an important biomass of Lactuca sativa handled by the rosemary essential oil, compared with untreated witnesses plants; on the other hand, we noted a positive effect of this vegetable essence which increases with the used concentration. However, the treatment made by azoxytrobine revealed a lesser effects of the plants physiology with regard to the treatment by mancozèbe. In addition, the processing of Lactuca sativa with the essential oil gave an important rate of dry air part material.

The simulation of quantum friction PDF

G. J. Ibeh and E. D. Mshelia

A model for the dissipation of energy from a collective degree of freedom represented by free motion into intrinsic excitations represented by three coupled oscillators is presented. It is shown that by approximating the Hamiltonian of a system of interacting particles as a sum of two Hamiltonians the quantum mechanical version of frictional effects of the system can be studied.

Effect of Processing Methods on the Organoleptic Qualities and Functional Properties of Soyflour (Glycine max. L) PDF

Olasoju, S. A., Owoseni, J.A., *Amosu, A.O., Hammed, A.M., Oniya, O. O and Adesina, B. S.

Soybean (Glycine max ) is one of the most important food crops and a primary source of food for reasonable percentage of the world’s population. This study investigated the effect of processing methods on the organoleptic qualities, functional characteristics and proximate values of soybeans. Flours prepared using four different processing methods were subjected to various analyses. The study showed that the organoleptic properties of processed soybean were not significantly (p ≤ 0.5) different except in taste. For functional characteristics, sample CCPM showed the highest foaming capacity of 10% while sample SRPM has the least value of 5%. The foaming stability of samples OCPM and CCPM have higher values of 80.0 and 83.3% respectively. Highest value of 20.00% for least gelation for sample SRPM and lowest value of 16.00% for sample CCPM were obtained. The water absorption capacity of the samples showed that sample OCPM has the highest value of 2.80 g.g-1 while sample SRPM has least value of 2.00 g.g-1. The data on oil absorption of the samples indicated that there was no significant (p ≤ 0.5) difference in the values obtained. The least value of 2.70 ml.g-1 for emulsion capacity for sample SRPM was observed while the values for other samples range from 3.20-3.71 ml.g-1. The reconstitution index values showed that samples CCPM and SRPM had same value of 1.80 ml.g-1 while samples OCPM and SCPM had 1.20 and 2.00 ml.g-1 respectively while. The proximate parameters examined were not significantly (p ≤ 0.5) different except that sample SRPM had the least moisture content. This study showed that the functional properties, organoleptic values and moisture content of soyflour were not affected by low heat processing.

Multipath Rayleigh Fading analysis and Remedial Measures Technique Based on Healthcare Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks applied to disaster rescue PDF

Salaheldin Edam, Abuagla Babiker

Recently, there has been increased interest in the district of ad-hoc networks, that can operate without infrastructure and capable of handle node mobility as well as dynamic network topologies. Due to these possessions, ad-hoc networks have been used in a lot of critical applications, such as military, law enforcement, and disaster-relief operations. Managing of resources in a disaster is not easy, while a rescue staff spread across broad swaths of the disaster district, situational responsiveness is preserved by hand-written tables and charts, and updates arrive in the form of oral messages using radio or messenger. Hence in this location wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WASNs) can greatly improve situational awareness by enhancing an automating to update, checking and reacting to status modifies, and increasing data communications across the whole disaster. Thus, statistical model which is the best way for estimating signal and channel behavior in multi-paths fading is done for WASNs system with various probabilities. Moreover, this paper investigates remedial measures against Rayleigh fading by BER performance simulation for Quadrature amplitude modulation QAM, Phase Shift Keying PSK and Differential DPSK with cooperative MIMO. The performance analysis with different modulation modes (M) and diversity order (L) with Matlab simulation shows that bit error rate gain performance is much better when increasing L than when increasing M.

Islanding Detection in Hybrid DG based IEEE 14 Bus System using Negative Sequence Component Analysis PDF

Bhupendra Paliwal, C.S. Rajeshwari, Anjali Potnis

The paper investigates islanding detection using recently developed negative sequence components based islanding detection technique on IEEE 14 bus system with Wind–solar PV based hybrid Distributed Generations with a brief review of existing islanding detection techniques.The negative sequence components of voltage and current at various buses were retrieved for different islanding and non-islanding cases.The per unit voltages of negative sequence voltages after islanding clearly detects the islanding and standard deviations of the cases differentiates between islanding and non-islanding conditions such as normal operation,sudden load change and tripping of other DGs etc. and the technique is found to be effective.


Ijeomah, H. M., Oyebade, B.A.and Mazi, E.C.

Macrotermes natalensis is an age – old delicacy in many homes and highly cherished by children and rural dwellers who eat it as a snack, but factors militating against their availability and utilization in the study area are yet to be documented. This study investigated various ways of utilizing the species in the study area, effects of demographic characteristics of respondents on utilization of the species, perception of people concerning utilization of the species, and factors militating against the availability, harvesting and utilization of the species in the study area. Data for this study were collected through a set of questionnaires which was complimented with in-depth interviews. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of percentages, tables and charts while Chi-square was used to test for associations. Consumption of edible winged termites in the study area is not significantly associated (p>0.05) with sex of the respondents (χ2=0.227a), age (χ2=8.945a), marital status (χ2=1.526a), occupation (χ2=13.369a), household size (χ2=10.692a), ethnic background (χ2=0.887a) and educational level of respondents (χ2=16.396a). Macrotermes natalensis is consumed by most respondents in the study area. Consumption of the species is increasing in Ezi-orsu (90.0%) and Opuoma (80.4%) which are rural communities where its consumption was previously forbidden but is decreasing in an urban area, Rumuokwuta (87.5%) and a suburban area, Choba (66.7%); where its utilization was never abhorred by culture. Season was implicated by most respondents as the limiting factor to the availability and utilization of the species in the study area while unavailability of light limits its harvesting. A few respondents indicated that the utilization of edible winged termite is limited by taboos. Edible winged termites are of utmost importance to the diets of rural people as a source of cheap protein especially in the study areas but the high rate of deforestation as a result of development could threaten its seasonal availability.

Heat and Mass Transfer on the Peristaltic Flow of An Incompressible Electrically Conducting Williamson Fluid through a Porous Medium in a Symmetric Channel with Hall current effects and Inclined Magnetic Field PDF

M.VeeraKrishna and B.V.Swarnalathamma

We studied the peristaltic flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Williamson fluid in a symmetric planner channel through a porous medium with heat and mass transfer under the influence of inclined magnetic field of an angle of inclination . Hall effects, viscous dissipation and Joule heating are taken into consideration. The non linear partial differential equations that govern that model were simplified under assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. Then a regular perturbation technique in the Weissenberg number was applied to obtain a closed form expressions for stream function, axial pressure gradient, temperature and concentration profiles. The influence of various embedded parameters on the flow were plotted through a set of graphs and discussed.

Acetylation of Violet Tree (Securidaca longepedunculata) Root Powder PDF

Barminas, J.T., Maitera, O.N., Donatus, R.B, Tadzabia, K, and 1Tukki O.H

The crude violet tree (Securidaca longepedunculata) root powder was modified by acetylation in a solvent free system using acetic anhydride, catalyzed with 4,4,4- cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at a control reaction conditions. The modified Violet Tree Root Powder (VTRP) showed effect of increase weight gain at 50.71 ±0.02%, 63.96 ±0.01%, 64.53 ±0.02%, 75.94 ±0.01%, 78.83 ±0.01% and 96.72 ±0.04% due to varied reaction conditions for temperature, time, acetic anhydride and catalyst concentrations on acetylation. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of unmodified and modified VTRP revealed declined frequency band of the hydroxyl group (O-H) of the unmodified 3400 cm1 to 3429-3419 cm1 in modified and consequently the absence of 1750-1700 cm1 in specify samples free of acetic acid by-products.

Modification of conventional furnaces into energy efficient Furnaces PDF

Santanu Saha, Piyush Paliwal, P Sarkar, Dr. D K Likhi

One of the most important parts of metal processing is hot forming of ingots through reheating and subsequent hot forging/hot rolling. Due to abnormal increase in fuel price, reheating cost also is increasing astronomically. Initially before the year 2009, the fuel consumption was around 1T/per ton of processing. Critical analysis was carried out. The study revealed that ceramic fiber has less thermal conductivity compared to that of conventional insulation brick. Suitable ceramic fiber was chosen and furnaces were modified with ceramic fiber. This has drastically reduced LPG consumption from 1T/ton of production to 0.5T/ton of production.

Virtual Parliament – An immediate need of Digitally Ready India PDF

Dr Sandhya Vyas and Prof K K Vyas

Today the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) have transformed the life of human being completely. New innovations in ICT continuously gripping and transforming the business, education, society & health Sector. Politics is not immune from ICT. Recent election in 2014-15 witnessed the extensive use of ICT as Mass Media. Even our MPs & MLAs was extensively using Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, UTubes, Whatsapp etc for reaching their followers. During the electoral campaign, some MP and MLAs was also taking the assistance from their back-end computer team to get caste related statistics of an area and make their strategy hourly based. Even the Pre-election prediction was severely affected by ICT campaign & Electronic Media Aids. In a nut-shell, it is an appropriate time to ICTfied the Politics by adopting Virtual Parliament Session. This will be beneficial for our country and make it true Green in all aspects globally. This exploratory paper gives a perception of Roadmap for Virtual Parliament concept. It may be a reality for Digitally Ready India so that the wash-out sessions of parliament can be avoided in future.

Microstructure Effect on Fracture of Stainless Steels PDF

Faraj A. Emhmmed Alhegagi

Duplex stainless steels specimens were heat treated at 475°C for different times and pulled to failure. Fracture toughness testing was performed according to BS 7448, , clip gauge , to monitor specimen displacement. In addition, the direct current potential drop(DCPD) technique was used to monitor the crack propagation. The Crack Tip Open Displacement (CTOD) was evaluated. Computational data, Shear model, were fit to the experimental ones. Discrepancy was observed between the experimental


Enedah, I.C., Igbokwe J.I., Ojiako, J.C., Igbokwe E.C.

The Federal Capital City (FCC) was created in 1976 and physical development of both the city and its region started in earnest in 1980. As a result, there has been a remarkable change in the physical development of the city. There is therefore the compelling need for timely accurate data on the physical development in the FCC. Presented in this study is an approach for mapping the physical development trends in the Federal Capital City (FCC) Abuja. This paper used multi-temporal satellite imageries of 1990, 2002 and 2014. Multi-temporal analysis was performed to derive the extent of physical development in the FCC, Abuja. Land Use/Land Cover maps of 1990, 2002 and 2014 were produced by using the supervised maximum likelihood classification algorithm in ERDAS Imagine 9.1. Post-classification comparison was used for producing growth/change map. Results show that for the past 24 years, 1990-2014, FCC Abuja has been undergoing extensive land cover change. The built up area in the city has grown from 14,693.85hectares in 1990 to 34,425.90hectares in 2002 and to 50,964.21hectares in 2014. The highest rate of urban growth is observed during the first period of urbanization (1990 to 2002) in which the built up area increased more than twice (40.17%) within 12 years, and in the second period of urbanization there was a change of 19.37%. In total, 36,270.36hectares of non-built up land has been converted to urban area. In this study it has been possible to successfully capture the changing subtleties of physical development patterns and trends in the FCC, Abuja. However it is recommended that further studies be carried out about development trends of other areas of the FCT, Abuja, so that a comparative analysis can be made between the FCC and other areas of the FCT, Abuja.

Analysis and Visualization of the Center Line in Large Intestine by Virtual Colonoscopic and Processing Algorithms: A Brief Study PDF

Satya Prakash Rout

The analysis showcases a virtual colonoscopic algorithms to detect and visualize ‘polyps’ and cancerous outgrowths in the large intestines of patients along with bringing forth a way to materialize the process. Virtual colonoscopic approach targets patients to provide a relaxed and less painful option for spotting cancerous and pre-cancerous outgrowths in the colon. Several 3D image processing algorithms of image skeletonization are used to find the location and shape of colons in the large intestine.


Deekshith K , Dhruva Aravind , Nagaraju H , Bhaskar Reddy

This paper deals with the efficiency of solar cell with and without tracking system . It also includes a proposed plan of simple dual axis tracking device which is based on servo motors which are in turn interfaced using arduino microcontroller kit . The instructions to the servo motor comes from highly efficient light dependent resistors which are responsible for moment of PV panels towards maximum light intensity.

A Modified Sepic Converter With Pv Module And Mppt Technique PDF

Soumya Ramanath

Solar-electric-energy system has grown consistently over the years. The core of solar power generation system is a solar cell. Modeling the solar cell is required for study of photovoltaic systems. In this paper utilization of a modified Single Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC) for control of photovoltaic power using Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control mechanism is presented. The SEPIC is designed to make the power flow from PV module to load effectively and maintain constant output voltage. The model is developed using basic circuit equations of the photovoltaic (PV) solar cells including the effects of solar irradiation and temperature changes. The preferred topology presents low switch voltage with high efficiency for low input and high output voltage applications. This converter topology is the combination of a classical boost converter and a conventional SEPIC converter. The input voltage of the converter is chosen to be 15 V and an output voltage of 120 V is obtained. The output power obtained is of 30W.

Relation of plasma resistin to obesity and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic Egyptian patients PDF

Emad K. Ahmed, Fatma F. Abdel Hamid, Tahany M. Abd El-Moneam, Heba A. Hussien

Resistin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone proposed to link obesity with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data from the literature regarding the physiological role of circulating resistin are unclear or conflicting. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between circulating resistin levels, obesity, and insulin resistance markers in Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes. The study included 43 type 2 diabetic patients and 41 age-matched healthy controls. Plasma resistin was found to be significantly higher in diabetic lean and obese patients, compared to their controls (p < 0.01) with males have higher levels than females. In addition, Insulin resistance markers assessed by homeostasis model as well as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels, were also higher among diabetic patients than in the controls. Pearson’s analysis revealed positive correlations between plasma resistin and weight, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass (LBM), insulin, homeostasis model assessment-β cell index (HOMA-β), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, and LDL-C. On the other hand, a negative correlation between resistin and homeostasis model assessment-hepatic insulin sensitivity (HOMA-HIS) as well as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was also observed. These results suggests that circulating resistin is unlikely to play a direct role on the development of type 2 diabetes rather than be associated with obesity and insulin resistance, both of which could, indirectly, contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Egyptian patients.


Over the years neither the government of Rivers State nor the Federal Government of Nigeria have shown interest in the development a viable water transportation system that would enhance. The importance of water transportation in the development of coastal communities has not been given the required attention by government at the State and Federal Levels. The emphasis has always been on land transportation. The objectives of this research are to find out: whether people living close to the water bodies actually, use them for transportation and recreation purposes; the number, names and characteristics of the major water transportation routes; people’s perception of the water bodies with respect to their value for transportation and recreation and types, ownership and management of watercraft used for water transportation. The research methodology was a multistage as it involved the listing of the major identified waterways and navigable waters in Rivers State and selecting 50% of the most viable economically to Rivers State. The study adopted the ‘passive-observational research design’. A total of 4,660 households were identified, and 100 households representing 2.15% of the households were interviewed, data was collected for analysis. The study established that there were challenges of water transportation in the Port Harcourt waterways and creeks; these range from narrow and shallow creeks and navigable waters, uncontrolled sea piracy, floating debris and water hyacinth along the navigable waterways and the near zero safety measures adopted by some of the boat drivers plying the waterways. The study also revealed that waterfronts of these selected communities in the study area have the potential of becoming recreation and tourist centres which can generate revenue for the state but they are poorly managed and/or neglected. In conclusion, water transportation system in the selected navigable waterways of Rivers State is inefficient due to shallow waterways due to continuous siltation of the creeks. The study recommends amongst others; as periodic dredging and canalization of waterways for effective transportation system and enhancement of recreational activities. The government at the State should provide adequate security along the waterways, the creeks to enhance water transportation and recreational activities in the areas. More so the Ministry of Transport should incorporate schemes to improve the waterways. The marine police should enforce the use of safety jackets and buoyancy aid for commuters and enforcing laws against refuse and excreta disposal in water bodies by residents. The government should encourage conservation and preservation of beach fronts and cultural heritage of the people along the waterways and navigable creeks.


M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

Scientists focus that only 59% of Moon surface can be seen from the earth all the time because of synchronizing time of moon as it orbits itself as well as earth and the balance 41% of moon surface can not be seen at all. In 1959 Soviet Union claimed about data about rear side of moon and America also claimed seen the rear side through space vehicle Apollo-8 . Now China is also programming to land on rear side of moon by 2018.

Combustion Properties of Briquettes Produced From Finger Millet Straws of Different Particle Sizes PDF

Hesborn R Ayub, Dennis O Bichang’a, Janet J Kipsanai, Danvas A Kegesa and Beavon N Osumo

The choice of agricultural residue briquette for domestic and industrial applications depends on its combustion characteristics. This paper reports the findings of densifying finger millet straws at room temperature without a binder at 25MPa compacting pressure. The finger millet straws were crashed using an electric hammer mill of circular sieve size openings to obtain particle sizes of 0.425, 0.600 and 1.18mm. Combustion-related properties such as percentage volatile matter, percentage ash content, percentage fixed carbon, moisture content, heating (or calorific) value of the briquettes were determined. Results indicated that different particle sizes produced briquettes of different properties. Density ranged between 0.43-0.76g/cm3; moisture content 9.5-11%; volatile matter 61.5-64%; fixed carbon 19-22%; ash content 6.6-7.5% and calorific value ranged between 4213-4662Kcal/kg for the three particle sizes of the four varieties under study. Assessment of burning characteristic showed that briquettes produced with particle size 0.425mm indicated the highest burning time of 6 minutes while briquettes with particle size 1.18mm had the highest burning rate of 4.6g/minute with low specific fuel consumption.

Risk and Reliability Analysis of the Effect of Underwater Noise Pollution towards MarineAnimals PDF

Sulaiman Oladokun Olanrewaju, Kader Ab Saman Abd, Azman Shamila, Alwany Magdy A., Trocchia Samantha, Guerriero Giulia

Underwater sound is important for the underwater creatures. It is useful for the navigation, food finding, mating, and also predator detection. The natural phenomenons in the marine environment that produce noise include waves, wind, surf, lightning, precipitation, animals’ sound and also the earthquakes. The frequency of the natural sound was usually below 100 Hz, but rain and waves sounds dominate higher frequencies. However, some human activities can cause the underwater noise pollution such as the sound produced by the ships, sonar, pile driving, dredging, oil and gas explorations and also military activities. The effect of man-made noise is a main threat to marine animals. Fish, in particular, was less attractive with the noisy environments and avoid areas where man-made noise levels are high.The presence of noise also could keep fish changes their way, behavior and reproduction. Our analysis has determined the cause, occurrence and the effect of the underwater noise pollution in the ocean towards marine animals. The overview from the results shows that shipping operation got the higher risk based on the evaluation of risk matrix rating which the identified risks are come from the high speed of the ships and sound emitted from the engine vibration in the hull of ships. Preliminary calculation involving the energy budget per year for anthropogenic noise shows that Underwater Noise Explosion emits higher energy per year which is 2.1 x 1015 J.

Communicative Language Teaching PDF

Mohammad Alfehaid

This paper about communicative approach in teaching in the 21st century and how it is effective in teaching and assessment for second Langauge learners and foreign language learners.

New Text Clustering Method Based On Arithmetic Encoding Algorithm PDF

Mr. Nikhil Pawar, Dr. P. K. Deshmukh

In this paper, we proposed system that uses arithmetic encoding algorithm to encode data instances in to integer, clustering performed on integer instances is much more effective than clustering performed on string instances. This is very effective technique to improve clustering accuracy of text data; it has been observed that traditional clustering methods not perform well on string attributes. Compression ratio of Arithmetic encoding is better than Huffman encoding.

Assessment of the Protective Potential of Annona senegalensis Leaf Extract against Selected Fungal Pathogens of Sorghum, Tomato and Okra Seeds PDF

Akpor OB, Nwogwugwu JC, Adejobi OI, Oyebanji AO and Babalola OO

The aim of this study was to access the protective potential of Annona senegalensis leaf extract against selected fungal pathogens of se-lected seedlings (sorghum, tomato and okra). Prior to use, the seeds were surfaced sterilized and viability test carried out. In the study, the effective concentration of the extract, optimum soaking time in the extract and infective concentration of the fungal pathogens were determined. The outcome of the effective concentration of the extract revealed the germination percentage of the sorghum seeds to range from 71% to 93.36%. For the okra seeds the result ranged from 38% to 86%, while for that of the tomato seeds the germination profile was observed to range from 28.5% to 71%. With respect to the optimum soaking time, the end result for the germination of the sorghum seeds was seen to be high at100 % which were recorded in most of the soaking time seen at 30 min, 90 min, 120min, 180 min, 210 min. Lowest value of 78.5 % was seen at 240 min soaking time in the extract. In the case of tomato seeds, the germination result revealed a variation from 28.5 % to 71 %, with the lowest and highest seen at soaking time of 240 min and 30 min respectively. The study was able to reveal the protective potential of the extract of the seeds against the fungal pathogens.


Assoc. Prof. Kire Sharlamanov, Asst. Prof. Aleksandar Jovanoski

Political and especially electoral campaigns are more developed and complex than ever. In order, for an electoral campaign to be successfully performed its necessary to establish communication management and to develop a communication strategy. This paper explores communication management for electoral campaigns in all its phases form strategic study through research of public opinion to development of communication strategy.

Image Enhancement using Dynamic Stochastic Resonance in Discrete wavelet Domain PDF

Akanksha Singh, Sini Shibu

Many images like medical images, satellite images, Arial images and even life photographs suffer from noise. Image enhancement techniques are used to improve the visual appearance of images by reducing noise from images. In this paper, a dynamic stochastic resonance (DSR) based algorithm is proposed to improve the visual quality by removing noise from digital image. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon in which the performance of a system can be improved by addition of noise. In proposed algorithm salt and pepper noise is added in image with different variance. After applying proposed DSR technique, resultant image is enhanced and results are better in terms of Noise Standard Deviation (NSD), Mean Square Difference (MSD) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) when compared with other techniques such as Gaussian low pass filtering, soft thresholding and hard threholding of wavelet coefficient.

An Arabic Web search engine using grid computing and Artificial Intelligence techniques PDF

Mohammed Mahmoud Ibrahim Sakre

This research is considered as a result of an accumulative work for many years to demonstrate a model for the heavy computational components of any World Wide Web (WWW) search engine. This architecture is based on the grid computing. The crawling load is distributed over a set of computers to retrieve more crawled pages in less time. The proposed architecture of the indexer distributes the indexing load over a set of computers and supports the dynamic indexing to deal with the frequent changes in the web contents. So, the proposed architectures of the crawler and the indexer support the freshness of the web pages. The used freshness technique is considered in the crawler and the indexer where the dynamic indexer is responsible of determining the old pages and sending them to the crawler to revisit them for updating. The Search module is implemented including Arabic morphological analysis/generation and synonym dictionary which are combined to produce an Intelligent Arabic Internet Search module. The use of these linguistic tools is proved, experimentally, to have positive effects on both Precision and Recall measures where the average precision exceeds the value of 0.92. This design is implemented for Arabic language but it suits any other language with language-related modifications.

Production of Au NPs via PLAL Technique for Optoelectronic Application PDF

Baha T. Chiad, Falah A-H Mutlak, Luay S. Ahamed and Mudhafar H. ALI

In this paper, Au nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) was prepared.Various affecting parameters were studied such different laser energy (100, 300, and 500 m J) with different number of pulses (100, 300, 500, and 700 pulse), at wavelength 1064 nm, and repetition rate of 1Hz. The structural , morphological and optical properties were discussed. XRD spectra showed the very strong diffraction peak at 37.8° is considered to be of (111) plane facet of the face centered cubic structure, while the diffraction peaks of other Au peaks are found to be much weaker compared to standard Au NPs. AFM showed the average diameter increase with the increase of the energy and number of shots. The optical properties showed decrease absorption spectra at decrease energy and number of shots.

Lossless Huffman coding for image compres-sion using K-Means algorithm with Motion es-timation technique via “3-level HBMA over EBMA” on block size of 16 and 64 PDF

Ali Tariq Bhatti, Dr. Jung H. Kim

Now-a-days, image compression techniques are very common in a wide area of researches in terms of lossless and lossy compression. Image compression can also play an impact role in video or motion estimation techniques. Motion estimation (ME) is an essential part of any video processing system of determining motion vectors that are representing the transition or motion of objects in successive video frames as store in images. It is use to find its applications in two main areas: reduction of temporal redundancy in video coders and representation of true motion of objects in real-time video applications. In this research paper, the block size of 16 and 64 has been used to compute for part A and part B, so then the analysis of performance metrics. In part A, read an image of 256X256 in any jpg or gif format. Furthermore, Lossless Huffman using K-Means algorithm of block size of both 16 and 64 and choose codebook size of 50 in part A. In part B, record voice video of 128X128 with at least one moving object in any video format such as .wmv, .avi, etc. file with reasonable brightness and contrast using 30 frames/second and convert those video frames into images by RGB to intensity format, applying median filter by using selected motion estimation algorithm via MATLAB implementation. Then, in this research paper, 3-level HBMA algorithm over EBMA for two second voice video is used. Take the anchor and the tracked frames of 2 second voice video are each represented by a pyramid, and the EBMA or one of its variants is employed to estimate motion vectors of blocks in each level of the pyramid. Different frames of image for 3 different videos like 1st, middle, last frame, etc. are used as a original image and motion vector image during this algorithm. Quiver displays velocity vectors as arrows for motion estimation for the videos in that frame of image in this research paper. Moreover, display the original video, motion vector video, threshold video and their results. Also did analysis to compute 1st frame and last frame of the 2 second original video, and first frame and middle frame of the 2 second motion vector video by RGB to intensity format. Compute MSE between the original and the result. Therefore, other evaluation metrics used such as PSNR and MAD for 3-level HBMA over EBMA of block sizes of 16 and 64 via MATLAB implementation. Furthermore, investigate the analysis of performance metrics for part A and part B to be used in this research paper. Finally, there will be a change in MAD and MSE will be decreased when taking larger block size like of 64 in the context lossless Huffman coding for image compression using K-Means algorithm and Video estimation technique via HBMA over EBMA algorithm.

Exchanging Biometric Keys in Secrecy PDF

Mohammed Mahmoud Ibrahim Sakre

The main purpose of the presented paper is to establish a secure way by integrating the biological characteristic as a key with cryptographic applications. A binary string is generated reliably from genuine fingerprint conventions. That key is generated from a subject’s fingerprint image with the aid of SDK, which do not reveal the key. The reproduction of that key depends on the equivalent biometric fingerprint. That’s why the general key distribution problem is always refer to the task of distributing secret keys between communicating parties to provide security properties such as secrecy and authentication.

Modular Graphs with High Cheeger Constant PDF

Krunal K Patel

Modularity and centrality properties in graphs is an area of research that is becoming increasingly important with growing applications in analysing big data, especially social network data, computation for biology, communication network optimization and design, VLSI, etc. to name a few. We want the network to have community structure. At the same time we also want a network to be decently connected so that it can withstand certain amount of failures. We can measure how well a network is connected by its Cheeger constant. In this work in our search for ways to test the modularity properties in networks we focused on possible relationships between the Cheeger constant of a graph and modularity. Although modularity is a local graph property and Cheeger constant is a global graph property, it turns out that there is a relation between them. Low Cheeger constant means that the graph is weakly connected. Such graphs are more likely to have community structure. A paper by Gregory Gauthier on ”Graph Fortresses and Cheeger Values” proves that any network having Cheeger constant less than 1 has positive modularity. They introduced graph fortress and cellular automaton to prove the result. First they proved that any graph having Cheeger constant less than 1 will have a double fortress in it. Subsequently, another result of theirs states that any graph with non-trivial double fortress will have a partition with positive modularity. In this document we first prove that any minimal Cheeger set is always internally connected. This gives us a lower bound on number of edges in a minimal Cheeger set with respect to its cardinality. We then prove that if a graph has two disjoint weak fortress then the graph will also have a double weak fortress. Using these two results we prove that if all minimal Cheeger set having Cheeger value e have cardinality at least 2/2-e then the graph has a non-trivial double weak fortress. Finally we prove that the presence of a non-trivial double weak fortress gives us a partition of vertices of graph with non-negative modularity.

Satellite Images processing and Classification Enhancement for Different Land Covers PDF

H. I. Abdelkader, M. El-Hattab, A. M. Sakhan, and A. M. Nasr

Images classification is an important task for many aspects of global change studies and environmental applications. This study aims to improve the accuracy of classification for satellite images by comparing the spectral signature that got from the laboratory measurements of spectral reflectance obtained for 18 samples of different land covers and the spectral signa-ture of the selected regions in this classification. In this study three different classifications for the same satellite image have been compared. The first classification is unsupervised classification while the second and third classifications are supervised classifications. The first and second classifications are traditional in ERDAS software while the third classification depends on the laboratory measurements. The samples include most identified land covers from the previous supervised classifications. All collected samples were prepared and then its spectral response were investigated using the spectrometer device (tec5, Oberursel) which cover the wavelengths range (302 – 1148)nm in 2 nm steps of electromagnetic radiation. These data used to derive the spectral signature for different land covers. This spectral signature is used in the third classification. The accuracy of the first classification was 60% and the second classification was 70% while the third classification accuracy was 85%. This increase in accuracy of classification was lower than expected due to the random regions in the marine area. It is a known problem in LANDSAT7 sensors. This problem has been solved by masking the seawater through making a mask vector by manual digitizing of that class in ARCGIS software which led to an improved accuracy classification of 94.3%.

Continuous Suture Technique for Isolated Mitral Valve Replacement - A Prospective Postoperative Analysis PDF

Vijayant Devenraj, Sushil Kumar Singh, Vivek Tewarson, Sarvesh Kumar, Akshyaya Pradhan, Navneet Kaur.

Background- The deleterious effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are well known. Techniques to reduce the duration of CPB without compromising patient’s safety have been evolving. One such technique is the use of continuous suture technique for mitral valve replacement (MVR). In our study we have analyzed postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) course, morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing isolated MVR with continuous suture technique.Methods- From August 2011 through September 2012, 71 patients underwent isolated MVR with continuous suture technique. The study was prospective, and the database maintained by medical record section and phone contacts with patients. After discharge, patients were followed up clinically on day-7, & 1, 3 and 6 months. Echocardiography was done at 1 & 6 months.The statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15 software. The test used were Chi-square test, Student ‘t’test and ANOVA (Analysis Of Variance) test. Results- Average CPB time was 50.73+12.48 minutes and mean aortic cross-clamp time was 29.86+8.81 minutes. During ICU course, significant decrease in inotropic support (p=0.004), ventilator time (p=0.037), mediastinal drainage (p<0.001) and shorter ICU stay (p<0.001) were associated with decrease in CPB time. Mediastinal drainage averaged 258.31 ± 172.53 ml whereas 0.94 ± 0.843 units of packed red blood cells were transfused. Incidence of paravalvular leak was 4.2%. There were no incidences of suture breakage or prosthetic valve dehiscence. There was single peri-operative mortality resulting from fatal cerebral thrombo-embolism.Conclusion- Improved post-operative recovery with comparable morbidity and mortality and cost effectiveness mandates use of continuous suture technique for MVR.

Project Management Office in a Waterfall environment PDF

Meshal Alabdulwahab

Project Management Office or PMO works like a business unit to maintain project management activities of an organization. The aims is to standardize the project management methods, processes, and policies in execution of project activities. There are several approaches to project management that PMO can follow such as traditional waterfall approach, agile methods, lean practice or scrum framework. Each of these require specific culture, structure, and processes so that projects could be efficiently and effectively managed. This paper focuses on the issues faced by PMO with regard to project management methodology, relevant strategic impact, and stakeholder response to change in these methods. It also review other alternatives to project management and recommends a preferred alternative.

Reverse engineering of one-way encryption function PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this research is described an approach for reverse engineering of a hash function. Despite that the proposed method may not be the best, it still works and it deserves to be examined. The approach does a bloom filter containing states that may reach the end by adding a suffix with some length. Then it iterates the prefixes of the extra length and notes each one that matches the filter. As soon as it reaches ten thousand corresponding prefixes or ends, it tries to break recursively the difference from the states, reached by comparing prefixes against the end state. If it finds a way to break the difference, the correct prefix forms a pair with the solution of the difference, in order to form a complete solution. Otherwise, it continues, until the prefixes run out.

Groundwater characterization and impacts on health and environment in Abakaliki area and environs, Southeastern Nigeria PDF

Rock Onwe Mkpuma, Nwankwo G. I., Ema Michael Abraham

Water quality and availability is a consequence of the natural physical, chemical and biological state as well as any other alterations that may have occurred as a result of biotic and abiotic activities. The usefulness of water for a particular purpose is determined by the status of these parameters. In view of this, an understanding of these factors influencing livelihood is pertinent. In this study, hydrologic and hydrogeological characteristics as well as chemical and biological status of both surface and groundwater were evaluated. World Health Organization (WHO) standard were used as the yardstick to characterize the chemical and biotic status. Further, the Piper’s Trilinear technique is employed. A questionnaire approach was also used to simulate water status impact on livelihood.

Laser performance of some polymeric-state laser dyes in transversely resonating cavity PDF

H. I. Abdelkader, A. M.Abou-Elmagd, Ibtsam S. Jaber, Maram T. H. AbouKana

Pyrromethene laser dyes (PM567 and PM597) and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) were doped in 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) to form copolymer host of composition (1:1; v/v). optical and photo-physical properties such as;the oscillator strength (f), the transition dipole moment μ12, the attenuation length Λ(λ), the energy of fluorescence (Ef), radiative decay rate (Kr) and intersystem crossing rate (Kisc) showed that, R6G in polymeric host has the highest values which gave indication of its higher laser performance than other PM's dyes. 2x10-3mol/L was the optimum concentration of the laser dyes in this polymer host. At this concentration, PM567, PM597 and R6G have laser performance values (by transversely resonating cavity) 51.1%, 52.0% and 54.3% respectively. Also, the photostability of the optimum concentration of the three laser dyes in solid host was studied.

Expansion of Power System Corridors Using Tier-1 Technique for Reactive Power Compensation PDF

Samuel O. Ezennaya, Ezechukwu, O.A., Anierobi C.C., Akpe V.A

This paper develops a novel strategy for the expansion of the power system corridors for the release of the embedded transmission capacity. Both theoretical and practical network models are presented with a focus on power flow studies which concentrates on the steady state or static behavior of electrical power system. The methodology involves the power flow analysis revalidation of the existing standard IEEE 14 bus system and simulation using Newton-Raphson method in both MATLAB and Powerworld simulator (PWS) environment. This paper therefore establishes that an original designed network could be modified to take more loads without building new generators or transmission lines. The expansion of the existing IEEE 14 bus network to accommodate more load involves the use of static compensators incorporated at the transmission lines. This technique is then analyzed extensively when distributed along the lines through the use of a distributed capacitors compensators, (DCC). DCC can affect significant change in power line impedance to improve the power transfer capacity of an interconnected power system. The application of the DCC on the line is the tier-1 technique. The results obtained show that by applying the tier-1 techniques to the transmission line, the system’s capacity will remarkably improve and the transmission line will accept extra loading.

Mechanical and Metallurgical Behaviours of Nitrided Aircraft Shaft PDF

P.Kuppuraj, S.Gunasekaran, R. Pandi Durai, C. Balamurugan, A. Mayavan, D.R.Vivek Metha, A.Surender Paul

Nitriding is a thermo-chemical process by which the surface of a ferrous metal is enriched with nitrogen to improve the wear resistance along with anti galling properties, high surface hardness, improved fatigue resistance, better creep resistance and enhanced corrosion resistance of the components. The Nitriding technology shows a clear orientation towards future developments. Hence, it ideally satisfies current and future industrial demands for economical and efficient solutions to the treatment of surfaces. It is also an answer to social demands for improved environmental protection. So that, it has act as a major role in manufacturing of automotives, railways, aircraft and aerospace components such as engine assembly parts, tappets, valves, bearings, shafts, Piston Pins, Spacers, rods, Screws, Washers, Nuts propeller control and power control Systems, etc., In the present, we are interested to study the mechanical and metallurgical behaviours of nitrided aircraft shaft, which is newly designed by the theoretical modeling of Solid Works Simulation Xpress Study and the same practically developed by using of Plain Carbon Steel i.e. AMS 5069 /AISI 1018 and also we would like to enhance their Mechanical Properties with help of Nitrding. After Nitriding, the qualitative analysis was done by Rockwell Hardness Testing, Microstructure Examinations, Case depth and Compound Zone Determinations, etc., The obtained results are compared and conclude whether the chosen material is suitable for producing the Aircraft Shaft by the way of economy.

A Parametric Study for the Optimal Design of Barrages PDF

Dr. Abdul-Hassan K. Al-Shukur, Zahraa Fadhil Hassan

The barrage is a major diversion structure involved in canal head works and meant for local ponding and regulating river water level. The cost of a barrage will vary for different values of design parameters which address different types of soil and hydrological conditions and that govern barrage profile dimensions. In this paper a parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of variation in the design parameters values on the dimensions and on overall cost of the barrage with utilization of the optimization approach to find optimal hydraulic design of the barrage. It was showed that the flood discharge have the greatest effect on the total cost of the barrage and a barrage constructed on fine grained soil is costlier than that constructed on a foundation of coarser bed material.

Experimental and Social study on Solar PV Characteristics and Maximum Power Point Tracking of a PV Source PDF

Aashish Singh

The study was conducted at IIT Bombay,India. Today around 25000 villages in India [1] and 1.1 billion people in the world [2] are facing acute shortage of energy. In this ever growing economical world, solar energy provides a better clean alternative as an energy source. However due to high costs of purchase and installation this technology is not able to reach the remote and rural areas of the world which still run on traditional fuel sources. Thus there is a need to research and harness the maximum potential of solar energy. The project’s main objective was to extensively study characteristics of Solar PV modules and conduct experiments of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) used in Solar PV modules for varied radiations. In the experiment, I used a solar PV panel and a variable resistor, to extract the graphs of P-V (power-Voltage) and I-V (current-voltage) and to find out the point at which the graph yielded maximum power output from the Solar Panel. As a further extension of the project I have studied the applications of Solar Cells and their proper implementation in an Indian context.

Shaking Table Tests on a Physical Model of a Concrete Gravity Dam PDF

Atheer Zaki Mohsin , Hassan Ali Omran , Abdul-Hassan K. Al-Shukur

This research is devoted to experimental investigations on response of a concrete gravity dam to seismic excitations including dam-reservoir-foundation interaction. The research consists of a series of 1g shaking table tests conducted on the scaled model of the gravity dam. The experiments are conducted at the Physical Modeling Laboratory of School of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran. A parametric study is achieved through change of relative density (Dr) of ground soil. Two tests, namely, Test-1 and Test-2 are conducted on shaking table device on Dr=80% and 60 %, respectively. Also 3-phases of accelerations, namely, 0.15g, 0.3g, and 0.6g are conducted in each test. The presented data include acceleration, pore water pressure, soil pressure, dynamic water pressure and displacement records. The results are analyzed and they are suitable for comparisons with numerical ones.

Experimental and Economical study on applications of Biogas and Biodiesel PDF

Aashish Singh

Today there is acute shortage of energy sources all around the world. With India alone standing a debt of $6.5 billion from oil rich Iran[1], many countries in the world are facing energy crisis. Like India, China experienced severe energy shortages towards the end of 2005 and again in early 2008. During the latter crisis they suffered severe damage to power networks along with diesel and coal shortages [2]. Supplies of electricity in Guangdong province, the manufacturing hub of China, are predicted to fall short by an estimated 10 GW. Thus there is a need to resort to alternative fuel sources. Biofuel presents one such example of clean burning, economical and renewable alternative fuel. Thus the main objective of the project is to evaluate the different applications of Biogas and Biodiesel and their proper and economical implementation in developing countries so that the growing economies can become more independent from fast depleting traditional fuel sources. For this purpose, a study on using biodiesel to power fishing boats (through B2, B5, and B20 engines) has been carried out. Further a comparative study of the usage of biogas, kerosene, firewood and LPG for domestic purposes has been conducted keeping in mind the economics, pollution effects and efficiency.

Health system monitoring using Health Management Information System (HMIS) in India and suggested enhancements to this platform PDF

Deepti Srivastava

This paper is an attempt to highlight features of Government of India’s e-portal, HMIS (Health Management Information System) & comparison with some of the existing data collection processes used in health sector. Global practices and steps required to be taken for strengthening health MIS are also highlights of this paper. There is also emphasis on how an effective MIS increases the efficiency of senior and middle level health officials thereby facilitating planning and policy making decisions based on factual information.

Indian Paper Currency Authentication System-A Quick Authentication System PDF

B.Sai Prasanthi , D.Rajesh Setty

Automated paper currency recognition system can be a very good utility in banking systems and other field of commerce. Since many years counterfeiting of paper currency challenges the financial system of every country in different sectors, India is also one of them. In this article, recognition of paper currency with the help of digital image processing techniques is described. Six characteristics of Indian paper currency are selected for counterfeit detection included identification mark, security thread , watermark ,numeral watermark, floral design and micro-lettering. The characteristic feature extraction is performed on the image of the currency and it is compared with the characteristic features of the genuine currency. The decision making is done by calculating the black pixels. This article is aimed to design a low cost system and quick decision making system.


Gajere, JN and Andongma W.T

Lineaments are essential for understanding the structural geology as well as for mineral prospecting. A manual digitization technique was used to extract lineaments from Landsat images. Lineaments properties such as lineaments number, orientation, length, relative abundance as well as statistical relationship between lineament length and orientation were studied. The NE-SW lineaments dominate the study area. Such lineaments can be attributed to the opening of the Benue Trough. Statistically, the NW-SE lineaments and E-W lineaments are more correlating in terms of lineaments. These lineament pair is more correlating in terms to the N-S lineaments than the NE-SW lineaments.

Performance Enhancement of DCF Based Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) PDF

Mahendra Kumar, Navneet Agrawal

We Proposes a Dispersion Compensation Fiber (DCF) based Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) architecture which is demonstrated/simulated to provide 20Gb/s downstream and 20Gb/s upstream bandwidth. This prototype system provides good Q-Factor and acceptable BER for 50Km that is significantly higher than Conventional architecture.

A comparison of heuristics algorithm for load balancing in cloud environment PDF

Yogita kaushik, Anup Bhola and C.K Jha

Cloud computing, has boomed technology in new era. The main reason for its growth is its capacity to store large amount of data. We store data in digital and to store their data we require large number of storage and computer resources. Its provides a solution of this problem, as it store all software, platform and infrastructure in the data center and these all are easily accessible through internet, through the service provider at anytime and anywhere. The main objective of the work is to find an enhanced algorithm through compression various cloud load balancing algorithms since in cloud job arrivals pattern is not predictable. This paper shows the comparison of various load balancing algorithms like round robin, equally spread current execution load and throttled in cloud environment with different metric like Response time, Data processing time, cost. The considered uniqueness has an impact on cost, which can be obtained by enhanced response time and processing time. We use CloudAnalist simulation tool to show the table and results.

Overview of user interfaces used in load lifting devices PDF

Karol Miądlicki, Mirosław Pajor

Lifting cranes play a key role in industry. They are used all over the world on construction sites, ships, transport, ports, warehouses and wherever it is necessary to move heavy objects or goods. To control them are hired qualified people who undergo rigorous training. Lifting devices are designed to increase the efficiency of their work and minimize the risk of accidents. But between the operator, and lifting device is an underestimated element. That element determines the performance of lifting equipment and safety in places where they are used. It is a control device - the user interface, which should be the most intuitive, efficient and ergonomic, especially nowadays where time saving is very important.

Biomass to Biofuels: Conversion Processes and Challenges in Second-generation Technologies PDF

Hisham A. Maddah

This paper illustrates the latest advancements in the opportunity of using biomass as an alternative source of energy to produce biofuel products. The high demand on fossil fuels should be embraced by studying available biomass feedstocks such as starch and lignocellulosic. This study shows that every feedstock can produce a unique biofuel type. In fact, lignocellulosic is the core material to produce biofuels from non-food biomass sources, known as the second-generation, where this route is more efficient and environmental friendly. However, gasification and pyrolysis are the most common techniques to convert biomass into chemicals. Thus, the characteristics of various reactors have been discussed to show that the reactor selection depends on the desired product as well as the feedstock state. Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are the prime biofuel products from biomass. Moreover, more evaluations and studies were performed regarding the oxygen feedstock and large-scale of second-generation issues. It is possible to remove oxygen totally or partially to increase the total amount of produced energy, but this may result in the formation of charcoal or hydrogen.


Kirti Kanaujiya, Yugesh Mani Tiwari

In the case of centrifugal casting the molten metal occupies into the cavity by virtue of the centrifugal force. Horizontal centrifugal casting is the process of production of cylindrical components and in the same casting with different mechanical properties through the section [1]. The experiment set up is designed and this set up consists of a stainless steel cylindrical mold which is fixed both sides by a driving flange. This driving flange connected to the mold in a temporary manner with the help of nut and bolt. The DC motor can be varied up to 1400 RPM. For this analysis lead is used as molten metal because lead melted at very low temperature. Numerical simulations are carried out using the ABAQUS program which treated as an attractive and useful tool for modeling centrifugal casting process. There are numerous procedure constraints impact the appearances of the centrifugal castings such as pouring temperature of the molten metal, die wall temperature, rotational speed of the die, centrifugal force these processes. By means of the centrifugal force and rapid solidification rate the finer equiaxed grain structures are formed to obtain homogeneous and isotropic mechanical properties [1].

Preliminary Investigation on Modification of Agbabu Natural Bitumen with Some Polymeric Materials PDF

Ojeyemi M. Olabemiwo, Akintomiwa O. Esan and Hassan, O. Bakare

Bitumen is a very versatile engineering material used in road pavement. Bitumen when used in its natural form in road pavement suffers premature failure as a result of its exposure to some environmental factors such as water, light, heat, etc. Modification of the natural bitumen via addition of any additives such as polymers to its structure prior to its use in road pavement is one of the ways by which the service life of bitumen is improved.

Synergistic Effect of Allium sativum (garlic) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus PDF

Aliyu, A.M, Suleiman, S.S., Aliyu, M.Y.

The soxhlet ethanolic extracts of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) were subjected to phytochemical screening. The result revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Saponins, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids and Flavonoids in both plants while Tannins was absent in Allium sativum but present in Zingiber officinale. The antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was assayed by the agar well diffusion method. The test isolates were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli both of which are clinical isolates. Both extracts had strong antibacterial activity against the isolates with Escherichia coli having the highest zone of inhibition with Garlic (24.00mm) and Staphylococcus aureus with Ginger (28.00mm).the minimum inhibitory concentration of both extracts was 10-2 while the minimum bactericidal concentration of both extracts was 10-1. The synergistic effect of both extracts gave a stronger activity with Staphylococcus aureus being more susceptible with a zone of inhibition of 39.00mm and Escherichia coli having 34.60mm. This confirms the use of the plant extracts in the treatment of ailments caused by these microorganisms.

Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks to Guarantee Primary User Performance PDF

Ramez Moh.ElaskAry, Yasmine Fahmy

Cognitive radio technology has been proposed to improve spectrum efficiency by having the cognitive radios act as secondary users to opportunistically access under-utilized frequency bands. Frequency spectrum sharing between licensed primary users (PUs) unlicensed secondary users (SUs) requires the SUs reliably detect the spectrum occupancy. Spectrum sensing, as a key enabling functionality in cognitive radio networks, needs to reliably detect signals from PUs to avoid harmful interference. However, due to the effects of channel fading/shadowing, individual SUs may not be able to reliably detect the existence of a PU so that multiple SUs can cooperate to conduct spectrum sensing. In this paper, we derive an optimal voting rule for any detector applied to cooperative spectrum sensing such that minimizing the Bayes risk function. Furthermore, we derive an algorithm to optimize the energy detection threshold for the cognitive users for any fusion rule. Furthermore, we propose a new algorithm that determines the optimum fusion rule and optimum threshold that minimizes the false alarm probability such that the missing probability under constrains (bounded error).


Abam Arikpo

The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of sex, employment status, and higher education on university graduates’ labour forces contribution. 79 male 58 female university graduate draw through convenience and snowballing techniques from all university graduates in south-south Nigeria participated in the study. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Five likert questionnaire were used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using t-test and chi-square statistics. The result obtained indicated sex, employment status and higher education to differently influence the labour market contributions of male and female university graduate. Specifically, men’s contributions were higher than women’s relative to sex, higher education attained, and employment, government, private sector employment job situations. That of the women was only higher than that of the men under self-employed conditions.

Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Hydroxyapatite with poly ethylene oxide nanocomposite for biomedical applications PDF

A.Ragu, K.Senthilarasan, P.Sakthivel

The aim of this study is to prepare and characterization of hydroxyapatite with polymer nano composite. In this present study, we have developed wet chemical precipitation method for preparing nHAp with Polymer powder. It is well known that wet chemical precipitation method have several advantages for producing ceramic particularly high crystallinity, high purity, nano size and high reactivity. HAp with polymer is an important inorganic biomaterial which has attracted the attention of researchers related to biomaterial field in recent years. In this work, poly ethylene oxide with hydroxyapatite nanocomposite were analyzed and confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis of TG/DTA and the consequence of this investigation suggest that the nHAp with poly ethylene oxide can be used to antibacterial agent for developing new pharmaceutical to control studied human pathogenic bacteria responsible for severe illness.

Application of Plaid Algorithm to Identifying Patterns in Breast Cancer Gene Expression Data PDF

Hamid Alavi Majd, Ahmad Reza Baghestani, Seyyed Mohammad Tabatabaei, Soodeh Shahsavari, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Mohsen Hamidpour

Numerous studies have correlated variation in gene expression between individuals to phenotypic diversity in breast tumors. The main goal of this study was to conduct plaid algorithm to biclustering of breast cancer gene expression data with the aim of identifying tumors subgroups with similar clinical features. The real dataset that had been used in this research is the one which was used in Breast cancer (docetaxel resistance) article in 2005 that was included in CGED. Gene expression profiling was done with on data matrix containing 44 patients and 2453 genes. Plaid algorithm was used to recognize gene expression patterns, after that, percent of significant genes in each bicluster was calculated with FDR. Biclustering algorithm has discovered 265 co-expressed genes which was divided to 6 subgroups with similar expression levels. 175 number of these genes was identified significant by FDR and expression levels were different in responder and non-responder. Randomization test and GO ontology did confirm the results of biclustering algorithm. The increasing clinical use of genomic profiling demands identification of more effective methods to segregate patients into prognostic and treatment groups. We have shown that biclustering can be used to select optimal gene sets for determining the prognosis of specific strata of patients.


Kedar S. Shinge, Bhagyashree B. Warad, Shreyans B. Rathod and Sandeep S. Pendhari

In the modern world of high competition and environmental awareness, it has become necessary to find an alternative materials that can be widely used. With a similar views in mind, in the present study, the red mud and rice husk ash are used in partial qunatitites with the cement in mortar. With the ambit of the mechanical strength of the cement, the compressive, tensile and flexure behavior of the mortar specimens are studied and presented. The parent objective of the present study is to suggest possible percentage of use of red mud and rice husk ash along with cement which will help to reduce the cement consumption in construction industry.

Quantifying Some Simple Chaotic Models Using Lyapunov Exponents PDF

K. Khan, J. Mai and T. L. Graham

Lyapunov exponents are used to quantify various dynamical systems which have been found to display chaotic behaviour by embedding them in a common structural framework.

Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using Crest Lines and Morphological Operations PDF

J. C. Rodrigues, F. N. Bezerra

Retinal vessel segmentation algorithms play an important role for the detection of numerous diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and many others. The aim of this paper is report an automated method for segmentation of retinal blood vessels using the crest lines and morphological operations. Initially, each image is preprocessed and the green channel is obtained. Then, we extract the vessels crest lines using a parallel thinning algorithm for grayscale images, simultaneously we perform the sum of top-hats transforms using a linear structuring element in eight directions. Both of these two techniques are performed in the green channel of the input image. The final steps consist in intersecting the two resulting images, smoothing the borders and removing spurious objects remaining. The proposed method is simple and presented robustness and high performance on the DRIVE retinal database.


S. Meena, M. Renugha, M. Sivasakthi

The aim of this paper is to introduce the cordial labeling for different types of shell graphs like path joining of shell graph, star of shell graph, multiple of shell graph, cycle of shell graph and to provide some results on it.


Nikolay Raychev

In this study is carried out an analysis of the classical and quantum complexity of the defined by the author formalized circuits and is shown, that the circuits require several classic computations. The formalized circuits of Raychev have almost the same quantum complexity as the non-general circuits. Since the represented circuit models are independent of the techniques for matrix decomposition and the processes for global optimization, used to find the quantum circuits for a given operator, on quantum computers can be made simulations with a high accuracy for the unitary propagators of molecular Hamiltonians. As an instance, we show how to be constructed a circuit model for a hydrogen molecule.


Nikolay Raychev

The purpose of this article is to analyze the practical applications of the reconfigurable formalized circuits of Raychev, as well as to analyze the ability of the defined by the author formalized computing models for performing of scientific computations.

Multi-functional formalized quantum circuits PDF

Nikolay Raychev

To become practically and functionally viable quantum computers they should be able to use a technology for formalization of a set of operators that is of vital importance to be able to mimic the behavior of the quantum parallelism. In this study is offered a methodology to perform mapping of the quantum algorithms for designing of effective formalized quantum hardware schemes. The model is designed with consideration for implementation of superpositions and entangled input states. The proposed models provide guidelines to conduct accurate researches based on formalizations of quantum hardware schemes for practical quantum applications.

Optimization of Cropping pattern using Linear Programming Model for Markandeya Command Area PDF

R. Shreedhar, Chandrashekarayya G. Hiremath & Girish G.Shetty

Agriculture is one of major activity in INDIA. Overall development depends on food production in service of existing or growing population with maximum benefits and optimal utilization of water and land resources. Management of this water and land resources is also one of the main financial development. Hence there is necessity of implementation of techniques in optimum usage of such available resources. Also Keeping in view of socio economic conditions, the present study makes an attempt to develop optimum cropping pattern with the constraints of available resources like water usage and also labour, fertilizers, seeds, etc., and ultimately getting maximum net benefits. The objective function for multi crop model are formulated using LP for maximizing the net benefits, by keeping all other available resources (such as cultivable land, seeds, fertilizers, human power, pesticides, cash etc) as constraints.


Omiogbemi, I.M.B., Yawas, D.S., Dagwa, I. M. and Okibe, F.G

In this work, the effects of gas metal arc welding parameters on the corrosion behaviour of type 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) immersed in hydrochloric acid medium (0.5M) at ambient temperatures were studied using design expert software, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Monsanto Tensometer. The design expert was used to determine the surface responses and interactions between the parameters, SEM was used to examine the test specimen’s microstructural analysis after immersion in the corrosive medium while the Monsanto Tensometer was used to examine the materials optimum performance in hydrochloric acid medium in terms of strength and it was found that tensile strength increased with increasing welding parameters (from 120MN/m2 to 133MN/m2). It was also found that increase in welding current and speed at constant voltage gave the optimum performance of the ASS structure in HCl medium obtained at speed 40mm/sec and current 110Amp. This shows a corresponding minimal material deterioration. Surface corrosion deposit composition was analyzed with the SEM paired with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). It was concluded that relatively high speed and current at a constant voltage gave a satisfactory weldment with good integrity.


Preeti Patel, and S.K.Malhaothra

The present paper deals with an inventory model for deteriorating items in which planning horizon is finite. The deterioration is taken as time dependent, demand is linear function of time and production rate depends both on inventory level & demand. The analytical development is provided to obtain the optimal solution to minimize the total cost per time unit of an inventory control system. Numerical analysis has been presented to accredit the validity of the mentioned model.

Dynamics of Infinite and Finite Bubbles Induced by Geometrical Constraint PDF

Zuonaki Ongodiebi and Adokiye Omoghoyan

We present an experimental study and characterise the dynamics of the propagation modes that occur due to the displacement of a viscous uid by nite and in nite bubbles from microchannels with centered rectangular occlusions. The centered rectangular occlusion results in a family of steadily propagating ngers/bubbles analogous to the propagation modes recently reported by [15, 16, 17] in millimetre-scale tubes, indicating that gravity is not an essential physical mechanism that underpins the emergence of these states.

Design of a Novel Proactive Link State Routing Approach to Defense against Node Isolation Attack in MANETs PDF

Anurath Mane, Deepali Vora and Shailendra Kelkar

Routing protocols designed for MANETs are, in general, highly vulnerable to various forms of security attacks. A routing protocol is vital to the functioning of a wireless ad hoc network, and hence, security needs to be present to negate any potential malicious influences. However, providing efficient security mechanisms for such routing protocols is still viewed as being a considerable challenge. In this paper, the focus lies on the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol, a proactive protocol which relies heavily on broadcast transmissions. This paper investigates end-to-end security mechanisms for the OLSR protocol, with specific interest in the denial of service attack. This paper proposes an extension to the standard OLSR approach called Enhanced OLSR (EOLSR) to overcome the DOS attack by using route reply messages in addition with route request messages.

Fast Seamless Handoff for Mobile Cloud Computing using Service-Oriented Architecture PDF

Qassim Bani Hani, Julius P. Dichter

Mobile devices are gaining in popularity and becoming the major platform for users to obtain cloud computing services at anytime and anywhere. Because of this demand, the cloud computing environment has been adapted into mobile technology by the addition of new prototypes and paradigms. From the perspective of mobile computing, the handoff process affects the Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning, reliability, and limits the mobile device’s life. Thus, it is significant to handle the handoff process efficiently and intelligently when accessing the cloud computing environment using a mobile device. This paper introduces the novel service-oriented architecture to support a new handoff process. The service oriented architecture consists of five layers: application layer, IP multimedia Subsystem (IMS) layer, communication layer, Media layer, and connectivity layer.


Gobinda Paul, Prof. Dr. S M Monzurur Rahman

This paper proposes a framework, namely, HSMF(Hadoop Secure Messaging Framework). Now a day, it requires efficiency in processing billion bytes of data (binary) particularly through business processes. It also has become expensive to ensure reliability in each and every application that processes large amount of datasets (complex or structured). Hadoop[3] platform was designed to address these issues. It was designed mainly for enterprise solution. Our goal is to establish secure communication between hadoop and smart devices or applications, so that applications of smart devices can send queries to hadoop and display respective results. HSMF is based on XML (Extensible Markup Language) message over TCP/IP which gives hadoop more flexibility in order to communicate not only with java based applications but also with applications written in other languages such as C/C++, C#, Python, Dot Net framework etc. Since XML is generated dynamically, client application may choose DML (Data Manipulation Language) of hadoop using HSMF. Client application does not require knowing the design of dataset, it only performs query on particular dataset based on user requirement. During communication via TCP/IP, every XML message header is checked and matched by a messaging header checking mechanism. This is why HSMF is secure. Our results show a successful communication between hadoop and smart devices or applications where smart devices and applications send query to hadoop and display the result received from hadoop.

Information Retrieval for Domain Ontology Graph model using Clustering PDF


Ontology deals with similar terms and relationship that can be used to describe and represent area of knowledge. In this paper, we propose to use knowledge represented in the form of ontology for categorizing documents. The novelty of this approach is we categorize text to a given ontology by using the Knowledge it contains. The information from the analyzed document is enriched with external ontological knowledge. The categorization process depends solely on entities, named relationships, and the taxonomy of classes represented in the ontology. We describe the processing phase of ontology graph generation system from input text documents of different domains. This paper focuses on processing of input text documents, processing is structured representation of the input text. Processing of ontology graph generation includes allowing tokenization of input text, POS tagging, removal of stop word and Stemming. Then class identification, matched the terms then generate tree, otherwise extract terms by matching input terms with dictionary.

ACO-Heuristic for a Multi-period Distribution-Allocation Problem in a Single-Stage Supply Chain PDF

Nimmu Mary Ivan

This paper considers a multi-period fixed charge distribution problem (MPDAP) associated with backorder and inventory. A time-based decision on size of the shipments from each supplier, inventory, and backorder is done with an objective to minimize the total transportation cost. A MPDAP model is difficult to solve due to the presence of fixed costs, causing nonlinearities in the objective function and are known to be Nondeterministic Polynomial-time hard. To solve the problem, an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) based heuristic is proposed. . The solution obtained using the proposed heuristic is validated by converting the MPDAP model into a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model and solving the MIP using LINGO-13 solver.A problem instance from a literature is considered and is solved using the ACO-heuristic.

Influence of irrigation water quality on soil salinization in semi-arid areas: A case study of Makutopora, Dodoma-Tanzania PDF

F.J. Batakanwa, H.F. Mahoo, F.C. Kahimba

This research was carried out in Dodoma, at Makutopora Agricultural Research Institute. The main objective was to determine the influence of irrigation water on soil salinization in semi-arid areas. A total of 80 representative soil samples were randomly collected from study area. Two water samples were also collected from the study area. The samples were treated and analyzed for physical and chemical related indices. The results are grouped into general quality parameters, which included salinity and salt inducing cations and anions.

Ethnobotanical Survey of Mangroves and Wetlands Plants for Sustainable Livelihood and Development PDF

Mangroves are world’s most productive ecos1ystems and support genetically diverse community of terrestrial and aquatic flora (plants) and fauna (animals). They provide innumerable direct and indirect benefits to human beings. The ethnobotanical information of the mangroves were collated and their medicinal uses, parts used, diseases being used for like flatulence, epilepsy, small pox, malaria, diabetes, fever, hepatitis e.t.c. The collected information was discussed with previous authentic report on anti-microbial activities of mangroves.

Excitonic Emission of AlGaAs/GaAs Quantum Well Heterostructures PDF

M. Rashad

Excitonic Emission of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Quantum Well with different contents of Al of (0.1 to 0.4) was studied theoretically. The investigation of excitonic emission of GaAs overgrown in AlGaAs matrix was calculated using the method of finite differences to find the one-dimensional band diagram of a semiconductor structure. Based on a solution of Schrödinger's equation, the program calculated the conduction and valence bands, and the hole and electron concentrations. The results of the calculations of the band gap of AlxGa1-xAs layers with different Al contents shows that with increasing Al content, the band gap of AlxGa1-xAs is increasing. The layers of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs quantum well were formed where AlGaAs acts as a barrier around GaAs which contribute to confinement of the carriers in GaAs layer. Our calculations observed that, this barrier height increasing with increasing of Al content from x=0.1 to 0.4.

A Review of Deep Mixing Methodology in Geotechnical Projects PDF

Forough Khalighi, Adel Asakereh

The Deep Soil Mixing Method (DSM), further developed by Keller, was invented in Japan and Scandinavia. Its use is growing across the world in strengthening and sealing weak and permeable ground.


Ravi Prakash Singh, Prof.Dinesh Chandra, Miss. Himani Mittal

Carry Select Adder (CSLA) is one of the widely used digital components in digital integrated circuit design. The proposed design is implemented using BEC and RCA structure with Cin=0. Based on this modification 8-, 16-, 32-, and 64-b square-root CSLA (SQRT CSLA) architecture have been developed and compared with the regular SQRT CSLA architecture. The proposed design has reduced area and energy as compared with the regular SQRT CSLA with only a slight increase in the delay. The compared results show that the modified SQRT CSLA has a slightly larger delay ( 31.42%), but the area and energy of the 64-b modified SQRT CSLA are significantly reduced by 10.16% and 2.10% respectively.


Okoyeh, E.I., Okeke, H.C., C.N. Nwokeabia, Ezenwa, S.O. and Enekwechi, E.K.

The impact of climate change on water resources and the environment is on the increase and has resulted to the increased dependence on unprotected surface and groundwater resources. The study tends to evaluate the aquifer behaviour of the Benin Formation of Southeastern, Nigeria with the view of establishing the impact of the climate change on groundwater resources of part of lower Niger Sub-Basin. Since the hydrology of aquifer and health of the ecosystem are closely connected, understanding the water resources of a system will enable its management in an integrated manner to ensure the sus-tainability of the ecosystem and the water it provides. The water bearing formation of the study area consist mostly of continental sands and gravels with hydraulic conductivity ranging from 4.9m/day to 33.99m/day. This forms the major aquifer in parts of the Lower Niger Sub Basin. The depth to the watertable lies between 2m and 8m near the coast and deepens inland to over 150m. The Niger River with a discharge of about 4000m3/s at Onitsha recharges the aquifer in the month of September than other times of the year. Increasing rate of erosion in the coastal areas of the Lower Niger Sub-Basin along the Niger River and Anambra River around Onitsha with its socioeconomic consequences is attributed to climate change and requires urgent attention.

Closed loop speed control of DC motor PDF


In this project, we designed a model which is capable of measuring the current speed of motor. And also it takes input from the user and based on the difference between entered(desired)speed and current speed the width of PWM pulses given to the motor is controlled until motor reaches desired speed. After completion of current execution, our model waits in the current state until an input is given by the user and the process continues until power supply is switched off.

Study on Labours Productivity Management in Construction Industry PDF

K. Dharani, Dr. R. Rathan Raj

Productivity remains an intriguing subject and a dominant issue in the construction sector, promising cost savings and efficient usage of resources. Productivity is one of the most important issues in both developed and developing countries. The developed countries are aware of the importance of economic growth and social welfare. The developing countries which face unemployment problems, inflation and resource scarcity seek to utilise resources and in such a way as to achieve economic growth and improve citizens lives. The aim of this thesis is to identify factors which are affecting labour productivity and also to study causes i.e. labour problems on site and its effects on the construction projects. Some of the important factors affecting labour productivity are: quality of site management, labour experience, misunderstandings between labour and superintendent etc. The problems faced by the labour on Indian construction sites are dealt with in detail. Problems like non-availability of proper accommodation, basic amenities, low wages, safety related problems etc. dominate on almost all Indian construction sites. The small firms in India are not able to fulfil labours requirements, and that is why labour is not able to raise their productivity. In fact it is found that actual labour productivity ratios are reducing day by day, which in turns harms organization’s profitability. In this study we will try to relate the ill effects of falling labour productivity with the productivity of other resources such as material, equipment and capital. This thesis restricts itself to the survey and research in the Indian context. Analysis of obtained data was done using different statistical methods.

Jet Wind Turbine PDF

Dharmik U. Sheth, Ali Asgar S. Khokhar

Through the next several decades, renewable energy technologies, thanks to their continually improving performance and cost, and growing recognition of their Environmental, economic and social values, will grow increasingly competitive with Traditional energy technologies, so that by the middle of the 21st century, renewable Energy, in its various forms, should be supplying half of the world’s energy needs.” We have selected this so as to begin thinking towards power generation through clean sources such as wind. Power generation in our country is very low at present. Industrially developed states like, Maharashtra is suffering through major power shortages, and this is a signal of major crises. Even in cities like Mumbai peoples are suffering from power cuts. We knew that this project does not reflect any new discovery; but our intention is that residential societies should install such wind mills on the terrace to tackle with the power cuts and become independent unto certain amount. In this project wind turbine charges a 12 volt battery and runs various 12 volt appliances. We have fabricated the small scale wind turbine on the basis of design calculations and made changes in design to track it with manufacturing constraints.

Efficient Transmission Technique For Vehicular Communication PDF

Sangeetha Gopinath, Shiji.K

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is mainly divided to three types. cyclic prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM), zero padding OFDM (ZP-OFDM), and time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM). Compared to CP OFDM, TDS-OFDM have higher spectral efficiency and faster synchronization. But TDS-OFDM cannot support higher order modulation like 256QAM in low-speed vehicular channels and there will be performance loss over fast time-varying vehicular channels. This paper introduce how efficiently use the compressive sensing (CS) theory to solve those problems. Here First, cancelling the interferences if present, and use the idea of inter-block-interference (IBI)-free region of small size to reconstruct the high-dimensional multipath channel. Second, propose the parameterized channel estimation method based on priori aided compressive sampling matching pursuit (PA-CoSaMP) algorithm to achieve reliable performance over vehicular channels. TDS-OFDM have Partial channel priori, so by using this performance can be improved and reduce the complexity of the algorithm.

Estimation of Chemical Pesticide in Fruits and Vegetables PDF

M/S Nisha Kumari, Dr. Surabhi Shrivastava

Experiment were conducted to estimate quantity of pesticide residues in Kharbuja , Pineapple, Turai and ladyfinger. In the present case samples were tested and in all these samples malathion quantity was ranging from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/kg . Besides this toxicant Monocrotophos, Endosulfan and Chlorpyrifos were also found . Malathion effect the nervous system causing nausea, diarrhea, cramps etc. Endosulfan and monocrotophos are hazardous products affecting CNS which lead to slurred speech , weakness, fatigue, body paralysis , cancer, vomiting, nausea etc. Minute quantity of pesticides seems to be very risky for our health. Pesticide should be used in a level given by Government norms and must not be use in excess quantity. Investigator tried to aware people about proper use of pesticides through the study done.

The Need for a review of Valuation Education under the Real Estate Curriculum PDF

Ashaolu T. A.

Real estate field has been described as ‘eclectic’ both in practice and education. In fact, globalised approaches to curriculum in the academia and mode of professional practice have continued to be challenged by the linkage between real estate and the economic and socio-cultural circumstance of nations. Beyond these however, there is the subtle neglect of attention to the scope of training afforded prospective property valuers hitherto subsumed under real estate field. This paper makes a call for a review of the status quo from the perspectives of concepts, scope and approaches.

Green computing PDF

Green computing, Green ICT as per IFG International Federation of Green ICT and IFG Standard, green IT, or ICT sustainability, is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT. San Murugesan notes that this can include "designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems — efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.

Process Safety PDF

Swapnil S. Anekar

For designing and maintaining various systems in many chemical industries, that involves the storage of hazardous chemicals or materials for its later use. The distinct unit processes and severe chemical reactions may involve erodible endothermic or exothermic reactions. The release of various toxic chemicals in industries may need proper safety precautions. Along with these vicinal conditions, industries also need to study the physical and Thermodynamic conditions of schematically and systematically for implementing corresponding safety parameters. The process safety is an analytical working of the system to take proper safety measures which are required for working of these processes and its proper maintenance at times. Technically a system needs to study the Energy Balance along with the Material Feasibility and proper Material of Construction with inherent obligations corresponding to the distinct systems.

Comparative Study and Performance Evalua-tion of Formal Specification Language based on Z, B and VDM Tools PDF

Shrishti Tamrakar, Anubhav Sharma

Formal method provides specification, proving and verification of software. It targets the semantics rather than syntax of the source program and can be used to provide an unambiguous and consistent supplement to natural language. Most of the software is delivered with some bugs, lack of complete functionality and cost overrun. Formal methods are silver bullet for software industry for solving these problems. Model based formal methods are those in which the system is specified in terms of state models that is constructed using mathematical notions such as sets and sequences. There are popularly three model based formal methods- Z, B and VDM (Vienna Development method). Z notation is used at an abstract level based on set theory and first order predicate logic. B is slightly low-leveland more focuseson refinement to code rather that just formal specification. VDM uses a group of formal modeling languages, it offers syntax type checking and proof obligation generation capabilities. This paper compares and contrasts the strengths and weaknesses of the model oriented formal specification languages- Z, B and VDM based on various factors. It is found that VDM is better tool for formal specification than Z and B.

Comparison of Open Source Crawlers- A Review PDF

Monika Yadav, Neha Goyal

Various open source crawlers can be characterized by the features they implement as well as the performance they have in different scenario. This paper will include the comparative study of various open source crawlers. Data collected from different websites, conversations and research papers shows the practical applicability of open source crawlers.

Mobile Cloud Development with Software Defined 5G Networks using NFV (Network Function Virtualization Technologies) PDF

Umair Shahid, Rafal Krenz

5G is the upcoming generation of telecommunication around 2020 with the promise of Heterogeneous Networks and mobile cloud computing. In previous networks cloud’s are rather considered static mounted with racks, servers etc, but 5G brings the new concept of HetNets which means that micro, macro and pico cells will be integrated on one platform. This demands us to bring concept of “Mobile cloud” for data storage necessary to connect different types of heterogeneous data networks (e.g large mobile data centers in 5G) at the same time offers mobile data storage facility. It will be possible with the help of “Software Defined Networking” approach. This paper presents solution how to develop mobile cloud with SDN and NFV technologies.

Status of Agriculture in Coastal Villages of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra PDF

Balu L. Rathod, Jagdish B. Sapkale

Ratnagiri is a coastal district of Maharashtra, having an approx. coastline of 167 km. The district is divided in 09 tehsils. Out of these nine tehsils, five tehsils i.e. Mandangad, Dapoli, Guhagar, Ratnagiri and Rajapur are adjacent to coastline. Most of the area comprises with undulating landscape. The low land area encountered with flood catastrophes and sea tidal waves. In the low levelled coastal tracts, the conditions of agricultural activities are not favourable in all seasons. Most of the agriculture system is influenced by the direct impact of tidal sea-water. Salinity reduces the crop production in the coastal villages of Ratnagiri. In view of the impact of saline water and its effects on agricultural systems, some selected villages have considered for case study.



Field trip is undertaken within most earth sciences and professions. More than a set of skills, environmental research is a way of thinking and examining critically the various aspects of our physical environment. It is a habit of questioning about what you do in your environment, and empirical examination to find answers to environmental problems, with a view to instituting appropriate changes for a more environmental friendly habitat. This study is therefore aimed at x-raying the imperatives of Field Trip in Students studying various aspects in Environmental Sciences. The study adopted reconnaissance survey, observation, assessment of field trip report and interview methods. It specifically examined works of students of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) Yenagoa study center. The findings of the study among other issues discovered that students who undergo field trip during their course of studies acquire more knowledge and better equipped in their chosen discipline. Useful recommendations were made to guide students on further field trips so as to enrich their knowledge on Environmental issues.

Impact of cultivars , bio-products and chemical salts on managing apple scab in Egypt PDF

Azza M. K. Azmy and E. M. M. El-Fakhrani

In Egypt, apple scab caused by Spilocaea pomi (the conidial state of Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.), is one of the most constrain of it's production. Isolation trials from scabbed apple leaves yield many fungal isolates. The isolated fungi were purified and identified as : Alternaria alternate, Fusarium solani, Penicillium sp., Spilocaea pomi, and Stemphylium sp. Pathogenicity test of the isolated fungi revealed that only S.pomi was the responsible for causing apple scab. The reaction of three apple cultivars, i.e. Anna, Ein Shemer and Balady cvs. of 10 years old to the natural infection by the disease was assessed during 2011 growing season at Nobaria district, El-Behera governorate. Results showed that Balady cv. was the most susceptible one to the incidence and severity of the disease followed by Anna cv. Meanwhile, Ein Shemer cv. was the lowest affected one. Three bio-products, i.e. AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Bio-ARC (Bacillus megaterium) and Bio-Zeid (Trichoderma album) as well as five chemical salts, i.e. calcium chloride, calcium bicarbonate, potassium mono-phosphate and sodium bicarbonate were evaluated, under summer pruning practices, for their effect on the severity of the disease ( Balady cv.) compared with the fungicide Topas and untreated control.

Abnormal behavior on AC electrical conductivity for Ni-Ti ferrite system PDF

M. R. Eraky

Total AC conductivity, , of Ni2+ and Ti4+ substituted Ni ferrite, with the chemical formula TixNi1+xFe2-2xO4 (where 0.0=x=0.625) has been studied in the frequency range from 100Hz to 1MHz and in the temperature range from 298 to 590K. reveals the semiconductor behavior of the samples. The high value of conductivity at high temperature region has been discussed in terms of multiple hopping processes. At moderate and low temperatures the conductivity is found to be enhanced by the increasing in the frequency of the electric field. Therefore, the activation energy, Eac, decreases as the frequency of the applied field increases. The measurements reveal the existence of metallic like behavior at a certain temperature interval (SMS). However, the metallic interval in curves is shown to be moving toward the high temperature region with the increasing in applied frequency. On the basis of localized and delocalized charge carriers attempts to explain the SMS phenomenon are reported.

Effect of Thermal Barrier Coating on the performance of the active cooling channel PDF

Siva Karthik C V S S, Santhosh Kumar N, T Kishen Kumar Reddy

Actively cooled high speed combustion chamber using hydrocarbon fuel as a coolant, must be designed to cool the liner without exceeding the stoichiometric limit of the fuel required for combustion. Use of high temperature materials such as Nickle and Niobium alloys to sustain the high heat loads, cannot alone achieve the targeted coolant flow rates. Therefore the use of thermal barrier coatings is being investigated by many researchers. In this paper, a comparative performance study was carried out for rectangular and trapezoidal cooling channel configurations using three channel materials viz., Inconel X-750, Nb-Cb-752 and GRCop-84 and three thermal barrier coatings viz., Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), La2Zr2O7 and La2Ce2O7. For this purpose a 1-D analytical model was developed in MATLAB for calculating the temperatures and stresses of the active cooling channel. A 2-D numerical simulation was carried out in ANSYS 14.5 to validate the analytical model. Then, using Matlab program the temperatures and stresses were calculated for a range of geometric parameters, in conjunction with various channel materials and TBC materials, for a given set of flow and thermal boundary conditions to bring out the most suitable combination for the application. It was observed that the use of TBCs satisfied the requirement of reduction of the coolant requirements and overall weight per unit area.

Mechanical Properties of Al-Si-SiCp Composites PDF

Oluwaseun Ayotunde Alo and Saheed Akande

This study investigated the effects of silicon and silicon carbide particles contents on the mechanical properties of Al-Si-SiCp composites. 16 samples of the composite were produced by stir casting with silicon contents of 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt.%, and silicon carbide particles contents of 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 wt.% for each composition of silicon. Samples from each composition were machined into standard tensile and impact test pieces. They were then subjected to homogenizing annealing heat treatment. Tensile test and impact test were then carried out on the samples. The results obtained showed that for a particular silicon content, impact strength of the Al-Si-SiCp composites increased when the SiCp content was increased from 0.5 to 2.0 wt.%. For a particular SiCp content, the composites exhibit an initial decrease in impact strength at 2 wt.% silicon, and then an increase in impact strength with increasing SiCp content. Also, increase in both SiCp and silicon contents caused an increase in the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus, but a decrease in the ductility of the Al-Si-SiCp composites.

Wireless Mobile Charger Which Works on Free Energy PDF

Satyam Singh, Abhyas Nandan

Mobile phones are the heart of communication . It bother the people when they have to charge their battery numerous time. This paper proposed a proper idea to overcome from this knot. This trouble would be solved with the help of microwaves. Microwaves of frequency 2.45 GHz (unlicensed) will be used here as a energy source which will charge mobile phones with the aid of a circuit which will be locate inside mobile phones and this circuit will convert microwaves into the electricity. For the generation of microwaves of preferred frequency, a sensor will be used which convert the rotational energy into electrical energy and this energy will be given to the microwave generator. The rotational energy is obtained with the help of neodymium magnets which can produce a high magneti c field. Small pieces of disc shaped magnets are mounted on a rotating machine which will also produce a magnetic field. Due to it a repulsive force will exist which causes the generation of torque and because of it fins will rotate. Thus, shaft of a dc motor will also rotate due to the rotation of fins which leads to the generation of electricity. This electricity is free of cost.


Dr.D.Giri,C.Narayana , Dr.J.P.Naik ,Dr.B.Ramana Murthy, Dr.R.Abbaiah,Dr.B.Sarojamma,Dr.N.Baskar reddy, Dr.P.Bala siddamuni

Modeling deals with the measurement of variables. A fundamental problem in almost all fields of science and especially in Mathematical and Statistical Sciences is the gap between the development of new ideas and their implementation in practice. The motivation of the Modeling is to bridge the gap between theory and practice. In the present study, the problems relating to the modeling have been described by presenting the various advanced tools for Mathematical and Stochastic modeling by considering different aspects of formulation or specification; obtaining solutions or estimating the parameters; validity or goodness of the specification; and using the models for making policy decisions. Further, a criterion for selecting non-nested linear regression model has been developed by using two stages least squares estimation.

Accelerometer based Wireless Intuitive MIDI Controller PDF

Manjishta Kainth, Sanket Kulkarni, Forum Mehta

The growing research and development in Music & Technology has put great emphasis on creative development and deployment of innovative musical technologies which adds a completely new dimension to how we experience music. In recent years, MIDI Controllers have been used extensively to control various parameters of a live performance or a studio production. The MIDI Controllers available in market are generally employed with a number of sliders, knobs, buttons and may or may not include a piano-keyboard. In this paper, we propose a MIDI controller based on an accelerometer to enhance intuitive motion based non-verbal experience which can be used with or without company of the traditional button-slider MIDI controller. We implement this Controller using a 3-D accelerometer module ADXL 330 & Arduino AT Mega 8 as a Human Interface Device to add the much needed portability for system enhancement.

Effects of Worker Fatigue on Product Quality: A Case Study in Apparel Industry PDF


Improving product quality is one of the main concerns of any manufacturing industry. There are many factors in apparel industries which are responsible poor product quality and defective items. Unskilled workers, physical fatigue from manual works of extended working hours, misplacement of worker at workstation, lack of training, absence of engineering knowledge and engineering management are few factors directly related to product quality. In this work effects of work fatigue on product quality is studied and analysed for stitching, finishing and fabric departments of an apparel industry. During the investigation attention is concentrated on how work fatigue influences product quality. It is found that defect rate varies with time. Defect rate increases gradually until lunch break. Similar fashion is observed after the lunch break also. Among the three departments defect rate in stitching department is higher than fabric and finishing departments. Finally few suggestions are proposed to reduce quantity of fatigue related defective items.


Sr. Sagaya Mary and Dr. Divakar. K.M.

The genus Dendrobium is one of the most important genera with distribution of eleven species in the Western Ghats, fit in to the family Orchidaceae. Dendrobium macrostachyum is an endemic and threatened species with pharmaceutical importance. In vitro studies will immensely aid conservation measures of this orchid species. MS, VW, B5 and KC media supplemented with various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins were used in combination for asymbiotic seed germination and plantlet formation. In the assessment of the media VW medium supplemented with BAP of 0.5 mg and 5 mg NAA was found to be most suitable for plantlet formation. VW basal medium fortified with Basal VW Media fortified with 1.5 mg BAP, 1.5 mg NAA, 50 ml CM and 500 mg AC was found to be most suitable for in vitro rooting. A hardened plant was transferred to green house after ex vitro rooting technique. Implication of the present work is discussed here.


Y. A. Abd-Eltwab, M. A.Soliman, A. B. Shamardan and M. Abdelgaber

In this paper we consider the enterior Schwarzschild solution. Euler and continuity equations have been formulated as potential problem, the equation which represent the fluid flow have been solved by separation. An exact solution is obtained and the solution is exact under a condition involving the density of the hard body, the radial coordinate and the radius of the hard body itself.


B. Sujatha, B. Priyadarshini, R. Aparajitha, M. Hephzibah Samatha and J. Saraswathi

Contamination of air due to release of phytotoxic pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) may influence the composition of environment. Diffusion of gases into a leaf is hindered by several barriers. Stomata can regulate entry of a gas into the interior of a leaf. SO2 enters in plants through open stomata, the gas reacts with moisture and is converted into acid. The acidic ions cause toxicity to the plant tissue. The effect of varying concentrations of aqueous SO2 (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100 and 250 ppm) on pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. PDM1), a C3 plant and amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus L. a local cultivar), a C4 plant were selected for the present investigation of their leaf number, leaf area ratio and stomatal responses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaf number was reduced in both pigeonpea and amaranth in response to SO2 exposure. The leaf area ratio of SO2 treated plants was observed more in pigeonpea than in amaranth. The damage of stomatal complex at the necrotic regions and collapsed stomata were also observed at 250 ppm was evident from SEM studies in response to SO2. Comparatively the reduction was more in amaranth than in pigeonpea.

Study on the Anodic Oxide Films formed on Mg Alloys Using DC, AC Methods in Alkaline Solution PDF

S. A. Salman

Magnesium is the lightest of all structural metal materials in practical use, with a density equivalent to two-thirds that of Al, one-third that of Zn and one quarter that of steel. However, applications of wrought Mg alloys have not been as successful as those of aluminum (Al) alloys because of the high corrosion susceptibility under certain service conditions. In this research, we have investigated the DC/AC anodizing of AZ31 Mg alloy samples in alkaline NaOH solutions under various applied potentials. In the DC anodizing experiments, the current density showed a maximum value at a potential of 3 V, and thicker anodic films were obtained at this potential. The films formed at lower potentials were mainly composed of magnesium hydroxide, and the films formed at higher potentials were composed of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide.


Mr. Nrusingh Charan Mohapatra

Every satellite moves around its planet in a spiral path and every planet moves around its star in a spiral path. Every star with its planets and satellites altogether move around their galaxy in a rope path.

Relaxation and Compressive Characteristic in Composite Glass Fiber reinforced Pipes PDF

Ahmed F. Mohamed, Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Mohammed K. Hassan

Pipes made from glass fiber reinforced polymer (GRP) have a competitive role in the petroleum industry. The need for evaluating the mechanical behavior of (GRP) pipes is an essential object. Compression and stress relaxation tests are preformed to obtain the main effective mechanical properties of petroleum pips. Experimental results showed that stress relaxation illustrates how polymers relieve stress under constant strain. Static relaxation test is carried out at room temperature. The material shows a poor static relaxation strength with two loading cycles which have been observed for the tested specimen. However, the compressive strength measured in radial direction of curved wall of composite is better than that measure through hoop direction.

Estimation of Air Quality Status due to Quarrying activities and its Impacts on the Environment and Health of the People PDF

Rock Onwe Mkpuma

A survey of air quality in an environment informs the safety status or the degree of pollution as indicated by surveillance due to prevalent activities in such area. Results revealed that suspended particulate matter smaller than 10µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) values was above acceptable values for ambient air conditions in an area is hazardous to the health of people and the environment. At Umuoghara and environs, dust pollution is a major consideration consequent upon Quarry activities. Exposure to these particles may link to increased hospital admissions.

Stability analysis of side slope by using stone column and tie back support PDF

Dr.Abdul-Hasan K. Al-Shukur, Uday Abdul Sahib Alturrfy

Geotechnical engineers have always been concern with the stabilization of slopes


The aim of the study is to investigate that the present curriculum has to support the protection of environment in our educational system. Pakistan is an agricultural country. Therefore Pakistan educational system needs education for the environment. But the existing material in curriculum is so limited regarding the condition of environment in Pakistan. The goal of this study is to develop awareness about the environment issues and problems, and try to find out their solution by effective planning of environmental education. Specifically the study was conducted to provide information and knowledge of environment at the secondary level in Pakistan. Knowledge of the person is more impartment factors that effected for obtain place of aware of environment protection. In this research determine curriculum of secondary level of has full fill the knowledge about the protection of environment. In this research, a case study approach was used and data was gathered with the help of survey method. In this research students were surveyed 462 of 9th and 10th classes students of 20 School in city center, towns and village of Khanewal. The results of the study showed that environmental factors are affecting the students, environmental knowledge. Government should include a separate subject of “Environmental Education” (EE) in the curriculum at the secondary level. In this curriculum burning issues as natural environment, basis of life, source of energy, pollution of environment to the existing aspects developed through the separate subject of “Environmental Education” (EE) at secondary level in school.

Pre Monsoon Study of Water Quality with reference to Rapid Industrial Development in and around Gandhidham, Kachchh, Gujarat. PDF

Ms. Madhu D. Nathani, Dr. Mrugesh H. Trivedi

The major objective of the present report is to study the physiochemical parameters including heavy metal contamination in surface, ground and potable water in industrial, residential and commercial zone in and around Gandhidham, Kachchh.

Electrochemical investigation of duplex stainless steel at carbon paste electrode and its application to the detection of dopamine, ascorbic and uric acid PDF

R. Shashanka, D. Chaira, B.E. Kumara Swamy

Nano-structured duplex stainless steel powders were synthesized by planetary milling of elemental Fe, Cr and Ni powders in dual-drive planetary mill for 10h. The prepared duplex stainless steel powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscope, High resolution transmission microscope, BET surface area measurement. The electrochemical property of prepared duplex stainless steel powder was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Nano structured duplex stainless steel modified carbon paste electrode shows an excellent sensitivity towards the oxidation of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid in 0.2M phosphate buffer at 7.2 pH. Electrocatalytic property of analyte was investigated at 2, 4, 6 and 8mg concentrations of modifier. The 4mg duplex modified carbon paste electrode show maximum anodic peak current of 25.61µA and hence it is used as modifier to study the electrochemical properties of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid. The fabricated electrode exhibits fast, stable sensitivity, reliable and resistant to material fouling.


Shivam Bajaj, Abhilasha Bajaj

Solving complex problems in the quickest way possible is the most prominent feature required in today’s era. Classical computers still take time to solve real complex problems. Thus, Quantum computers are being developed to solve complex problems using least amount of time. Currently, there exist some algorithms utilizing the advantage of quantum computers. For instance, Shor’s[1] algorithm performs factoring of a large integer in polynomial time, whereas classical factoring algorithms can only do it in exponential time. However, the prospective that quantum computing offers is enticing stupendous interest from both the government and the private sectors. Military applications include the propensity to break encryption keys via brute force searches, while civilian applications range from DNA modeling to complex material science analysis. In this review, we present the important features of quantum computing such as superposition and entanglement with the obstacles this technology faces and the benefits it contains.

Effects of chemical reaction, Soret and Dufour number on unsteady MHD mixed convection flow in the forward stagnation region of a rotating sphere in a porous medium PDF

B.R.Sharma and Debozani Borgohain

Soret and Dufour effects on unsteady MHD heat and mass transfer of a chemically reacting, heat absorbing/ generating fluid in the forward stagnation region of a rotating sphere in a porous medium are investigated. The governing non linear partial differential equations are transformed into non dimensional non linear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation and are solved numerically by using MATLAB’s built in solver bvp4c. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Graphical results are presented to show the influence of the Dufour number, Soret number, porosity parameter, order of the chemical reaction, heat source parameter and dimensionless chemical reaction parameter. It is concluded that the Soret number, Dufour number, porosity parameter and the order of the chemical reaction play a crucial role on the heat and mass transfer.

Enhancing virtual switching system of on-chip networks PDF

Rony Kassam, Talal Al-Aateky, Radwan Dandah

The huge datacenters in the world - used in the social networks, researching and computing centers, and storage devices - have faced fundamental problem reflected in the need for high throughput to switch between the large numbers of virtual machines installed in these datacenters. The increased use of cloud applications will increase the need for greater numbers of virtual machines. In order to meet the requirements of this increase, it must be increased the hardware capabilities in the datacenters, through increasing the number of cores in the servers. Therefore, there is a need to provide network architecture that can connect all of these cores and chips very quickly. Consequently, it is necessary to enhance the virtual switching system to achieve the maximum integration and efficiency between the network segments, and analysis the scheduling and virtual queuing algorithms depending on the decisions from the experiences implemented using high-level source code and hardware description scheme with Xilinx platform.

A Case Study to Reduce the Manufacturing Waste Prior to Improve the Productivity Factors of a Litchi Juice Production Plant by Using Value Stream Map and Six Sigma Scale PDF

Md. Monir Hossain, M. Kamal Uddin

This paper depicts how the Value Stream Mapping (VSM) process was used to eliminate the manufacturing waste in a litchi juice production plant of Y food and beverage industry in Bangladesh. A current VSM of litchi juice production line was constructed. Data for constructing the present VSM was collected through production line visits, interviews of workers and observation of machine’s function at different production stages. Different causes of non value adding (NVD) activities were discovered by Present VSM. Six sigma central concepts were used to evaluate the present view of manufacturing waste. At present state, it was found three sigma productions, lower PCE (10.68%), and long lead time (86728 sec). After the involvement of Pareto principles, 5S, JIT and Kaizen philosophy in the production system, it was evaluated that future state PCE would be improved to 24.45%, and lead time would be reduced to 37912 sec.

Virtual Meetings PDF

Mishari Saad Alabdullatif

In this article I explain how to manage virtual meetings and how to make individuals comfortable when they engage together. How to overcome any difficulties that might occur among team members. The contribution of using new technologies in order make this kind of meeting success.

Cationic complexes of arylantimony(III) chlorides ArnSbCl3-n with tetraphenylborate and ammonium hexafluorophosphate PDF

Prem Raj, Kiran Singhal, Surjeet Singh and Ishrat Hussain

A series of hitherto unknown solid salts of tricoordinated cations of the general formula [ArSbL2]2+ and [Ar2SbL]1+ [where Ar = C6H5, p-CH3C6H4; L = Pyridine, β-picoline, HMPA, TPPO and thiourea (TU)] have been isolated in presence of tetraphenylborate (BPh4-) and hexafluorophosphate (PF6-). These newely synthesised two dozen complexes have been formulated and characterised on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductances, molecular weights and, solid state IR and solution state 1H NMR spectral data. The physico-chemical data are consistent with pyramidal structure of the complexes.

Electro spun scaffold for tissue engineering –A review article PDF


In this review paper attention is given to scaffold preparation through electro spinning technique as a biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. An extensive literature review was performed on the various natural, synthetic and semi synthetic polymers for scaffold making as well as the role of process parameter on electro spinning such as concentration of the polymer solution, viscosity and delivery time etc. and the characterization related reviews were reviewed .In addition to that the recent development in scaffolds such as composite scaffolds and bi- component material based scaffolds were also described.


Arinze, Emmanuel Emeka

The research work involves the comparative cost analysis of having construction soil from three different nearby lateritic deposits namely Amaoba, Isiala Ngwa North and Isiala Oboro represented as site A, B and C respectively in the study. This involves a moisture content and specific gravity test that necessitated the calculation of the void ratio for the three different sites. Furthermore, the in site swell factors were obtained as well as the transportation cost at required parameters, the real cost for each of the site were computed, it is discovered that site A is the most economical for the construction of the proposed dam at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU) requiring one cubic metre of soil compacted to the void ratio of 0.8. The cost of hauling from site A is N869,560,289.80 giving a difference of N430,232,200.20 representing 49% cost difference with site B and a difference of N170,725,810.20 representing 20% difference with site C.

Comparative Study of Some Engineering Properties of Shea Kernel from Different Ecological Zones of Ghana PDF

Emmanuel Amomba Seweh, Samuel Apuri, Isaac Gibberson Dukuh, Osei Tutu Isaac

The engineering properties of grains and nuts do not only differ in variety, crop to crop and moisture content, but also the growth conditions, climate and ecological zone of production. In this study, variations in engineering properties of the shea kernel in respect to ecological zone are determined. Six samples were collected from six different locations of the three regions of the north of Ghana where the crop grows. The engineering properties investigated included the geometric, gravimetric and frictional properties. The geometric properties (Length, (L), Width, (W), Thickness, (T), Arithmetic diameter, (Da), Geometric Diameter (DgM), Sphericity, (ε), Aspect ratio, (Ra), Surface area,(As), Volume, (V) for the Northern; Upper East and West regions were: (2.54±0.20cm, 1.81 ±0.14cm, 1.56 ±0.18cm 1.92±0.12cm, 1.97±0.11cm, 71.54±6.9%, 75.82±5.18%, 11.64±1.41cm2, 3.76±0.69cm3), (2.53±0.22cm, 1.77±0.16cm, 1.58±0.15cm 1.92± 0.13cm, 1.96 ±0.13cm, 71.15±7.42%, 77.03±4.29%, 11.97±0.92cm2, 3.92±0.45cm3) and (2.54±0.19cm, 1.80±0.14cm, 1.54±0.15cm, 1.91±0.11cm, 1.96±0.11cm, 71.15±7.42%, 75.45±4.79%, 11.52±1.26cm2, 3.70±0.61cm3) respectively. Results of the gravimetric properties (1000-kernel mass, True density, Bulk density and Porosity) for the three regions were (4110.7±686.00g, 1.20±0.09g/cm3, 0.68±0.01 g/cm3, 37.60±4.47%), (4146.87±718g, 1.11±0.01g/cm3, 0.67±0.01g/cm3, 38.61±4.62%) and (4121.4±583g, 1.13±0.16g/cm3, 0.68±0.02g/cm3, 38.52±6.99%) respectively while the frictional properties (Angle of Repose (o) and static co-efficient of friction on: Glass, Plywood, Mild steel, Galvanized steel, Stainless steel) were (34.24±3.28, 0.19±0.01, 0.42±0.03, 0.41±0.02, 0.24±0.02, 0.31±0.05), (35.40±4.58, 0.15±0.02, 0.53±0.02, 0.39±0.02, 0.22±0.02, 0.28±0.01) and 34.82±3.93, 0.17±0.01, 0.43±0.01, 0.35±0.01, 0.26±0.01, 0.26±0.02) respectively. The moisture contents on dry basis (d.b) of the kernels were 6.54%, 6.48%, and 7.27% respectively. Though there were slight variations in the means of the engineering properties investigated among kernel from the different locations, they were not statistically significant when analysed with one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P<0.05. These values are similar to values obtained by some Nigerian and Cameroonian researchers. The results are therefore adequate, and can be used to design equipment and machinery to process shea kernel not only from Ghana but the entire West African shea region.

Studies on Flexural Behaviour of M100 Grade Hybrid fibre Reinforced Self compacting concrete beams PDF

S.Sesha Phani, Dr.Seshadri Sekhar T, Dr P.Srinivasa rao

In the present experimental investigation, attempts are made to study the comparative study of flexural behaviour of High Strength hybrid fibre reinforced self compacting concrete beams of M 100 grade with addition of varying percentages of crimped steel fibers varying 0 , 0.5,1.0, 1.5% and Glass fibers 0% , 0.03% . The studies indicated that the addition of glass fibre and steel fibers in certain proportions in High Strength hybrid fibre reinforced self compacting concrete beams had contributed towards development of high performance and high strength concrete which is the need of the hour.

Imidaclorprid efficacy against grasshopper Hetiracris littoralis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) PDF

Sabbour M.M and S.M. Singer

Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects with much lower toxicity to mammals. The effect of IMI 0ndiffernt stages of grasshoppers of H. littoralis, LC50 recoded, 255,298, 299 and 297 mg/L under laboratory conditions. Under semifield conditions the correspondingLC50 recorded, 133,168, 189 and 199 mg/L. The effect of IMI under semi field conditions which cleared that the infestation number of H. littoralis significantly decreased to 10±7.9 individuals after 120 days of IMI first applications as compared to 99±6.9 individuals in the controlUnder field conditions in the corn fields the number of infestations were significantly decreased to 7±2.9indiveduals as compared to 99±9.9 individuals in the control after 120 days of IMI first applications


Ramona Isabel Salcedo-Ramirez

The study explored the integration of Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts in teaching chemistry. Powerpoint presentations on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction concepts were integrated in selected topics in a General Chemistry course and student’s conceptual understanding, thinking skills, environmental values development and awareness of CCA and DRR concepts were assessed.

Design of High Speed CMOS Comparator Using Parallel Prefix Tree PDF


This paper Presents a new comparator design is proposed by using parallel prefix tree. Energy efficient and high speed operation of comparators is needed for high speed digital circuits. The comparison outcome of the most significant bit, proceeding bitwise toward the least significant bit only when the compared bits are equal. In this project a 16, 32, 64 bit comparator architectures is designed by using parallel prefix structure. This project evaluates the successful results as per requirement and specifications. In existing system, the parallel prefix structure is designed for 16, 32 and 64 bit architectures and the reports from the Xilinx tool concludes that for every bit range doubles the delay, memory, LUT and power has not doubled up to the mark. But In the proposed design of my project, each and every element in the parallel prefix structure will be replaced by universal logic (multiplexer). By performing this modification in the architecture will leads to reduction in POWER CONSUMPTION and DELAY .

Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of some Novel Oxadiazole-Pyrazolyl derivatives PDF

Venkata Ramudu Burra , N.Bramhananda Reddy, SubbanarayanaKanchana, L.K.Ravidranath

Ten title compounds(2R)-2-[(4-phenyldiazenyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N-(((S)-1-(4-ace tyl-4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl)ethylcarbamoyl)methyl)]acetamide,1a-1J, were synthe sized from the starting material (2R)-2-[(4-phenyldiazenyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)acetamido ethanamido] propyl hydrazide by treatment with substituted ketones . The synthesized compounds were characterized by physical constants, and the structures of the title compounds were further confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The bioassay results showed that title compounds possessed weak to good anti-microbial activity with 1e showing significant enhancement of bacterial resistance.


Dr. Namita V

A vast numbers of opinions have been propounded to explain how "cyberspace" can be exploited by commercial organizations. For the most part they are speculative, visionary or promotional. This work seeks to redress the balance by focusing on the utilization of the Internet within the retail sector and examining its potential as a new retail channel. The paper presents an exploratory study using qualitative and quantitative methods: an on-line survey of retail web activities followed by in-depth interviews. This approach provides a framework of current retail usage of the Internet and explores retailers' perceptions of the inhibitors and facilitators to its development. It concludes with an emerging model that explains why current levels of retailing on the Internet are low and provides guidance for retailers wishing to increase their level of Internet activity.

The equal employee opportunity between men and women PDF

Nahhal Alazzam

Gender is a debatable topic for a while, however the most significant issue in today’s workplace environment is related to sex discrimination. Men are more prioritized because they are considered as more productive than females and in most of the countries females are not supported to do the jobs or get extra benefits. This paper examines how Women and Men are facing gender issue in their work environment.

Depression, Suicidal ideation and Social Adjustment among married and unmarried women with the history of domestic violence PDF

S. Gilani, R. Maryam

The present study was conducted to examine the level of suicidal ideation and social adjustment among depressive women with the history of domestic violence. Total sample of the study was (N=120) depressive women with the history of domestic violence. Participants were further divided into (n=65) married and (n=55) unmarried depressive women with the history of domestic violence. Purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data from the sample. Siddiqui-Shah Depression scale (SSDS) by Siddiqui and Shah (1992), Suicidal Probability Scale (SPS) by Cull and Gill (1982) and Social Adjustment scale (SAS) by Cooper, Osborn and Gath (1977) were applied to the participants to measure the level of depression, suicidal ideation and social adjustment among women with the history of domestic violence. The Pearson’s product moment correlation and t-test were used to find out the statistical significance of the data. The results of the analyses were showed that there is negative significant relation between social adjustment and depression. Further, result showed that there is significant positive relation between suicidal ideation and depression. Moreover, it was revealed from the results that there is significant negative relation between suicidal ideation and social adjustment among women with the history of domestic violence. In the same way, result showed that there is significant difference on depression, suicidal ideation and social adjustment among women with the history of domestic violence.


Ukpong, E. E.; Dike, M. C.; Roberts, U. U.

Nesting behaviour of gorillas was studied in the Afi Sanctuary to determine the locations, heights and sizes of their nests. This was done by following transect routes and trails of animals which had already been created by both human and animal activities. The distances were labeled with flagging by the protection staff with reference to cardinal points. The sampling technique adopted was stratified random sampling done by the survey of 30 transect routes in which accessibility was not made impossible by terrain. The transect length covered a distance of 2000m and a width of 100m which formed a total sample area of 6km2 representing a sampling intensity of 6% of a total area of 100 km2. Nests census was carried out by counting the nests of gorillas constructed both on the ground and lower branches of trees. Nests sizes were measured by meter tape. Trees and nests heights were determined by the use of sunto clinometer. The number of nests studied for nesting locations and heights was 145 while 30 nests was studied for nests sizes. Data analysis was carried out using means, variance, standard deviation as well as correlation analysis. The result revealed that the highest number of 63 nests representing 43.45% were made on the ground, followed by vertical fork with 32 nests representing 22.06% . Vine tangle recorded 19 nests representing 13.10%.

Software Quality Assurance and Security PDF

Longe Oluwafunmilola Aderannibi

This paper focuses on the development of a quality assured software, it shows the importance of software reviews in the software development process and also how indispensable security is to software development; any software with no security is vulnerable. Therefore, this paper recommends that software should be developed in a very well defined way; using strict sequence of methodological steps, in a formal and systematic way. It should be noted that quality is the responsibility of a product and security is a part of the totality of quality of a system.

Determination of Density of Nigerian bamboo fiber as an Engineering property using maceration method PDF

Ovat, F. A, Obot, O. W, Fakorede, D. O and Markson I. E

The production of engineering products and services using engineering materials and skills is imperative. The materials used for this production must possess some properties that may be qualitative or quantitative. Density is both physical and qualitative property of any material especially in engineering. Density becomes important when there is need to design where weight and distribution of weight are critical. In this study the determination of density of Nigerian dry bamboo fiber as an engineering property using maceration method was carried out. Fresh bamboo was obtained from the Nigerian environment and oven dried to remove the moisture content. The extraction of the fiber was done by simple maceration method. The density of the extracted fiber was determined using the displacement method (Archimedes principles) for the volume and the weight for the mass. The mass-volume ratio gave the value of the density from the dry bamboo fiber extracted by maceration method. The value was found to be slightly less than that of water.