Volume 6, Issue 5

To Detect Outlier for Categorical Data Streaming PDF


Instant identification of outlier patterns is very important in modern-day engineering problems such as credit card fraud detection and network intrusion detection. Most previous studies focused on finding outliers that are hidden in numerical datasets. Unfortunately, those outlier detection methods were not directly applicable to real life transaction databases. Outlier detection methods are divided into transaction specific and non transaction specific outlier detection methods, in this paper we are going to focus mainly on transaction specific methods and detect outlier transactions from transactional databases e.g. purchase of the data at the store, customer dataset at a company. Here we are going to compare two transaction specific methods and find efficient method from them.

Realization of Binary Full Addition Module in Optical Domain Using SOA PDF

Jaspreet Kaur

Now days, Optical amplifiers are being invariably used for amplification of the signal in optical fiber communication for long distance trans-mission due to less power loss. Out of the three types of amplifiers (EDFA, Raman amplifiers and SOA) SOA is an optical amplifier where the amplification is based on semiconductor gain medium. Therefore, by using non-linear properties of SOAs such as Four-Wave Mixing, Cross gain modulation and Cross phase modulation, wavelength translation and designing of optical logic gates is possible. These logic gates functions with optical amplifiers which allow amplification of optical signals without O-E & E-O conversion, therefore helps in fast processing of the system with minimum loss. We here demonstrate the implementation of full addition of two self generated 10 Gbits/s signals by using four SOAs. In this module, a full-adder operation is achieved by using two half adder in pure optical domain. This module can be used further in the implementation of ALU’s and encryption decryption circuits.


Laly Jose, Nanditha Abdul Latheef

Yolk sac is the most important conceptional structure evaluated sonographically in first trimester. Yolk sac can be detected early by transvaginal sonography when the mean gestational sac diameter is 5-6mm. The important benefit of sonographic evaluation of yolk sac is confirmation of intra uterine pregnancy. The present study is aimed at identifying various characteristics of yolk sac in first trimester pregnancy complications by transvaginal ultrasound evaluation. Antenatal patients with bleeding per vagina or abdominal pain or both in first trimester and diagnosed as cases of threatened abortion, missed abortion, incomplete abortion or suspected ectopic gestation were included in the study. Among 133 gestational sacs present by transvaginal sonography, there were yolk sacs in 106 patients (79.7%) and yolk sac was absent in 27 patients (20.3%) with gestational sac MSD >8mm. 27 cases had no yolk sac when the gestational sac diameter was greater than 8mm. Among them 25 cases with the absence of yolk sac and fetal pole when the MSD >8mm ended up in complications. However there were 2 cases with no yolk sac but a normal appearing gestational sac and fetal pole with good cardiac activity till 10 to 11 weeks which were subsequently lost for further follow up. The association between the presence of the yolk sac and the final ultrasound diagnosis was significant (p<0.001). Assessment of yolk sac should be part of complete first trimester sonographic examination. An abnormality in sonographic appearance of yolk sac can predict subsequent embryonic health or abnormalities. There for accurate recognition of normal and abnormal sonographic findings related to yolk sac can be used to anticipate the course of pregnancy.


Sumitha Prabhu PS, Aneesh P, Jiju J S, Reshma P and Dinesh Roy D

Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20 weeks from the last menstrual period, and it affects approximately 1% to 3% of women. A total of 37 consecutive patients with recurrent miscarriages and 25 age matched healthy women were involved in this study. The subjects were in the age group 21 to 45 years. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of increased oxidative stress and DNA damages in women experiencing recurrent pregnancy loss. Malondialdehyde test is performed to detect the frequency of oxidative stress in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and the extent of somatic DNA damage is quantified by Cytokinesis Block Micronuclei assay. The study demonstrated that both the MDA value and micronuclei frequency are significantly elevated in the study subjects. The results were correlated with various demographic, lifestyle and clinical aspects of the patients. Increase in maternal problems such as history of infection, increased duration of married life, thyroid disorders, diabetes etc can also lead to foetal loss. Modification of life style along with proper medication for teratogenic infection and awareness of the role of Genetics in the etiology of RPL will help in reducing the risk for recurrent pregnancy loss.

Cloud based Vendor Neutral Archive: Reduces Imaging Rates and Enhances Patient Care PDF

M.Karthiyayini, V. Thavavel, N. Saravana Selvam

The primary goal of healthcare organizations worldwide is to deliver high quality patient care while reducing costs. The challenges in achieving this goal are daunting. Specifically, with information exchange while transferring patient between hospital departments or between two different hospitals. Nowhere is this situation more compelling than with medical imaging, because exchange of medical image reduces unnecessary repeat imaging, radiation exposure and associated costs. Consequently, there is growing need for the healthcare organizations to adopt centralized medical image archives that can efficiently store and make it instantly accessible across hospital departments and partner hospitals. In this paper, we address this emerging need by taking the advantage of Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) and Cloud computing to define an architecture for cloud based Archive that can reduce cost and complexity but at the same time enhance patient care.

Finite Element Analysis Of Piston Head By ABAQUS PDF

Nitin Kumar Srivastav, Ram Poojan Sahani, Amit Kumar, Girjesh Yadav, Rajoo Sahani, Prashant Kumar Mishra, Alok Kumar Pandey, Shyam Bihari lal

The motive of undertaking this project of “Structural Analysis of Piston Head” is to study and evaluate the performance in real working conditions of the piston in internal combustion engine. In this paper, the wok is carried out to measure the stress distribution on the top surface of the piston made up of aluminium alloy. In I.C. Engine piston experiences uneven temperature distribution and from piston head to skirt. The analysis predicts that due to stress generated the top surface of the piston may be damage or break during the operating conditions, since the damaged or broken parts are so expensive to replace and generally are not easily available, the 3D model of piston is created using Creo. 3 D model is imported to the Abaqus and FEA is performed. By identifying the true design features, the extended service life and long term stability is assured.

Water absorption characteristics and modelling of unripe plantain chips PDF

Ajala, A.S., Ajala, F.A

In this study, water absorption characteristics of dried unripe plantain chips were investigated by soaking in distill water at 20, 30 and 40oC. The data generated were fitted into three models namely Peleg, Weibull and exponential. The statistical criteria used in evaluation of the models were coefficient of determination (R2), reduced chi square (χ2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE). The result shows that temperature did not affect water absorption properties initially, but it did affect it as re-hydration progressed. The result of R2 shows that Weibull model has the highest value of 0.979 and exponential model has lowest value of 0.653. Therefore, Weibull model was adjudged to have successfully fitted water absorption of unripe plantain chips.

Factors influencing surface integrity in hard machining of steels- A review PDF

Balan Cristina- Iuliana

During the last few years, hard machining has emerged as an attractive alternative to grinding, as it can be used for finishing steel components, in their hardened state (HRC 45 and above). Machining of hard steels, using advanced cutting tool materials, such as coated carbide, ceramic, CBN (cubic boron nitride) and PCBN (polycrystalline cubic boron nitride) inserts has a large number of advantages e.g. short cycle time, process flexibility, very good surface finish and higher removal rate, when compared to grinding or polishing. The present paper provides an overview of the main factors influencing surface integrity in hard machining of steel. There are many types of surface integrity (SI) problems reported in literature, among those being surface roughness, residual stresses, white layer and work hardening layers, as well as microstructural alterations. From the multitude of parameters influencing the SI of a hard machined component, cutting conditions, cutting tool characteristics, workpiece material properties, cutting fluid properties and machine tool rigidity appear to be the most important.

Mesoscale Simulation of Alkali-Silica Reaction PDF

Zarina Itam

Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) deformation causes a random network of crack patterns on the concrete surface and leaching of the ASR gel. The rapidity of its expansion in an affected structure causes early deformation to the structure, making the understanding of its process a necessity to the engineering field. Factors that affect ASR vary, although it is unanimous that ASR occurs between deleterious silica from aggregates and hydroxide ions in the pore solution that result from cement hydration. Other factors include the relative humidity, temperature and porosity of the cementitious matrix. Temperature influences the kinetics of silica disintegration. Moisture works as a swelling agent for the gel which is hydrophilic in nature. The resultant gel flows into the voids or accumulates on the aggregate surface. The gel expands with the availability of moisture, exerting internal pressure onto the surrounding matrix and lowering the concrete stiffness to the point of cracking. What sets apart ASR with other concrete damage models is its heterogeneity, occurring at different regions at different rates depending on the concrete composition and external influences, making predicting its behaviour difficult. The heterogeneity of the process depends on the pore distribution and the rate of water diffusion. ASR is studied at the mesoscale level to gain an explicit insight on what happens at the material level. Modeling on this level allows the matrix adjacent to the aggregate surface to be developed. This allows us to study the different phases separately, for instance, the effects of ASR gel expansion on the aggregates as well as the bulk matrix. Numerical simulation has enabled us to build models for the representation of different physical phenomena in so many engineering problems. The potential of ASR simulation in detecting the possibility of expansive pressures due to ASR at a fine scale gives new perspective to this phenomenon.

Effect of Particles on Flow Structures in Secondary Sedimentation Tanks Using Neural Network Model PDF

Mostafa Y.El-Bakry, D.M.Habashy and Mahmoud Y.El-Bakry

Sedimentation tanks are designed for removal of floating solids in water flowing through the water treatment plants. These tanks are one of the most important parts of water treatment plants and their performance directly affects the functionality of these systems. Flow pattern has an important role in the design and performance improvement of sedimentation tanks. In this work, the neural network model is used to study the particle-laden flow in a rectangular sedimentation tank which used the Kaolin as solid particles. The neural network simulation has been designed to simulate and predict the Shear stress coefficient at the bottom of tank for various inlet concentrations and maximum streamwise velocity along the channel. The system was trained on the available data of the two cases. Therefore, we designed the system for finding the best network that has the ability to have the best test and prediction. The proposed system shows an excellent agreement with that of an experimental data in these cases.

Implementation of AUTOSAR Communication Stack with SCI-UART PDF

Prathiba M. Patil

AUTOSAR (Automotive Open System Architecture) is an open and standardized software architecture used in automotive industry for vehicle software. AUTOSAR architecture is layered and its layers are: ASW, RTE and BSW. BSW is grouped functionally into functions or stacks. In this paper, AUTOSAR Communication stack is implemented with SCI-UART and I/O driver module for asynchronous serial communication. Serial communication output is visualized on Hyper Terminal.

Wavelet Method for Detecting and Modeling Anomalous Observations in Gaussian and Non - Gaussian Distributions PDF

Shittu Olarewanju Ismail, Aideyan Donald Osaro

Wavelet analysis has been applied recently for analyzing data completely due to its potential. In this paper, we present aberrant observation detection and modeling approach based on wavelet analysis in Gaussian and Non-Gaussian distributions. In order to characterize these distributions, a simulation of 1020 data set from normal distribution and contaminated with four normal data and later with four aberrant observations since wavelet analysis is dyadic. It was discovered that Normal (Gaussian) distribution with aberrant observations is the most efficient in detecting aberrant observations while Laplace (Non-Gaussian) distribution is the optimal distribution in modeling aberrant observations using the three distributions.

Thermodynamic parameters of medicine with Ethanol PDF

Dr Sharmila Chaudhari

The information related to the solute-solvent interaction has been carried out related to thermodynamic properties like activation en-ergy, conductivity, enthalpy entropy etc in the mixture of Ayurvedic Medicine-Dashmularishta and ethanol. Dielectric relaxation study of Dashmularishta used in gynaec problems has been carried out at 150C, 250C, 350C and 45 0C in the frequency range 10MHz to 20GHz for 11 different concentrations of the system. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Technique in reflection mode has been used to measure Thermodynamic parameters viz activation energy, conductivity, enthalpy entropy etc.Further, Fourier transforms and least square fit method has been used to obtain Thermodynamic parameters. With change in concentration and temperature, the systematic changes in Thermodynamic parameters are observed.


Stephen W. Kisembe, Patrick S. Muliro, Joseph W. Matofari, Bokeline O. Bebe.

This study determined the load, type and most common species of molds in 35 samples of fresh camel meat and Nyirinyiri obtained at different nodes along the value chain. Molds were detected in the samples: 75% at production, 55.5% at processing and 66.7% at marketing nodes with counts highest at the market (1.2 log cfu/g) and lowest at processing (0.8 log cfu/g) relative to production (1.0 log cfu/g). The most common mold species were Cunninghamella (20%) and Syncephaalastrum (17.1%) relative to Fusarium (14.3%), Alternaria (11.4%) and Paecilomyces (11.4%) while Aspergillus (5.7%), Penicillium (5.7%) and Mucor (2.9%) were least common. The study established that both spoilage and pathogenic molds were present in the camel Nyirinyiri and therefore the product could be unsafe for human consumption due to the risk of mycotoxins. However, there is room for improved hygiene standards along the camel Nyirnyiri value chain.

Recycling Waste Biomaterials as Low-Cost Mortar for Cement Replacement PDF

Aseel B. Al-Zubaidi

This study was carried out to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of mortar cement produced from biomaterials like rice husk ash (RHA) and carrot powder (CP). To do this, 8 mortar cement specimens were formed by changing the weight of RHA and CP with cement. Increasing ratio of RHA and CP weight ratio affected the compressive strength, impact, hardness. As for the bending ,water absorption and fracture toughness decreased and were affected positively. It was concluded that RHA and CP might be used in mortar cement production replaced the cement in certain ratio to make them profitable and lessen their adverse effects on the environment.

The surface roughness effect of transverse patterns on the performance of short bearing PDF

P. I. Andharia, Mital Patel

An attempt has been made to investigate the performance of short bearing under the presence of magnetic fluid as a lubricant. Bearing surfaces are considered to be transversally rough. The roughness of the bearing surfaces is characterized by a stochastic random variable with non-zero mean, variance and skew-ness. The modified Reynold’s equation is solved with suitable boundary conditions to obtain the pressure distribution which is then used to calculate the load carrying capacity. Simpson’s 1/3 rule is used for numerical integration. The results are presented graphically as well as in tabular form. It is seen that due to magnetization the performance of bearing system gets improvement. It is also observed that the roughness causes the system adversely. The investigation suggests that the negative effect of roughness can be reduced by positive effect of magnetization parameter. While designing the bearing system, the roughness must be given due to consideration.

An Overview on Tactile Display, Haptic Investigation towards Beneficial for Blind Person PDF

Anirudha Ray, Swati Ghosh, Dr. Biswarup neogi

This paper presents the intellectual issue with proper information of several improvements on tactile display and haptic oriented research. Through this paper a specific study approach is implemented towards the tactile display with interdisciplinary action. Mobile apps and sophisticated Braille technologies are previewed with informative and comparative way. This overview focuses mainly on tactile prototype development issue with chronological research territory. Concisely, the advance level product based beneficial approach for visually impaired is presented infomatively. In addition, this study is carrying its importance towards the beneficial development of tactile display for visually impaired people in our society.

Development of Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency (R-IDF) Equations and Curves for Seven Divisions in Bangladesh PDF

Munshi Md. Rasel, Sayed Mukit Hossain

Due to proliferation in greenhouse gases hydrologic cycle is changing day by day which is causing variations in intensity, duration and frequency of rainfall events. By pinpointing the potential effects of climate change and acclimating to them is one way to reduce urban susceptibility. Since rainfall characteristics are often used for planning and design of various water resources project, reviewing and updating rainfall characteristics (i.e., Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curves) for future climate situations is necessary. The target of this study was to develop Rainfall IDF empirical equations and curves for seven divisions of Bangladesh to estimate the rainfall intensity for any duration and any return period with least effort. Yearly maximum rainfall data for last 41 years (1974-2014) from Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) was used in this study. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) empirical reduction formula was used to estimate the short duration rainfall intensity from yearly maximum rainfall data. Gumbel’s Extreme-Value Distribution method was used to develop IDF curves and equations. It was found that intensity of rainfalls decreases with increase in rainfall duration. Further, a rainfall of any given duration will have a larger intensity if its return period is large. In other words, for a rainfall of given duration, rainfalls of higher intensity in that duration are rarer than rainfalls of smaller intensity.

A Birdview on Emerging of Bigdata in Smart Cities Development PDF

R.Sathish Kumar, Dr.C.Rani

In the growing scenario,development of smart cities will be the most wanted area of research whose objective is to enhance the performance and well beings of people there by reducing the cost and consumption of resources. In a smart city, core fields like transport energy, health care, water industrial control, agriculture, waste management and soon are expected to function automatically and intelligently in a distributed manner with the help of internet. In the era of Information technology, concept like Internet of things, Grid, Cloud and big data computing and analysis plays a vital role in building smart cities. In this paper, different fields of smart cities and their construction challenges are discussed. Further the role of several IT concept and their issues are summarized also various big data analytical tools and technologies needed for building a smart cities are narrated.

Smart System for Personal Assistance in Physiotherapy PDF

Vedant Killa, Yomi Karthik R

Proper exercise is the key to a healthy body. Unfortunately, injuries and accidents are on the rise in every corner of the world.

Levenshtein Distance based Information Retrieval PDF

Veena G, Jalaja G

In today’s web based applications information retrieval is gaining popularity. There are many advances in information retrieval such as fuzzy search and proximity ranking. Fuzzy search retrieves relevant results containing words which are similar to query keywords. Even if there are few typographical errors in query keywords the system will retrieve relevant results. A query keyword can have many similar words, the words which are very similar to query keywords will be considered in fuzzy search. Ranking plays an important role in web search; user expects to see relevant documents in first few results. Proximity ranking is arranging search results based on the distance between query keywords. In current research information retrieval system is built to search contents of text files which have the feature of fuzzy search and proximity ranking. Indexing the contents of html or pdf files are performed for fast retrieval of search results. Combination of indexes like inverted index and trie index is used. Fuzzy search is implemented using Levenshtein’s Distance or edit distance concept. Proximity ranking is done using binning concept. Search engine system evaluation is done using average interpolated precision at eleven recall points i.e. at 0, 0.1, 0.2…..0.9, 1.0. Precision Recall graph is plotted to evaluate the system.

An Efficient and Secure Algorithm to Eliminate the Routing Misbehavior In MANETs PDF

N Priyanka, Bhagirathi N M

One of the emerging technologies in wireless communication is Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. A Mobile Ad Hoc Network(MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate with each other via wireless links either directly or relying on other nodes such as routers. These networks can be set up easily anywhere and anytime without any base infrastructure, thus proving to be very efficient in various applications such as military environments, emergency operations, collaborative and distributed computing, wireless sensor networks, personal area networks etc. The cooperativeness between the nodes is vital for the communication among the nodes. But in open MANETs, some nodes deviate from the normal behavior thus causing misbehavior in the network. The misbehavior is caused by selfish nodes which refuse to forward the data packets for other nodes in order to conserve their own energy. Securing the MANETs in an untrustworthy environment is always a challenging problem.

Removal of Ammoniacal Nitrogen by using Albite, Activated Carbon and Resin PDF

Kalyani Gorre, Dr.V. Himabindu

Ammonical Nitrogen in waste waters promote Eutrophication of receiving waters and are potentially toxic to the aquatic life. Albite, Sodium Cation Exchange Resin and Activated Carbons have shown an affinity for Ammonium ions (NH4+) and were, potentially used for the removal of NH4+ ions.The major objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of albite, Sodium Cation Exchange Resin and Activated Carbon to remove Ammonical nitrogen from waste waters using Batch Studies. Several operating variables such as pH, Temperature, Initial Ammonium ion Concentration on the exchange capacity were explored. Batch Studies were conducted using different concentrations of ammonical nitrogen and different amounts of Zeolite, Sodium Cation Exchange Resin and Activated Carbons. This experimental approach of removing Ammonia from Synthetic Waste waters using Resin, natural Zeolite and Activated Carbon has been simulated for the study of Ammonia Removal from synthetic waste waters.

Proposal Fingerprint Recognition Regimes Development Based on Minutiae Matching PDF

Hany Hashem Ahmed, Hamdy M. Kelash, Maha S. Tolba, Mohammed Badawy.

Fingerprint recognition is one of the oldest and most popular biometric technology and it is used in criminal investigations, civilian, commercial applications, and so on. Fingerprint matching is the process used to determine whether the two sets of fingerprints details come from the same finger or not. This work focuses on feature extraction and minutiae matching stage. There are many matching techniques used for fingerprint recognition systems such as minutiae based matching, pattern based matching, Correlation based matching, and image based matching. Two fingerprint recognition regimes have been developed based on minutiae matching, the first one is: Artificial Neural Network based on Minutiae Distance Vector (ANN-MDV), while the other one is: Artificial Neural Network based on Principle Component Analysis (ANN-PCA). It is observed that the recognition rate is increased and return better result. A comparative study between the 2-developed system is done based on average recognition time (ART), and the accuracy of the recognition system. The experimental results are done on FVC2002 database. These results show that the accuracy of ANN-MDV system is approximately equal to 91%, and the accuracy of ANN-PCA system is approximately equal to 98%. Therefore ANN-PCA is the best recognition system accuracy. Also the experimental results show that ART for ANN-MDV (equal to 0.251) is slightly better than ANN-PCA (equal to 0.275).

Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Zinc Oxide PDF

Salah Abdulla Hasoon, Raad M.S. Al-Haddad, Oras Tariq Shakir, Issam M. Ibrahim

Thin Film of ZnO nanoparticles paste are spread on transparent conducting ITO coated glass using doctor-blade method, the average particle size of about 16.4nm. Natural dyes extracted from pomegranate and spinach were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thin films were studied by absorption spectra of all dyes were performed by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed that the dye absorbed light in the visible region from (200-325)nm for chlorophyll pigment and (500-530)nm for anthocyanin pigment. The optical band gap was found to be 3.5eV. X-Ray diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were also investigated.

Feature Extraction Techniques for Speech Recognition: A Review PDF

Kishori R. Ghule, R. R. Deshmukh

Speech is the way of communication between the human. It also defined as it is a process which automatically recognizes the spoken words of person based on given speech signal information. It is also known as Automatic Speech Recognition or computer speech recognition and speech to text conversion. Automatic speech recognition is the very interesting area of research and lots of research work has been done by number of researchers. To recognize the speech feature extraction and word recognition these two steps are followed. After feature extraction feature matching is performed for word recognition. This paper describe the different feature extractions techniques like MFCC,LPC,LPCC,DWT etc. section I gives the introduction. Section II explains the types of speech uttered. Different feature extraction techniques are explained in section III. The section IV gives the classification of speech recognition techniques. Conclusion is given in section V and section V gives acknowledgment.

Application of Taguchi Method to Study the Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Hardness in Turning Inconel 718 PDF

Dr.C.Srinivas, Ch. Deva Raj, V.Rahul Jetson, Sk.Basheer ahmed, P.Mastan Rao

In this study, the Taguchi method is used to investigate the relation between changes in hardness caused on the material surface due the turning operation with respect to different machining parameters. The orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance are employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of Inconel 718 bars using TiCN – Al2O3 coated cemented carbide insert tools. Three cutting parameters namely, speed, feed rate, and depth of cut are used to find the optimum combination of the cutting parameters to minimize the surface hardness using Taguchi method. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

Outage Analysis of Coded Cooperation with Full Duplex Relay PDF

Jyoti Yadav

In this paper we propose analyse the outage behaviour of a coded cooperative communication system with one full duplex relay. The full duplex relay listens to source and transmits to the destination simultaneously. The expression for the outage probability is derived, and the effect of loop interference (that exists between the transmitting and receiving antennas of the relays) over the outage performance is investigated. The channel coefficients are assumed to be modelled as Nakagami-m distribution.

Data Acquisition and Control Using Microcontroller PDF

Roshdy A. AbdelRassoul, SM, IEEE, Mohamed S. Zaghloul, and Mohamed S. Mohamed

This paper discusses the way to employ the microcontroller device for data acquisition and control operations in electricity transportation process. A Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system is always used with Programmable Logic Control (PLC) to control electric power stations. In this paper, a microcontroller is used with SCADA system instead of PLC to control the whole electric network. Design of the implemented modules is introduced. It consists of three units: a collecting data/transmitter unit, a receiving unit and storage/dispatch unit. The reason for using wireless communication instead of Ethernet connection is increasing the data rate and making the cost of cables for network is lying down. The best wireless communication is Global System for Mobile (GSM)/General Packet Radio Switching Service (GPRS). The target for using microcontroller instead of PLC is proving that a microcontroller can do all what PLC could do; also it is much easier to implement a microcontroller network than it is to implement a series of PLCs. In addition the microcontroller is cheaper than PLC. It is very important to express a new type of Remote Transmission Unit (RTU) consists of a microcontroller integrated with GSM/GPRS module. MikroC compiler is the easiest program used in programming the microcontroller. Integration of microcontroller with Lab view program produces a new simulation for the fact event.

A Simple Design Approach for the Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear Dynamic System via Lyapunov Stability Theorem PDF

Mohd. Aqib, Mohammad Fazle Azeem

This paper presents the control design and the stability analysis of the continuous time fuzzy control system. The nonlinear dynamic system can exactly be represented by T-S fuzzy model which consists of number of linear subsystem. Based on the lyapunov stability theorem, the stability conditions are obtained in the term of LMI and the feedback gain matrices of the each linear state feedback controller is obtained by the method of pole placement.

An Efficient Technique for White Blood Cells Nuclei Automatic Segmentation PDF

Mrs. Sonali C. Sonar, Prof. K. S. Bhagat

Now days, blood testing is one of the most important clinical examinations. The characteristics (quantity, shape and color) of the white blood cell (WBC) can give vital information about a patient’s health. But, the manual inspection is time-consuming and requires adequate technical knowledge. Therefore, automatic medical diagnosis systems are necessary to help physicians to diagnose diseases in a fast and competent way. The main aim of blood cell segmentation is to extract the cells from complicated background and to segment every cell into morphological components such as nucleus, cytoplasm, and some others.

A Review on Cost Estimation Models for Effort Estimation PDF

Tajinder Kaur, Jaspreet Singh

Software cost estimation is an important phase in software development. It predicts the amount of effort and development time required to build a software system. It is one of the most critical tasks and an accurate estimate provides a strong base to the development procedure. There are many cost estimation models for the estimation of the software. COCOMO model is the basic model. In this paper,we have discussed about various cost estimation models and their limitations.

Design of High Performance EDAC Unit Using Decimal Matrix Code for 2-Way Set Associative Cache PDF

L. Prathyusha Reddy, Hemanjaly Ojha, Rohit Kumar Singh

Soft errors due to radiation are becoming the major concern sometimes leading to an irrepairable damage. Traditional methods to reduce these errors dealt with mitigation of SEU but as a consequence of decrease in node capacitance MBUs can occur. Some fault tolerant techniques based on matrix codes by combining various techniques together have been proposed which are complex involving much computational delay with effective correction of 2 to 3 faults. So when these types of codes are used for improving the reliability of memories such as cache memory, delay involved in accessing the data increases which is undesirable. This project is focused on implementation of decimal algorithm based EDAC unit involving lower computational delay overhead which can offer better fault tolerance and its application to an SRAM memory and 2-way Set Associative Cache memory of LEON-3FT processor prototype which used SEU protection based EDAC Unit to show that it can offer better fault tolerance. It is compared to other EDAC techniques to clearly show the improvement of its fault tolerance and reduced computational delay overhead. The analysis is done for 32 bit data and is observed that the proposed technique can detect 32 errors and can efficiently correct up to 8 adjacent errors and 5 random errors. Two dimensional error correcting code can detect up to 8 errors and can correct up to 4 adjacent errors and 3 random errors, SEC-DED code can detect up to 2 errors and Hamming can correct only 1 error code can detect and correct 1 error only involving 4 addition or subtraction operations and 32 EX-OR operations, 80 EX-OR operations, 257 EX-OR operations and 187 EX-OR operations with total delays 15.115ns, 16.116ns, 18.848ns and 19.289ns respectively.

Design and Development of a Garcinia kola Size Reduction Machine PDF

Igbozulike A.O and Aremu A.K

A Garcinia kola size reduction machine was designed, developed and tested. The study was aimed at reducing the size of the seeds for easier packaging, storage and further processing operations. The machine consists of the frame, feeding and discharge chutes, screw auger, plates and transmission unit. Data obtained from preliminary investigations on engineering properties of the seed were used in designing the machine components. Particle size analysis, using ASABE S319.4 (2008), was carried out to evaluate the machine performance. Repeated experiment with a charge of 100g each gave an average of 93.45% efficiency.

Design of High Speed 32-bit Microarchitecture for Emulation of Quantum Computing Algorithms PDF

Mayuresh Deshpande, Hardik Shah, Vinayak Kini, Chirag Bafna

Quantum computing has emerged as a revolutionary concept in the field of cryptography and data operations. Quantum algorithms have proved themselves to be much faster and efficient than their classical counterparts. Though we are still years away from solid state realization of quantum computers [1], currently software emulations [5] are used for implementing quantum algorithms. However, present day processors are incapable of dealing with the immense parallel architecture required by the quantum computation. This research paper focuses on the design of a 32 bit floating point processor incorporating the superscalar architecture which is capable of running quantum operations. The unique feature of the processor is that it supports an instruction set dedicated to basic quantum operations required for algorithms. The quantum states are stored in the register memory in 32 bit floating point format. The execution unit consists of multiple FPUs in order to support the parallel quantum operations. The superscalar design of Quantum Computing Unit (QCU) is the key component of the processor which makes it superior to the existing architectures.

Two Level Trusted Approach for Ensuring Cloud Security PDF

Shanty S R, Aby Abahai T

Security is an important aspect in cloud computing and has numerous issues related with it. Inorder to adopt cloud computing by the enterprises and individuals, several issues have to be resolved. Security in cloud is an important issue that needs special attention and an important component of cloud security is trust management. The user should not face problems such as data theft or data loss. The cloud service provider and the user have to make sure that the cloud is safe from all external threats and attacks. This paper focuses on the development of a secure cloud environment to determine the trust of users. Only trusted users are allowed to access the cloud resources. The method proposed in this paper provides security from Denial of Service, Cross-site Scripting and SQL injection attacks. The uniqueness of the proposed system lies in the fact that it provides security at the service provider level as well as the user level in cloud environment.

Speech Recognition by Linear Prediction PDF

Shipra Soni

Speech recognition is fundamentally pattern classification task. It is divided mainly into two components. The first component is speech signal processing and the second component is speech pattern recognition technique. The speech processing stage includes speech end point detection, pre-emphasis, frame blocking, windowing, calculating the Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) coefficients and finally generating the codebook by vector quantization. The second part includes pattern recognition system using Neural Network (NN). We use feed forward back propagation neural network for classification, both for speaker dependent and speaker independent system. Speech signals are recorded by an audio wave recorder in the normal room environment. The research work has been done using 50 different hybrid paired word (HPW) by 10 male and 10 female speakers. The performance of 95.7455% recognition rate for speaker dependent and 70.305% recognition rate for speaker independent was established.

An analytical model of the transient thermal behaviour of semiconductor device PDF

Marija Radmilović-Radjenović, Branislav Radjenović

In this paper, an analytical one dimensional mathematical model of the transient thermal behavior of semiconductor devices is pre-sented. The regions where the heat is dissipated are modeled as δ(x) source located at finite distance beneath the top surface. Three procedures including Fourier and Laplace transforms as well as Fourier series, for obtaining an explicit expression for the temperature space-time dependence are described in details. Simple analytical relations for the transient thermal impedance andthermal time constants are derived. It is shown that temperature time dependence can be described with only one parameter – rise time . Simple analytical expression of the thermal impedance has the same form as that obtained using the phenomenological model.


Dr. Mohamed Baymout

Financial supply chain management consists of the holistic and comprehensive activities of planning and controlling all the financial processes both within a company and with the external parties. In contrast to physical supply chain, financial supply chain focuses on the flow of cash and other related financial transaction rather than the flow of physical goods. There are parallels in physical supply chain, information supply chain and financial supply chain. From the moment a purchase order is created, the information need to be transferred to the next parties. After the physical goods were received from suppliers, payment will be sent. The whole purchasing process consists of all three supply chains; effectively managing the supply chains can increase efficiency and accuracy. The traditional financial supply chain consists of many paper based document and paper forms, especially when international trade happens. Paper based purchase orders, invoices, checks and letter of credits are heavily involved; human mistakes and error inputs are common; as a result, there is decrease the efficiency of the company’s working capital management. The current financial supply chain management aims at eliminating the paper based documents, and improving the integrity of parties being involved, such as financial institutions, logistics, and suppliers. The two main cycles involve in the financial supply chain management are P2P (Purchase-to-pay) and O2C (order-to-cash). These two sets of processes and the relationship between them create the company’s working capital requirement. Treasurer should manage and integrate both cycles seamlessly in order to maximize the cash on hand during the operating cycle. Integrating ERP system with financial supply chain management helps the information flows to internal parties and external parties easily, and improves the integrity and quality of the financial information being transmitted. In this report, a case study using SAP ERP system in managing financial supply chain will be discussed in detail.

Congruence on Left Regular Bands of Groups of Left Quotients PDF

Edem E. David

We provide a complete algebraic structure for Left regular bands of groups of left quotients Q by constructing congruence for it. Our construction uses the structural properties of the semigroup which makes it defer from the known congruence construction methods. We also deduce some properties arising from the said construction.

Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Concentrated Photovoltaic/Thermal System PDF

H. I. Abdelkader, A. Y. Hatata, A. Elansari, M. A. Abo-Elsoud

Concentration photovoltaic /thermal (CPV/T) system provides, an effective way to increase the efficiency of traditional PV system. The system is producing both electric and thermal energy and recovering thermal energy at high temperature. This paper presents a model and simulation of CPV/T systems. It uses the MATLAB program to build the CPV/T. It includes modeling of the reflective optics with parabolic mirror concentrator and the triple-junction cells (InGaP/InGas/Ge) assembled with a dual axis tracker. Also an active cooling system of the photovoltaic cells is considered. The model adopts a mathematical approach in order to simulate and investigate the cell characterization curves including module electric and thermal efficiencies, thermal and electric energies provided by cell and module, and cooling fluid temperatures. The model works for different time levels (yearly and daily) in terms of direct normal irradiance measured practically and the results were presented.

Biosynthesis of metallothioneins under cadmium stress, zinc and iron supplementation in liver and kidney of male albino rats PDF

Obaiah Jamakala and A. Usha Rani

Cells react to stressful environments with a broad range of diverse homeostatic responses. Among an array of responses stress response proteins, including metallothionein (MT) play an important role against metal induced stress. The present study is carried out to know the role of MT in detoxification of cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rats before and supplementation with trace elements such as zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Male albino rats were treated orally with Cd at a dose of 1/10th of LD50 / 48h (i.e. 22.5 mg/kg) for 7, 15 and 30 days (d) long sojourn. 15d Cd treated rats were then subjected to trace element supplementations of Zn (12mg/kg) and Fe (40mg/kg) individually and in combination for another 7, 15 and 30d time intervals. After specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and tissues like liver and kidney were isolated and used for metallothionein studies. Purification and quantification of MT protein was carried out by the standard methods. Purified MT protein containing samples were subjected to SDS-PAGE. Clear visible bands were observed in the test tissues approximately at 6.5 KDa against standard low range molecular weight protein marker (Cat. No. M 3546). Further, MT protein levels were significantly elevated in the test tissues during Cd treatment and also after supplementation with Zn and / or Fe. Maximum MT protein synthesis was observed in 30d rat kidney under combined supplementation of both Zn and Fe. Thus, tissues that contain an excess amount of MT are resistant to Cd toxicity.

A Modified Three Level Fusion Technique for Multimodal Medical Image Fusion in Wavelet and NSCT Domain PDF

Chithra Chandran, C.Jyothirmayi Devi

Multimodal imaging is a medical imaging technique with applications in medical analysis. It is used for extracting complementary information from medical images. Nowadays with the rapid development in technology and modern instrumentation medical imaging has become a vital component for a large number of applications including diagnosis, research and treatment. Medical image fusion aims at improving image quality taken from different imaging method like CT and MRI. CT imaging provides information on dense structure whereas MRI provides information on soft tissues. Merging of two techniques will result in better interpretation of data.This paper presents a novel approach for multimodal medical image fusion by combining the NSCT domain with wavelet domain. Performance evaluation of proposed image fusion method based on similarity measures and entropy realizes an efficient method for accurate analysis of multimodal images.

Design and Implementation of Remote Operated UGV Based on GSM PDF

Maha sharks, M.S.Zaghloul and Ahmed mohsen

In this paper, we propose the controlling and monitoring for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) based on wireless communications, the design include sensors, GSM, Microcontroller, Mechanical and electrical design. Some techniques in mechanical design where implemented to improve the motion of the vehicle on hard condition ground and to obtain smooth motion .The core components of unmanned ground vehicles was executed to help efficiently during the primary missions. The designed UGV contain many sophisticated-designed systems such as navigation, obstacle detection sensor, wheel activator for vehicle control and network devices for communication. The design of the UGV make use of GSM mobile technique network to establish a long range, secure, fast and reliable connection with the remote base station. The UGV is also mounted with a robotic manipulator with four degrees of freedom with a gripper type end-effector, which can be used for grabbing objects and thus help in search and rescue type operations. The UGV is equipped with IR sensors and camera for obstacle detection and avoidance. The camera is also used to send the visual information back to the base station in real-time, allowing accurate control and monitoring over long distances. Normally remote control station in operational field is used that use GSM mobile or other types of data link. These types of vehicle can be used in multiple operations as search and rescue. To verity the effectiveness of proposed system, many environmental tests were conducted.

Performance Analysis of Long Haul 64 Channel Optical Communication System with DWDM using Fiber Bragg Grating PDF

Amandeep Kaur, Mr. P.S.Bhullar

To meet the nowadays requirement of high speed data transmission, DWDM communication system with data rate of 64 channel is modeled and simulated. Analysis of the simulation results has been done to know the impact of filter. Fiber Brag grating is used as dispersion compensating module. Acceptable values of Q factor and BER are achieved for the length beyond 1200 with NRZ modulation format.

Agility Achievement and Load Handling System in Fat-Tree Data Center Network PDF

Amol Lonare, Ms. Veena Gulhane

A multi-rooted hierarchical tree topology is most widely used in many data center networks. It provides good utilization of resources as well as better performance, still fat tree Data Center Network has two limitations i.e traffic load balance and agility. This is because Data Center Networks (DCN) increasingly carries larger and longer traffic flows. As a result of this it is unable to support different traffic types efficiently and has no capacity to access all services by all servers. A work has done previously on load balancing, yet agility has not been solved. In this paper the Agility Handling Method (weighted least connection technique) has been implemented to achieve Agility in Data Center network. This technique improves load handling capacity and also increases the level of performance even in a more number of nodes in the network.

Advancement in Guard Zone Computation through Detection and Exclusion of the Overlapped Regions PDF

Ranjan Mehera, Piyali Datta, Arpan Chakraborty, and Rajat Kumar Pal

The guard zone computation problem claims utmost importance in VLSI layout design, where the circuit components (or the functional units/modules or groups/blocks of different sub-circuits) that may be viewed as a set of polygonal regions on a two-dimensional plane, are not supposed to be placed much closer to each other in order to avoid electrical (parasitic) effects amount them.

RSA and RC4 Cryptosystem Performance Evaluation Using Image and Text File PDF

Akinyele A. Okedola, Yekini N. Asafe

The process of transforming plaintext data into cipher text in order to conceal its meaning in case it fall to hand of unauthorized recipient is refers to as encryption. The systems that perform the encryption processes are known as cryptosystems, there are several cryptosystem algorithms: RSA, RC4, DES, 3DES, Blowfish, AES, IDEA, Skipjack, DSA, ElGamal, etc. The major features that identify and differentiate one cryptosystem algorithm from another are its ability to secure the protected data against attacks and its speed/efficiency. In this paper: application software was designed to implement RSA, and RCA encryption algorithms with advanced features of visual Basic 6 for the front end interface. Microsoft Access is used to design backend of the application, and the Macromedia Flash was also used to incorporate dynamic features that enhance the appearance of the application. The program was used to compare the performance of RSA and RC4. The encryption operation was carried out for both RSA and RC4 using five text files and five graphic files of different sizes 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kilobyte respectively. The major factor considered for measuring the performance of the algorithms (RSA and RC4) is the speed of execution using time of execution (TE) as parameter for the evaluation. The performance result was presented and analyzed. We discovered that the RC4 is better compare to RSA algorithm based on the experimental facts presented and the result analysis of the two evaluated algorithms.

Prediction of Vehicle Collision Probablity at Intersection using V2V Communication PDF

Swati B. Raut, Dr. Preeti R. Bajaj, Dr Latesh G Malik

Increasing numbers of vehicles on the road are adding to the problems associated with road traffic. Efficient monitoring of ve-hicles is need of time for smooth traffic flow. Vehicle collision detection and congestion control are prime challenges to be met. Many technologies are in action for collision free traffic. Pertaining to this, vehicle collision prediction system based on VANET is proposed which addresses the issue of collision avoidance. It uses Intelligent Control Unit (ICU) and Vehicle to Vehicle communication to predict the collision probability at highway intersection. The scheme is implemented at open street map, on location of interest and makes use of warning system based on collision probabilities.Simulation results show the collision probability for near crash, no crash and crash.

Design and Analysis of a Dual Input Buck-Boost Converter for Renewable Energy Application PDF

Sivaprasad A, Kumaravel S, Ashok S

The increasing price, exhaustible nature of fossil fuels and their impacts on environment have increased the interest in harvesting energy from renewable energy sources in current scenario. So effective utilization of renewable energy sources is an emerging research trend in the area of power system. But these renewable energy sources are highly intermittent in nature, unpredictable and also sensitive to climatic conditions, which makes difficulty in providing relaiable and quality power from stand alone renewable energy system. A hybrid energy system can make use of the complementing nature of various sources to overcome these difficulties. Development of suitable power electronic converters which interface multiple energy sources with different V-I characteristics is an essential requirement for the integration and efficient utilization of different renewable energy sources.In this paper a dual input buck-boost converter which can be used for renewable energy integration is presented. The computer simulation of the converter topology using MATLAB/ Simulink platform has been carried out and results are presented. This converter topology has low part count and offers simplicity in handling two non-linear V-I characteristic sources.

Performance analyses of MHD Thruster using CAE tools PDF

Vikrant S Choudhary, Ujjal Kalita, Abhijeet Pratap, Mayur Randive

MHD propulsion system is used for moving the vehicle in opposite direction of conducting fluid flow. The principle behind its propulsion is that it follows the flaming left hand rule of electromagnetism. The reaction force is used for propulsion. This paper reveals the analysis on velocity of thruster with some nozzle, by using 0.35T magnetic field strength. These analyses are done in the ANSYS 14.5 software by loading the MHD module. The analyses on velocity are done on three different nozzles such as divergent convergent nozzle, convergent divergent nozzle and throat divergent nozzle, by using same parameter. In these analyses we use salt water as a conducting fluid and the material for thruster is nickel alloys 200. The analytical and computational result indicated that the speed and performance increases proportionally with sea water conductivity. The comparison result shows that the convergent divergent nozzle produce good result as compare to other.

Pelletization and Reduction of Egyptian Low Grade Manganese Ore Pellets via Hydrogen at 750-950ºC PDF

El-Hussiny N.A, Hala H. Abd El-Gawad, Mohamed F.M, Shalabi M.E.H

Egyptian low grade manganese ore pellets were reduced by hydrogen in this work in the temperature range 750-950ºC. The results indicated that the reduction rate increased with temperature rise. And it was found that the reaction model is: - ln(1-R) = kt , and the energy of activation is energy 79.78 kJ/mole.

Electronic Skin - A Brief Overview PDF


Human skin is an important organ. It consists of an integrated, stretchable network of sensors that relay information about tactile and thermal stimuli to the brain, allowing us to move the organs within our environment safely and effectively. inspired by human skin an ELECTRONIC SKIN is created by artificial means used for autonomous intelligent robots and biometric prosthetics, among other applications. The development of electronic networks comprised of flexible, stretchable, and robust devices that are compatible with large-area implementation and integrated with multiple functionalities is a testament to the progress in developing an electronic skin (e-skin) to human skin. E-skins are already capable of providing augmented performance over their organic counterpart, both in superior spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity. They could be further improved through the incorporation of additional functionalities (e.g., chemical and biological sensing) and desired properties (e.g., biodegradability and self-powering).Continued rapid progress in this area is promising for the development of a fully integrated e-skin in the near future.

Development And Management Of Virtual Teams PDF

Emad Mubarak

Globalization has enabled different businesses to conduct their business operations in the different areas of the world. Evidently, there are various benefits of the globalization such as the costs of everyday products are decreased. However, it is also difficult for the businesses to survive in this era of intense competition because of globalization. For that reason, businesses try to reduce their costs significantly in order to ensure their long-­‐‑term survival in their market. Resultantly, they opt for outsourcing because it enables the businesses to delegate everyday insignificant activities to the talented individuals in the different areas of the world at a lower cost. Moreover, it also enables the organization to focus on activities that are more important. However, it is difficult for businesses to develop and maintain virtual teams effectively as it is difficult to communicate effectively to everyone at the same time.

Analysis on Overhead Circular water tank for various bearing capacity with sloping ground. PDF

Smt.Dhotre Chandrakala(Ekbote S.S.), Prof. Jawalkar G.C .

Large capacity elevated circular tanks are used to store a variety of liquids, e.g. water for drinking and fire fighting, petroleum, chemicals, and liquefied natural gas. A water tank is used to store to tide over the daily requirements. Intze tank is a type of elevated water tank supported on staging circular tanks is defined as bottom portion of circular tank is provided in flat shape, so in flat bottom, the thickness and reinforcement is found to be heavy. It is found in analysis that the bearing capacity increases for the same wind speed volume of concrete and quantity of steel both are decreased. Also, We have seen that in case of bearing capacity of soil 5 t/m2 and 10 t/m2 volume of concrete and quantity of steel are so high as compared to other.

A Survey of Prediction Approach in Pervasive Computing PDF

Darine Ameyed, Moeiz Miraoui, Chakib Tadj

Context awareness is one of the fundamental principles underpinning pervasive computing. Context prediction, a new trend in pervasive computing, is an open-ended research topic with a lot of challenges and opportunities for innovation. This work presents and analyses the development in this area and compares different context prediction techniques and approaches.

Modified Shifted Current Method for Extraction the Resistive Leakage Current of Metal Oxide Surge Arrester PDF

Samruddhi Shaha, Dr. A. G. Thosar, Shri. Vivek Moroney

Surge arresters are installed on transmission and distribution lines and in substations between phase and earth to reduce the failure rates of system. To monitor the degradation of surge arrester measurement of total leakage current is used. The gapless zinc oxide surge arresters enable the utility personnel to measure the leakage current due to its gapless physical configuration. The resistive leakage current is extracted from total leakage current to determine the health of surge arrester. As the resistive current increases the life of surge arrester gets decreases. In conventional method total leakage current is measured by using current shunts or current transformers with addition of applied voltage which is difficult to measure in online condition. Modified Shifted Current Method (MSCM) is used to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without the need of the voltage signal. In this paper the extraction of resistive leakage component from the total leakage current of Metal-oxide Surge Arresters (MOSA) is done by using the technique Modified Shifted Current Method (MSCM) and simulated in MATLAB.

Class Schedule: A Predictor of Students’ Performance in Computer Programming-1 PDF

Dr. Isidro L. Duran

This paper aimed to determine the class schedules that predict performance of students in Computer Programming-1. Specifically it sought answers on determining the profile of students in terms of their class schedules and performance in Computer Programming-1 subject; the performance of the students in Computer Programming-1 with different class schedules; and the class schedules that predict performance of students Computer Programming-1. Simple experimental research design was employed in this study and the respondents were the students of the College of Computer Science who were selected purposively according to the class schedule arrangement of lecture and laboratory classes. This study found out that class schedule uses simple combinations. Time is accounted in the distribution on the lectures and laboratory class schedules. The means of the performance of the students are adjacent which are also close to the standard deviation. Lastly, it was found out that students perform better academically following the schedule: AM(Lec) – PM(Lab), Noon(Lec) – PM(Lab) and AM(Lab) – PM(Lec).

Coordination Issues in Over Current Relays due to Wind Farm Penetration PDF

Sujo P George, Ashok S

Power demand is going on increasing day by day around the world. There are many solution strategies to avoid the sustaining energy shortage. The distributed generation is one of the remedial measures taken by many countries. The integration of intermittent distributed generation sources causes many problems in protection level including the malfunction of over current relays. The coordination of the over current relays is affected by the penetration level of the DG sources including wind farms. In this paper a typical wind farm is taken as the case study and found that coordination in the over current relay is affected by the variation in the penetration of wind farm output. The solution strategy proposed for the miscoordination is adaptive relaying and an algorithm developed for it.

Environmental Effect of Parathion Methyl on Bio-chemical Changes and Detoxification Capacity PDF

Lakbar Chanez, Retem Chahira, Labar Sofiane, Trocchia Samantha, Djabri Larbi, Maurel Daniel, Siaud Philippe, Guerriero Giulia

The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental effects of the organophosphate pesticides, parathion methyl (PM) at sublethal dosage (1)-on antioxidant defense system such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver, (2)-on plasma lipid ans glucose constituents: total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and plasma glucose (PG) in vertebrate, the Wistar rats and to investigate if taurin was able to modulates the PM-induced changes in plasma levels of TC, TG and PG. All these parameters were measured in rats, which were orally given a single dose of MP (2mg/kg body weight for 10 days) and supplemented or not with taurin (diluted in the drinking water at 2%, for 10 days). In these conditions and after a 24h post-treatment, GSH significantly increased and GST activity decreased in liver and both plasma levels of TC and TG significantly increased in rats treated with PM. These last results were not relieved in taurin treated rats administered PM's. We conclude that (1) the administration of subchronic PM causes changes in the antioxidative systems in liver and (2) the organophosphate, methyl parathion interferes with lipids and glucose metabolism in rat and suggests that taurin, in mammalian animals, could reverse PM-induced lipid and glucose metabolism alterations.

Lean Six Sigma Approach to Improve the Admissions Process for a Nigerian HE Institute PDF

Anthony Oka and Parminder Singh Kang

Lean as a management paradigm has been applied extensively in manufacturing industries, and so little has been done in the area of its studies and application in managing affairs in education

Two Interacting Strike Slip Faults in a Viscoelastic Half Space Under Increasing Tectonic Forces PDF

Papiya Debnath, Sanjay Sen

Two interacting inclined strike slip faults are considered in a viscoelastic half space under the action of tectonic forces which increases with time. Tectonic forces generated due to mantle convection and other related phenomena have been the main driving forces for the movement of Lithospheric plates leading to earthquake. It may be noted that during the aseismic period in between two major seismic events, stresses built up gradually due to the action of tectonic forces. It is assumed that the accumulated stress when exceeds a threshold value, a creeping movement across the fault sets in. Analytical expressions for displacement, stresses and strain are being obtained using suitable mathematical techniques, both before and after the fault movement. It is expected that the numerical computation will give us an idea on the rate of stress accumulation in the media under such conditions.

A Comparative Analysis of DGA Methods For The Incipient Fault Diagnosis in Power Transformer Using ANN Approach PDF

Abhishek V. Gedam, Prof. P.S.Swami, Dr. Archana Thosar

Assessment of power transformer conditions plays crucial role to prevent incipient fault failures, to achieve reliability, efficiency and to enhance the transformer life period. Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is useful for diagnostic analysis of incipient in power transformers. In this paper a novel method Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is applied to DGA for the interpretation incipient faults in power transformers. Fault interpretation can found to be a problem of multi-class classification. This paper presents ANN approach to DGA for interpretation of incipient faults in power transformers. ANN automatically tune the network parameters, connection weights and bias terms of the neural networks, to achieve the best model based on the proposed evolutionary algorithm, which provides the solution for complex classification problems. The proposed ANN algorithm applied to DGA has been tested by many real fault samples, and its results are compared with conventional DGA methods i.e. Doernenburg Ratios Method, Rogers Ratio method and IEC ratio methods. The result indicates that the proposed approach has remarkable diagnosis accuracy, and with it multiple incipient faults can be classified effectively.

Analysis for Pakistan`s Export Growth to Great Seven (G7): An Application of CMSA PDF

Arsalan Ahmed, Hassan Tahir

In the present day scenario of reductions in tariff levels and non-tariff barriers, rising trade deficit and falling reserves are major economic issues for economies like Pakistan. This paper explores the flaws and causes of rising trade deficit by the use of the Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis for Pakistan. This study is the first contribution to analyse the Exports of Pakistan to Great Seven (G7) through the methodology of CMS. The CMS technique is being used to separate the impact emanating from the world trade effect, the commodity composition effect, the market distribution effect and the competitiveness effect. Panel data will be used for the period 2003 to 2012 (yearly). The study concluded some policy with respect to the current global economic conditions that can increase exports thus increasing foreign exchange for the economy.

Employer Branding and Intention to Apply by Usage of Social Media in Banking Sector, Pakistan PDF

Summer Aslam

The endeavor of this survey was to examine the employer branding and intention to apply in recruitment function perspective to potential applicants. For that, respondents were contributed to survey from different universities who were near to initiate their voca-tions. Taken into account of employer branding and intention to apply, respondents were asked to answer about banking sector of Pakistan. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that intention to apply is central for hale and hearty recruitment and employer branding is positive for intention to apply. In meticulous of direct effect, familiarity and social media positive correlate intention to apply. Furthermore, consistency in efforts of employer branding are proposed for organizations where employer attractiveness plays a role of different signals for individual perspective.


N.Eashwaramma, Dr.J.Praveen

The design and implementation of multilevel volta ge source converter based dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is dealt with in MATLAB Simulink. The objective of this study is to stabilize the voltage by compensating the sag, swell and harmonics in the system. Cascaded Multilevel Converter based DVR is used for harmonics control.. This work proposes the enhancement of power transfer capability and maintaining unity power factor. Relative Harmonic analysis is also discussed based on the total harmonic distortion (THD) calculations. Now days the use of sensitive electronic equipment has increase which has lead to power quality problems. The various power quality disturbances are transients, interruptions, voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage collapse, harmonics etc. To solve these power quality problems various custom power devices are used. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a custom power device used for the Compensation of voltage sag and swell. Power quality problem is an occurrence manifested as a non-standard voltage, current or frequency. One of the major problems dealt here is the voltage sag. Dynamic Voltage Restorer provides a cost effective solution for protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags currents, although the applied voltage being sinusoidal. MATLAB/SIMULINK tool is used for evaluating the performance of the proposed control scheme.

Game-Theoretic Transmit-Power Control in Cognitive Radio with Pareto-Improvement of the Nash Equilibrium PDF

Oscar Ondeng, Heywood Ouma

In implementing cognitive radio networks, transmit-power control is one of the key tasks of the cognitive cycle and plays a big role in carrying out spectrum sharing. In this work the transmit-power control of a CDMA cognitive radio network is modeled as a non-cooperative game-theoretic problem. The Iterative Water-Filling algorithm is implemented using the best response to the previous play in an attempt to arrive at the Nash Equilibrium. The characteristics of the convergence and of the Nash Equilibrium are studied and of special interest is the Pareto-optimality. It is found that the Nash Equilibrium is not Pareto-optimal and a method is proposed and implemented to achieve a power vector which is Pareto-superior to the power vector of the Nash Equilibrium and which yields a higher utility.

Overview on Literature Survey towards EMG Interpretations Technique in Addition to Several Interdisciplinary Work Related to EMG Interpretations PDF

Bipasha Chakrabarti, Swarup Maity, Swati Barui, Shilpi Palbhowmik, Saptarshi Das, Biswarup Neogi

This paper presents the overview on literature survey towards the EMG Signal interpretation techniques. The electromyogram is the summation of the motor unit action potentials occurring during contraction measured at a given electrode location. Several investigations assist the relationship between human’s muscles activity and generation of electricity. Electromyography is measuring the electrical signal associated with the activation of the muscle. This may be voluntary or involuntary muscle contraction. The EMG activity of voluntary muscle contractions is related to tension. The functional unit of the muscle contraction is a motor unit, which is comprised of a single alpha motor neuron and all the fibers it enervates. The goal of this paper is the brief literature survey and parametric study of EMG signal & this phenomenon has been explained in the form of EMG interpretation technique. The idea emanated from the innovative and creative articles and objects of different scientists & research work.

Application of the contingent valuation method to agricultural landscapes in the Central West of Tunisia PDF

Hayet Ilahi, Islem Saadaoui, Christopher Robin Bryant, Hichem Rejeb

Testing effects of protection of agricultural land is not always statistically significant in the results of the contingent valuation. As the economic analysis of the value of the agricultural landscape is rarely achieved in Tunisia, a developing coutry, this study attempts analyze the effects of conservation of the agricultural landscape in centralwest of Tunisian. To achieve our objective, we applied the contingent valuation method based on an investigation of a representative sample of 320 citizens in the region of Sbiba placed in the Governorate of Kasserine known by its agricultural timbre. The results of this study show that the respondents agreed to pay an amount of high value (117 DT) on average per household per year. This amount varies according to individual characteristics and social concerns. The study illustrates the importance of the agricultural landscape and the interest that the population have allocated to protect agricultural area especially that farming is ranked first economic speculation in the Governorate of Kasserine.

Beneficial Role of Diazepam in the Histological Alterations of Colon Post Immobilization Stress-Induced in Adult Albino Rats PDF

Nabila I. El–Desouki, Mohamed S. Gabry, Heba M. Nagi

The present work was planned to study the histological changes that may occur in the colon of the immobilized-stressed albino rats and the ameliorative role of diazepam injected intraperitoneally with therapeutic dose (0.1 mg/ kg b.w.). Sixty adult male albino rats weighing 110 ± 5g were used and divided equally into 6 groups, group(I) served as control rats; group(II) rats treated with diazepam; group (III) and (IV) served as stressed rats (10 animals / each): in which the rats were immobilized individually for 2 hrs. daily for different durations (5 and 30 days, respectively); groups (V) and (VI) served as immobilized- stressed rats (10 animals /each) for 2 hrs daily for 5and 30 days and treated with diazepam for 30 days, respectively. The results recorded a significant increase in sera cortisol of the stressed-rats for 5 and 30 days. Histological results of colon demonstrated epithelial damage in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, pyknotic nuclei and some others were karyolitic. Desquamation of the absorptive columnar cells, detachment of cells from the basement membrane, reduction in number of superficial goblet cells containing mucus and distortion of the crypt architecture were observed. Moreover, fibrosis between crypts and marked leucocytic infiltration in lamina propria were elucidated as well as congestion and dilatation of the blood vessels. Additionally, the increment of collagen fibres in the lamina propria of mucosa and muscularis mucosa of the stressed rats was obviously demonstrated. These alterations were time-depended. Treatment with diazepam resulted in decreased cortisol levels, marked improvement and restoration of the histological changes. The results indicated that diazepam is recommended to be used as a curative drug to improve the disturbances in the colon caused under the effect of stress

Some Aspects of Software Quality Assurance for Small Projects PDF

A. Spiteri Staines

Agile and lightweight software based projects have requirements that are not always easily identified because they are not always well developed and documented in the same way large projects are documented. This work presents some aspects that can be included to improve these projects in a semi-structured approach.

Software Development PDF

Hamza Ahmed

Software development is a rigorous process used in the creation and maintenance of software. In this paper the systems development lifecycle (SDLC) has been explored as the universal model upon which other models are based. Examples of software crises emerging from software failures and errors have also been discussed in a bid to aid in the appreciation for the need software development lifecycle process. The SDLC phases i.e. planning, analysis, design and implementation are discussed in much detail and the importance of each of this process right from when the software is conceived as an idea by the project sponsor, to when the software is actually installed and used to add value to the organization.

In Silico Modeling and Characterization of Fas D Protein from Rhodococcus fascians Associated with Pathogenecity PDF

Juri Saikia , Rituparna Sharma , D.K. Sharma

Rhodococcus fascians infects a wide range of plants, initiating the formation of leafy galls that consist of shoot amplification and shoot growth inhibition.To provoke symptoms, R. fascians strain D188 requires pathogenicity genes that are located on a linear plasmid, pFiD188. The fas genes are essential for virulence and constitute an operon that encodes, among other functions, a cytokinin synthase gene i.e., Fas D. Loss or mutation in Fas D gene lead to a complete loss of pathogenicity. Structural and functional characterization of Fas D of Rhodococcusfascians is of interest while its structure remains unknown. Thus a homology molecular model of Fas D was constructed for gleaning possible structural insights.


M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

This scientific research article focus that the CREATOR OF UNIVERSE shall be considered as “SUPREME POET” who consider created the Universe through “POEM” (Triphthong Mantra). The supreme Poet also be called by name by author as “RAMANUJAM”. Ramanujam shall also mean Supreme God (MEGA VISHUVAN) who created everything through “MOTHER NATURE” (Souls). This scientific research speculated that the Philosophy of Hinduism trinity God BRAHMA, VISHNU, SHIVA shall be considered as supreme God in different Hindu denominations in different phases of time as described as bekw.

The Effect of Laser Treatment on Seedling Growth of the Invasive Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC PDF

Ahmed M. Abbas, Massaud M. Mostafa

A commercial use of lasers for weed and invasive plant control, however, require a systematic investigation of the irradiance exposure time of laser beam effect on different plant species, growth stages, etc. In this study, we investigated the impact of laser treatment directed towards the apical meristems of seedlings of the invasive tree Prosopis juliflora at the cotyledon stage. Diode laser source —a 1W, 532nm laser was tested and four different exposure times were applied: 0 (control), 1, 2 and 4h of laser under controlled glasshouse conditions. Root, shoot, seedling length, seedling basal, biomass and seedling survivorship were recorded. The length of shoots and roots were decreased with laser exposure time. Total length of seedling was decreased significantly with laser time varied between 20.0 ± 1.2 cm at control conditions and 12.8 ± 0.6cm at 4 h. Plants rooted at control treatment presented the higher biomass than other laser treatments). Laser exposure time reduced seedling basal. No seedling died at control treatment. Seedling survivorship was very high (93%) for 1 h treatment, showing a tendency to decrease with laser time exposure recording minimum survivorship value (75%) for 4 h treatment. Our results could be useful to control P. juliflora invasion, towards the apical meristems, because a commercial use of lasers to a 1W, 532nm would prevent its growth.


Ojiako J. C., Sagir M. and Igbokwe E. C.

Tourism is an activity highly dependent on environmental resources. It is also a phenomenon, which in the event of lack of planning and management is likely to erode its environmental base. One of the problems often encountered in the tourism industry is lack of data and a quick update and maintenance of available data. Ineffective management of these spatial information also provide a means by which local governments loose enormous revenue which would have been used to provide the necessary infrastructure which improve the values and living standard of the people in the light of the statutory allocation. Lack of proper management of tourism potentials has made it difficult for Nigeria to be a major tourist attraction in Africa. Therefore this research was aimed at location and spatial analysis of tourism facilities in Abuja municipal area FCT Nigeria using GIS approach. This was achieved through the following objectives: acquisition of base map of study area, point picking of geometric data of tourism facilities using GPS, development of a functional spatial database on tourism facilities and performing various analysis to show the potentials of GIS in analyzing the location of tourism facilities within the study area. The software used included: ArcGIS 9.2, GeoCalc for coordinate conversion and Microsoft word 2007 amongst others. The result of database queries showed the locations of hotel accommodations, relaxation and eating spots, cinemas, banks and churches all located within Abuja municipal area. It was therefore recommended that this study be used as a spatial decision support system for decisions regarding locations of tourism facilities within Abuja municipal area amongst others. .



This paper examines the effect of post consolidation analysis of service marketing mix and bank performance in Nigeria using twenty one consolidated banks in Nigeria. Qualitative data were sourced through structured questionnaire. Copies of the questionnaire were administered to the active directors of the twenty one consolidated banks. The questionnaire was administered in the headquarters of the each of the banks and the responses of the questionnaire were ranked with the aid of Likert Scale. While quantitative data were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria, statistical bulletin. Mainly, the secondary data sourced for the study are: asset performance figure of the consolidated banks cumulatively. The secondary data from CBN is just for confirmation as regard to growth to support the response provided by the directors of the concerned banks. The study was generally a descriptive research and our method of analysis followed an eclectic approach, qualitative data from primary source were transformed to quantitative data with the use of likert scale, the econometric technique of multiple regression, simple regression, tabulations, and plain description frequency table, simple percentages, and chi-square (X2).were employed to analysis the finding. The findings in this study shows an overall significance of the service marketing variables adopted, although not much effect is seen when a marketing variable is compared with bank performance in isolation of other variables. The coefficient of multiple determinations of about 77% for model formulated showed that the explanatory variables reasonably explained the behavior of the explained variables; the F-statistic results revealed that the model is adequately and significant. Furthermore, the result obtained from Chisquare method shows that chi-square calculated is greater than critical value; X2 calculated > X2 critical, 8.5 > 7.81, thus the decision follow simple rule, we reject null hypothesis and accept the alternative and conclude that there is significant positive relationship between service marketing mix and asset performance of the consolidated banks. It was recommended among others that banks should embark from time to time on market research and often evaluate the different service marketing techniques to access the success and failure of the such strategies in the bank industries. Apart from these banks are advised to be more customers-focused and embrace relationship marketing rather than unwholesome practice that does not add any value to their customers. The study also, encouraged the banks to more proactive on effective management of depositors’ fund.

T Wave Based Control Algorithm for External Counterpulsation: A New Approach PDF

Saranya.S and K.Mohanavelu

External Counterpulsation (ECP) is a non-invasive therapeutic procedure for patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), which is performed in synchronization with the patients’ Electrocardiogram (ECG). This paper discusses a new algorithm developed to control the inflation and deflation of pressure bladders in ECP and also analyzes two other existing control algorithms. The two existing algorithms use the average of R-R Interval as the reference to control ECP functioning; while the newly developed algorithm is based on the detection of T wave end in ECG, which signifies the mechanical action of actual aortic valve closure in the cardiac function. It is emphasized and suggested that control algorithm based on aortic valve closure is more reliable and safe to control ECP functioning, as deflation has to occur well ahead of the opening of aortic valve; so that a lower vascular resistance is created during systole which decreases cardiac workload. The efficiency and reliability of all these three algorithms are also discussed.



We want to discuss the genetics of X-linked diseases for the population existing in reality, remembering that the states of abnormal sex-chromosomes are not considered here(Roy,S.).From these equations -why one should be careful before marriage-is discussed.

Thermal analysis of friction stir welded joint for 304l stainless steel material using ansys Mechanical APDL PDF

Sumit Kumar, Ravi Kumar, Lokesh Joshi

A simple three-dimensional nonlinear thermal and thermomechanical model for friction stir welding (FSW) is presented with the help of ANSYS 14.5. The amount of heat generated between the shoulder and the work piece during friction stir processing dictates the quality of the processed zone. Hence understanding the distribution of heat and obtaining the temperature contours will assist in understanding the general process of friction stir processing. FSW simulation is performed for tool rotational speed on 250 and 400 rpm and they allow partial sliding between the shoulder and the work piece. The numerical analysis presents that the temperature field in the FSW process is symmetrically distributed with respect to the welding line. The main objective is to study the variation of temperature on surface and HAZ in a friction stir welded plate of 304L stainless steel. Boundary conditions in the thermal modeling of process also play a vital role in the final temperature profile. Virtual experimental data of this present study illustrates that peak temperatures are higher on the advancing side than the retreating side during weld process.

Analytical Modeling for Assessing the Impact of DG on Distribution system Reliability PDF

Rohit K. Mathew, Ashok S., Kumaravel S.

Distributed Generation in an electric power distribution system plays an important role in many ways. There are various kinds of DGs with different technologies. Due to clearly defined features of DG a suitable model is needed for reliability evaluation with DGs.In this paper a mathematical approach has been proposed for analyzing the effect of DG on reliability of electrical distribution networks. The proposed approach is based on conventional reliability evaluation algorithm. A probabilistic islanding technique has been used with multiple DGs for reliability assessment. Case studies for a typical utility feeder have been undertaken to validate the proposed method and the results have been compared with the single DG case.

Effect of Sample Re-use on the Compaction Characteristics of Concretionary Lateritic Soil as Subgrade Material PDF

Yohanna, P., Nwaiwu, C.M. C. and Oluremi, J. R.

Laboratory compaction tests were conducted to investigate the effect of reusing samples of lateritic gravel soils in the determination of soil compaction characteristics. Twelve soil samples obtained from a large borrow pit located along Damagun-Potiskum road in Yobe state were subjected to compaction process using British standard light (BSL) compaction, West African standard (WAS) compaction and British standard heavy (BSH) compaction. Initial identification and classification tests revealed that fifty percent of the soils are A-4 soils, twenty five percent of the soils are A-2-4 soils based on AASHTO classification system. Others are either A-5(two) or A-1-b (one) soils. In general, maximum dry densities (MDDs) from reused sample compaction were higher than those obtained from the fresh sample compaction. No general trend was established for differences in optimum moisture content (OMC) values when either re-used sample or fresh sample compaction was employed. In general, MDD increased with gravel content while OMC decreases. Statistical analysis using t-test on MDD values shows higher values of mean and variance for sample re-use compaction than fresh sample compaction, The two – way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of MDDs, OMCs and compactive effort results for sample re-use and fresh sample compactions l were statistically significant with the effect of compactive effort being more pronounced than the MDDs and OMCs. Regression analysis carried out shows that gravel content; specific gravity and compactive effort have significant effect on the maximum dry densities of the soil samples.

Low Power Consumption of Pulse Triggered Flip Flop Using MTCMOS PDF

Keerthana.K, Shanmugaraja.M, MaheshKannan.P

The objective is to design and simulate the low power pulse triggered flip-flop and to reduce the Leakage power consumption of the flip flop by applying pulse triggering method used for the clocks. The proposed method uses signal feed through technique to solve the problem in the discharging path of the similar pulse triggered flip flop implementations. The discharge time is reduced by the proposed method and the speed of the pulse triggered flip flop with signal feed through technique is greatly increased. The proposed design out performs all the other similar pulse triggered flip flop implementation both in speed and power consumption.To reduce the leakage power MTCMOS is used. The design is implemented in 90nm GPDK using Cadence Virtuoso Schematic Composer and the Spectre as the simulator.


Shewit Woldegebriel, Daniel Kitaw, Carlo Rafele

Service activities are multifaceted and have distinctive behavior of being simultaneous with their delivery and consumption. This makes them intricate and of problematic nature. It is also common to hear customers' complaints in service areas. In healthcare centers, the complaints are high and need immediate solution as the activities in the healthcare consist a work of life perpetuation that should be delivered as fast as possible. Thus, improving the service quality of healthcare centers is a determinant issue. In addition, customer needs are different in nature and difficult to understand. Prioritizing service quality improvement in healthcare is usually uncertain and vague. From the existing methods, there is no single method which fully handles the uncertainties. This paper proposes a fuzzy logic integrated with analytical hierarchy process (AHP) (fuzzy extended AHP) in order to consider the uncertainties to prioritize service quality improvement in healthcare and solve the pitfalls with the exiting methods. As a result, service quality dimensions: Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance and Empathy are found to be critical factors to prioritize the existing service quality level. In this paper, linguistic values are used to assess the ratings and weights of the factors. Then, AHP model based on fuzzy-sets theory is proposed in dealing with prioritizing service quality improvement in healthcare problems. Finally, Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia is taken to prove and validate the procedure of the proposed method. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to justify the results.

Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan from Shrimp shell waste PDF

Arafat A., Sabrin A Samad, Shah Md. Masum, Mohammad Moniruzzaman

Chitosan was prepared from shrimp processing waste (shell) using the same chemical process as described for the other crustacean species with minor modification in the treatment condition. The physicochemical properties, molecular weight (165394 g/mole), degree of deacetylation (87%) as well as yield (19%) of prepared chitosan indicated that shrimp processing waste (shell) are a good source of chitosan. FT-IR spectra gave characteristics bands of –NH2 at 3450cm-1 and carbonyl at 1629cm-1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns also indicated two characteristics crystalline peaks approximately at 10° and 20° (2Θ).The surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Effect of Forest road on tree regeneration PDF

Somayeh Karamirad, Ehsan Abdi, Baris Majnounian, Hormoz Sohrabi

The distribution and abundance of species can be strongly influenced by habitat suitability. Road construction can change habitat suitability by affecting resources and microclimate. We examined the distribution of tree regeneration and their relationships with forest roads in a temperate forest, Hyrcanian zone, Iran. At six different distances from the verge of forest road (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 m), the species abundance and coverage were recorded. The results showed that similar to the regeneration rate, the species richness and abundance are clearly related to the distance from the roads. The effect of the road on species richness and diversity was observed up to 10 m from the road verge. As would be expected, the results revealed that the light demanding species such as Acer velutinum were more frequent in road verges compare to shade tolerant species such as Fagus orientalis. As a conclusion, minimizing road density to keep sections of forest area large enough to conserve diversity and also composition of forest species is necessary for sustainable forest resources.

Big-Geo Data Processing using Distributed Processing Frameworks PDF

Shruti Thakker, Jhummarwala Abdul, Dr.M.B.Potdar

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) platform has been required high storage capacity and high computational power to handle and process with massive spatial data. This paper aims of processing of Geodata using Distributed processing Frameworks. GIS software like QGIS, ArcGIS, GRASS, Open JUMP etc cannot be handle and process on large volume of Geo data. Therefore, to handle and process on these types of large data it is needed to deploy Hadoop Distributed processing framework. GeoProcessing Workflow can be used to represent almost every GIS application. This paper explains the GeoProcessing Workflow for processing of image data. Also explains Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), MapReduce Programming Model and Spatial Hadoop architecture. This work deals with application of the KNN algorithm on large amount of spatial data. It is found that the Spatial Hadoop performs fast data processing and gives better performance compare to GIS software.


Doc. Dr. Sci. Med. LUTFI ZYLBEARI, MD, PhD, Prof. Dr. Nexhbedi Beadini,MD,PhD, Prof. Dr. Sheqibe Beadini,MD,PhD,Mr. Dr. Zamira Bexheti, Mr. Dr.Gazmend Zylbeari

End-Stage-Renal-Disease (ESRD) is clinical condition associated with progressive and irreversible injury of renal tissue in different renal and urinary tract diseases. In ESRD we have chronic decrease of glomerular filtration (GFR) and progresive elevation of creatinine, urea, uric acid, potassium etc. ESRD can be defined as summary of common biological and clinical disorders also known as chronic uremia. The progress of ESRD is affected by other factors also: primary disease, age, gender and genetic predisposition etc. The progres of ESRD depends on primary disease which causes injury of renal tissue and nephrones. Cardiovascular diseases still remain as main cause of invalidity, morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD treated with hemodialysis (HD) compared to the population with other diseases. Beside known factors ,genetic predisposition, age, gender, arterial hypertension, diabetes, smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, stress, oxidative stress, MIA syndrome (Malnutritio-Inflamatio-Atherosclerosis) , uremic dyslipidemia, hyperfibrionogenemia, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor ), recent years in the ethiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in uremic patients as new risk factor is counted and homocysteine (tHcy) with its respective values in urine and blood (hyperhomosyteinuria and hyperhomocysteinemia). Aim of this paper:Aim of this paper was to examine Hcy concentrations and lipid profile in patients with esrd treated with HD more than 36 months and positive anamnesis for CVD compared to control group of healthy individuals and the role of Hcyt as new indipendent risk factor on the onset of early arteriosclerosis and atheromatous processes of coronary arteries in patients with CVD. This paper also aimed to propose preventive measures for corection and treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperhomocysteinuria, which would decrease effects of Hcyt in cardiovascular system in uremic patients treated with HD. Values obtained of the total homocystein and lipids (Kol.Total, TG, HDL-ch, LDL-ch) and control group are presented with mean values and standard deviation X ±SD. In the results were also calculated correlation coefficient “r "statistical value of p ,," less that 1% (p <0.0001). Statistics comparative lipid parameters between the two groups were analyzed to test the so-called Studentov ,, t "while for examples dependent or independent and non-parametric tests were used tests: Mann-Whitney-U. Because that in 95% of patients ESRD is accompanied with dyslipidemia, therefore consequences of hyperhomocysteinema toward cardiovascular system are more expressed , we decided in our paper to make a lipid profile (total cholesterol-TCh, Tryglicerides-TG, Total lipids-TL, HDL-ch and LDL-ch). Hyperhomocysteinema is indipendent risk factor for CVD in end stage renal disease with high prevalence (85-100%) (1,2,3).

Modeling the Specific Energy in Turning Operations by Taguchi L32 Orthogonal Array Design PDF

Ithipri, E.; Ossia, C.V.; Okoli, J.U.

This study considered Cutting Speed V, Feed rate F, Depth of cut D and Cutting Environment E as the input parameters for a Design of Experiment (DOE) based on a mixed-level Taguchi L32 orthogonal array. The test runs were conducted on a conventional lathe with spindle power of 3.75kW using TiN coated cutting tools and AISI 1040 carbon steel as workpiece. Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio analysis was applied to determine the optimum level for each parameter while analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the significant contributions of the control factors influencing the outcome - Specific Energy Consumption (SEC). Response surface methodology was used for developing a second order model for SEC as an energy efficiency indicator in Turning operations. Genetic Algorithm Solver was also used as optimization tool for the model. Results showed that for minimizing SEC, F was the most significant factor with a percentage contribution of 84.35% followed by V, E and D. The SEC model proved to be highly significant with p-value < 0.05 and was well fitted with the experimental value showing a high coefficient of determination (R2= 91.78%) value.

Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and its Suitability for Drinking Purposes – A Case of Leh Town, Ladakh (J&K), India PDF

Konchok Dolma, Madhuri S. Rishi and Renu Lata

The present study, describes about the water dynamics in fast changing town of Leh, located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Groundwater since ancient times in the form of springs provided ample water for the region and its contribution has increased manifold in the wake of recent spurt in bore well installations, especially, in Leh town. Due to increasing urbanization, with surge in a huge floating population in the absence of a sewerage link in summer tourism boom season, puts an extra stress on the limited water resources of the area and with the rising living standards, grey and black water is being disposed off in soak pits or septic tanks without any treatment. This may lead to pollution of groundwater resources especially, in the densely populated residential areas. For insuring sustainable development of groundwater, in the absence of any observation wells for constant monitoring of quality or quantity of groundwater and the unregulated installation of bore-wells makes this quality characterization very significant and helps in future management. The physico-chemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, nitrates, fluoride, chlorides were analyzed to meet the objective of the study. The results revealed that in general, the present status of groundwater quality is suitable for drinking purposes and out of 20 total samples evaluated, 75% of samples had NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit) above desirable limit while 10 % samples each recorded TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and EC (Electrical Conductivity) above desirable limits.

Radial Configuration of Ring Main Distribution System Using Least Apparent Power Flow Method PDF

Mr.Bhavesh Vyas, Dr.M.P.Sharma and Mrs.Smriti Jain

This research suggests an idea of converting ring main network to a radial system by the utilization of least apparent power flow methodology through network line switching.

Oxygen Separation from Air Using Zeolite Type 5A PDF

Dr.Hussein H. Hamed

An adsorption (PSA) unit consist of two – tubes columns pressure swing, (6cm diameter and 70cm bed length) and a dryer part (12cm diameter and 27cm) filling with activated alumina (Al2O3) have been constructed to study the separation of oxygen from air using commercial 5A zeolite under the effect of adsorption pressure (1 to 6 bar), adsorption time (20s), product flow rate (1 liter/min) on the product oxygen purity. For the case of 2-column, 4-step operation, the results show that an optimum concentration product of oxygen was 76.9%purity, at the adsorption pressure 4bar, Temp 17.4oC.

Mathematical Modelling of Temperature Rise in Clutch and Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Cooling System for Clutch PDF

Rahul R, Pugazhenthi R, Eugene Jesu Antony A, Viswanath B and Asst Prof. Arul Selvan S

The temperature rise in a motorcycle wet multi-plate clutch during engagement and disengagement is very crucial because it is one of the parameters which have a direct influence on the clutch life. The slipping of the clutch happens during engagement and disengagement where the friction material on the plates will undergo a change of state from solid to semi-solid state and the friction material properties start to deteriorate. In order to optimise the clutch life it is very important to identify the parameters affecting temperature rise. The temperature measurement setup was developed during the Internship program. Mathematical modelling would help in developing the equation for predicting the temperature rise. The project involves combining equations of different physical phenomena like heat conduction in the plates, convective heat transfer by the lubrication oil, torque transfer by the clutch and energy balance equations. Mathematical modeling using ordinary differential equation was determined to calculate the temperature rise. The mathematical model was analyzed using MATLAB and graphs were generated. The generated graphs were compared and validated by the experimental results obtained from Internship program. The cooling system of clutch was designed, analysed and fabricated by providing cooling fins to the existing clutch cover for improving the cooling for the existing system.

Antilock Braking System Controlled Using 555 Timer in Pneumatic System PDF

Vinay Gahtori, Kristal bharti, Prashant kumar

In today’s world, braking is the most important part in an automobile. Brakes are energy conversion devices, which convert kinetic energy of the vehicle into thermal energy and thus due to friction braking happen. In Antilock Braking System, we can prevent the locking of the wheel and hence skidding, using an Electro Mechanical Control System. The main issue behind the locking of the wheels is that, when we apply break it locks the wheel which cause skidding of wheel and because of that the driver lost the control over driving.

Evaluation of teratogenicity of anti-osteoarthritic drugs on development of offspring of albino rats during pregnancy and lactation PDF

Abd El Wahab El Ghareeb; Hamida Hamdi; Salwa Farouk and Esraa Khaled

The present study aimed to evaluate the teratogenic effects of the anti-osteoarthritic drug (Genuphil) administered daily orally to the pregnant rats and nursing rats. The pregnant rats were treated during gestation and lactation with doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg. The animals were sacrificed at the end of gestation and during lactation. Fetuses were removed from the uterus and evaluated for mortality rate, growth parameters, morphological and skeletal malformation as well as histological study of liver, kidney and brain. Results showed decreased weight gain, fetal growth retardation during gestation and lactation was dose dependent. Hematomas and anomalies of limbs were detected morphologically in the fetuses of the treated groups. Fetal skeletal abnormalities included skeletal defects in hind and fore limbs, shortness of the terminal ribs, bent and wavy ribs. Histopathological studies of pregnant rats and their fetuses during gestation and lactation revealed Few inflammatory cells infilteration in the portal area as well as in between the fatty changed hepatocytes with dilatation in the portal vein, Brown pigmented material in the periphery of the dilated central veins, oedema, congestion in the portal vein, Granular and swelling degenerations in the hepatocytes in the liver. Degenerative change, swelling, Coagulation necrosis, Swelling degeneration in the lining epithelium of the tubules, swelling of the glomeruli in the lining endothelium of the tufts and focal haemorrhage in between the degenerated tubules were observed in kidney of the treated groups while vacuolization and degeneration in the cerebrum were observed in the brain following Genuphil administration.

Use Potomogeton pectinatus plant as vital indicator of contamination of heavy elements in the Tigris River passing through Baghdad PDF

Dr.Huda Farooq Zaki

The results of this study were obtained possibility of using plant Potomogeton pectinatus as a vital indicator of pollution in the Tigris River for its portability absorbed heavy elements. Results showed there is a connection in the concentrations of elements (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Co, Cd) in water and plant samples in different areas of the study, which was a bit high in the plant as compared with water. Physical and chemical properties of water also revealed an increase in PH and TDS values As well as an increase in some of the concentrations of Cation and negative ion , PO4-2, HCO3 in the waters of the river, especially in some stations located in the Zafaraniyah area and respectively down to the Diyala River, which refers to the water pollution in the study areas, as a result of sewage effect and processes of soil washing lands surrounding the river as well as industrial waste flowing into the river, as well as the nature of the river basin, which abound where Plaster and saline soils, leading to a change in the hydrochemical characteristics and quality of water.

Design and Evaluation of classification algorithm on GPU PDF

Kinjal Shah, Prashant Chauhan, Dr M. B. Potdar

Recent developments in Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have enabled inexpensive high performance computing for general-purpose applications. Due to GPU's tremendous computing capability, it has emerged as the co-processor of CPU to achieve a high overall throughput. CUDA programming model provides the programmers adequate C language like APIs to better exploit the parallel power of the GPU. K-nearest neighbor (KNN) is a widely used classification technique and has significant applications in various domains. The computational-intensive nature of KNN requires a high performance implementation. In this paper, we propose GPU based parallel implementation of KNN. We evaluate our implementation by using different size of images. Our parallel implementation gives us 1.68X speed up, while working with GPU gives us 8.413Xspeedup

Development and Optimization of Mechanical Strength Model of Cement-Laterite-Sand Hollow Sandcrete Blocks PDF

Onuamah, P.N.

The shortage of sharp sand in many areas reduces raises the cost of concrete production. This paper investigates the model development and optimization of the compressive strength of 60/40 laterite/sand hollow sandcrete block. Laterite is a reddish soil layer often belying the top soil in many locations and further deeper in some areas. The study applies the Scheffe’s optimization approach to obtain a mathematical model of the form f(xi1,xi2,xi3,,xi4), where xi are proportions of the concrete components, viz: cement, laterite, sand and water. Scheffe’s experimental design techniques are followed to mould various hollow block samples measuring 450mm x 225mm x 150mm and tested for 28 day The shortage of sharp sand in many areas reduces raises the cost of concrete production. This paper investigates the model development and optimization of the compressive strength of 60/40 laterite/sand hollow sandcrete block. Laterite is a reddish soil layer often belying the top soil in many locations and further deeper in some areas. The study applies the Scheffe’s optimization approach to obtain a mathematical model of the form f(xi1,xi2,xi3,,xi4), where xi are proportions of the concrete components, viz: cement, laterite, sand and water. Scheffe’s experimental design techniques are followed to mould various hollow block samples measuring 450mm x 225mm x 150mm and tested for 28 days strength. The task involved experimentation and design, applying the second order polynomial characterization process of the simplex lattice method. The model adequacy is checked using the control factors. Finally a software is prepared to handle the design computation process to take the desired property of the mix, and generate the optimal mix ratios.

Modeling of a Three Legged Self Supporting Telecommunication mast under sudden side wind Crash Loading PDF

Oluwole.O and Akande.I.G

This Paper is on the modeling of telecommunication mast in a windy environment. The effect of sudden side crash wind load on a 3-legged Self Supporting Telecommunication Mast was studied in a 3-D modeling ANSYS environment. The behavioral patterns under full loading in windy environment were observed. The full loading being the self weight, communication system weight coupled with wind load. The effects of the bolts were neglected. The height of the modeled mast is 26.58m (2658cm or 26580mm). The mast was subjected to wind load from the side at different heights with the top mast having a load of 6196N and12908N at height 8.36m, in addition to the system load. A displacement of 17.486mm was seen to occur at the top and 0 mm at the base showing a fatigue loading at wind frequencies. The fatigue loads were observed to be much below the fatigue limit (endurance limit for mild steel). Direct stresses showed compressive stresses concentrated on a leg and of greater magnitude than tensile stresses developed on each of the two other legs opposite the points of wind application. The tensile stresses were balanced out by the compressive stresses to maintain mast stability.

Effect of Thermal Stresses on Self-Supporting Telecommunication Mast PDF

Oluwole .O and Fajobi M.A

This work has studied the effect of thermal stresses on four-legged Self Supporting telecommunication mast. ANSYS software was used in studying the displacement patterns due to daily fluctuating temperatures over a period of 5 yearsusing Ibadan, Nigeria metropolis environment as a case study.

Adsorption Kinetics of Bromophenol Blue and Eriochrome Black T using Bentonite Carbon Composite Material PDF

Farida M. S. E. El-Dars, Hamed M Ibrahim, Heba A. B. Farag, M. Zakaria Abdelwahhab, M.E.H Shalabi

The present study deals with the adsorption of Bromophenol blue (BB) and Erichrome black T (EBT) – two anionic dyes – onto bentonite carbon composite material (BCC). Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influence of various experimental parameters such as: pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration. The optimal conditions for the dyes removal were found to be at pH = 1, applying a dose of 10 g.L-1 and 20 g.L-1 and for an equilibrium time of 40 mins for both dyes BB and EBT removal, respectively. The results also showed that process followed pseudo-second-order rate expression for dyes with a degree of intraparticle diffusion for BB and intraparticle and pore diffusion for EBT and it was found to be best represented by the Freundlich isotherm.

Advance Underwater Image Reconstruction using Un-sharp Masking and AFSMF: A Review PDF


An underwater image can be distorted due to light scattering and color change. It caused to one color dominating an image. As we know that the refractive index of water is high in comparison to air, therefore when light is come on water, it gets refracted. Therefore, underwater images have the deficiency of limited range visibility, low contrast, blurring, color diminished and noise. One way to improve the image quality is known as image enhancement. This paper presents a comparative study of the different techniques of image enhancement used for enhancing underwater image. Along with the comparisons the paper also presents a new approach for image enhancement using Un-sharp Masking and the enhanced images are characterized by a reduced noised level using Adaptive Fuzzy Switching Median Filter. Finally a new enhanced underwater image can be obtained by applying proposed method.

Biosurfactant Production with Various Optimization Parameters PDF

Deepti Somayajula, Akhilesh Shenai, Sheryl Paul, Sharmila Savio, Tara Poduval.

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds produced on living surfaces, mostly on microbial cell surfaces, or sometimes excreted extracellularly. They contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties that reduce surface tension, and interfacial tensions between individual molecules at the surface and the interface respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was grown on the basal medium and inspected for rhamnolipid production. Different carbon sources and various conditions of pH, temperature, agitation conditions and time of incubation were varied to find out optimum growing conditions. The optimum production of 131.2gm/350ml was found on the 12th day from the carbon source glucose at pH 7, temperature 370C, and 150 rpm.


Ukpong, E. E, Roberts, U. U

The nesting behavior of chimpanzees in Afi Sanctuary was studied to find out their nests locations and heights. The line transect survey method was used in this study. This was done by following transect routes and trails of animals. The distances were labeled with flagging by the protection staff with reference to cardinal points. The sampling technique adopted was stratified random sampling done by the survey of 30 transect routes in which accessibility was not made impossible by terrain. The transect length covered a distance of 2000m and a width of 100m which formed a total sample area of 6km2 representing a sampling intensity of 6% of a total area of 100 km2. Ten surveys were carried out in all. Nests census was carried out by counting nests while nesting behaviour was studied by the use of binoculars to observe the nests sizes, shapes, and materials since nests of chimpanzees are usually built at heights above the ground surface. Trees and nests heights were determined by the use of sunto clinometer. The number of nest studied for nesting location and heights was 64 while 30 was for nests sizes. The mean nests heights, X, was 19.26m. The Variance, S2, of nests heights was 55. The Standard deviation, S, of nests heights was 7.4; while the Standard error of the mean, SE, of nests heights was 0.92. 41 nests representing 64.06% were built between vertical trees forks; 11(17.18%) nests were built between horizontal trees forks; while 8 (12.50%) and 4 (6.25%) nests were made on trees platforms as well as vine tangles respectively. Trees were critical for chimps night rest and critically recommended for protection and management.

Indexed Map-Reduce Join Algorithm PDF

Mohamed Helmy Khafagy

Map Reduce is used to handle and support massive data sets .rabidly increasing in data size, and big data are imperative today to make an analysis of this data. Map-Reduce gets more helpful information by using two simple functions map and reduce with load balancing, fault tolerance, and high scalability .the most important operation in the analysis process is join. This paper explains new two-way join algorithm called Indexed Map Reduce Join Algorithm that used Index in the large table to Decrease I/O and Shuffling that cause Best performance in Map Reduce Join. Our experimental result shows that using Index-join algorithm has high performance than other algorithms while increasing the data size from 100 million records to 500 million without memory overflow.

Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Cluster Based WSN with Non Uniform Node Distribution PDF

Dhanoop K Dhanpal, Ajit Joseph

Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems.The energy consumption associated with the cluster based wireless sensor network systems is more inconsistent. This imbalance in the energy consumption is due to the non-uniform node distribution. To avoid this problem, introduce a cluster based routing protocol with non-uniform node distribution. It consists of an energy efficient distributed clustering algorithm, EEDC and cluster based routing algorithm. EEDC helps for the clusters of even sizes. At the same time with the help of clustering algorithm, the cluster head can choose their next node which has higher residual energy and lesser number of member nodes. These helps in achieving load balance among cluster heads.Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that EEDC balance energy consumption well among the cluster heads and increase the network lifetime effectively.

On b-p - -Continuity Where {L, M, R, S} PDF

M. Priyadarshini, R. Selvi

The authors Selvi.R, Thangavelu.P and Anitha.M introduced the concept of -continuity between a topological space and a non empty set where {L, M, R, S} [4]. Navpreet singh Noorie and Rajni Bala[3] introduced the concept of f# function to characterize the closed, open and continuous functions. In this paper, the concept of - -continuity is introduced and its properties are investigated and - -continuity is further characterized by using f# functions.


Dr. Argjent Muça, Doc. Dr. Sci. Med. Lutfi ZYLBEARI, Mr. Gazmend Zylbeari, Mr. Dr.Zamira bexheti

Diabetes mellitus still remains a serious health problem with a high prevalence worldwide in developed and developing countries, and with major impact on increasing the level od cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Diabetes is counted as the fourth cause of mortality in developed countries. (7). In the United States and in Western countries diabetes with diabetic nephropathy, is recognized as the leading cause of kidney disease and chronic kidney disease at terminal stage. A large number of epidemiological studies have shown that one third of patients with hemodialysis or kidney transplanted patients with diabetes mellitus are tip 2. (8,9). Purpose of the paper:The purpose of the paper was to verify and document the impact of hyperglycemia in the rate of progress of chronic renal failure, as well as the correlation between hyperglycemia with cardiovascular disease and premature atherosclerosis of uremic and Diabetes Mellitus patients treated with hemodialysis, compared with the control group of healthy individuals. Material and methods of work, the control group, and forms of treatment with dialysis:In this prospective cohort research (,, cross-section ") are included 240 examiners, of whom 120 were uremic and diabetes mellitus patients, while 120 were healthy individuals who served as a control group. Blood taken for examination inserted into the vial with a few drops heparin (5ccm serum) were sent for analysis at the Institute of Clinical Laboratory in Skopje. From uremic and DM patients treated with HD (No.120), 54 of them (45%) were female with an average age 58.60 +/- 12.00 ndersa 64 (55%) were male, with an average age: 59.50 +/- 10.50 year. Control group of healthy examiners (voluntary blood donors) also were 120 of whom: 54(45%) were female with an average age of =58.0013.20 and 64(55%) men with an average age of 57.60  14.00 years. Control group was similar to the group of sick patients by age, gender and national affiliation. From total number of patients (120) 75 were with Diabetes Mellitus Tip-1 (D.M. Tip1 –insuline dependent) while 45 were patients with Diabetes Mellitus Tip-II ( D.M. tip 2 –tretated with oral hypoglycemics), table number 1. Both, patients and control group were analyzed within 12 months – once every three months, a total of 4 measurements, glycaemia profile, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile and BMI (Body Mass Index) . Numerous studies have verified the impact of control of blood glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values in preventing micro/ macrovasculare and cardiovascular disease. (10)

Comparison of two commonly used techniques for Vehicle License Plate Recognition PDF

Jaya Gupta, Prof. Supriya Agrawal

Many algorithms and techniques have been developed to deal with the problem of extracting and recognizing the license plate characters from images of cars. Vehicle license plate recognition is the essence of present world vehicle related security and vehicle management systems. In this paper we compare two commonly used algorithms. Both the algorithms have been tested on more than 400. Presence of many types of license plate makes the problem difficult to solve. We have made some assumptions in the algorithms like a standard license plate is present with light background and darker characters, not more than two rows are present, same type of characters are present all through, etc. One algorithm uses morphological operators for edge detection and the other one uses sliding concentric windows technique.


Arun William, Viji Krishnan, Abdul Gafoor C, Apoorva M, Heera Banu C and Dinesh Roy D

Oligospermia is defined as a sperm density (count) less than 20 million/ml. Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples worldwide, among them 20–25% of reproductive problems being contributed to male factor. Male infertility is a relatively common condition affecting approximately 1 in 20 of the male population. Defective sperm function is held to be the largest, single and defined cause of human infertility. The excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by abnormal spermatozoa has been defined as one of the important etiologies for male infertility. Generation and persistence of ROS in seminal fluid and sperm increase the rate of lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane which is manifested by a high MDA level. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of oxidative stress by measuring the level of oxidative stress marker, Malondialdehyde (MDA), in the sera of males suffering with oligospermia. The extent of somatic DNA damage in these subjects was quantified by using Cytokinesis Block Micronuclei Assay. These investigations were carried out in 56 subjects suffering with oligospermia and 15 healthy fertile men as control subjects. The MDA value and the micronuclei frequency was significantly elevated in study subjects as compared with that of control subjects. The finding of increased oxidative stress marker level may indicate that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of sperm DNA damage leading to oligospermic condition as well as infertility in male subjects. These individuals can be better informed about the extent of somatic DNA damages, oxidative stress and genetic risks. This may help in preventing the sufferings of infertile subjects with oligospermia.

Design Of 2x2 Shaped Rectangular Micro strip Array Antenna For GSM Application PDF

Satya Prakash Sinha, Mukesh Kumar, Jolis Gupta

In this paper, 2X2 shaped rectangular micro strip patch antenna for GSM application is presented. Design simulation and optimization processes are carried out with the aid of the HFSS simulator. The proposed antenna is fabricated on a 1.5 cm thick RT Duroid substrate with a relative permittivity of 2.33. The antenna offers excellent performance for GSM systems at center frequency 900MHz. The gain of these antennas are simulated and found adequate which is about 13.8 and 14.4dBi. Measured and simulated results of the resonant frequency, return loss, radiation patterns are presented.

System Reliability in Health Care Systems PDF

M. Reni Sagayaraj, A. Merceline Anita, A. Chandra Babu and A.Pradhap

Health Information enhances the quality and efficiency of Health Care Systems. The findings provide an important base line for future evaluation. In this paper, we discuss System Reliability in Health Care Systems. The knowledge of System Reliability concepts helps the Systems in Health Care to be more perfect and improve its status for the betterment of the Society. Here we make use of the System Reliability of Mixed Parallel Configuration Systems and using Fault-tree Analysis approach determine the Reliability of Child-birth Status of Pregnant Women affected by Anemia and Reliability of cure of Typhoid disease affected persons in a particular area. This type of studies enables us to take preventive measures in Health Care Systems.

Improved Accuracy and User Satisfaction by Inferring User Search Goals based on Implicit and Explicit Feedback PDF

Prof.Ratna Raja Kumar, Snehankita Badgujar

In web search engine user submits query for getting information in easiest way. Different users may have different search goals when they submit it to a search engine. The inference and analysis of user search goals can be very useful in improving search engine relevance and user experience. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to infer user search goals by analyzing search engine query logs. First, we propose a framework to discover different user search goals for a query by clustering the proposed feedback sessions. Feedback sessions are constructed from user click-through logs and can efficiently reflect the information needs of users. Second, we propose a novel approach to generate pseudo-documents to better represent the feedback sessions for clustering. Finally, we propose a new criterion “Voted Average Precision (VAP)” to evaluate the performance of inferring user search goals. Experimental results are presented using user click-through logs from search engine to validate the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

Text Mining in Biosciences-A Review PDF

S.Vijaya and Dr.R.Radha

In this recent scenario, the research towards the area of text mining in biosciences are lacking. This paper is based on the survey made in biosciences using text mining in the document world. The data which do not have clear classification and answers can also be implemented and evaluated successfully by clustering. Now, analyzing the data plays a vital role which is done by information retrieval. Errors and evaluation has to be minimized and validated for accurate and immediate goal. This paper discusses various techniques that can be integrated with this multidisciplinary field of Text Mining. The different methods used by the researchers are discussed in this work.

Use of PAPR Control and Sub-sliding Windowing Techniques in the improvement of the Bit Error Rate in IFFT-FFT and IDWT-DWT Based OFDM Systems PDF

Arnab Mohapatra, Prabira Kumar Sethy

The paper aims at providing an efficient MATLAB Code in obtaining significant reduction in the Bit Error Rate (BER) Curve for two different Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Systems: FFT-IIFT OFDM System and an IDWT-DWT OFDM System, based on the knowledge obtained from Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) Control and Sub-Sliding Windowing techniques. While the IFFT System has been BPSK Modulated, the IDWT system has been QAM Modulated. These modulation techniques are used in keeping with the state-of-the-art wireless communication systems and services.

A New Approach to the Possible Relationship between English Morphological and Vocabulary Knowledge: A Case Study PDF

Mehrdad Safizadeh

The morphological knowledge is an influential strategy for learning foreign languages. The aim of the current study is looking at the potential relationship between English morphological and vocabulary knowledge of Iranian pre_university students. Seventy Iranian pre_university students ranged between 18-19 years old were considered to perform the current study. Nation’s 2000_word level Vocabulary Test (VLT) were used to examine their vocabulary size while their morphological knowledge, including knowledge of inflection, derivation and compounding, were assessed through Morphological Knowledge Test. To realize whether there is a correlation between their morphological knowledge and vocabulary size or not, a statistical analysis were performed. It was observed that there is a strong correlation between overall morphological knowledge and vocabulary knowledge of Iranian pre_university students. Further, the critical effect of various features of morphological knowledge on vocabulary size was highlighted. Moreover, a questionnaire was used to evaluate ideas of students about the tests. Based on the results of the current study, it is suggested that morphological knowledge can be accounted as a powerful vocabulary learning strategy to improve English learning and vocabulary size of Iranian pre_university students.

Evaluation of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus PDF

Huda Jaber Waheed, Muna Khalil, Shahad Fawzi

AIM: To investigate the association of serum the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels, a major chemoattractant of monocytes and activated lymphocytes, with metabolic parameters like insulin hormone, glycolated hemoglobin and glucose Iraqi patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Hybrid Protection to Enhance the LVRT Capability of a Wind Turbine Based DFIG PDF

K. Srinivasa Rao, G. Kamalaker

The problems posed by electric energy generation from fossil sources are, high costs due to large demand and limited resources, pollution and large volume of CO2 production. These problems can be overcome by alternative sources that are renewable energy sources which are cheap, easily available, pollution free and sustainable. The most widely used variable speed machine for wind turbine is the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). As the wind power penetration continues to increase, wind turbines are required to provide Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) capability. In order to enhance the low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability of a wind turbine driven doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), a combined protection and control strategy including the Active Crowbar (AC) and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is proposed in this paper, hence we call it as Hybrid protection. Normally, when the grid fault occurs, the crowbar is triggered if the overvoltage in DC bus or the over-current in rotor winding exceeds the corresponding threshold value. Simulation results are shows the improved performance of the DFIG.

Analysis of tourism potential, with emphasis on economic indicators (Case study: Zabol city tourism sites) PDF

Vahid Yari Gholi, Ali Vaez Tabasi, Behrouz Mokhtari

As the field of tourism and economic development of the region is the effective. Citys the first ever to be attractive to Have. tourists Spaces and as the main symbol of social evolution Humans Degree contains important centers of economic, scientific, recreational, medical, etc., and moreover, the Attraction natural and cultural Legacy important Have. Capabilities environmental and historic city of Zabol in various aspects of tourism, which is capable of crystallization actual through put will this Feature in Prospects environment, The cause of progress and economic development of tourism in the city of Zabol provided. Method Research Analytical based on Library studies, documents and track sets, with emphasis on economic indicators to tourism Potentials. Finally, a set of criteria identified by the use of both internal and external methods of successful experiences, With a survey of people living in the city of Zabol final seven criteria were identified. The economic Indicators was performed using SAW rating, The results of the analysis indicated that the infrastructure development, transport, Weight in at 0/298 to By Rating 1 highest index, and the index of employment with a weight of 0/11 to By Rating 7 to grade allocated. Finally, in End with the recommendations of this study are listed.

An Analytical Study towards mitigation of Grayhole Attack in VANET PDF

Gurleen Kaur,Prof.Sudesh Rani,Dr.Tirlok Chand

Vehicular Adhoc Network is a class of mobile ad-hoc network that enables vehicles on the road to intelligently interact with other vehicles and road side infrastructure unit. It is prone to many kinds of attack and one such attack is Grayhole attack. Grayhole attack is one of the attack on routing in which malicious node selectively drops packets coming from the source. Due to lack of security in Ad hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol, Grayhole attack disrupts the performance of network and render communication impossible. This paper reviews various attacks in VANET including Grayhole attack on AODV routing protocol and provides a survey of existing defense ap-proaches to mitigate them.

Impact of increased Nutrient on the Variability of Chlorophyll-a in the West Coast of South Sulawesi, Indonesia PDF

Andriani Nasir, Ambo Tuwo, Muhammad Lukman, Hanapi Usman

Increased nutrient runoff from land affect the level of productivity of waters and disrupt the balance of microalgae community. This study aimed to analyze nutrients (N, P; DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP) to the variability of chlorophyll-a concentrations in coastal waters of the west coast of South Sulawesi are experiencing eutrophication. Nutrient and chlorophyll-a samples collected in three seasons (transition season, dry season and rainy season), in the coastal waters of estuaries Tallo, Maros, and Pangkep. Samples were analyzed chlorophyll-a by the trichromatic method. Results showed the ratio of nutrients DSi/DIN and DIN/DIP parallel to the increase in the concentration of chlorophyll-a in the transition season and dry season, while the N parallel during the rainy season. Correlation molar N-P nutrient and ratio of DIN/DIP; DSi/DIN; DSi/DIP to the variability of chlorophyll-a concentration of less than 50%, unless the ratio DSi/DIP in Tallo estuary during the rainy season and in the Maros estuary during the dry season.

A Survey on Various Techniques of Energy Consumption on Cloud Network PDF

Priya Dubey, Mr. Saurabh Jain

Cloud computing is the stage for a choice of services like software, infrastructure as a cloud service and each person wants to have the benefit of that cloud services using the cloud computing concept, which ultimately increases the data size and loaded records on cloud servers. Due to increased number of files on the cloud database the retrieval of files becomes much more time consuming and complex. Also this file retrieval doesn’t ensure the exact retrieval of files from the storage. Besides, the isolation apprehension affect to the appropriate documents regained by the cloud user in the afterward phase in view of the fact that they may also enclose sensitive data and make known information about sensitive exploration words or phrase. Here in this paper an efficient approach of power consumption using scheduling of resources is implemented.

Adsorption Study of Cadmium on Water Melon Seed Shell by Flam Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) PDF

Jassim M. Salman, Ali K. Al-Muttarii, Noor A. Abd- Hussain, Ayad M. Jabour

This study was conducted to found a new and cheep method to remove heavy metal such as cadmium from aqueous solutions by use the seed shell of water melon plant (Citrullus lanatus), four experiments were done to demonstrate the effectiveness of watermelon seed shell to remove cadmium analyzed by FAAS. The first experiment was done to determine the effects of time on the adsorption process the results show that increased the adsorption of cadmium with contact time. In the second experiment, the results show that the removal efficiency (R) increase from 42.83 at concentration 0.5mg/l of the adsorbent to 43.75 at concentration 2.5mg/l of the adsorbent. The third experiment was carried out to determine the effect of initial concentration of the cadmium on the adsorption process. The results show that at initial concentration of cadmium 10 mg/l the adsorbent was able to remove the adsorbate completely and at concentration 60 mg/l the removal efficiency was decrease to 40.9, for the last experiment the effect of pH on the adsorption process was studied, the results show that 47.37 at pH 3 and decrease to 43.01 at pH 11 respectively. Langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherm models were analyzed and experimental results fit very well with freundlich model than Longmuir model

Cascade-Forward Neural Network Modelling of a Biodiesel Reactive Distillation Process PDF

Abdulwahab GIWA and Saidat Olanipekun GIWA

In this work, a cascade-forward neural network model has been developed to represent a reactive distillation process used for the production of biodiesel from an esterification reaction between palmitic acid and methanol. In order to obtain data for the network, the parametric utility of an Aspen HYSYS prototype plant of the process developed using Distillation Column Sub-Flowsheet and Wilson model as the fluid package was utilized. The neural network model developed had six input parameters (palmitic acid feed temperature, palmitic acid feed pressure, methanol feed temperature, methanol feed pressure, reboiler heat duty and reflux ratio), and the output parameter was the mole fraction of the biodiesel obtained from the bottom section of the reactive distillation column. For the training of the neural network model, six different random number generators (Mersenne twister, multiplicative congruential generator, multiplicative lagged Fibonacci generator, combined multiple recursive generator, shift-register generator summed with linear congruential generator, and modified subtract with borrow generator) were tried by varying their seed numbers from 0 to 70, and the one with best performance, together with the corresponding seed number, was selected for the development of the cascade-forward neural network. The results obtained from the training and simulation carried out for the developed model showed the good representation of the process by the developed model because the estimated sum of absolute error, mean of absolute error, sum of squared error and mean of squared error of the model, which were the performance criteria used, were found to be favourable and had values of 1.16E-02, 1.93E-05, 5.46E-07, and 9.10E-10, respectively. Also, the performance of the developed model in predicting the mole fractions of the produced biodiesel was found to be very good as the sum of absolute error, the mean of absolute error, the sum of squared error and the mean of squared error, in this case, were estimated to be 8.39E-03, 1.40E-05, 2.17E-07, and 3.62E-10, respectively. In conclusion, cascade-forward neural network has been demonstrated to be very good in modelling this complex reactive distillation process for the production of biodiesel.

The effect of environmental conditions on con-centrated solar system in desertic weathers PDF

Miqdam T Chaichan, Hussein A Kazem, Ali A Kazem, Khalil I Abaas, Kadhim A H Al-Asadi

Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a technology that capturesand exploits solar thermal energy by concentration. It uses highly polished mirrors called heliostats to focus the sunlight onto a target. Inside the target, there is a transferring fluid that will be heated and then it transfers heat to heat exchangers to generate power. The possibility of installing a CSP plant at urban, rural or semi-urban locations makes it a desirable choice for electricity generation plants. Also, it has the possibility of installing in industrial areas as long as the array is not in a shaded area.

Enabling Online Algorithms and B-Trees with DND PDF

Mohammed Salman Khan, Mohammed Shoukath Ali Khan

Recent advances in read-write methodologies and peer-to-peer epistemologies do not necessarily obviate the need for IPv6. After years of unfortunate research into compilers, we argue the analysis of Markov models, which embodies the important principles of artificial intelligence. We concentrate our efforts on disproving that the acclaimed psychoacoustic algorithm for the analysis of expert systems runs in O(n) time.

Experimental Study on Rubberized Concrete PDF

R. Bharathi Murugan, Dr. C. Natarajan

Recycling granulated waste tires (crumb rubber) has been widely studied for the last twenty years mostly relating to applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing system, membrane liners, etc., Use of alternative material in concrete opens a whole new range of possibilities in the construction industry. Sustainable technologies for concrete construction are not only essential for the development of eco friendly construction but also to manage huge quantity of solid waste disposal without compromising durability. In this study, the use of crumb rubber to replace fine aggregates in concrete was studied. It is believed that concrete acting as a binder mixed with crumb rubber can make concrete more flexible and thus, provide softness to the surface. The objective of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete when crumb rubber is used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in different percentage (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) by volume. Laboratory trials were conducted to investigate the effect of crumb rubber. A comparison was also made between mixtures containing various percentages of crumb rubber to determine the optimum crumb rubber content and the test results also compared with conventional concrete (without crumb rubber).


R. Das and P. Deka

The propagation of small amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves in relativistic electron beam plasma have been investigated in a plasma model, consisting of positive ion, electron and electron beams. By using the reductive perturbation theory, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived. In this investigation both compressive and rarefactive solitons are found to exist. In this model of plasma

A Novel Approach for Predicting Frictional Factor during Fluid Flow In well Tubings and Flowlines PDF

Akinade Akinwumi, Omohimoria Charles

One of the main challenges facing by production engineers is the ability to choose an accurate friction factor during a fluid flow, it was observed that most of the existing models (Fanning, 1944), Blasius , 1914) and moody e.t.c) over-predict the values of frictional factors when compare with the experimental value, this is due to the fact that these models are dependent on Reynolds number and pipe roughness, and since pipe roughness changes with use, this make them inaccurate, it is therefore important to develop a new correlation that will be a function of Reynolds number and that can accurately matched with experimental data in order to aid accurate prediction of wax deposition and thickness during crude oil production. In this research work an accurate frictional factor model (correlation) was developed by considering the universal velocity profile (distribution) over the cross section of a pipe during the lamina and turbulent flow, the model result was tested and validated with complex cases.

Stress and Resistance Analysis for the Design of a Work Barge PDF

Nitonye Samson

A barge is usually a flat bottom vessel mainly used as cargo tanker, equipment supply carriers, crane platform and support accommodation bases in offshore operations. The work barge considered in this paper has special features like a deck crane, helicopter landing platform and a pollution department. This work barge serves a multipurpose offshore function for oil and gas industries, marine establishment and other companies that require manpower to work offshore without possible return of workers daily to shore. To ensure that this barge has the capacity to withstand all forms of stresses and forces that act on it, a good structural rigidity has to be ascertained. This work further estimated the weight of all components, machines, machineries, tanks, system etc to obtain the center of gravity which can be accomplished through a three dimensional analysis. With the help of the classification of ships’ rules and regulations of Lloyd’s Register various formulae were used to obtain various thickness of plates (side, bulk, deck etc), frame, girder, flanges, pillars etc. This helped to estimate the weight of the various component of the vessel. This includes all deck plates, frames, flanges, girder, pillars etc. The selection and positioning of these were in consonance with classification rules. Hence all forms of stresses were analyzed and the resistance of the vessel calculated. In all the analysis it was deduced that the work barge has the capacity to withstand all forms of stress and keep the vessel in a safe condition.

MHD flow of Cu-water Nanofluid over a Stretching Sheet with Second Order Slip Condition PDF

Preeti Agarwala and R. Khare

The study of boundary layer flow over a stretching sheet is of considerable interest because of its ever increasing industrial applications and important bearings on several technological processes. Examples, glass-fiber production, aerodynamics, wire drawing, paper production, plastic sheets, metal sheets and many others.The boundary layer flow over a stretching sheet in presence of a magnetic field has been presented in this chapter under the velocity slip conditions. Similarity transformations are used to convert the partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations into non-linear ordinary differential equations whose numerical solutions has been obtained using fourth order Runge-Kutta method with shooting techniques. It has been observed that the velocity decreases with increasing slip parameter as well as with the increasing magnetic parameter. Temperature increases with the increasing values of magnetic parameter.

Impacts of Carburizing Temperature and Holding Time on Wear of High Speed Steel Cutting Tools PDF

S.A. Afolalu, S.B.Adejuyigbe, O.R.Adetunj

The paper presents a report on effects of variation in carburizing temperature and time on cutting tool to enhance its use in engineering applications. 30 pieces of HSS cutting tools (200 x 14 x 14 mm) sizes were used for the project and its composition was analyzed with the UV-VIS spectrometer before carburization. The tools were carburized with pulverized carbon (Palm Kernel Shell) using 25 % Barium trioxocarbonate (V) as an energizer in a muffle treatment furnace of about 1500oC. The performance evaluation of the tool was done by measuring its wear volume, wear resistance, weight loss and wear rate on all the samples (treated and untreated) using Rotopol –V. Minimum wear rate of the tool was 1.095 X 10 -8 cm2/N at carburizing temperature with time of 950oC and 120 minutes, 2.190 X 10 -8 cm2/N at 800oC and 60 minutes while those of the control sample ( untreated) was 1.127 X 10 -8 cm2/N. It can be concluded that the carburized tool has a lower wear rate at high carburizing temperature with time over at low carburizing temperature with time and control (untreated sample) in the tests carried out. The result of the performance evaluation tests corroborated the higher qualities of the carburized cutting tool at high temperature with time over others.


K.Akilandeswari, G.M.Nasira

A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), also called Brain Machine Interface (BMI), is a communication system allowing users to interact with electronic devices through control signals from Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity sans engaging peripheral nerves and muscles. Preliminary BCI research motivation was to develop assistive devices for those with locked-in disabilities. Currently, researchers are exploring BCI as a new anthropomorphic interaction channel for applications like robotics, virtual reality and games. This paper Investigate the effect of feature selection in BCI. Since feature selection is NP Hard, a novel feature selection technique using Particle Swarm Optimization ( PSO) is proposed. The proposed feature selection technique shows improvement in the classification accuracy compared to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Since meta heuristic algorithms are known to suffer from local minima problem, a hybrid PSO using the principles of hill climbing algorithm is proposed which improved the classification accuracies further.


P.Mahesh, K.Krishna Reddy, J. Jaya lakshmi, Pankaj Kumar Das, S. Venkata Raju and H. G. Pathak

To improve the understanding and prediction of the severe local thunderstorms over the north-east regions of India, Ministry of Earth Science (MoES), Government of India organized a national coordinated campaign called Severe Thunderstorm Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM) in pre-monsoon season. Yogi Vemana University Atmospheric research team deploying Laser Disdrometer and Micro Rain Radar in the premises of Regional Meteorological Centre, India Meteorological Department (IMD), Guwahati. In addition, IMD X-band Radar data, Radiosonde data and also satellite observational data are utilized. This paper presents the micro-physical characteristics of the thunderstorm precipitating clouds observed on 27th May 2010 over Guwahati(26o 17’ N, 91o 77’ E).The relationship between the atmospheric conditions and the characteristics of the thunder clouds are illustrated. The physical processes involved in three stage of storm (initial, mature and dissipating) are understood with the vertical profile raindrop concentration. The raindrop concentration of mature stage of storm is associated with the higher drop concentration than initial and dissipating stage.



As we know that a large amount of information is generated and stored in text databases. As the numbers of document files increases we need a robust and efficient way to group this large amount of data. Clustering is the finest tool or technique of data mining for managing and organizing information . Clustering maps the similar objects or data into one cluster and different objects into another one based on their inter similarity and intra dissimilarity. However most of the clustering techniques faces many issues like high dimensionality, scalability, accuracy, etc. Document clustering is the another unsupervised clustering technique for document organization, fast information retrival or filtering. This paper will present a Survey on some document clustering methods and proposal of a new one approach for hierarchical document clustering using closed itemsets.


Engr. Ovbiagele U; Engr. Obaitan B

Welding serves a variety of purposes across domains. Machinery and equipment fabrication, pipeline and manifold welding, structural welding, offshore welding and ornamental welding are examples of welding that take place in business and industry. Welding equipment has become one of the most important tools that a producer can possess hence the need to design and construct an arc-welding machine. In this paper, the authors designed and constructed 3KVA, 50 Hz, single-phase arc welding machine using locally available materials. To solve the problem of weight and size of conventional arc welding machine an inverter circuit was also designed. The inverter provides much higher frequency than 50Hz or 60 Hz for transformer used in welding. The locally constructed electric arc welding machine capable of withstanding 150 A, when subjected to insulation test, short circuit and open circuit test to certain performance characteristic were very satisfactory.


Khamsa Qasim, Yusra Younus

This research intends to probe into the representation of the subaltern identities in the Urdu Progressive fiction. It focuses specifically on the analysis of the selected short stories written by Munshi Premchand and Krishan Chander. This research will try to approach the selected short stories from the Marxist perspective and by landing into the area where it overlaps with the condition of subalternity it will strive to investigate the socio-political conditions in which subalterns were caught up, suppressed and oppressed. It examines the relationship between subalternity and representation by analysing the ways in which that relationship has been played out in the domain of Urdu Progressive Fiction and brings to light the subaltern version of truth and the way they look at the reality of their lives and struggle to get out of the oppression and which in turn construct their identities. This research looks forward not only to approach the selected fiction from the postcolonial marxist perspective but to the revival of contemporary interest in Urdu progressive fiction too, which otherwise is considered a dried vein.

Properties of Functionally Graded Coating of Al2O3/ZrO2/HAP on SS 316L PDF

Rana Afif Majed Anaee

This study describes the synthesis of ZrO2/HAP and Al2O3/ZrO2/HAP functionally graded coating on SS 316L as bioimplant by atomization and compared them with uncoated and coated samples with HAP alone. A suitable suspension that was based on ethanol was applied for coatings. AFM analysis used to characterize the coated surfaces and measure the roughness which indicates the increasing the roughness of ZrO2/HAP and Al2O3/ZrO2/HAP compared with HAP coating which provide the adhesion between the bioimplant and tissue. Corrosion measurements carried out to estimate the properties of coated surfaces and showed that functionally graded coating gave properties better than HAP coating through protection efficiencies and porosity percentages. Cyclic polarization measurements also confirm the above results.

Effect of Taurine on Acute Restraint Stress Induced Biochemical Alterations in Wistar Rats PDF

Ezekiel, I., Ayo, J. O., Tanko, Y. and Magaji, R. A.

THE aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of taurine administration on biochemical parameters in Wistar rats subjected to acute restraint stress. Twenty four Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. The control group received distilled water and the other treatment groups were administered taurine at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage. The rats were sacrificed brain and blood samples were collected after 14 days. The brain malondialdehyde, Acetylcholineterase concentrations and the activities of brain antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The serum samples were analyzed for proteins and enzymes concentration. The results indicated that acute restraint stress induced biochemical alterations in the rats. It is hypothesized that taurine might have decreased the alterations in the biochemical parameters through its antioxidant properties. It is concluded that taurine may be a useful prophylactic agent against biochemical alterations in individuals that are constantly exposed to one form of stress or another, as it counteracted the restraint stress-induced lipid peroxidation and maintained the antioxidant defense system to near normal.

Emotional Intelligence: A Theoretical framework PDF

Namrata Punia, Dr. Jayanti Dutta, Dr. Yukti Sharma

The term Emotional Intelligence (EI) was first introduced in the scientific literature in 1990. Since then, the development of models of EI and research in this field has increased substantially. In this manuscript, a theoretical and empirical review of history of EI is presented, including the teachability and value of emotional intelligence within an educational and developmental context. First, the broad interest on this concept is shown through qualitative and quantitative indexes. Then, current theoretical models of EI: the mental ability model; the Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence; and Goleman’s model of EI are described in depth. Finally relevant keys about future considerations for research on EI, has been given. Specifically, 1) discusses the learning, development, and training potential of EI; and 2) considers the cross-cultural validity of EI. Overall this paper provides an encompassing look into the depth concept of emotional intelligence.

Evaluation of Thyroid hormone and lipid profile in patients with myocardial infarction and find the relation between them PDF

Israa Burhan Raoof, Raghad abdulmahdi,Ayad Kareem Khan

Myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. lipid profile increased are the major causes of myocardial infarction (MI). Patient presented with chest pain and increasing shortness of breath for several days. Myocardial infarction associated with Hyperthyroidism and patients with ischaemic heart disease was a very high prevalence of hyperthyroidism. This work aimed to measure level of lipid profile and T3, T4, TSH and correlation between them in patients with myocardial infarction and control groups. The results showed significantly increased in mean value of Ch ,TG, LDL and VLDL and significantly decreased in mean value of HDL in patient with myocardial infarction when compared to control groups. Also the result appeared the mean value of T3 and T4 levels was significantly increased in patients with myocardial infarction when compared to control groups. In addition of that, the study showed the mean value of TSH decreased as compared to control groups, also there was positive significant correlation between T4 with (Ch , VLDL) but negative correlation betweenT4 and HDL .

Comparative Study on the Strength Characteristics of Reinforcement Bars from Local Industries and Imported Sources PDF

Nwakonobi, Theresa Ukamaka and Umar, Suleiman Muhammad

This paper is a report of the investigations conducted to compare the strength characteristics of reinforcement bars obtained from industries: Zhong Yang Industry Nigeria Limited (ZYI), Ajaokuta Steel Company limited (ASC) and imported source. Strength properties analyzed include ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and percentage elongation for 12 mm steel reinforcing bars. The mean values of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) obtained for the 12mm bar are 626.38 N/mm2, 638.36 N/mm2, and 766.29N/mm2 for Zhong Yang Industry Nigeria Limited (ZYI), Ajaokuta Steel Company limited (ASC) and imported (IMP), respectively. These UTS values are all higher than the recommended limit set by BS449 1997, ASTM A706, and Nst65-Mn 1994. The yield strength (YS) values recorded are 443.92 N/mm2 for ZYI, 432.57 N/mm2 for ASC and 656.62N/mm2 for IMP bars. The yield strength value of ZYI bars fall below the recommended limit by BS449 1997 but is higher than that set by ASTM A706 and Nst65-Mn 1994. The yield strength value of ASC bars is also below the BS449 1997 limit but higher than that by ASTM A706 and Nst65-Mn 1994. The yield strength value of IMP is higher than all the set standards. The percentage elongations obtained are 30.64%, 29.40% and 20.81% for ZYI, ASC and IMP, respectively. These elongation values are not within the set standard limits. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted on the generated data indicate significant differences in the mean values of all the strength parameters. The imported bars recorded the highest strength values and least percentage elongation than that from local sources.

Parametric Optimization of Warm Deep Drawing Process of 2014T6 Aluminum Alloy Using FEA PDF

A. Chennakesava Reddy

In this present work, a statistical approach based on Taguchi and Anova techniques and fininte element analysis have been adopted to determine the degree of significance of each of the process parameter on the formability of cup using warm deep drawing process. The process paprameters were thickness of balnk, temperature, coefficient of friction and strain rate. The thickness of sheet and temperature decrease the effective stress while the coefficient of friction and strain rate increase it. The height of cup increases with an increase in the warm drawing temperature. The damage in the cups was at high coefficient of friction. The formation of wrinkles was less with high coefficient of friction anfd with thick sheets.

Implementation of Diagnostics Module in Car-Infotainment system PDF

Swathi K, S M Narasimhan

Nowadays In-vehicle entertainment is flourishing and is integrated with automotive navigation system. This constitutes a complete “in vehi-cle infotainment”. The present day radio in the automobile has advance features like the traditional Tuner sources - FM, AM. Media Sources like CD/DVD, USB Audio, Picture, Video, SD Card support, iPod, Pair a phone and listen to Music and access the Phone book and make or accept calls, configure the Radio and so much more like Navigation etc. In such In-vehicle entertainment systems, status of different modules and their connections becomes important for a technician who is performing its evaluation. In this scenario diagnostics comes into picture. Diagnostics refers to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. This paper presents implementation of Diagnostics in Car Radio which is done using three tests viz., Speaker Test, Display test, Connection Test and System Version Information test.

Design of miniaturized U-shaped parallel coupled bandpass filter PDF

Inder Pal Singh, Praveen bhatt, Manish Gupta

This paper proposed a synthesis of miniaturized U-shaped parallel coupled band pass filter. U-shaped BPF is originally a stair type parallel coupled BPF which is a modified structure realized by folding the arms of traditional stair type parallel coupled bandpass filter. U-shape filter consists of half wavelength long resonators and is designed using J-inverters. In this paper comparison has been made between the tradition stair type parallel coupled BPF and the U-shaped parallel coupled BPF on the basis of same parameters. Filter is designed for the centre frequency 10 GHz, dielectric constant 10.2 and dielectric height 0.635 mm. Proposed filter gained a FBW of 1% and reduction in size 40.7% compare to the tradition stair type parallel coupled BPF. Electromagnetic simulation software IE3D is implemented to design and optimize the filter.

An Intelligent Speed Control of Brushless SEDC Motor by using PID, Fuzzy Logic Controller and Neuro- Fuzzy Logic Controller PDF

R.C.Chourasia, Dr. A.K. Bhardwaj

In modern era, there are not less than six billion motors built in worldwide every year. The Brushless separately excited DC motors are an integral part of industrial plants. In industrial application the demand of BLSEDC motors for low-cost and good quality have increased. The electric appliances, electric aircraft and electric trains have continuous demand growing for automotive industry. The many researchers have proposed different control method for advancing DC motor. Using conventional methods we cannot derive or control multi-variable and non-linear system. In this paper, we proposed BLSEDCM (Brushless Separately Excited DC Motor) using conventional PID controller, Fuzzy Logic controller and Neuro-fuzzy logic controller technique. The proposed methodology gave low-cost excellent flexibility, good robustness, adaptability and also gave high precision to the system. The speed estimator Neuro-fuzzy controller shows that the speed is very closed to desired speed over transient operating conditions and large operating range.

Design Concepts Towards Electric Powered Gari Frying Machine PDF

B.O. Akinnuli, C.O. Osueke, P.P. Ikubanni O.O. Agboola and A.A. Adediran

The most critical unit of operation while processing cassava into gari is the gari frying which occurs as a result of the simultaneous cooking and dehydrating the moisture content present by the application of heat. Traditional method had been established of frying gari, this has been exposing the fryer to various health disorders. This paper highlights the design concept of the electric gari frying machine which will help to alleviate these health disorders, by making gari frying appealing to the farmers. Gari frying should be done on hygienic principles with modern available technology therefore the frying process was analyzed; required components were identified and designed to specification. The required engineering drawings that will aid its production were produced as well as the projected production cost of the machine specification. The machine mode of operation was discussed and it can be concluded that the machine will be highly efficient and will ease the work of the farmers.

Retrofitting Process of an Existing Building With Respect To Seismic Consideration in Bangladesh PDF

Munshi Md Rasel, Md Asif Rahman, Ayesha Binta Ali, Md Moinul Islam, Dr. Md Mahmudur Rahman

There might be many buildings in Bangladesh which do not meet the current seismic requirement and as a result may suffer much damage during the earthquake. Especially the older buildings which were constructed without the consideration of proper seismic forces should be evaluated for seismic load and retrofitted accordingly. If remedial measures are taken based on seismic evaluation, much damage can be overcome. The objective of the research here is to evaluate the existing building for earthquake performance. For applying earthquake loads, Equivalent Static Force Method is used according to BNBC 1993. Reinforcement details of the considered building were not available. For the purpose of study, in the first step an analysis is done applying only Dead and Live Loads according to BNBC 1993. The building is then designed for Dead Load and Live Load only without the consideration of seismic load. In the second step, the building is analyzed for seismic loading in addition to Dead Load and Live Load with proper load factor. Three dimensional analyses is done using design software STAAD-Pro. The Demand Capacity Ratio (DCR) is carried out for beams and columns in order to evaluate the member for seismic loads. Then retrofitting is carried out for the failed beams and columns. Steel Plating Retrofitting Method is applied for the beams and Concrete Jacketing Retrofitting Method is applied for the columns. It is recommended from this study that the buildings which were not built with seismic consideration can be evaluated and retrofitted following the research presented in this study.

An Application of a Computerized Data Acquisition System in Testing of an Auxiliary Power Unit PDF

Ali Dinc

In this study, an application of a computerized data acquisition system in testing of an auxiliary power unit is made. In this regard, required data acquisition software and hardware, personal computer, instrumentation components including sensors, thermocouples and related elements are selected, procured and installed to the test center. The computerized data acquisition system is implemented for the testing of an auxiliary power unit (APU) which is a gas turbine engine. By using a commercial data acquisition software procured in this project, a software application is written to measure, process and display the test data of APU. Voltage readings are made through data acquisition hardware and those are converted to engineering units and corrected to standard day values (pressures, temperatures, velocities, etc.) by software application to calculate APU performance parameters. Compared to manual testing, manual recording and manual calculations in old system, new computerized data acquisition system provided significant reduction in test times (more than 50%) and similar reductions in fuel and labour costs are obtained. Improved test reliability, repeatability and more consistency between engines are also achieved. Engine life, operational safety and analysis capability are enhanced.

Object-Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks with A novel Energy Efficient Algorithm PDF

Majed Elbishti, Khaled Elleithy, Laiali Almazaydeh

In this paper we propose and simulate an energy efficient protocol for object-tracking over Wireless Sensor Networks. The proposed algorithm aims to use virtual clustering among the observation region to initiate duty-cycle across the border nodes and the nodes in the inside region. The main idea is to keep the outer nodes active and the interior nodes sleep for energy saving until an object is detected by the outer nodes. Castalia 3.2 wireless sensor network simulator is used to simulate the proposed protocol. Results indicate that an improvement of 42% is achieved in terms of energy consumption. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that S-MAC protocol is a better choice in high load traffic applications in terms of energy consumption.

A Petri Net Approach Based Elementary Siphons Supervisor for Flexible Manufacturing Systems PDF

Mowafak Hassan Abdul-Hussin

This paper presents an approach to constructing a class of S3PR nets for modeling, simulation and control of processes occurring in the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) used based elementary siphons of a Petri net. Siphons are very important to the analysis and control of deadlocks of FMS that is significant objectives of siphons. Petri net models in the efficiency structure analysis, and utilization of the FMSs when different policy can be implemented lead to the deadlock prevention. We are representing an effective deadlock-free policy of a special class of Petri nets called S3PR. Simulation of Petri net structural analysis and reachability graph analysis is used for analysis and control of Petri nets. Petri nets contain been successfully as one of the most powerful tools for modelling of FMS, where Using structural analysis, we show that liveness of such systems can be attributed to the absence of under marked siphons.

A Study on Various Defense Mechanisms Against DDoS Attacks PDF

Ujwal Sadhu, Anil Kumar Kotagadda Vijaya, Krishna Seth, Md.Tauseef Riasat, Mirza Hasan and Omar Abuzaghleh

Distributed Denial of service (DDOS) attack is one of the biggest security threat to the Internet. This research paper attempts to study the DDOS attacks and its main types. The study will provide good knowledge to try for the defense measures for these attacks. The network is always vulnerable to this type of attack even after providing the security measures. This study will also focus on the ways to detect a DDOS attack and thus, start the processes to defense these attacks. The main objective is to understand the DDOS attacks and to find the security measures.

Effect of pyridine and pyridine with substituent on the optoelectronic spectrum of nanoparticles CdS prepared by liquid-liquid interface reaction PDF

Salma M. Shaban, K. T. Al-Rasoul, A. S. Ahmed

CdS nanoparticles are prepared by using liquid – liquid interface reaction. from the XRD and TEM analysis we estimated that the size of particles is about 5 nm , which is very comparable with Bohr radius of the CdS ( aB 3 nm ) . The surface are treated through Immersion the powder of nanoparticles on the solution with mix ratio from pyridine and methanol (1:9) for one hour, then the study the UV-Visible spectrum of the solution. The results indicate a blue shift according to the decrease in the size.

Intelligent process optimization into Holonic Manufacturing Systems using TAGUCHI approach and UML Modeling Language PDF

Mostapha EL JAI, Iatimad AKHRIF, Taoufik ABIDINE, Nassouradine MOUSSA DJOUMA, Brahim HERROU, Hussain BENAZZA, Mohammed EL HAMMOUMI

In this paper we are interested to the quality control, as one of the operational parties in the global quality management, and to its relation with the process parameters optimization.The feature here is the integration of dynamism and autonomy, given by the holonic approach especially in HMS (Holonic manufacturing Systems), into the step of process parameters optimization, by exploiting the data coming from the quality control steps. An integrated model, described by UML diagrams, is presented, grouping the operational side of the quality control, the ‘dynamical’ design of experiments (using TAGUCHI approach) and the statistical analysis (ANOVA) which is necessary for a good decision making into industrial entities.


Oluwaseun O. Oluwasegun, Michael U. Onuu and Oladayo E. Oyenekan

This investigation is on road traffic noise levels/pollution and impacts on the community residents of Ikeja Local Government area of Lagos State in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The research work was carried out in two different stages. Stage one was physical measurements while stage two was the social surveys that involved the distribution of questionnaires and oral interviews of selected residents of Ikeja metropolis. A total of 520 questionnaires were distributed while 416 of the residents responded giving a response rate of 80%. Outdoor sound level measurements and social surveys were carried out at 32 different locations comprising nine (9) road network, 12 junction/round-about and 11 loading parks (garages) in Ikeja metropolis, the capital city of Lagos State. Noise levels such as those exceeded or equaled for 10%, 50% and 90% of the measurement time were respectively measured at the various points. Corresponding values of maximum A-weighted noise levels, LAmax .Traffic noise index, TNI, Noise pollution level, LNP, and Day-Night levels, LDN as well as minimum and maximum noise levels (LAmin. and LAmax.) were also obtained. Average maximum values of these noise levels, indices and descriptors at the road junction/round about, busy roads, parks/garages in dB(A) are as follows: L10(93, 84, 86.2), L50(89, 79.3, 82.8), L90(85, 74.5, 79.7), LAeq(90.5, 88.1, 88.8), TNI(90, 89.4, 76.6), LDN(103, 99.8, 103), LAmin.(76.5, 76.5, 82.1), LAmax.(82.5, 83.1, 85.6). Results further showed that 93.8% were bothered/disturbed by motorcycle noise, 97% were bothered/disturbed by car noise while noise of lorries/heavies and buses bothered/disturbed 75% of the residents. These and other results obtained in this investigation will be very useful to Lagos State and Ikeja Local Government Area in planning a noise-free environment.

Physical Cartographies—the harbinger of Mental Cartographies in Kamila Shamsie’s Burnt Shadows PDF

Safana Hashmat, Sabeen Nadeem

This research paper explores the elements of territorialization which are defining the mental cartography of man along with his physical cartography in Kamila Shamsie’s novel, Burnt Shadows. The research is analyzing the particular ‘fixtures’ which have created vague and ambivalent territories across a common man whether he is an (ex)colonizer or (ex)colonized. These fixtures are compelling him to act according to the already defined territories. The research focuses the factors which are contributing to create the hegemonic, static cartography in the novel. The purpose of this research is to highlight the elements of physical and mental territorialization of man. It will enable him to give a return gaze, to revamp the hegemonic cartographic discourse.

An efficient method of segmentation for handwritten devnagari word recognition PDF

Saniya M.Ansari, Dr. Udaysingh Sutar

Devnagari is the most popular and widely used script in India. It is used for writing Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit and Nepali languages. Moreover, Devnagari script consists of vowels, consonants and various modifiers. Detection and extraction of text in images have been used in many applications. Document segmentation is one of the difficult and important phases in machine recognition of any language. The accuracy of character recognition engine depends on the correct segmentation of individual symbols. It is used to segment lines and words into sequence of characters into sub images of individual symbols. Hence proper segmentation of Devnagari word is challenging task. Especially the modifiers (both vowels and consonants) most of the time coincide with the modifying characters. These kinds of non-trivial combinations of characters make the whole process of character segmentation extremely challenging. Besides, some symbols, like Chandra- Bindu, often come between two consecutive characters in a word; then isolating those becomes a tough job.

An application of Stochastic models - Loss of industrial accidents in Organisation PDF

Dr T.Chitra kalarani, S.Punniyamoorthy

In this paper the expected time to reach the uneconomic status of an organization is obtained by assuming that the threshold variable is a random variable with special case of Exponentiated Exponential distribution .

Visual Management and Technical Furniture for the development of garments manufacturing process focusing cutting section PDF

Md. Eanamul Haque Nizam

Traditional Cutting section activities in maximum garments industries are facing different problem like low productivity, longer production lead time, high rework and rejection and high non value added work etc. Most of the researchers are trying to develop a new layout for improving the efficiency of cutting section. in this study the author tries to develop the new theme that not only the layout can improve the efficiency of cutting section but also visual Management and technical furniture can play a vital role for improving the efficiency of cutting section. So, the author recommends some visual management system such as Cutting Manual, Super visor rating, SQDC Board Defect library etc. This research paper also propose some recommendation such as Expandable Cutting table, Fabric relaxation Rack, Input rack, Box for cutting machine, stand for marker paper, SMV data bank etc to improve the performance of cutting department. This all recommendation is already applied in Babylon Garments Industries of Bangladesh. The results are satisfactory then before.

Evaluation and Generation of Meta Modeling tools for Domain Specific Modeling Language PDF

Chanchal Jayaraj, Ramesh.R, Prasanna Venkatesan.V, Martin.A

Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) is a latest approach to software development industry, capable to greatly rise the speed and easily to use of software arrangement, it produces various facts of a new Domain system. DSM care advanced level of metaCASE domain implementation concepts that make general-purpose metaCASE model language. So the DSL takes very small amount of work effort, strength of character and low-level specifics to order a given Domain based system. Domain-specific languages (DSLs) are languages practice made to a specific application domain, throughout the previous circumstances of the software improvement, developers have continuously essential to improve productivity by improving idea, concepts. The new level of concept has then been automatically transformed to the earlier works to new derived metaCASE model idea.

An investigation of current information and communications technology in terms of our health, education and relationships PDF

MSc. Karwan M. Kareem

In recent years, communication technology has become an important tool which has been a great aspect in people's daily life. Nowadays, new models of communications technologies are available everywhere, for instance, companies, education schools and health centres. Numerous of people use communication technology to contact, share and exchange information such as text, voice and video. This research describes the benefits and drawbacks of current communications technology in terms of our health, education and relationships. In the light of the researcher analysis, to what extent should we be concerned about our grandchildren's world, this gives that these technologies will continue to develop?

Control Strategy for Total Harmonic Distortion Reduction in Generated Voltage for Grid Connected DFIG under Symmetrical & Unsymmetrical Fault Conditions PDF

Sarika Shrivastava, Anurag Tripathi and K.S. Verma

Variable-speed DFIG wind energy system is one of the main WECS configurations in today’s wind power industry. The variable-speed operation is possible due to the power electronic converters interface allowing a full (or partial) decoupling from the grid. For a DFIG based wind energy system, the rotor-side converter (RSC) controls the torque and active/ reactive power of the generator while the grid-side converter (GSC) controls the DC-link voltage and its AC-side reactive power. The stability of DC link capacitor voltage is very important in ensuring that a nearly sinusoidal voltage is delivered by the grid side converter which is used as inverter. The fluctuations in the dc-link voltage cut down the lifetime and reliability of capacitors in voltage source converters. The present paper explores one of the extremely important issues regarding the WECS i.e. wind energy conversion system and its reactive power management under certain common types of faults which are both symmetrical and unsymmetrical. With continuously increasing penetration of the wind energy in the overall energy market, this issue is gaining significant prominence. The paper compares the capability of the DFIG based wind energy conversion system to maintain the value of its DC-link capacitor constant. The analysis was performed for normal, symmetrical fault and unsymmetrical fault conditions on DFIG integrated with grid using MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

The Effect of Pressure on Thermal Insulation Properties of EIC Cellulose-Polyurethane Composites PDF

Sri Wuryanti, Suhardjo Poertadji, and Bambang Soegijono

Polyurethane and cellulose are the most frequent of material type used for insulating. The thermal properties of each materials have some disadvantages as well as the advantages. One of the methods of enhancing the thermal properties is by making a composite. A composite is produced from EIC-cellulose and polyurethane. Polyurethane with EIC-cellulose composites is pressed to produce low thermal conductivity means that it has a high insulating properties for reducing heat losses. This study is presented an insulation material of cellulose made from reeds imperata cylindrica type with the extraction process. Extraction of cellulose fibers to form a sheet by adding 3.5% Na-CMC (Sodium Cellulose Carboxsil Metyl). The production of the composite was made by pouring some polyurethane to a cellulose sheet and then put it into a cold-press and pressured for 90 minutes by varied pressures of 40517 N/m2 and 54022 N/m2. The isolation criterion is the value of thermal conductivity and density as low as possible but the value of the heat capacity as high as possible. The results: the lowest and the highest of thermal conductivities were 0.0735 W/m K and 0.1762 W/m K, respectively; the lowest and the highest of densities were 109 kg/m3 and 496.5 kg/m3, respectively; the lowest and the highest of heat capacity were 0.5217 kJ/kg K and 0.9448 kJ/kg K.

Methodes d’evaluation environnementale au niveau de l’Office Cherifien des Phosphates (Maroc) PDF

Ouissam BOUAIN, Samir ELJAAFARI, Mohammed AMANE, Leila INOUS, Jihad ELFERJI

La gestion environnementale demande à être complétée par un outil de pilotage et de gestion au quotidien organisant le prélèvement, l’exploitation et le suivi de l’information sur le terrain. La mise en place de cet outil complémentaire est indispensable dans les organismes tels que l’OCP où le degré de formalisation de l’information est nécessaire.

An Efficient Microprocessor Based Firing Scheme for Three-Phase Converter PDF

Vibhu Jately, Puneet Joshi, Sudha Arora

Inter-grid flow of power through D.C. link is being employed in large power systems for improving the stability. The direction of power flow being controlled by the voltage difference between the two ends of the D.C. link makes the control scheme simple. A laboratory scheme of the firing circuit of the converter used in the D.C. link is designed and built. The entire scheme consists of a ZCD (Zero crossing detector) to identify the positive going zero of the A.C. input which is then fed to 8085 microprocessor for generating the required pulses in order to fire the three phase fully controlled full wave converter. The scheme requires minimum number of electronic components since it utilizes the same circuit for rectification and inversion mode of operation.

Dynamic Log Session Identification Using A Novel Incremental Learning Approach For Database Trace Logs PDF

D.Kavitha, B.Kalpana

Identification of session is very significant task in database for determining helpful patterns from database trace logs files. In recent years, several number of work have been done to dynamic log session identification among them n-gram models is recently proposed, which produces higher log session identification results. But the major issue of the n-gram model is that it assumes the entire database query to be static, so dynamic query type is not applicable. In this paper, a novel online incremental learning for dynamic log data trace session identification schema based on the adaptation method to database trace logs is proposed. It is applied for dynamic log session identification with automatic selection of threshold based on the standard deviation schema, so it is named as DS-OILSD. The proposed novel DS-OILSD schema is varied from normal n-gram model since the proposed work consists of two major modifications. The first one is to solve the parameters adjustment problem of the IL in online and offline manner incrementally. The second one is used to dynamic management of query types and allocating initial probabilities to the n-grams models. The proposed DS-OILSD leaning method is based on modified MAP estimation schema for dynamic changing adaptation of the query types and is instinctively reasonable. It directly solves the problem of dynamic log session identification, in which three types of learning are performed such as labeled data, semi-labeled, unlabeled data for various categories of training data. Finally experimental work is conducted to proposed and existing state of art schema for dynamic log session identification and experimentation results are evaluated based on the parameters like, F-measure, and precision for clinic database log files.

Comparative Assessment of Nicotine Content in some Cigaratte (Tobacco) in Benin City, Nigeria PDF

Oluwatosin A. Akinyemi, Amraibure Odia, Inegbenose Godwin Ihimire, Harrison Onome Tighiri

The objective of this study is to provide information on the level of nicotine content of various brands of cigarettes sold in Ni-geria using Benin city cigarette market as a case study. Twelve brands of cigarettes were purchased from the open market in Benin City, Edo State Nigeria for their Nicotine content. Nicotine was extracted with organic solvent from the respective brands and percentage nicotine content determined by titration with 0.1M H2SO4. Mean values of 1.27 – 3.62% were observed in the products. The mean comparison reveals statistical significance (P<0.05) difference in the level in the brands values observed compared with those reported with HPLC/mass spectrometry or spectrophotometric methods determined. The study suggests that the procedure can be reliably used in quality control.

Monitoring of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Cilicidae) in Calabria, Southern Italy PDF

Teresa Bonacci, Antonio Mazzei, Vesna K. Hristova, M. Ayaz Ahmad

A control program currently active in Calabria (southern Italy) was carried out to population density estimation of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) (Diptera, Culicidae). For the first time we report on the spatial and temporal (seasonal) distribution of the mosquito in the urban area of Cosenza and Rende by ovitrap, from May, 2013 through the mid October, 2013. In spring and summer season 2013, ovitraps were activated according to standard and guidelines and were checked on average weekly. The peak of adult abundance occurs from July to first part of October. The aim was assess the mosquito population’s aggregation degree, through the application of the Taylor’s power law and to study the distribution and phenology of this mosquito.


Ibearugbulem, O. M., Okonkwo, E. N. Nwachukwu, A. N. and Obi, L. O.

This paper presents the determination of compressive strength of lateritic sandcrete cubes. In the course of the study we investigated the suitability of laterite as a partial replacement of sand, and specifically sought to determine whether lateritic sandcrete cubes would satisfy the minimum compressive strength requirement of Nigeria Industrial Standard for load bearing blocks for use in sandcrete blocks. This strength is 3.45N/mm². Potable water was used for this work and Dangote brand of Ordinary Portland Cement was used as binder. Various combinations of Laterite and sand were used. The least cement content of all the mixes is 10% of dry mass. Compressive cube strength and saturated surface dry (SSD) bulk density tests were conducted. Batching was by weight. Twenty-five mix ratios comprising of cement: laterite: sand were used. A total of 100 standard 150 mm x 150mm x 150mm lateritic sandcrete cubes were cast, cured for 28 days, weighed and crushed. The method of casting was the same as the method of casting traditional sandcrete blocks. The results show that the average SSD density of the lateritic sandcrete cubes are approximately 2334.97 Kg/m³, a value higher than the average value of 1983Kg/m³ conventional sandcrete blocks. Also, all mix ratios had compressive cube strengths higher than 3.45N/mm². Therefore, laterite could be used as part of fine aggregate for making sandcrete blocks. More so, since lateritic sandcrete cubes has a higher compressive strength than the minimum standard, it could be used as load bearing blocks in building construction. However, the cement content should not be less than 10% of dry mass.

Synthesis and Application of Amino-Modified Silicone Oil on Cotton Fabric PDF

Md. Sarzul Islam, Sudip K. Lahiri, Jannatun Nahar, Md. Alomgir

The synthesis of amino-modified silicone oil carried out with dimethyl cyclosiloxane (DMC) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl methyldimethoxysilane (KH-602) as raw materials and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and 1,3-Diethenyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane as a cured agent. The amino-modified silicone oil has been synthesized by bulk polymerization. The chemical structure has been characterized by IR spectra. The amino value measured by chemical titration and the value was 0.71mmol/g. The viscosity measured by NDJ-8S viscosity meter and the viscosity was 445 mpa.s. Factor impacting on technical indicators during preparation which were polymerization temperature, polymerization time, the amount of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl methyldimethoxy silane, the amount of catalyst and the cured agent investigated then came to a full process recipe. The amino-modified silicone oil emulsified and the tested results has been studied. The results showed that the ionic surfactant of amino-modified silicone emulsion was nonionic, the thermal stability was good at 90°C, the dielectric stability was good at 90°C, the alkali stability was good at 80°C, the solid content was 25%, the viscosity was 60 mpa.s, and the pH was 6-7. Then the amino-modifies silicone oil emulsion applied on the cotton fabrics and the performance studied accordingly. The results showed that the rate of hand feel properties (softness & smoothness) of the finished cotton knit fabric was 5 and cotton woven was 4.5 on the scale of 1-8, the hydrophilic property of finished cotton fabric was good, on the whiteness property of finished cotton fabrics had little effect but had no effect on the shade of dyed finished fabric, had little effect on the strength of finished fabric, and the feel retention rate was 60% after several times wash, which indicated that the amino-modified silicone oil had good wash fastness property.

Programming Models for Wireless Sensor Networks: Status, Taxonomy, Challenges, and Future Directions PDF

Abrar Alajlan and Khaled Elleithy

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play an important role in different application areas and have been successfully deployed in different computing environments. However, programming sensor network applications is extremely challenging as the applications becoming more complex. Some of these challenges are due to the sensors’ characteristics and others are due to the operating conditions of these sensors. Recently, researchers have proposed diverse programming approaches to mitigate these challenges and make WSN programming more flexible and much easier. This paper provides an extensive survey of the state-of-art in wireless sensor network programming models, focuses on a classification of programming levels in wireless sensor networks and capturing some likely programming challenges and research future directions.

Identification Of Threats To Communication Security, Effects On Victims And Ways Of Mitigating The Threats PDF

B. E. Okon., R. A. Umunnah.

Routine acquisition and aggregation of network data offer an opportunity to understand some of the forces that drive the internet. It also offers opportunity to detect and understand a variety of phenomena that are related to overtly questionable or malicious activities on the part of the user’s and abusers.

Health and Internet PDF

Thabit Zatari

The society has greatly evolved and human life has experienced a huge transition from the past. People who have lived a major part of their life in the 20th century are testimony to the fact that not only has things become easier, but also that the human kind is at the colossus of technology. About technology and its impact it can easily be said that the horizons have greatly broadened now, what was considered impossible in the past has now been achieved. The industry, which has benefited the most from this inspiring increase in inventions, is the Health care industry.

OMR-AODV: An Optimised Multihop Routing Strategy for Mobile Adhoc Network PDF

Lathigara Amit Maheshbhai and Dr. K. H. Wandra

Majority of the research work done in the recent years focuses on routing protocols in Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) that improves the overall energy and lifetime of the network. Majority of the traditional routing protocols are discovering the shortest path between source and destination without considering crucial parameters like energy level, quality of link, estimation of link expiry, location of nodes etc. which may result into poor packet delivery fraction, throughput, end to end delay and network routing load. To improve the overall network lifetime along with the packet delivery fraction and normalized routing load, this paper proposes an optimised multihop routing protocol (OMR-AODV) as an extension of Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) by introducing threshold limit on residual battery of mobile node and quality of link during route establishment phase. AODV and OMR-AODV are simulated using NS2 with various parameters and results show that OMR-AODV performs better than AODV for overall network lifetime along with packet delivery fraction and normalized routing load.

Implementing and Analyzing the Impact Assess-ment Algorithm for Adoption of Information and Communication Technology in Basic Education PDF

Alo O. O., Olabiyisi S. O., Omidiora E. O., Ganiyu R. A.

In this paper, an impact assessment algorithm for evaluating the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in basic education through Cross-impact method was implemented and analyzed. The implementation of the algorithm was carried out using C# programming language while its qualitative evaluation was explored through analysis of variance, regression analysis and sensitivity testing. The result of analysis of variance confirmed that Government Policy (GP), Teacher Competency (TC), Availability of ICT infrastructure (IF), Integration of ICT in school curriculum by Ministry of Education (MC), Student preparedness in adopting ICT in learning process (SC) and Perception of schools’ management in adoption of ICT in schools (MI), which are the six major events considered, were significantly important in adoption of ICT in basic education. The regression analysis yielded correlation coefficients of 91%, 85%, 87%, 92%, 95% and 95% with respect to GP, TC, IF, MC, SC and MI. The results of sensitivity testing showed that increase in Initial Probability (InitProb) of each event had positive influence on other alternative events. For increase in InitProb of GP and IF, the TC experienced the highest significant changes of 52% and 63%, respectively. For increase in InitProb of TC, MC and SC, the MI experienced the highest significant changes of 34%, 29% and 42%, respectively. For increase in InitProb of MI, the SC experienced the highest significant change of 33%. The developed algorithm serves as an improvement on existing user perspective method of analysing the use of ICT in education. It could be adopted by policy makers at Federal and States levels to forecast the impact of ICT in basic education.

Algorithms for design of single flute end mill cutters PDF

Ventsislav Dimitrov

In this article, designed as a set of three interconnected elements are presented algorithms for analytical and graphical profiling of single flute end mill cutters for manufacturing of aluminium profiles, composite and HPL panels, as and methodology for graphic profiling in an environment of CAD system TopSolid.

Physicochemical properties of materials for single flute end mill cutters PDF

Veselina Dimitrova, Ventsislav Dimitrov

This article is designed as a set of three interconnected elements. Here are presented the conditions for the formation and removal of of the chip at milling with single flute end mill cutters, examined is instrumental wear, analyzed are the types of materials for the manufacturing of tools, as is paid especially attention to zirconium two - and three - component structures ZrN, ZrC and ZrCN.

Types, geometry and measurement of tool parameters of single flute end mill cutters PDF

Ventsislav Dimitrov

This article is designed as a set of three interconnected elements. Here are presented the purpose and the general classification of single flute end mill cutters, construction and geometry of tools, just like schemes solutions for the measurement of the constructional elements and geometric parameters through universal control device – CGCT. 01.

Software Defined Networks’ Security: An Analysis of Issues and Solutions PDF

Egbenimi Beredugo Eskca, Omar Abuzaghleh, Priya Joshi, Sandeep Bondugula, Takamasa Nakayama, Amreen Sultana

Lately, Software Defined Networks (SDN) has received a lot of attention as a new technology which provides more flexibility than conventional network. It is the decoupling of the data plane from the control plane. In the implementation of SDN, three outstanding benefits readily come to mind; network flexibility, speedy service provisioning and efficiency as well as lower operating expense. SDN also has vast potential of programmability, configurability and manageability from its unique character of centralized software control. The exponential growth of mobile devices and content, server virtualization and the introduction of cloud services are among the key computing trends which need new networking architecture. Furthermore, handling today’s “big data” requires extensive parallel processing on thousands of servers, all of which needs secure connections to each other. These massive, complex, and sensitive data and user requirements beckons on a new improved, dynamic and dependable network infrastructure and architecture which is promised on the centralized control based architecture of SDN. This paper attempts to delineate the strengths and weaknesses of SDN. We commence with a listing of identifiable security threats and breaches of SDN. The paper then makes an analysis of previously outlined solutions to identifiable security issues of SDN. We venture further into the horizon of the unknown to predict and identify new security breaches and threats, as well as areas of inherent weakness in the overall SDN architecture and infrastructure. Possible solutions to the identified issues are proffered and analyzed by the paper. In view of the limitations of this research, the paper prescribes possible positions for future researchers to adopt, in order to shed more light to the pertinent security issues of SDN.

WRF model analysis of land-surface processes over Jaipur Region PDF

Sarika Jain

In this paper, we analyze the effect of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) land-surface schemes (LSSs) on simulation of weather events over the capital of Rajasthan city Jaipur. The model essentially computes heat and moisture fluxes over land surface. In order to assess their role in weather phenomenon over the study region, we performed WRF simulations for 30 km resolution domain using four LSSs,namely, WRF: 6-layer Rapid Update Cycle (RUC), 5-layer thermal diffusion, 2-layer Pleim-Xiu scheme (combining surface and boundary layers), and 4-layer Noah scheme. We focused on two things one is time span and another is land surface processes. The results show that Noah and Pleim schemes give us reasonably good results as compare to the other land surface schemes.

An Empirical Study on Testability Measurement of Object Oriented Software PDF

M.A. Khanum, Arun Mani Tripathi

Testability has always been a difficult exercise and its accurate estimation or assessment a complex exercise. Most of the studies quantify testability or more specifically the attributes that have influence on software testability but at the implementation level. A decision to transform the design in order to improve software testability after implementation has started may be very error prone and expensive. While estimating testability early in the software development life cycle may significantly reduce the overall development cost. In this paper Testability has been recognized as a major factor to object oriented software quality and importance is being drawn to measure design testability, near the beginning in the software development process. Study identified effectiveness and flexibility are the major factors that affect overall testability at design phase. The identified testability factors are to be correlated with the object oriented design characteristics. After successfully establishing the relationship, study developed Testability Measurement Model for Object Oriented Design. Subsequently testability model has been empirically validated and contextual interpretation has been performed using try out software projects.


Prof. Dr. Nasir Behxheti, MD,PhD, Doc. Dr. Sci. Med. Lutfi Zylbeari MD, PhD, Mr. Dr. Zamira Bexheti, Mr. Dr.Gazmend Zylbeari, Mr.Phar. Mirlind Behxheti

There are documented facts that uremic patients present clinical picture of dyslipi-demia associated with the earlier representation of atherosclerosis and serious cardiovascular complications, peripheral arterial lessions with large number and the youngest in comparison with the older population. It is supposed that in uremic patients the subtle changes in the morphology of lipid molecule further increase their atherogenicity (due to greater affinity for sticking to the subendothelial wall of oxidized cholesterol ( oxLDL-ch) and changed. Subfraction  1-HDL-ch is minor subfraction who acts as a initial acceptor of cholesterol Initiation of vaccum created by his own cells and transport under the influence of lecithin acyl cholesterol transferase (LCAT ) fraction 1-HDL-ch passes in  migrant cholesterol -HDL. LCAT in normal plasma affects maturation (maturation) to HDL-ch reconstructed into spherical HDL poorer with lipids in HDL-ch with lipids. Reduced activity of Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) for approximately 33-46% is due to the excessive cumulation of toxins or cytokine-us (Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6, Interleukin- 1α, Interleukin-1  and this phenomenon counted among the main causes of pathological adjustments in lipid metabolism of uremic patients with lower concentrations of HDL-ch, elevated concentrations triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TCh) and LDL-ch. Purpose of paper:The aim of the paper was to verify the effect and activity Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL), its impact on the presentation of hypertriglyceridemia and dyslipidemia in uremic patients treated with chronic HD intermitent randomized by age sex and basic disease that has lead them to uraemia with values obtained from lipid parameters and LPL from the group of healthy individuals who served as the control group. The paper also aimed to document the correlation between lipid profile and LPL and influence of their disorders in the appearance of uremic dyslipidemia with consequences of early atherosclerosis (Atherosclerosis uraemica praecox). The paper aims also in proposing measures for drug prevention and treatment and correction of hypertriglyceridemia and cholesterolemia with what would influence the prevention and inhibition of early atherosclerotic processes of uremic patients. The material and methodsIn the prospective cohort study, (,, cross-section ") in total are included N 0 = 520 examined of whom 260 were of uremic patients treated with dialysis while 260 were healthy individuals who served as the control group. Of the total number of patients (N O = 260) treated with HD-110 (45%) were girls while-150 (55%) were male, with an average age: 18.0  58.20 years, treated with dialysis more than 6 years in nephrology-Skopje Clinic and Hospital Clinical examination Tetova.And high prevalence of coronary artery atherosclerosis and cerebral. Disorders of lipid meta-bolism in patients with terminal chronic renal insufficiency (TCRI ) are first documented in 1827 by Dr. Bright (1).

A Model of Magnetic Material Separating Robot PDF

Ituma Chinagolum, Agwu Chukwuemeka Odi, Ajah John Nnaemeka

Every aspect of human endeavor is being controlled by computing and the application of computers in solving human needs has enhanced man’s performances. No doubt, as other areas of computing (Networking, Database administration, software engineering, web design, etc) delve into critically solving human basic problems, the area of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence is not left out as well. In material separation, different particles of varying degree are being separated with different separating mediums. Magnetic materials can be separated from non-magnetic materials and that is the sole basis of this research project. Humans find it difficult to separate magnetic materials from non-magnetic materials due to the fact that there is limited equipment that can handle the automatic material separation available in some places. The Magnetic Material Separating Robot Arm is a robot that is capable of making four movements (clockwise, anticlockwise, upward and downward movements), to enable it move the arm to the direction of the metal, pick some of the materials and drop them in a collecting provision that has been made. In an age where the need for automated systems is on the increase, automated system developers will have to put more effort to see that the need is being met. Meeting the needs of computer automation as well as taking into consideration some precautionary measures is very vital when it comes to automated system development. As in the case of the killer robot, the machine malfunctioned and got an operator killed due to negligence on the side of the system designers; the wrong methodology was adopted and instead of the robot working in favour of humans, it got the operator killed. This paper discusses the steps involved in the design of magnetic material separating robot which is fully computer controlled, the interfacing circuit and control software.

Approaches and Tools for Viewing, Browsing and Querying Semantic Web Data and Ontologies PDF

Tatyana Ivanova

Semantic Web is not only a vision, it is the future of the Web, and current Web already includes many well working semantic-based applications. Semantic Web is mainly for computers to make web more convenient for humans, but many peoples have need in direct usage of semantic web knowledge. Thus, querying semantic web and visual representation of semantic web knowledge is of great importance. In this paper we make a brief survey and classification of current semantic web technologies and querying tools. Our main aim is to propose architecture that can support recommendation and easy integration of the right tools for every type user or purpose among the grand amount of the available well working tools for knowledge exploration evolution and querying semantic web.

An Application of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Cement bags industry PDF

Abdulrakeeb A. Ghaleb, Mahmoud A. El-Sharief, Mohamed. G. El-Sebaie

In today’s world, business has become more competitive. All industries and organizations have to perform well in order to survive and be profitable. The lean six sigma (LSS) methodology is being applied extensively to tackle many quality related issues in many processes of today’s industries. Various companies have benefited greatly from the adoption of six sigma and lean engineering concepts since their initiation. A paper cement bags is a packaging sack made of paper high quality and usually craft virgin fiber, which usually consists of several layers to provide strength, with high elasticity and high tear resistance, and are designed for packaging products with high demands for strength and durability.

Design of Novel Cross-Coupled Trisection Bandpass Filters with Open-Loop Resonators PDF

Mohammed Chetioui, Nadia Benabdallah, Nasreddine Benahmed, Boumedienne Lasri

In this paper the method of designing and simulating the cross-coupled trisection bandpass filter using open-loop resonators centered at 1.025 GHz is presented. The filter has a cross coupling that produces a single attenuation pole at finite frequency used to shape the bandpass response. These new resonator is applied to design bandpass filter with pseudo-elliptic response. We have performed an electromagnetic simulation under CST MWS environment. The result is an attenuation pole of finite frequency on the high side of the passband, therefore exhibiting asymmetric frequency response. The simulated trisection filter with a centre frequency exhibits an insertion loss of 0.6 dB and a return loss of −20 dB and 3−dB bandwidth of [972−1078] MHz. The rejection is larger than 30 dB at 1.09 GHz.

Modeling and Simulation of Wave load on Periodic Support for Isolation system of offshore platform PDF

S.A. Afolalu, O.O. Ajayi, O.M. Ikumapayi, S.B Adejuyigbe

The wave-induced dynamic load is one of the most important excitations to be dealt with in the design of offshore structures and the platforms. In order to perform a reliable design of an offshore structure, it is important to obtain an exact evaluation of its dynamic response to wave load but also to examine the ways of reducing the response. The work analyzed the effects of wave load on periodic support of isolation system of jacket offshore platform. The platform considered herein as an example to examine the effectiveness of the proposed vibration control strategy for offshore structures. In this section, a parametric study for the jacket offshore platform with installation of the periodic support to enhance isolation system due to its attenuations ability over broad frequencies and the effects of wave load on offshore jacket platforms installed with energy dissipation devices such as periodic support were presented. The offshore jacket platforms are modeled as multi-degrees-of-freedom and the general equation for fluid forces acting on a cylinder, considering the relative motion of the body in the fluid as per the Morison’s equation was applied to form the basis of modeling of the wave load and supports. The analyzes of the effects of wave load on the offshore platform especially with periodic support was considered due to its attenuations over broad frequencies. It could be realized from the result that increase in waves load varies the increase in frequency domain of the system which enhances subjection to vibration.

Tuning Optimization of Hybrid controller for temperature control of heat exchanger by Gradient Descent method PDF

Pardeep Mittal,Neha Raghu, Kamaldeep Sharma

In this research paper, a Hybrid (PI+FF) controller optimized technique is developed to control the outlet temperature of a shell and tube heat exchanger. The aim of the proposed controller is to optimize the temperature control of a heat exchanger around a temperature set point. The controller regulates the temperature around a setpoint in response to external temperature disturbance. The optimization of hybrid controller provides a optimum solution with number of solution. The proposed technique overcomes the drawbacks of conventional feedback controller and feed-forward controller. The developed tuning optimization of Hybrid PI controller for heat exchanger process has demonstrated 81% improvement in the overshoot and 76% improvement in settling time from the classical controller. Also control accuracy is 100% as steady state error becomes zero.

Big Data In Business PDF

Hafedh Ibrahim Alfouzan

Even organizations that are totally committed towards big data, which have defined business case along with have been ready for maturing beyond science project phase, face the daunting question: how do they make the big data work? Big Data has not been only one more technology initiative. However, this has not been the technology initiative at all; this has been the business program, which needs the technical savvy.

Peach Canker Caused by Nectria mauritiicola and its Control in Egypt PDF

Azza M. K. Azmy and S.Y.Mohamed

Trees of Florida Prince peach cv. grown at Nobaria, El-Behera governorate during 2011 growing season showed typical symptoms of Necteria canker mainly on the branches and often on the twigs.

Investigation into the Flexural Properties of Bamboo-Reinforced Concrete Beam PDF

S. B. Raheem, O. S. Awogboro, S. J. Aderinto

Problems encountered with the commonly used construction materials like steel are high cost, corrosion, etc. The urge to overcome these problems without the tensile capacity of reinforced concrete being compromised, has prompted numerous scientists and engineers to seek out locally sourced materials as a replacement for conventional steel reinforcement. Specifically, bamboo is one of the most suitable materials to substitute for reinforcing bar in concrete. This study assessed the suitability of bamboo as reinforcement in concrete. Tests were conducted on both fresh and hardened reinforced concrete. The slump value of 6mm was measure. The compressive strength of 28 days gave the value of 25.26N/mm2 which according to BS code 8110 is satisfactory. For the flexural test, three beam specimens were tested for each of steel reinforcement, bamboo reinforcement and mass reinforcement. For the steel reinforced beam, maximum deflection (4mm) occurred at failure load of 162kN, while the deflection width of beam specimen which was reinforced with bamboo is 6mm at the failure load of 102kN and the deflection width of beam specimen used as control which had no reinforcement was 15mm at the failure load of 95kN. The results showed that steel reinforced beam had the highest strength to withstand load. However, bamboo reinforced beam strength was higher than that of plain concrete beam; hence, it can be used for light load bearing reinforced concrete.

Sahara Desert Interconnected DC Network PDF

Giddani Kalcon, Abdelaziz Y. M. Abbas, Aamir Hashim Obeid Ahmed, Nagm Eldeen Abdo Mustafa Hassanain

The main objective of this paper is to build regional interconnected DC network extended through the upper part of Africa including Sahara desert in order to maximize the utilization of distributed generation such as solar energy in Sahara desert and wind power in the Mediterranean and the atlantics. The paper also develops friendly integrated techniques to connect the wind farm and solar projected into DC network pool according to standard grid codes without creating operational or stability problems. The paper addresses the challenges of the power mismatch and frequency instability emerges due to nature of renewable power units and the power trading between the regional networks and the dc power pool.

Annual Pattern of Biomedical Waste Generation and the Seasonal Variation PDF

Yashasvi Thakur, Surjit Singh Katoch

Waste generation in a healthcare facility depends basically upon a number of factors including but not limited to the number of patients treated, the total bed occupancy rate and the type of diseases treated. These three aspects are controlled by many sub factors but in this case study we have studied the seasonal variation, average temperature and disease outbreak in the area where the health care facility under study is located and the way in which they influence the amount of medical waste generated. Data on medical waste generation at the largest health facility of a hilly town of Himachal Pradesh a northern state of India was collected by observational approach, formal personal interviews, informal dialogue and site visits for analysis between August 2011 and August 2014. It was found out that the waste generated is directly related to the average temperature and varies with the seasonal variations. It was further found out that the waste generated at the health care facility was segregated and treated in accordance to the guidelines laid down by the Central Pollution Control Board of India under the Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998.


Maysloon A. AL-sadoon, Nadham K.Mahdi, Edwar Z. Khosho

To evaluatethe expression of CD44 proteins in women with incomplete first trimester miscarriage. The study included 172 women age 16-41 years were further classified into three categories: Group A- Recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM): n= 65 women, with a mean age of (25.2±7.28) years. Group B- Non- recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (non-RSM): n= 36 women, with a mean age of (26.61 ±6.97)years.

Magnetic mould casting: technical review and methodology PDF

Nitin Kumar Chauhan, Abhilash Singh, Ashwani Singh, Sunil Kumar, Visha Rani Singh

Casting is a manufacturing process, which is used directly or indirectly in almost every industry. It is a primary manufacturing process and has its effect on the properties of the resultant product. In this era there is a demand to innovate processes, which can reduce lead-time, reduce cost of production without compromising with the quality of the products and reduce ill effects on environment. Magnetic mould casting is an innovative process having a great potential to replace conventional casting methods due to various advantages associated with it. The setup of MMC includes winding of copper wire such that it behaves like a solenoid with hollow cavity in which actual casting process is to be carried out. The setup was prepared with copper wire of 19 gauge and winding is done until required magnetic field is created. The prepared setup and trial runs shows that there is a scope of creation of similar setup at large scale so that MMC can be used at industrial level to utilize its advantages of reduced cost, reduced lead-time, reduced effect on environment and imparting improved properties to the resultant product.

An empirical assessment on cost-effectiveness and re-usability of test cases based on defect severity levels in regrerssion testing PDF

Lalitha Venkatesan.A

Regression testing is an important part of the software development life cycle. In this paper an empirical assessment is made between defect priority and defect severity levels. This is assessment is done because, when priorities are assigned to the defects it can dynamically change, but defect severity is absolute and does not change as they reflect the state and quality of the product. Testing the software based on defect severity levels requires a defect bash. When this process is carried out at a given fixed time maximum defects or faults can be revealed. In this approach defect severity levels are assigned using a metric called Total Severity of Faults Detected (TSFD) .In Test Case Prioritization technique the test cases are discarded, those discarded test cases are repaired using the test case repairer and then stored into Test Case Bin(TCB).This TCB acts as a repository to store those repaired test cases. The reason is, instead of writing new test cases, the repaired test cases in TCB are used as well. This TCB not only achieves reusability of test cases but it is highly cost-effective too.

Optimization of Ternary Combinational System PDF

Prashant S Wankhade, Dr Gajanan Sarate

This paper presents basic concept about ternary number system, this paper gives us idea about symbol and truth table of ternary gates it also gives novel method for defining, analyzing and implementing the basic combinational circuitry with minimum number of ternary gates. This paper provides concept of Boolean algebra to ternary number system. The 3:1Multiplexeris designed using ternary gates to realize combinational circuitry that provides complete, concise, implementation-free description of the ternary functions involved. Half and full adder circuit implemented using ternary gates the method is useful in analyzing the complex ternary functions and reduction of gate count. This paper also presents a survey on ternary switching algebra.

Detection and Avoidance of Wormhole Attack in MANET PDF

Dhruva Patel, Parth Trivedi, Dr. M.B Potdar

The wireless mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is self-configuring mobile nodes connected through the wireless links with the decentralized networks where the nodes communicate with each other on the basis of mutual trust. For the network design, nature of the MANETs brings a new security challenges. Due to the dynamic infrastructure less nature and decentralized networks, wireless Ad-hoc networks are unprotected and vulnerable to the attack. This paper focuses on the study of the wormhole attack and avoidance of it. In this paper detection and avoidance techniques of wormhole attack are implemented in MANET routing protocol namely TORA as reactive routing protocol. The performance of TORA is compared without wormhole attack, with wormhole attack and after avoidance of wormhole attack. Performance metrics used for evaluation are throughput, delay and packet delivery ratio. The technique is based on the nodes quality index value. Simulation done with 16 nodes and in these two nodes considered as malicious node in Network Simulator2 (NS2).

A Novel Approach for choosing smart feature set victimization using clustering algorithm for HD PDF


By involving known a set of the foremost helpful options that produces additional compatible results set because the original entire set of excellent options, a decent feature choice for top dimensional information i.e.High dimensional Data(HD). The potency and effectiveness points of read are often evaluated for a decent feature choice algorithmic rule to go looking a decent set of options, the potency of HD associated with the time that is needed, and also the effectiveness of HD is that the quality of excellent set options. There area unit 2 steps of quick works, a decent feature set choice algorithmic rule. the great options set is distributed into clusters by victimisation graph supposed agglomeration ways, within the initiative of quick algorithmic rule. The most representative, helpful and effective feature that's most ordinarily associated with target categories and designated from every cluster to make a set of excellent options, within the second step. we tend to adopt the economical minimum spanning tree bunch technique for potency of quick.We tend to use prunning call tree technique for constructing economical civil time.The worth of a knowledge item is usually diagrammatical, not by multiple values, however by varied values forming a chance distribution. The ensuing classifier is a lot of correct than those exploitation price averages, in depth analysis are performed that show.The price of process chance density functions is quite that of process single values.Call tree construction on unsure information is a lot of mainframe hard-to-please than that sure information.We tend to propose a series of pruning techniques that may be extremely improve construction potency to unravel or decrease this downside. For extremely improve construction potency we tend to propose a paronomasia techniques.

A Novel design approach Microstrip Patch Antenna Design for Ultra wideband Applications PDF

Prashant Sarode, Shashikant S. Patil, Sachin Sonawane, Girish Patil

There are various types of Microstrip antennas that can be used for many applications in communication systems. This paper proposes the design of a Bevel Shape rectangular Microstrip patch antenna to operate in a frequency range of 1.55 GHz to 2.2 GHz. We have designed the antenna, based on a thickness of 1.6 mm, Flame Retardant 4 substrate with a dielectric constant of approximately 4.4, is a probe feed and has a partial ground plane. After mathematical design and simulation tool results, the antenna performance characteristics such as antenna VSWR and Return Loss are substantially improved. The simulation was done using Hyperlink 3D simulator software

A new look depending on the cover image data for hiding and retrieval the secret information by using LSB technique PDF

Atheer Hussein Zyara

The hiding operation of important ways to keep the Confidential data for Security institutions and the private property of individuals When transported through the internal network or Internet networks,and the objective of the hiding operation It is to remove any doubts about the existence of hidden data reverse the encryption process which raises doubts , The most important characteristic of concealment techniques that they keep pace with new technologies With the availability of different types of center-carrier or the so-called cover .In this research was to improve the hiding way Depending on the LSB Technique,and that of through hiding then jump , including a bits in a specific location of the picture And move to the next site based on the value of previous site After addition . In this way we are sending the picture with two keys They are the start and finish site.where the site value be represented by the total of ones number (1) or the total of zeros number (0)Per byte plus the Driving force (Impetus),where the impetus value be selected by user.the Features this method , Flexibility where applied to all kinds of images , Ease of hiding and retrieval, and the Durability from where of the large number of possibilities that be from the impossibility to Predict the existence of a secret message , This is what distinguishes this proposed algorithm, especially if conducted some encryption technologies on confidential data ,In order to clarify the idea of the proposed algorithm is applied to the image of the grayscaletype , the English text , and Arabic texts, The use of Efficiency standards (PSNR) and (MSE) For the purpose of measuring the level of efficiency of the proposed algorithm , Matlab language was used for the application of the proposed algorithm .

Optimum Utilization of Solar Energy in Domestic Sector in India PDF

I. Nawaz

India is endowed with abundance of solar radiation. The country receives solar radiation equivalent to more than 5, 000 trillion kWh/year, which is far more than its total annual energy requirement. The radiation available could be utilized for thermal as well as for photovoltaic applications. Solar thermal technologies have already found ready acceptance in a variety of decentralized applications in domestic, industrial and commercial sectors of the country. The most widely acceptable application is the solar water heating technology. However, solar steam generating and air heating technologies and energy efficient solar buildings are also attracting attention in urban and industrial areas. Among solar photovoltaic technologies, there are several important devices such as solar lanterns, solar home systems, solar street lights, solar pumps, solar power packs and roof top SPV systems. They could be useful both in rural and urban areas for the purpose of reducing the burden on conventional fuels. As the dependence on conventional fuels is decreased, the environmental pollution will go down. Significant among renewable energy sources is solar energy which is fortunately all pervasive, readily available almost throughout the year in India and non-depleting. In this study, primary focus has been given to optimum utilization of solar energy in domestic sector in such activities as cooking, lighting, water and air heating, drying, etc. Increased use of solar energy will also have health benefits; in particular women will be saved from drudgery and ailments.

Powered Foot Ankle Prosthesis PDF

Neethu Rajan, Swagatika Mishra, Abhishek Patil & Jyothi Warrier

A powered foot ankle prosthesis is a lower body extremity prosthesis, which is an artificial extension that replaces the part missing below the knee. It is part of the field of biomechatronics, the science of fusing mechanical devices with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems; to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease, or defect. This research paper focuses on the transtibial condition and the prosthetic device which acts as an aid to the individuals affected by such conditions. The paper mainly aims at creating a visual record to reeducate an amputee on the normal gait pattern. The main components of the prosthetic device includes the accelerometer sensor, the pic microcontroller and the dc motor. The accelerometer sensor should be placed at the normal foot of the individual and for different standard gait patterns like heel strike, foot flat, heel off and acceleration, the accelerometer measures different values for all the three axes. These values so sensed by the sensor will be read by the microcontroller and the microcontroller will be programmed in such a manner that for specific values, the motor will provide either a clockwise or an anticlockwise motion as per the requirement. Thus both the dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the prosthetic foot is made possible by the motor whose movement will be controlled by the microcontroller. Thus a co-ordinated working of the sensor, microcontroller and the motor will provide the exact gait pattern for the transtibial prosthetic device and its visual record will help the patient to provide a better understanding of gait which he has to follow while using his prosthetic device.

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Regenerated Bamboo and Muga silk Blended Fabric for value addition PDF

Dr. Smitarani Saikia, Dr. Binita Baishya kalita

Blending different types of fibres is a widely practiced means of enhancing the performance and the aesthetic qualities of a fabric. Blended yarns from natural and man-made fibres have the particular advantage of successfully combining the good properties of both fibre components, such as comfort of wear with easy care properties. These advantages also permit an increased variety of products to be made, and yield a stronger marketing advantage. The demands from fabrics have changed with the developments in technology and the rising living standards. In this study the bamboo and silk fibre was blend in carding and drawing stage and yarn were produced in three different ratios 20:80, 50:50 and 80:20.These yarns were further weaved in plain weave and the functional properties of the fabrics produced were evaluated .It was found that the woven blended bamboo muga fabrics can successfully use as apparel as well as value added products.

Enhancement of Fair Distribution of Bandwidth over Mobile Ad hoc Networks PDF

Amulya Sakhamuru,Varun Manchikalapudi

A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of two or more devices or nodes or terminals with wireless communications and networking capability that communicate with each other without using any existing network infrastructure. It requires an effective bandwidth distribution which is described as maximum throughput in a communication system. A bandwidth is the total distance between the highest and lowest signals in a communication channel which is distributed in such a way that, it is overused by nodes near gateway and scarcely used by nodes far away from gateway. To avoid this problem of unfairness and data loss due to high mobility, this paper anticipated a fair share algorithm in which the bandwidth is fairly distributed in order to avoid the packet losses in terms of data transfer in the channel dynamically. Efficiency is affected by some factors like throughput, packet transmission and latency. Due to fair distribution of bandwidth in the network, efficient transfer of packets can be achieved.

Dynamic Student Modeling Intelligent Tutoring System PDF

Ifeanyi Isaiah Achi, Chukwuemeka Odi Agwu, Henry Nwani Ogbu

This paper reviews a system used to models students’ comprehension level in a typical learning environment while the teaching process is still going on. This system is tagged dynamic and not static because it can teach and at the same determine the best way or path (learning styles) that the student could be taught with as against the previous authors which is likened to be static or case based which will first of all embark on studying the student and get the student behavior in terms of their response and now use it to provide a learning solution for the student. This system finds out the best way a student can learn before the commencement of the tutoring process based on the student responses. We are proposing this new system because of its capability to get the student responses as the teaching process is going and at the same time forming policies and taking decision at once on the best path to teach student. This will help reduce the student long learning curve associated to the previous system. This system when adapted for students in developing countries as Nigeria would facilitate the learning process and reduction in students long learning curve.

Moment Invariant based on Master Eye Block for Face Identification PDF

Dr. Dhia A.Jumaa Alzubaydi

Face identification is one of current biometrics techniques research that receive a great deal of concentration over last period because this application is needed in many vital applications like in security and surveillance field, in identity authentication and image database investigations, also in other domains. In this paper, a new face identification system is presented to identify face image in front view, left and right orientations, more than one expression. The framework of proposed system passes through two phases: the training phase and identification phase. The two phases sharing the same stages of the system (face detection, eye detection, edge detection and feature extraction). In this work features vector that represent the face attributes consists of seven moment invariant values obtained by applying moment invariant on master eye block. Probabilistic neural networks (PNN) have been used to make a decision in matching stage; the system was tested over a dataset collected from 30 volunteers, where 10 images for each person were collected in different poss, expressions and orientations. The achieved training rate was 100%, while the achieved recognition rate was 100% in case of front view, 68% in case of right rotate, 69% in case of left rotate and 79% is average rate.

Controlled formalized operators PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this report is considered the generalization of the principles, which manage the formalization of controlled qubit operators. The research builds on the standard external data sources, for development of a generalized system for conditional operators. Certain controlled operators are viewed as linear combinations of universal operators. This system provides a generalized scheme for the type of the controlled operators, which could be encountered in a circuit, composed entirely of elementary operators.

Controlled formalized operators with multiple control bits PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this report is examined the construction of controlled operators, that include more than one control or target bit. In the research is examined a general class of n qubit operators, that use one or more control bits to conditionally apply an operator to a single target qubit. The conditional nature of these operators is controlled by a boolean function f, that acts on a set of control bits C.

Connecting sets of formalized operators PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this report is examined the generalization of the principles, that control the formalization of a single qubit operator. The set of the identical operators is used in order to be captured the types of operators, occurring at the application of negating operators in the n qubit space.

Indexed formalized operators for n-bit chains PDF

Nikolay Raychev

in this report is considered the construction of n qubit circuits through the addition of n qubits as a quantum register, at which each bit is a set index in a range from 0 to n - 1. The index of the bit complies with its significance within the space of the classical state. An indexed formalized operator is presented, that extends the single qubit operator to a n qubit operator, that acts to an individual qubit.

Evaluation of NaCl salinity tolerance of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg and Treculia africana Decne for climate change adaptation in agroecosystems PDF

Chima, U.D., Ofodile, E.A.U., Naaluba, M.

The success of agroforestry in climate change adaptation especially in coastal communities experiencing salt-water intrusion will to a large extent depend on the identification of salt-tolerant tree species that can be integrated in vulnerable agro-ecosystems. This study evaluated the salinity tolerance of Treculia africana and Artocarpus altilis. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) replicated three times. Poly-bags were filled with bulked topsoil collected from a common source. Viable seeds of T. africana and A. altilis from the same mother trees were each sown (10 seeds in three replicates) per treatment. Equal volumes of NaCl solution of different concentrations (0.0mg/l (control), 60mg/l, 120mg/l, and 240mg/l) were administered to the respective poly-bags before sowing and morning/evening after sowing until a period of two months. Germination percentage reduced with increased salinity levels in both species, although, T. africana had higher germination percentages than A. altilis. Commencement of germination of T. africana seeds was delayed for two days in 60.00, 120.00 and 240.00 mg/l NaCl. In A. altilis, germination was delayed for three days in 60.00 and 120.00 mg/l NaCl, and for five days in 240.00 mg/l NaCl. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in average number of leaves and seedling height between the control and other treatments in T. africana while significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between control and other treatments in all the evaluated attributes in A. altilis except collar diameter. T. africana appears to be more tolerant to increased salinity levels than A. altilis; hence, T. africana is recommended for the diversification of agro-ecosystems prone to salt-water intrusion. Screening of more tree species for salinity tolerance is also recommended.

Impact assessment on water quality of Ganga Canal System in Himalayan Region PDF

Gagan Matta, Ajendra Kumar, Sachin Srivastava, Vikas Singh and Gulshan K. Dhingra

Monthly variation of physico-chemical parameters of river Ganga at Haridwar, India was studied. Water samples for one year study (2013-14) were collected from 3 sites of the river Ganga located in Haridwar city and nearby places. Total 19 physico-chemical parameters were investigated. Correlation coefficient among various parameters was determined to bear positive or negative correlation. In the present analysis maximum concentration of LI (337.40-6022.75 µ mol. m-2 s-1), temperature (11.52-18.52 0C), conductance (74.57-145.4 µmhos/Cm2+), turbidity (4.83-252.20 JTU), velocity (0.97-1.64 m/s), TS (117.11-922.08 mg/l), TSS (25.48-729.60 mg/l), TDS (87.52-203.05mg/l), DO (7.57-0.56 mg/l), BOD (0.65-10.56 mg/l), COD (2.02-7.65 mg/l), Free CO2 (0.47-1.81 mg/l), Alkalinity (18.99-54.8 mg/l), Hardness (28.11-66.77 mg/l), Acidity (29.94-72.56 mg/l), Cl (2.47-5.81 mg/l), P (0.03-0.13 mg/l), TKN (0.02-0.08 mg/l) and Sulphate (8.64-22.94 mg/l) respectively. The results were compared with the WHO water quality standards. The observed values of major parameters were slightly under the permissible limits of WHO, except the DO, turbidity and TSS. Therefore the observed water quality suggests that the water could not be used for drinking and bathing purposes. It could only be used for irrigation after suitable treatment.

A Survey & Applications of Various Watermarking & Encryption Techniques PDF

Rahul Kumar Nayak, Prof. Amit Saxena. Dr. Manish Manoria

Here the paper contains various watermarking technique implemented so far and their different request areas are analyzed and discussed here. Although various techniques of watermarking are already implemented for the confidential information hiding some of them are examined and collate here on the basis of certain parameters including PNSR, watermark signal strength and Bit Error Rate. Since Watermarking enables hiding of secrete statistics such that the data can be secreting when sending to receiver.

Effect of Gammatone auditory-filters on speech intelligibility PDF

Boucherit Ismail, Guerti Mhania

Auditory filters are one of the topics that have been most studied in psychoacoustics. Researchers have used different approaches and many of them have been considered as possible basis for this study. The auditory filter bank can be seen as a bank of band-pass filters that divides the very often broadband input signal into multiple narrowband output signals. The analytic description of the shape of the auditory filters has improved through the years. Our study investigates how the shape of the auditory filters affects the intelligibility of speech in noise. We compare the performance of filters across noises aiming to find the filter that performed the best. However, the difference in results was not found to be statistically significant. Overall, the results provide a framework for using of the auditory filters.

Improving the storage capacity of Removable Media Storage Devices PDF

Ndubuisi P.D.I, Eneh I.I., Alor M.O.

This paper deals with an optical system that can be used for improving the storage capacity of Removable Media Storage Devices (RMSD). It is modeled based on ultrahigh density multilayer disk recording by two photon absorption techniques. Fuzzy Logic System was used to develop a controller which simulates the intelligent system for disk media production evaluation. The Fuzzy Logic has two inputs; the Numeric Aperture and the Number of Layers, while the output is Disk Storage Capacity. The System was implemented with Mat Lab simulation. An increased disk storage capacity of up wards of six terabyte was realized.

Conflicts resolving by symmetry breaking PDF

Nikolay Raychev

In this report is examined an algorithm for conflict resolution by symmetry breaking, which requires the exchange of only one pair of qubits in order to be reached to a solution of the problem related to conflict resolution by symmetry breaking.

Biomarker of impact mercury accumulation by using cosmetics in women's Sadr City - Iraq – Baghdad PDF

Lecturer Shahrazad Najem Abdu-Allah, Dr. Reyam Naji Ajmi

In this study, it has a biological monitoring level of mercury in the hair and nail samples for 30 volunteers from the women in Sadr City. A vital indicator of the accumulation of mercury in the body uses intensive incorrect for cosmetics and evaluated the correlation between the specific characteristics that can affect the exposure powders. In January 2015, Women were invited to participate. The interview was run questionnaire was used to collect information About the age, body weight, height and periods of use of cosmetics and kinds as well as the level of education, family income and the number of abortions, Results of hair total mercury concentration was (0.29±7.03 mg / g). Maternal hair mercury was above the WHO threshold level (WHO) (5 micrograms / g). About Nail total mercury concentration was (0.19±4.23 mg / g ). Also positive correlation among between them (,r=3.82). A significant relation (<0.001 ) . These survey samples were higher than the USEPA-recommended 1 μg/g, which represents a serious health risk to women in this city

Potential activity of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract and some active ingredients against diabetes in rats PDF

Fahmy T. Ali, Nahla S. Hassan and Rehab R. Abdrabou

Background/Aims: Moringa oleifera has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and has also been used for treatment of many diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and three of its active ingredients (moringinine, quercetin and chlorogenic acid). Methods: Alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf, moringinine, quercetin and chlorogenic acid were tested against diabetic rats induced by alloxan. The aim was achieved via determination of glucose level, C-peptide, liver function tests, lipid profile and some oxidative stress markers. Pancreatic histopathology was also performed. Results: Our results indicated that Moringa oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats through normalization the elevated serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, protein carbonyl content, malondi-aldehyde, total antioxidant capacity and C-peptide. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the pancreas in diabetic rats. Conclusions: The result of our study suggests that alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera leaf possess potent antidiabetic activity and also is a good source of natural antioxidant. Quercetin has the most potential antidiabetic activity in the extract, followed by chlorogenic acid and moringinine, the three compounds are responsible to a great extent for the antidiabetic activity of the whole extract.

Ocean Current Turbine Blade Performance Prediction using the Blade Element Theory PDF

Noor Rahman, Saeed Badshah, Abdur Rafai, Muhammad Adnan, Mujahid Badshah

Optimal Design of the ocean current turbine requires analysis of the blade performance to find answer to the question that at specified speed of the ocean current how much torque will produce by the blade. This thesis presents that blade element theory analysis of the ocean current turbine blade. The lift, drag and torque calculations are the important parameters for the blade perfor-mance prediction. This paper discussed the blade element theory for the prediction of the lift, drag, torque, theoretical, actual power, and coefficient of power for the NACA 44xx ocean current turbine blade. The length of the blade is 3 meter and is rotating with 24 RPM. The NACA 44xx airfoils coefficients of lift and drag are used for the calculation of lift and drag. The ocean current speed is assumed to be 1.7 m/sc and the ocean water density is 1025 kg/m3.

Local Substitute for Silica Flour In High Temperature High Pressure Enivronments PDF

P. N. Onwuachi-Iheagwara

This paper centered on the development of a local substitute for silica flour. This was undertaken with the objectives of examining common indigenous materials to ascertain, if any may be a suitable replacement; thus breaking the reliance on imported Silica flour in Nigeria.

An Efficient Model of Distribution and Storage of Big Data across Cloud-based Nodes using Billboard Manager PDF

Rajesh Bose, Sudipta Sahana, Debabrata Sarddar

There are technology and tools that allow complex processing of voluminous data, today. This paper proposes a similar system which aims at easing the process of data storage and retrieval on cloud networks with special focus on providing optimum access over varying Internet connection speeds. The proposed system relies on constantly calculating the closest cloud network depending on factors such as bandwidth available, latency history, storage space level, and closest geographical location. The authors aim to offer the Billboard Manager model to distribute data across the cloud for storing and retrieval of data on a real-time basis using these factors as described in detail in this paper. Further, the proposed Billboard Manager model offers the opportunity to build up an actively indexed set of keywords extracted from Meta data of assorted files passing through it. This enhances the ability of presenting a comprehensive search pattern, thereby, quickly identifying the files and media stored across those cloud networks registered with the Billboard Manager. The ability to plug compression and decompression technology within this proposed Billboard Manager model further enhances the speed at which humongous volumes of data can be distributed across the cloud nodes registered with the Billboard Manager. The design of this model also accommodates parallel processing of data, not entirely dissimilar to existing and popular tools available in the market today. This, therefore, permits Billboard Manager to pre-fetch data by assuming users’ needs beforehand. This feature can be advantageous in regions where Internet speeds are considered below par.

A Review on Health Monitoring Issues & Challenges PDF

Mamta Ramkuche, Asst. Prof. Deepti Dave

Mobile health monitoring involves security and privacy of patient’s private data so that it can’t be access by the unauthorized users. Mobile Health Monitoring contains various sensors to be used in the patient’s body so that 24*7 monitoring can be done by the doctor. But the patient’s personal data is important and privacy is an important factor, hence various security techniques are implemented for the security and privacy of patient’s private data. Here in this paper various techniques are discussed and find their issues and advantages over patient’s data, so that in the future on the basis of these issues a new framework can be implemented.

Dynamic Analysis of a Structural Beam with Surface Crack Using Artificial Neural Network PDF

Ismail Akbani, Ishan Varma

The presence of microstructural defects such as cracks is known to have resulted in catastrophic failures. These failures lead to enormous loss of resources including human lives. To help prevent such losses, the scientific community has been studying the mechanics of crack propagation and trying to develop methods for early detection of cracks. Out of the various alternative techniques being explored, study of the impact of crack presence on the flexibility and vibration response of the structural or machine elements has gained popularity in past few decades. It is based on the theory, supported by observations, that the presence of crack in any structure/machine element alters its dynamic response and thus, this change in the response can be used as an indicator to predict presence of cracks.

Pulmonary Function test of Mine workers exposed to Respirable Dust in Jharia Coalfield India PDF

Deepa Agarwal, Jai Krishna Pandey, Asim Kumar Pal

Respiratory chronic airway disorders and early damage of pulmonary system predict by Spirometry. Occupational exposures to coal dust affect the different systems of the body. The present study has focused on the coal workers who are continuously exposed to air pollutants such as coal dust. Study group of 170 male workers working in coal mines for more than ten years, consists of 66 non-alcoholic and non-smokers, 52 tobacco chewers, 29 smokers and 23 alcoholic. The pulmonary function test was assessed using computerized spirometer. Spirometry test revealed 27.64% of workers having Mild, 29.41% moderate, and 5.88% severe obstruction pattern on PFT. For both the age groups of workers (25-40 and 41-55) having smoking and alcoholic habits, FEV1/FVC values were found more significantly declining (65-71% and 46-53%).Cumulative exposures to respirable dust are the most important risk factors for exposed coal workers. The results suggest that there in a need to improve control measures and the health status of workers engaged in coal mine dust.

Design and performance of a Cutting CO2 laser for industrial non-metallic materials PDF

N. Aboulfotoh Ali, H. A. El- flaah

The great interest in carbon dioxide lasers stems from their continuous power capability, high efficiency and ease of construction. The CO2 laser is a gas type laser with a wavelength of 10.6μm in infrared region. Their high efficiency and tremendous power output have made them one of the most commonly known transition wavelength facilitates laser cutting, drilling and marking of a wide variety of materials in the electronics and medical industries. The CO2 laser we constructed is a low cost laser. The operating voltage applied to the laser is 12 KV, and the power output is in the range of 10-22 Watts .Many of laser design parameters strongly interact with one another, and requires consideration of how they interact to reach the optimum design. The construction of a CO2 gas discharge laser with a glass laser tube design as well as clear housing is presented. Operation was characterized in power, cutting speed and stability over a long time. The results indicate a good operation, optimum powers and beam quality with maximum speed. The experimental results show marking and cutting efficiently of different non-metallic industrial materials such as paper, plastic, glass, texture with different thickness.

Relay Coordination using ETAP PDF

Hima A. Patel, Vaibhav M. Sharma, Anuradha Deshpande

Relays and circuit breakers are heart of the modern large interconnected power system. Proper coordination of relays is essential to minimize unnecessary outages.This paper presents short circuit analysis and relay coordination of overcurrent relays of a radial power system of 1218.5 MVAsc capacity of an industrial power plant using etap simulation and hand calculation and comparison of results by both the methods.

Multi-Agent based Diagnostic Model for Diabetes PDF

A. A. Obiniyi and M. K. Ahmed

With the advent of Agent Technology, and the challenges facing the health care sector and also the distributive and complex nature of the activities in the medical domain, there is need to use the new programming paradigm in order is to explore, develop, design and implement a prototype system for multi-agent diabetes diagnosis that finds the possibility of illness based on the patient’s symptoms which will aid in solving the problems as a result of wrong diagnoses especially in the developing countries like Nigeria. Fuzzy Rule Based Reasoning was used to build the knowledge based of the system based on the studied data of the diabetic patient. The prototype system is capable of diagnosing (Predicting) diabetes without measuring the glucose level of the patient and monitoring diabetic patient by providing them with the required amount of insulin based on the patient weight to enable the patients send an update to the doctors. The experimental result of the diagnosing aspect of the system shows that the accuracy of the system is 0.75 while sensitivity and specificity of the system is 0.88 and 0.5 respectively.

A Hybrid of Fuzzy and PID Controller for Servo Electro-Hydraulic System PDF

Ayman A. Aly

In industrial applications, the dynamic characteristics of the servo-hydraulic system are always complex and highly nonlinear. Moreover, there are too many uncertainties in it; for example, the viscosity of oil, the bulk modulus, the oil volume, the system pressure, the wear and the cavitations. The loading conditions are usually rather unsteady, and the loading forces change in a wide range during operation. It is difficult to meet control demands or obtain satisfactory performance by adopting traditional PID tuning techniques. In this paper, Fuzzy hybrid control using indirect inference method is presented for positioning control of an electrohydraulic cylinder. Smooth control during switching is guaranteed by executing the change using fuzzy inference. Through the simulations and experiments using the servo valve controlled cylinder system, the effectiveness of the proposed control was confirmed.

Potential activity of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract and some active ingredients against diabetes in rats PDF

Fahmy T. Ali, Nahla S. Hassan and Rehab R. Abdrabou

Moringa oleifera has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and has also been used for treatment of many diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and three of its active ingredients (moringinine, quercetin and chlorogenic acid). Alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf, moringinine, quercetin and chlorogenic acid; were tested against diabetic rats induced by alloxan. The aim was achieved via determination of glucose level, C-peptide, liver function tests, lipid profile and some oxidative stress markers. Pancreatic histopathology was also performed. Our results indicated that Moringa oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats through normalization the elevated serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, protein carbonyl content, malondi-aldehyde, total antioxidant capacity and C-peptide. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the pancreas in diabetic rats. The result of our study suggests that alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera leaf possess potent antidiabetic activity and also is a good source of natural antioxidants. Quercetin has the most potential antidiabetic activity in the extract, followed by chlorogenic acid and moringinine; the three compounds are responsible to a great extent for the antidiabetic activity of the whole extract.

Cloud Collaboration for Forensically Ready Cyber Space PDF

Bruno Opara

The major challenge of forensic investigation of networked systems is the lack or incompleteness of relevant evidence collected for the specific crime being investigated. In cloud networks, acquisition of irrelevant data together with evidential data is also a challenge imposed due to multitenacy in cloud architectures. Since cloud forensic is still at its infacy and faced with technical, organizational and legal challenges (Ruan and Cathy, 2013); acquisition of forensic evidence still adopts traditional digital forensic frameworks and acquisition processes for investigating cyber-related crimes. These techniques, when employed for a single-cloud or multicloud environment leads to incompleteness of digital evidence and most times raises integrity concerns.


Nathan David, Abioye, Ayodeji Opeyemi

The Video Capturing Vehicle (VCV) is a robotic device that can produce live video feeds with both automated ground mobility and a simulated flight control. The control of the robotic vehicle is achieved using Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) technique. The VCV is controlled by a Remote Control System which consists of a computer system and the built USB interfaced control device. Software was developed to capture video feed and send control signals to the USB control device. The robotic vehicle consists of an FM receiver, a DTMF decoding circuit, a microcontroller circuit board and an Internet Protocol (IP) camera. The robot while moving, simultaneously captures video feeds using an IP camera attached to it and sends captured video feeds via Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to which the PC at the RCS is initially connected to. The received video feed is displayed on the GUI. The video capturing vehicle can be used for several purposes like surveillance (for security reasons), viewing of human inaccessible area, experimentation (monitoring a health hazardous experiment remotely), among others.

Determination of crystallization tendency and level of HMF in Albanian honey products. PDF


Some attention will be given to the technologically important subject of honey crystallization, which is the precipitation of glucose from honey. The major problem resulting from glucose crystallization that the resulting increased moisture content of the liquid phase allows yeast cells, which occurs naturally in honey to multiply and fermentation to proceed. The major components of floral honey are fructose, glucose and water, averaging 38.2, 31.3, and 17.2%. Glucose and fructose are the only monosaccharides in honey and it is these sugars, combined in various forms that comprise the di-and trisaccharides fractions of floral honey. Several of these occur only rarely in nature and the trisaccharide erlose, produced by the action of honey-bee invertase on sucrose, was first discovered as a component of honey. Honeydew honey is produced by the honeybee from honeydew deposits left by various hemipterous insects on their host plant. Honeydew contais a more complex mixture of sugars than does nectar and honeydew honey is appreciably higher in reducing disaccharides and higher sugars than is floral honey. The trisaccharide melizitose, not found in floral honey, is often present in levels exceeding 10% in honeydew honey. The precipitation of glucose from honey, termed granulation, is often technologically undesirable as it is sometimes followed by fermentation. Indices such as the glucose/water ratio have been used to predict granulation tendency. Small amounts of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) occur naturally in honey, resulting from the acid catalysed dehydration of hexoses, particularly fructose. High levels of HMF suggest adulteration of honey with acid invered syrup and several methods are available for its determination. The conversion of nectar and honeydew to the complex array of honey sugars by the honeybee involves a variety of chemical and biochemical processes.

Design and Implementation of a New Multilevel Inverter Reverse Voltage Topology PDF

Distisha Stephen, Archana. P

In this paper a new topology with a reversing voltage component is proposed which will improve the multilevel performance by compensating the disadvantages of increased number of components, complex pulse width modulation control method and voltage balancing problem. This topology requires fewer components compared to existing inverter topologies (particularly in higher levels) and requires fewer carrier signals and gate drives. Therefore, the overall cost and complexity are greatly reduced particularly for higher output voltage levels. This paper describes the general multilevel inverter schematic. A general method of multilevel modulation phase disposition (PD) SPWM is utilized to drive the inverter and can be extended to any number of voltage levels. The simulation of a seven level multilevel inverter using proposed topology is also presented here.


Ibearugbulem, O. M., Okonkwo, E. N., Nwachukwu, A. N, and Obi, L. O

This paper presents the determination of compressive strength of lateritic sandcrete cubes. In the course of the study we investigated the suitability of laterite as a partial replacement of sand, and specifically seek to determine whether lateritic sandcrete cubes would satisfy the minimum compressive strength requirement of Nigeria Industrial Standard (NIS 87:2007) for load bearing blocks for use in sandcrete blocks. This strength is 3.45N/mm². Potable water was used for this work and Dangote brand of Ordinary Portland Cement was used as binder. Various combinations of Laterite and sand were used. The least cement content of all the mixes is 10% of dry mass. Compressive cube strength and saturated surface dry (SSD) bulk density tests were conducted. Batching was by weight. Twenty-five mix ratios comprising of cement: laterite: sand were used. A total of 100 standard 150 mm x 150mm x 150mm lateritic sandcrete cubes were cast, cured for 28 days, weighed and crushed. The method of casting was the same as the method of casting traditional sandcrete blocks. The results show that the average SSD density of the lateritic sandcrete cubes are approximately 2334.97 Kg/m³, a value higher than the average value of 1983Kg/m³ conventional sandcrete blocks. Also, all mix ratios had compressive cube strengths higher than 3.45N/mm². Therefore, laterite could be used as part of fine aggregate for making sandcrete blocks. More so, since lateritic sandcrete cubes has a higher compressive strength than the minimum standard, it could be used as load bearing blocks in building construction. However, the cement content should not be less than 10% of dry mass.



Elementary school –age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While hand washing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. Most childhood illnesses, diseases and deaths are caused by the use of unsafe water for drinking and hand washing. Improving water supply and hygienic benefits are the health of the school child in the sense that, it directly reduces diseases and indirectly improves the child’s prospects in his educational endeavour. (Lopez, 2008).

Extraction of Blood Vessels and Exudates from Retinal Images using Image processing algorithm PDF

B.Srilatha, Dr.V.Malleswara rao

The diabetic retinopathy disease spreads diabetes on the retina vessels thus they lose blood supply that causes blindness in short time, so early detection of diabetes prevents blindness in more than 50% of cases The retinal image diagnosis is an important methodology for diabetic retinopathy detection and analysis. In this paper the algorithm improved median filter is compared and further feature extraction of blood vessels and exudates is done by kirsch algorithm and fuzzy clustering algorithm. the proposed system consists of three stages-first is preprocessing of retinal image using improved median filtering, second stage feature extraction of blood vessel using kirsch edge detection algorithm which will not only detect the edge and also the direction of edge and third stage is feature extraction of Exudates. Simulation using mat lab were done using a set of images and have been proved that the algorithm holds good for all the images, blood vessels and exudates can be detected effectively. This results will give the mild and moderate stage of severity in diabetic.

Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the adsorption of cobalt on the beet pulp PDF

S. Elanza, A. Lebkiri, , E.H. Rifi, J. Hmimou M. Lbkiri, Y. Essaadaoui

In this work, we have valorized the beet pulp (BP) in the removing of metal ions Co2+ from aqueous solutions. The kinetic study shows that the extraction equilibrium of Co2+ ions by the BP is reached after 80 min and the extraction process is expressed by the second-order kinetic. The effect of the concentration of Co2+ and the initial pH on the removal efficiency shows that the binding capacity increases with increase in the pHi and the concentration of metal ions. The thermodynamic and mathematical modeling study of the adsorption of Co2+ ions on the BP, shows that the adsorption process is favorable and chemisorption. The negative values of ΔG0 show that the adsorption process occurs spontaneously and the positive values of ΔH0 show that the process is endothermic. Also the positive values of ΔS0 indicate increasing the randomness at the solid / liquid interface during the adsorption of Co2+ ions on the PB.

Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Concrete Component of an Existing Building PDF

S. Sule, D.O. Onwuka and T.C. Nwofor

In this paper, the result of probabilistic risk assessment of an existing building is reported. A beta distribution model was the method invoked in the reliability estimation. The parameters used in the risk assessment were obtained from the Schmidt hammer test carried out on the Laboratory Block at College of Continuing Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The strength parameters used as the basic variable were assumed to be random and stochastic. The reliability value after assessment was found to be 83.937% which is less than the target value of 99.998% for slabs, 99.999% for beams in flexure, 99.984% for beams in shear and 99.995% for columns under dead and live load combination. Also, the coefficient of variation of the basic variable (strength) was found to be 0.526 which is far above the recommended values of 0.10 and 0.15 for on-site compressive strength less than 28N/mm2 for control cylinders and cubes showing that the structure does not show promise of satisfactory performance in service and can lead to serious accident which may result in injuries, fatalities and damage of properties in the event of collapse.

Specific energy based characterisation of tool wear in mechanical machining processes PDF

Vincent A Balogun, Paul T Mativenga

The global trend for energy consumption as a foundational requirement for economic and social development is an increasing one. Electricity consumption is proportional to the CO2 emitted at the process level and especially for machining processes. The electrical energy demand during machining can be categorized and modelled as basic energy (energy demand by the machine tool while operating at zero load) and tip energy (energy for actual material removal – cutting). The tool tip energy is evaluated from the specific cutting energy. At present limited data exists with regards to the key parameters required for modelling the tip energy. Previous studies and data for specific energy were based on the normalisation of the total energy demand with the material removal rate and have not investigated the effect of tool wear. In this work, the impact of tool wear on the specific energy coefficients in machining were studied and modelled. Cutting tests were performed and tool wear and tool life based on the specific energy coefficient for each wear land value were evaluated. The study has for the first time provided data on the variation of specific cutting energy for higher tool wear lands and presents vital sensitivity analysis. With longer cutting time, tool wear increases which leads to higher specific cutting energy and energy consumption during machining. The specific energy coefficient increased by up to 50% when turning EN8 steel alloy between 2 and 10 passes. This knowledge is vital information for process planners and could enable energy estimates to be more accurate and realistic with regards to capturing the impact of tool wear.


S.Vengadesan, B.Muthulakshmi

Cloud computing is becoming increasingly important for provision of services and storage of data in the Internet. An effective firewall security has been implemented for blocking and filtering the unwanted requests coming from the clients before the request approach to the virtual machine. Security issues in cloud concerns and mainly associated with security issue faced by cloud service providers and the service issues faced by customers. Security issues in cloud concerns and mainly associated with security issues faced by cloud service providers and the service issues faced by the cloud customers. In the proposed system, an effective firewall security has been implemented for blocking and filtering the unwanted requests coming from the clients before the request approach the virtual machine. However there are several significant challenges in securing cloud infrastructures from different types of attacks. The focus of this paper is on the security services that a cloud provider can offer as part of its infrastructure to its customers (tenants) to counteract these attacks. Our main contribution is a security architecture that provides a flexible security as a service model that a cloud provider can offer to its tenants and customers of its tenants. Our security as a service model while offering a baseline security to the provider to protect its own cloud infrastructure also provides flexibility to tenants to have additional security functionalities that suit their security requirements.


Rafeekali K, Muhammed Maheem, Rintu Sebastian, E.M. Mohammed

Nanoparticles NiFe2-xGdxO4 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) ferrite was prepared by solgel combution method. The samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction and SEM measurements. The effect of Gd3+ cations substitution on structure of prepared nanoparticles was investigated. From the analysis, the system was found to be inverse spinel cubic structure. The lattice parameter (a) changes increases with Gd doping content. . Room temperature DC electrical resistivity decreases .Dielectric properties have been studied in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 5 MHz. Permittivity and tangent loss (tanδ) decreases with the substitution of Gd3+ in parent crystal structure.

Study design edge filter using synthesis needle technique PDF

Alaa Nazar abudalghaffar, Narmeen Ali Jasem

This study demonstrated design edge filter of long and short- wave pass for mid IR region using needle approach as synthesis method. This approach gave new design stacks of edge filters with optimal specifications as high transmittance, wide stopband, wide passband , sharper edge, and reduced the ripples in passband. Results appear that problem for design (SWP) filter are solved and gave zero transmittance in stopband by using a fewer layers .Also this paper shows design (LWP)with optimal optical performance.

The semi-annual variations of the bio-available heavy metals and natural radionuclides in Timsah Lake sediments, Egypt PDF

Mahmoud A. Dar, Mahmoud A. Uosif, Lamyaa I. Mohamadeen, Abeer A. El Saharty, Hesham M. Hamed and Fekry A. Murad

The granulometric characteristics, the bio-available heavy metals and the natural radionuclide activities in the surface sediments were investigated semi-annually in Timsah Lake at the middle district of the Suez Canal, Egypt. The average percentages of mud and fine grained sediments recorded in summer were (4.17% and 33.89%) much higher than in winter (1.43% and 22.70%) attributed to the relatively high dispersing of the fine sediment fractions in winter by wave action and the fine sediments drifting towards Suez Canal. The average carbonate percentage was 19.72% in summer increased to 22.71% in winter, inversely, the average total organic matter (TOM) in summer was 7.52% decreased to 6.32% in winter. The highest averages of the bio-available heavy metals; Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, Ni and Fe were; 65.51, 18.06, 27.76, 0.78, 260.64, 4.10, 17.16 and 2087.71µg/g were recorded summer and the highest average activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 23.79, 23.72and 221.35Bqkg-1 were recorded in winter. The recoded heavy metals and radionuclides were attributed to multi anthropogenic sources; untreated wastewater drains, agriculture drains, industrial runoff and shipyards. The high values of TOM and bioavailable heavy metals in summer are related to the highest fine sediment percentages, while the radionuclides may tend to associate with the coarse sediments. The significant positive correlations of TOM and Fe with heavy metals and radionuclides indicated to two essential metal phases, one with organic matter in the highly reducing conditions and the other associated and/or adsorbed by Fe-oxides and hydroxide particles in addition to the other independent metal phases. The recorded bioavailable metals are lower than the excepted because of suspended matters and water drift toward Suez Canal dilute the metal accumulation in the lake sediments.


R. A. Umunnah., B. E. Okon.

This research work focuses on THE SURVEY OF THE NOISE GENERATED BY TIMBER MARKET MACHINES AND ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS ON THE WORKERS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT IN CALABAR METROPOLIS, CROSS RIVER STATE. Acoustical and physical measurements were made using a sound level meter and a real time frequency analyzer. Social survey and attitudinal response characteristic of the industrial workers to the industrial noise were determined by means of interviews and questionnaires. The results showed that A-weighted sound levels produced by the woodworking machines with the meter at 1m away from the machines were 100.1 dBA, 99.2 dBA, 100.4 dBA, 100.5 dBA and 90 dBA for Band saw, Table saw, Plainer, Spindle/Curving machines and Drilling machines respectively. Generally the subjective results in the industry shows that 305 out of 505 respondents, representing over 60 percent, are exposed to the noise for 9 hours and above per day. 380 out of 530, representing 72 percent of the respondents are exposed for 6 days and above per week while 66 percent of them, that is, a total of 355 out of 535 respondents, have been exposed to the noise for more than ten years. Looking at the hourly, daily and yearly exposure results mentioned above and considering the noise levels in the markets which far exceeds the industrial Occupation Safety and Health Act (OSHA) permissible level of 90 dBA for an exposure time of 8 hours and 5 days a week, it can be concluded that workers who fall within these exposure time period in these high noise level generating industries have hearing impairments.

An Experimental Investigation of Red Soil Based Geopolymer Mortar Without Portland cement PDF

M.N.Uddin, V.Saraswathy & P. Elumalai

Vast using of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for construction purpose caused pollution to the global environment as production of OPC released the significant amount of CO2 to the environment. So now a days it is essential to reduce the global carbon dioxide which is encouraged to the researchers to search an eco-friendly alternative material for sustainable construction. One of these alternative materials for this type of construction is Geopolymer based construction materials such as mortar, concrete and bricks, those are having 100% cement less and increasing popularity towards the sustainable development. This Geopolymer based mortar or concrete can be produced from mineral admixtures, such as fly ash, clay, red mud, ground granulated blast furnace slag, meta-kaolin and silica fume, with user-friendly alkaline-reagents. In this investigation red soil based mortar is described as this is locally available greener and low cost material compared to OPC mortar. This paper is showing the possible application of red soil based Geopolymer mortar in construction industry and to find out its compressive strength, chemical durability, sorptivity, coefficient of water absorption, elevated temperature study, ultrasonic pulse velocity, water absorption and porosity with different molarity and percentage of binder. Moreover composition and microstructure of red soil were characterized by XRD, TGA, SEM and EDAX as well.


Omoseebi Oladipo, Akinde Olakanmi Ralph, Banjo Adekunbiola Fehintola, Bamigboye Babatunde

It has been noticed that Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is now found to be increasing in incidence in Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence, histologic types, age and sex distribution of nasopharyngeal cancer in our centre.

Analysis of Noise Pollution in Selected Areas of Ota, Nigeria PDF

Marvel L. Akinyemi, Moses E. Emetere and Longe O. Tolu

The physiological effects of noise pollution are alarming. Its visible effect on hearing damage, cardiovascular, childhood hypertension and hormonal disturbances are evident in developing communities. Six locations were selected in Ota, Nigeria. Data set obtained from the digital sound level meter was used to model the noise climate and the equivalent continuous noise level. While the noise climate of the mini-market was predictive in nature, the noise climate in the secondary school was very high and not predictive.

Natural Approach towards Mitigating Noise Pollution: A Case Study of Covenant University PDF

Marvel L. Akinyemi, Moses E. Emetere and Iyanuoluwa E. Ogunrinola

The study of science has out-grown mere speculation. Scientifical procedure was adopted to verify if trees should be planted close to the noise source rather than the area to be protected. Six locations were selected in Ota, Nigeria. Data set obtained from the digital sound level meter was used to model the noise levels. The first location, the power generator behind the university chapel had trees around and the overall noise reduction was 12.5dB. The overall noise reduction in the second location was 47.12dB. Reduction from other locations was between 16dB to 25dB. Hence, if wind dynamics is excluded, trees should be planted close to the noise source rather than the area to be protected.

Some algorithmic methods for computing the sum of powers PDF

Yerzhan Utkelbayev, Madiyar Aitbayev

In this paper several methods with di erent algorithmic complexity are considered for sum of powers. Di erent algorithmic methods are shown based on some known mathematical facts.


Kowsalya N, Dr. C. Chandrasekar

Designing web crawler to meet the web user requirement is most important where the user interest changes every day and they look for the most precise information at rapid time. There are many designs has been discussed earlier but suffers with the problem of generating précised and relevant result in rapid time. The problem of time complexity and accuracy is based on the indexing approach being used; in this paper a novel multi model dynamic web crawling model is discussed to improve the efficiency of web search. The paper discusses about three different models of similarity indexing namely topical, semantic, and taxonomical. With the computed different similarity measures, the document or the web page is identified as belongs to a class and the method extends the level of indexing into infinitive by performing hierarchical cluster. The method identifies the subspace of any web document in the cluster, based on the above computed similarity measure at each level. The pages of results generated is re-ranked using T2S (Topical-Taxonomical Semantic) similarity measure. The proposed multi model approach produces efficient results in web search and reduces the time complexity and increases the relevancy of results.

Shack Man Mask PDF

Wanny Abdel Fattah Mohamed

Represent a significant car exhaust causing major sources of air pollution as a result of increasing the number of vehicles on the capacity of roads and low average speed of the car. Led both population growth and the movement of economic development and increase the number of vehicles in the past last loads to increase air pollution range of pollutants is the particulate matter and oxides of carbon and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.

Yttrium (III) Chloride: A simple and an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 1, 4-dihropyridines (Hantzsch pyridines) PDF

Racha Lenin, Rallabandi Madhusudhan Raju and Yekkirala Venkateswarlu

A simple and an efficient procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-Dihydropyridines also known as Hantzsch pyridines has been described. The methodology described, involves a condensation reaction between an aldehyde, β-ketoester and ammonium acetate in the presence of Yttrium (III) Chloride as a catalyst. This protocol is simple and applicable to a wide variety of aldehydes and β-ketoester compounds to provide the 1,4-Dihydropyridines in good to excellent yields.


Ch. Hanusha, K. Lakshmi Bhavani

In this paper a triangular ring slot antenna is proposed which is designed to operate at 5.5GHz. Apart from this fundamental mode, additional harmonics are produced. These harmonics are suppressed by integrating an inverted U-shaped slot into the antenna. This defected ground structure is used to achieve harmonic suppression at 11GHz and 15GHz. Further a tilted slot is embedded in the ring slot antenna to produce circular polarization


Abodenyi V.A, S.E Obetta and Kaankuka T. P

Determination of some engineering properties of two varieties of breadfruit seed was carried out using standard procedures. The initial moisture content was 6.85% and later adjusted by rewetting to 14.85%, 21.85% and 28.85 %(wb). Angle of repose and coefficient of friction of the two varieties were also determined on three surfaces (plywood, glass and Aluminium). The mechanical properties at compressive yield were determined using universal testing machine. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using Minitab statistical software. Results showed var. Africana values are in the following ranges: angle of repose plywood (20.84 to 33120) on glass (17.04 to 29.560) and on aluminum (16.57 to 29.060). Coefficient of friction on plywood was (0.376 to 0.496), on glass (0.325 to 0.450) and on aluminum (0.368 to 0.469). While var. inversa have the following values for angle of repose plywood (17.04 to 22.970) on glass (20.38 to 30.07) and on aluminium (20.50 to 29.32). Coefficient of friction on plywood was (0.344 to 0.459), on glass (0.279 to 0.396), and on aluminium (0.348 to 0.433). These properties increased with increase in moisture content. The fracture resistance of var. africana and var. inversa were found to decrease with increase in moisture content. The data obtained from this study will aid in the design and construction of breadfruit seed threshing machine.

A new look depending on the cover image data for hiding and retrieval the secret information by using LSB technique PDF

Atheer Hussein Zyara

The hiding operation of important ways to keep the Confidential data for Security institutions and the private property of individuals When transported through the internal network or Internet networks,and the objective of the hiding operation It is to remove any doubts about the existence of hidden data reverse the encryption process which raises doubts , The most important characteristic of concealment techniques that they keep pace with new technologies With the availability of different types of center-carrier or the so-called cover .In this research was to improve the hiding way Depending on the LSB Technique,and that of through hiding then jump , including a bits in a specific location of the picture And move to the next site based on the value of previous site After addition . In this way we are sending the picture with two keys They are the start and finish site.where the site value be represented by the total of ones number (1) or the total of zeros number (0)Per byte plus the Driving force (Impetus),where the impetus value be selected by user.the Features this method , Flexibility where applied to all kinds of images , Ease of hiding and retrieval, and the Durability from where of the large number of possibilities that be from the impossibility to Predict the existence of a secret message , This is what distinguishes this proposed algorithm, especially if conducted some encryption technologies on confidential data ,In order to clarify the idea of the proposed algorithm is applied to the image of the grayscaletype , the English text , and Arabic texts, The use of Efficiency standards (PSNR) and (MSE) For the purpose of measuring the level of efficiency of the proposed algorithm , Matlab language was used for the application of the proposed algorithm .

Statistical Analysis of Traffic Accidents Locations Using Geographic Information System in Darbandikhan Town- Kurdistan Region of Iraq PDF

Dr. Hussein D. Mohammed, Abbas Ali, Heba Ahmed

Road traffic accidents are a major cause of premature death and disabilities. Every year the lives of almost 1.24 million people are cut short as a result of a road traffic crash. Between 20 to 50 million more people suffer non-fatal injuries, with many incurring a disability as a result of their injury. Road traffic injuries cause considerable economic losses to victims, their families, and to nations as a whole. These losses arise from the cost of treatment (including rehabilitation and incident investigation) as well as reduced/lost productivity (e.g. in wages) for those killed or disabled by their injuries, and for family member who need to take time off work to care for the injured. The aim of the traffic accident analysis to investigate the cause accidents, to determine hazardous locations and to determine to enhance road features, to evaluate traffic safety after enhancement. This kind of system often includes a database query tool to store and analysis information about accidents mainly to identify high crash locations, in other words hazardous locations along the road.

The role of Th1 and Th2 cytokines among women with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage PDF

Maysloon A. AL-sadoon, Nadham K.Mahdi, Edwar Z. Khosho, Ahmed A. Salman

To examine the concentrations of Th1 (IFN-γ , TNF-α and IL-2 ) and Th2 (IL-4,IL-6 and IL-10) cytokines in the trophoblastic tissue during curettage of recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM) and compared with normal pregnancy at time of delivery . This cross-sectional comparative study which was carried out at Basrah University from February 2012 to May 2014. 172 women, aged between 16 − 41 years, were included in the current study and were further classified into three categories: Group A- Recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM): n= 65 women, with a mean age of ( 25.2±7.28). Group B- Non- recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (non-RSM): n= 36 women, with a mean age of (26.61 ±6.97).Group C- Control (normal pregnancy): n=71 women, with a mean age of (26.17±7.01).A trophoblastic tissue placenta sample from each curettage patient and control subject was collected and placed in a wide mouth container and homogenized by mortar and pestle method then detection by human tissue lysate ELISA kit.There was a significant increasing in the mean concentration of Th1/Th2 in miscarry groups than control group. Results show high concentration of Th1 cytokines (134.17±24.37), (432.16±51.7), (100.46±9.94 ) of ( IL-2 , TNF-α and IFN- γ) respectively was detected in case of RSM group rather than control and non-RSM groups ,while high concentration (49.97±8.82),(180.7±15.03),(94.34±7.68 ) for (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) respectively in case of control group when compared with patient groups with highly significant differences.

The effectiveness of rural housing facilities on the physical development of villages (Case study: villages in the central part of the city of Kashmar) PDF

Javad Bazrafshan, Ali Vaez Tabasi

Giving credit to the villages for physical development and strengthening housing is one of the strategies and programs implemented in rural areas that to some extent, it has caused the empowerment of villages. Some facility will be provided to villagers as the loans of the improvement of rural housing in Iran which have some restrictions and requirements according to infrastructure, materials, and plan of houses and these restrictions and requirements of these houses will distinct them from the traditional rural housing. The goal of this research is the effectiveness of rural facilities on physical development of villages and providing some solutions in this field. The method of the research is analytic-descriptive and the documentary and field methods are used for collecting data. Due to the size of the population (3769 families), 348 families were determined as the sample questioned families based on Cochran formula. The results show that the facilities have caused physical development in studied villages.


Dr. C. Chandrasekar, V. Manuprasad

A very promising attractive computing model is Grid Computing. To provide high performance computing, grids aims to combine the geographically distributed, power of heterogeneous, multiple domain spanning computational resources. An efficient and effective scheduling system is important for achieving the capable potentials of grids. In grid environment, scheduling systems do not work for traditional distributed environments due to classes of environments which are completely dissimilar. Over various domains, making scheduling decisions involving resources is the process known as Grid Resource Scheduling. Across the management, grid scheduling must manipulate large-scale resources so there is high complication involved in it than the local resource scheduling. In this survey, discussion are made on grid scheduling algorithm with a view from different points which are objective function, QoS constraints, static vs. dynamic, strategies dealing with dynamic behavior of resources, application models, adaption and so on. This survey mainly focused a review of the subject from scheduling algorithm viewpoint rather than covering the entire grid scheduling area.



Because of expensive nature of silicon – based solar cells, many scientists are looking for new materials that are cheap for the solar cell applications. Ternary chalcogenide materials were deposited onto microscope glass slide using simple chemical bath deposition technique.


Chikhla Jun Gogoi

If the parametric assumptions are fulfilled, classical F test is the appropriate test for the multi sample location problem. On the other hand, if assumptions not satisfies ,F-test is not a suitable tests. So we have to search for some other tests. Test based on ranks or scores are found to be more powerful and robust in many situations. It is seen that many of the practicing statisticians have no idea regarding the data type. In this situations, the adaptive tests based on Hogg’s concept , may help the statistician to identify data type with respect to some measures like skewness and tail weight and then to select an appropriate rank test or test based on scores for classified type of distribution. In this chapter, we have first discussed the adaptive test procedure that are used to select an appropriate test and then compare an adaptive test and some of the tests procedure s with the help of Monte Carlo simulation technique. Both empirical level and power of these tests are calculated and comparison are made with F-test and different other adaptive tests. We have observed that adaptive tests behave well in broad class of distributions.

Assessment of Alam's dynasty role in the formation of Gold Smith's and McMahon's arbitration in Sistan region PDF

Hussein Bandani

It will be tried in this research to study each one of Goldsmith's and McMahon's arbitration in determining the border line of Sistan by expressing the reasons of conceptual ambiguity. Meanwhile we express the results of these arbitrations; we will investigate Alam's dynasty's support of these factors for achieving their goals in the region. The applied method in this research is causal method and by the use of library method, the necessary data are collected. The results show that the Alam's dynasty had paved the way to achieve the objectives of the England. According to the conducted research, continuing the mission of each of the desired arbitration was dependent on the presence of Alam's dynasty that each of foreign officials had confessed to it. Concerning the situation of this family and Shah Qajar and public opposition to their presence in this region and on the other hand, they were supported by England so they continued their presence in the region.

PVT Lab Manual PDF

Wanny Abdel Fattah Mohamed

Petroleum is a complex mixture of (sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, helium) the physical and chemical properties of crude oils vary considerably and depend on the concentration of the various types of hydrocarbons and minor constituents present. And in the general there are there tests to measure hydrocarbon reservoir samples (Primary, Routine laboratory, Special laboratory PVT); Pouting laboratory test such as Compositional analysis of the system ,Constant-composition expansion,Differential liberation ,Separator tests , and Constant-volume depletion.; Special laboratory PVT test such as Slim-tube test and Swelling test.